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Encyclopedia > Extraordinary rendition
     Extraordinary renditions allegedly have been carried out from these countries      Detainees have allegedly been transported through these countries      Detainees have allegedly arrived in these countries      The U.S. and suspected CIA "black sites" Sources: Amnesty International[1], Human Rights Watch, Black sites article on Wikipedia

Extraordinary rendition and irregular rendition are terms used to describe the extrajudicial transfer of a person from one state to another with the intent of legally torturing them outside of the jurisdiction of a state which prohibits it. The term Torture by proxy is used by some critics to describe extraordinary rendition by the United States, with regard to the alleged transfer of suspected terrorists to countries known to employ harsh interrogation techniques that may rise to the level of torture. Critics have alleged the use of torture has occurred with the knowledge or acquiescence of the United States. However United States Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice stated in an April 2006 radio interview that the United States does not transfer people to places where they know they will be tortured.[2][3][4] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1350x625, 29 KB) Source: Modification of noncopyright Image:BlankMap-World. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1350x625, 29 KB) Source: Modification of noncopyright Image:BlankMap-World. ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Detention, Treatment, and Trial of Certain Non-Citizens in the War Against Terrorism The Salt Pit in Afghanistan Black site is a military term that has been used by United States intelligence agencies to refer to any classified facility whose existence or... Human Rights Watch Banner Human Rights Watch is a United States-based international non-government organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into CIA prison system. ... Seal of the United States Department of State. ... Condoleezza Rice (born November 14, 1954) is the 66th United States Secretary of State, and the second in the administration of President George W. Bush to hold the office. ...

Contents

War on Terror

Since the start of the "War on Terror" declared by the Bush administration after the September 11, 2001 attacks, critics, such as Scott Horton, an expert on international law and anti-war advocate, accuse the United States government, in particular the the CIA, of rendering hundreds of people suspected by the United States government of being terrorists – or of aiding and abetting terrorist organizations – to third-party states such as Egypt, Jordan, Syria, Morocco, and Uzbekistan. Such "ghost detainees" are kept outside of judicial oversight, often without ever entering US territory, and may or may not ultimately be devolved to the custody of the United States.[5][6] The war on terrorism or war on terror (abbreviated in U.S. policy circles as GWOT for Global War on Terror) is an effort by the governments of the United States and its principal allies to destroy groups deemed to be terrorist (primarily radical Islamist organizations such as al-Qaeda... The Bush administration includes President George W. Bush, Vice President Richard Cheney, Bushs Cabinet, and other select officials and advisors. ... A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly... Scott Horton is an assistant editor at Antiwar. ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... Ghosting detainees is an official term used by the Bush administration to designs the practice of hiding the identities of people being held in a detention center, by keeping them unregistered and therefore anonymous. ... The judiciary, also referred to as the judicature, consists of justices, judges and magistrates among other types of adjudicators. ...


EU Investigations

The US program has raised a series of moral, judicial, and political issues, prompting several official European Union investigations. A June 2006 report from the Council of Europe estimated one hundred persons had been kidnapped by the CIA on EU territory and rendered to other countries, often after having transited through secret detention centers ("black sites") used by the CIA in cooperation with other governments. According to the European Parliament report of February 2007, the CIA has conducted 1,245 flights, many of them to destinations where suspects could face torture, in violation of article 3 of the United Nations Convention Against Torture. A large majority of the European Union Parliament endorsed the report's conclusion that many member states tolerated illegal actions of the CIA and criticized several European governments and intelligence agencies for their unwillingness to cooperate with the investigation. [7] Anthem Ode to Joy (orchestral)  ten founding members joined subsequently observer at the Parliamentary Assembly observer at the Committee of Ministers  official candidate Seat Strasbourg, France Membership 47 European states 6 observers (Council) 3 observers (Assembly) Leaders  -  Secretary General  Terry Davis  -  Commissioner for Human Rights   Establishment  -  Treaty of London May... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Detention, Treatment, and Trial of Certain Non-Citizens in the War Against Terrorism The Salt Pit in Afghanistan Black site is a military term that has been used by United States intelligence agencies to refer to any classified facility whose existence or... CAT states: members in green, non-members in grey The United Nations Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (UNCAT) is an international human rights instrument, organized by the United Nations and intended to prevent torture and other similar activities. ... The European Parliament is the directly elected parliamentary body of the European Union. ...


Imam Rapito

One notable example is the "Imam Rapito affair" in Italy, in which Hassan Mustafa Osama Nasr (aka Abu Omar), a radical Islamist cleric, was kidnapped in a joint CIA-SISMI operation in Milan on February 17, 2003, was transferred to the Aviano Air Base, and was rendered to Egypt, where he was held until February 11, 2007, when an Egyptian court ruled his imprisonment was "unfounded."[8] He claims he was tortured both on the Aviano Base and in Egypt. Italian prosecutors are investigating the kidnapping, and have indicted 26 US citizens including the head of CIA in Italy Jeffrey W. Castelli and 24 other CIA agents. They have also sent extradition requests to the Italian Ministry of Justice, which has not delivered it to American authorities. SISMI chief General Nicolò Pollari and second-in-command Marco Mancini have been forced to resign, and were also indicted. The trial of the 26 Americans and 9 Italians has been scheduled to begin in June 2007. Immage from the CIAs surveillance of Hassan Mustafa Osama Nasr recovered during investigations by the prosecuting authority of Milan [1] The Abu Omar Case (or Imam Rapito affair - Kidnapped Imam affair) refers to the abduction and transfer in Egypt of the Imam of Milan Hassan Mustafa Osama Nasr, also... Servizio per le Informazioni e la Sicurezza Militare (Military Intelligence and Security Service, SISMI) is the military intelligence agency of Italy. ... US F-16s at Aviano Aviano Air Base is a base of the United States Air Force, in the northeastern part of Italy, at the foot of the Italian Alps, about 20 miles (32 kilometers) north of Pordenone. ... Jeffrey W. Castelli is a noted member of the U.S. intelligence community. ... General Nicolò Pollari, (b. ... Marco Mancini is a senior official in Sismi, the military intelligence agency of Italy. ...


Background

While legal rendition has been used by the United States increasingly since the 1980s as a method for dealing with foreign defendants, extraordinary rendition is a wholly extra-legal process that differs in its nature and usage as a tool in the US-led "war on terror."[9] Because the modern methods of rendition include a form where suspects are taken into US custody but delivered to a third-party state, often without ever being on American soil, and without involving the rendering country's judiciary, they have been termed extraordinary rendition. The Central Intelligence Agency was granted permission to use rendition in a presidential directive signed by President Bill Clinton in 1995,[10] and the practice has grown sharply since the 9/11 terrorist attacks. Scott Horton, an expert on international law who helped prepare a report on renditions issued by N.Y.U. Law School and the New York City Bar Association In law, rendition is a surrender or handing over of persons or property, particularly from one jurisdiction to another. ... This article cites very few or no references or sources. ... A defendant or defender is any party who is required to answer the complaint of a plaintiff or pursuer in a civil lawsuit before a court, or any party who has been formally charged or accused of violating a criminal statute. ... The war on terrorism or war on terror (abbreviated in U.S. policy circles as GWOT for Global War on Terror) is an effort by the governments of the United States and its principal allies to destroy groups deemed to be terrorist (primarily radical Islamist organizations such as al-Qaeda... The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an intelligence agency of the United States government. ... Presidential directives are a form of executive order issued by the President of the United States with the advice and consent of the National Security Council. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly... New York University (NYU) is a private, nonsectarian, coeducational institution in New York City. ... // A law school is an institution where future lawyers obtain legal degrees. ... The Association of the Bar of the City of New York, also known as the New York City Bar, was established in 1871. ...


Critics - some of whom dub the procedure "torture by proxy"[11][12] - have accused the CIA of rendering suspects to other countries in order to avoid US laws prescribing due process and prohibiting torture, even though many of those countries have, like the US, signed or ratified the United Nations Convention Against Torture. Critics have also called this practice "torture flights".[13] Defenders of the practice argue that culturally-informed and native-language interrogations are more successful in gaining information from suspects.[14] CIA desk officer Michael Scheuer, who co-authored the rendition policy and sereved in the CIA's Bin Laden tracking desk until 2004, has told the press that torture was used both before and after 9/11: “I have no doubt about it.”[15] Torture is defined by the United Nations Convention Against Torture as any act by which severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental, is intentionally inflicted on a person for such purposes as obtaining from him or a third person information or a confession, punishing him for an act he... Look up proxy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... In law, rendition is a surrender or handing over of persons or property, particularly from one jurisdiction to another. ... In United States law, adopted from English Law, due process (more fully due process of law) is the principle that the government must normally respect all of a persons legal rights instead of just some or most of those legal rights when the government deprives a person of life... Torture is defined by the United Nations Convention Against Torture as any act by which severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental, is intentionally inflicted on a person for such purposes as obtaining from him or a third person information or a confession, punishing him for an act he... CAT states: members in green, non-members in grey The United Nations Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (UNCAT) is an international human rights instrument, organized by the United Nations and intended to prevent torture and other similar activities. ...


In a number of cases, suspects to whom the procedure is believed to have been applied later appeared to be innocent.[16] In the cases of Khalid El-Masri and Maher Arar the practice of extraordinary rendition appears to have been applied to innocent civilians, and the CIA has reportedly launched an investigation into such cases (which it refers to as "erroneous rendition"). Khalid El-Masri. ... Maher Arar (Arabic: ‎; born 1970 in Syria) is a Canadian software engineer. ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... Extraordinary rendition and irregular rendition are terms used to describe the extrajudicial transfer of a person from one state to another with the intent of legally torturing them outside of the jurisdiction of a state which prohibits it. ...


The first well-known rendition case involved the Achille Lauro hijackers in 1985: while in international air space they were forced by United States Navy fighter planes to land at the Naval Air Station Sigonella, an Italian military base in Sicily used by NATO, in an attempt to place them within judicial reach of United States Government representatives for transport to and trial in the United States. The practice later expanded to include the deportation or expulsion into United States custody of persons in foreign countries deemed to be enemy aliens or terrorists.[citation needed] The Willem Ruys The Achille Lauro The Achille Lauro, formerly the Willem Ruys, was a passenger liner. ... 1985 (MCMLXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The United States Navy, also known as the USN or the U.S. Navy, is a branch of the United States armed forces responsible for conducting naval operations. ... Naval Air Station Sigonella, the Hub of the Med, is a U.S. Navy installation at an Italian Air Force base in Sicily, Italy. ... Sicily (Sicilia in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... NATO 2002 Summit in Prague. ... The government of the United States, established by the United States Constitution, is a federal republic of 50 states, a few territories and some protectorates. ... Deportation is the expelling of someone from a country. ... Expulsion is one of words used to describe expulsions after World War II, indicating condemnation of the events. ... In law during wartime, an enemy alien is a person who is a citizen of a country which is a state of war with the land where he or she is found. ... Terrorist redirects here. ...


The procedure was developed by Central Intelligence Agency officials in the mid-1990s who were trying to track down and dismantle militant Islamic organizations in the Middle East, particularly Al Qaeda.[15] At the time, the agency was reluctant to grant suspected terrorists due process under American law, as the attendant disclosures of government information under the rules of disclosure could potentially jeopardize its intelligence sources and methods. The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an intelligence agency of the United States government. ... Al-Qaeda (also al-Qaida or al-Qaida) (Arabic: ‎ , translation: The Base) is an international alliance of militant jihadist organizations established by Osama bin Laden and others around the time of the Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan in 1989. ... In United States law, adopted from English Law, due process (more fully due process of law) is the principle that the government must normally respect all of a persons legal rights instead of just some or most of those legal rights when the government deprives a person of life... Disclosure means the giving out of information, either voluntarily or to be in compliance with legal regulations or workplace rules. ...


Usage by the Clinton Administration

The procedure was developed by Central Intelligence Agency officials in the mid-1990s who were trying to track down and dismantle militant Islamic organizations in the Middle East, particularly Al Qaeda [17]. At the time, the agency was reluctant to grant suspected terrorists due process under American law, as the attendant disclosures of government information under the rules of disclosure could potentially jeopardize its intelligence sources and methods.[citation needed] The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an intelligence agency of the United States government. ... Al-Qaeda (also al-Qaida or al-Qaida) (Arabic: ‎ , translation: The Base) is an international alliance of militant jihadist organizations established by Osama bin Laden and others around the time of the Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan in 1989. ... In United States law, adopted from English Law, due process (more fully due process of law) is the principle that the government must normally respect all of a persons legal rights instead of just some or most of those legal rights when the government deprives a person of life... Disclosure means the giving out of information, either voluntarily or to be in compliance with legal regulations or workplace rules. ...


According to Clinton Administration official Richard Clarke, Richard A. Clarke (born 1951) provided national security advice to four U.S. presidents: Ronald Reagan, George H.W. Bush, Bill Clinton and George W. Bush, consulting on issues of intelligence and terrorism, from 1973 to 2003. ...

"'extraordinary renditions', were operations to apprehend terrorists abroad, usually without the knowledge of and almost always without public acknowledgement of the host government...The first time I proposed a snatch, in 1993, the White House Counsel, Lloyd Cutler, demanded a meeting with the President to explain how it violated international law. Clinton had seemed to be siding with Cutler until Al Gore belatedly joined the meeting, having just flown overnight from South Africa. Clinton recapped the arguments on both sides for Gore: Lloyd says this. Dick says that. Gore laughed and said, 'That's a no-brainer. Of course it's a violation of international law, that's why it's a covert action. The guy is a terrorist. Go grab his ass.'"[18] This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... Albert Arnold Gore, Jr. ...

In a New Yorker magazine interview with CIA veteran Michael Scheuer, an author of the rendition program under the Clinton Administration, writer Jane Mayer noted, "In 1995, American agents proposed the rendition program to Egypt, making clear that it had the resources to track, capture, and transport terrorist suspects globally—including access to a small fleet of aircraft. Egypt embraced the idea. "What was clever was that some of the senior people in Al Qaeda were Egyptian," Scheuer said. "It served American purposes to get these people arrested, and Egyptian purposes to get these people back, where they could be interrogated." Technically, U.S. law requires the CIA to seek "assurances" from foreign governments that rendered suspects won’t be tortured. Scheuer told me that this was done, but he was "not sure" if any documents confirming the arrangement were signed."[5] The New Yorker is an American magazine that publishes reportage, criticism, essays, cartoons, poetry and fiction. ... Michael F. Scheuer is a 22-year CIA veteran. ...


Thereafter, with the approval of President Clinton and a presidential directive (PDD 39), the CIA instead elected to send suspects to Egypt, where they were turned over to the Egyptian mukhabarat. This arrangement suited the Egyptians, who were trying to crack down on domestic Islamic extremists, and a number of the senior members of Al Qaeda were Egyptian.[citation needed] The arrangement also suited the US by enabling the interrogation of suspects without the intercession of the domestic legal process, using Egyptian methods.[citation needed] Presidential directives are a form of executive order issued by the President of the United States with the advice and consent of the National Security Council. ... Mukhabarat (مخابرات) is the Arabic term for intelligence, as in intelligence agency. ...


The first known individual to be subjected to rendition under this order was Talaat Fouad Qassem, one of Egypt's most wanted terrorists, who was arrested with the help of US intelligence by Croatian police in Zagreb in September 1995.[citation needed] He was interrogated by US agents on a ship in the Adriatic Sea and was then sent back to Egypt. He disappeared while in custody, and is suspected by human rights activists of having been executed without a trial.[citation needed] Zagreb (pronounced ) is the capital and the largest city of Croatia. ... A satellite image of the Adriatic Sea. ...


In the summer of 1998, a similar operation was mounted in Tirana, Albania. Wiretaps showed that five Egyptians had been in contact with Ayman al-Zawahiri, Osama bin Laden's deputy.[citation needed] During the course of several months, Shawki Salama Attiya and four militants were captured by Albanian security forces collaborating with US agents. The men were flown to Cairo for interrogation. Attiya later alleged that he had electric shocks applied to his genitals, was hung from his limbs, and was kept in a cell with dirty water up to his knees.[citation needed] Tirana (Albanian: Tiranë or Tirana) is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Albania. ... Group photo of Ayman Al Zawahiri, Usama Bin Laden & Abu Hafs Prosecution Trial Exhibit from the trial of Zacarias Moussaoui Sheikh Dr. Ayman Muhammad Rabaie al-Zawahiri (Arabic: ‎) (born June 19, 1951) is a prominent member of the al-Qaeda group, a physician, author, poet, and formerly the head of... Osama bin Muhammad bin Awad bin Laden (Arabic: ‎; born March 10, 1957[1]), most often mentioned as Osama bin Laden or Usama bin Laden, is a Saudi Arabian militant Islamist and is widely believed to be one of the founders of the organization called al-Qaeda. ... Nickname: Egypt: Site of Cairo (top center) Coordinates: Government  - Governor Dr. Abdul Azim Wazir Area  - City 214 km²  (82. ...


Usage by the Bush Administration

Initially, the procedure was applied primarily to individuals for whom there were outstanding arrest warrants. After the 9/11 attacks the program appears to have been expanded and some believe it now encompasses individuals for whom there are but vague suspicions. The Justice Department and the Defense Department also do renditions.[citation needed] A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly... The United States Department of Justice (DOJ) is a Cabinet department in the United States government designed to enforce the law and defend the interests of the United States according to the law and to ensure fair and impartial administration of justice for all Americans. ... The United States Department of Defense, abbreviated DoD or DOD and sometimes called the Defense Department, is a civilian Cabinet organization of the United States government. ...


According to a December 4, 2005 article in the Washington Post by Dana Priest, "Members of the Rendition Group follow a simple but standard procedure: Dressed head to toe in black, including masks, they blindfold and cut the clothes off their new captives, then administer an enema and sleeping drugs. They outfit detainees in a diaper and jumpsuit for what can be a day-long trip. Their destinations: either a detention facility operated by cooperative countries in the Middle East and Central Asia, including Afghanistan, or one of the CIA's own covert prisons – referred to in classified documents as "black sites," which at various times have been operated in eight countries, including several in Eastern Europe.[19][20] Dana Priest is an author and a Pulitzer Prize-winning journalist. ... This 2qt (about 2 liters) enema bag, or fountain syringe, equipped with a rectal nozzle, is to be filled with water or a solution, then suspended near the patient using the hook. ... Nappy directs here. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into CIA prison system. ... Map of Eastern Europe Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange),members of the Warsaw pact (light orange), and other former Communist regimes not aligned with Moscow (lightest orange). ...


Following mounting scrutiny in Europe, including investigations held by Swiss senator Dick Marty who released a public report in June 2006, the US Senate was about, in December 2005, to approve a measure that would include amendments requiring the director of national intelligence to provide regular, detailed updates about secret detention facilities maintained by the United States overseas, and to account for the treatment and condition of each prisoner.[21] Dick Marty (born January 7, 1945 in Sorengo) is a Swiss politician (Free Democratic Party) and former state prosecutor of the canton of Ticino. ... Seal of the U.S. Senate Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      Senate composition following 2006 elections The United States Senate is...


Critics charge that the program has "spun out of control", and has been used against large numbers of individuals.[citation needed]


Reported methodology

Media reports describe suspects as being arrested, blindfolded, shackled, and sedated, or otherwise kidnapped, and transported by private jet or other means to the destination country.[22] The reports also say that the rendering countries have provided interrogators with lists of questions.


Airline flights

Further information: Rendition aircraft

In February 2007 it was reported that the JGO (Juliet Golf Oscar) former call sign assigned to defunct airline Jetsgo was allegedly used for planes going in and out of the Balkans, including Learjet 35 executive jets, C-130 transport planes and MC-130P Combat Shadows. A Sunday Times analysis of flight plans and radio logs has placed these aircraft at locations including Tuzla in Bosnia, Priština in Kosovo, and Aviano Air Base in Northern Italy, as well as Ramstein, headquarters fo the US Air Forces in Europe (USAFE). On December 11, 2004, USAFE in Ramstein filed a flight plan for a Learjet 35 to fly from Tuzla to Aviano. USAFE changed its registration in flight, while keeping its humanitarian, diplomatic, and governmental status. While on ground at Tuzla in Bosnia, an Ilyushin 76 left Tuzla 55 minutes before, with 45 tons of surplus weapons and ammunitions, which were sold off by the Bosnian military (at the time member of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina) and destined to Rwanda. The latter country was currently subject to a UN embargo on arms-trade. An Amnesty International report quoted by the British newspapers suggested that "US security authorities were engaged in a covert operation to ferry arms to Rwanda in the face of political opposition from the European Union". The jet with an earlier tail number, sitting in Geneva Rendition aircraft are aircraft used by national governments to move prisoners internationally, a practice known as rendition, sometimes referred to as extraordinary rendition. ... Call sign can refer to different types of call signs: Airline call sign Aviator call sign Cosmonaut call sign Radio and television call signs Tactical call sign, also known as a tactical designator See also: International Callsign Allocations, Maritime Mobile Service Identity This is a disambiguation page — a navigational... Jetsgo (IATA: SG, ICAO: JGO, and Callsign: Jetsgo) was a Canadian low-cost carrier based in Montreal, which served 19 destinations across Canada, 10 destinations in the United States, and 12 scheduled weekend-charter destinations in the Caribbean. ... The Learjet Model 35 and Model 36 are a series of multi-role business jets and military transports (designated by the U.S. Air Force as C-21A). ... The Lockheed C-130 Hercules is a four-engine turboprop cargo aircraft and the main tactical airlifter for many military forces worldwide. ... The Lockheed C-130 Hercules is a four-engine turboprop cargo aircraft and the main tactical airlifter for many military forces worldwide. ... The Sunday Times is a Sunday broadsheet newspaper distributed in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, published by Times Newspapers Ltd, a subsidiary of News International which is in turn owned by News Corporation. ... Tuzla Air Base is a United States Air Force base in Bosnia-Herzegovina. ... UNMIK Head Quarters - PriÅ¡tina. ... US F-16s at Aviano Aviano Air Base is a base of the United States Air Force, in the northeastern part of Italy, at the foot of the Italian Alps, about 20 miles (32 kilometers) north of Pordenone. ... Boeing C-17A Lot XII Globemaster III Serial 00-0172 Spirit of the Cascades at the Ramstein cargo terminal. ... Categories: Stub | Commands of the U.S. Air Force ... December 11 is the 345th day (346th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... shelby was here 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ilyushin Il-76T An Indian Air Force IL-76 in Hawaii, with IAF and US personnel. ... The location of the FBiH entity as part of the state of Bosnia and Herzegovina in Europe. ... For delayed access after publication, see Embargo (academic publishing). ... The arms industry is a massive global industry. ...


Another strange convergence of flights happened in February 2004, according to The Sunday Times. An MC-130P Combat Shadow using the call sign JGO 50 took off from Aviano to an unknown destination on February 24. Two days later, it left Priština for Tuzla. A short time after, a Gulfstream 5 executive jet (call sign JGO 47) flew from Tuzla to Aviano. The next day, a Learjet 35 left Aviano for an unknown destination, using call sign SPAR 92. February 24 is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation Gulfstream G550. ...


SPAR is short for SPecial Air Resources, a US military aircraft service that transport civilian VIPs and senior military officers. But SPAR 92 has been identified as the aircraft that was used to transport Hassan Nasr (aka Abu Omar), the cleric kidnapped in Italy in 2003 and for which CIA agents have been indicted in Italy (See below). Hassan Mustafa Osama Nasr (born c. ... Extraordinary rendition and irregular rendition are terms used to describe the extrajudicial transfer of a person from one state to another with the intent of legally torturing them outside of the jurisdiction of a state which prohibits it. ...


The US military denied the reports and stated that aircraft using the call sign were involved in a programme called "Joint Guard Operations" for the NATO-European peacekeeping mission in the Balkans (which established the SFOR). However, "Joint Guard" ended in 1998. Inquiries also show that none of the US aircraft deployed in it match ones using the JGO call-sign.[23] Members of the Dutch, French, German and U.S. military watch as an Italian honour guard hoists the new Stabilisation Force flag during the Stabilisation Force (SFOR) activation ceremony in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, on the 20 of December 1996 Pocket badge of the SFOR The Stabilisation Force (SFOR) was...


Boeing Jeppessen International Trip Planning

On October 23, 2006, the New Yorker claimed that Jeppesen, a subsidiary of Boeing, handled the logistical planning for the CIA's extraordinary rendition flights. The allegation is based on information from an ex-employee who quoted Bob Overby, managing director of the company as saying "We do all of the extraordinary rendition flights—you know, the torture flights. Let’s face it, some of these flights end up that way. It certainly pays well." The article went on to suggest that this may make Jeppesen a potential defendant in a law suit by Khaled El-Masri.[24] Jeppesen (also known as Jeppesen Sanderson) is an American company that specialises in aeronautical charting and navigation services, flight planning, pilot supplies and aviation training. ... On 31 December 2003, Khaled el-Masri, a German of Lebanese descent, was detained by Macedonian agents in Skopje, Macedonia. ...


"Black sites"

In 2005, the Washington Post and Human Rights Watch (HRW) published revelations concerning CIA flights and "black sites," covert prisons that are operated by the CIA and whose existence is denied by the US government. The European Parliament published a report in February 2007 concerning the use of such secret detention centers and extraordinary rendition (See below). Such detention centers violate the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) and the UN Convention Against Torture, treaties that all EU member states are bound to follow.[25][26][27] ... Human Rights Watch Banner Human Rights Watch is a United States-based international non-government organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Detention, Treatment, and Trial of Certain Non-Citizens in the War Against Terrorism The Salt Pit in Afghanistan Black site is a military term that has been used by United States intelligence agencies to refer to any classified facility whose existence or... Established 1952, as the Common Assembly President Hans-Gert Pöttering (EPP) Since 16 January 2007 Vice-Presidents 14 Political parties 8 Committees 22 Last election June 2004 (785 MEPs) Meeting place Brussels and Strasbourg Secretariat Luxembourg and Brussels Website europarl. ... Extraordinary rendition and irregular rendition are terms used to describe the extrajudicial transfer of a person from one state to another with the intent of legally torturing them outside of the jurisdiction of a state which prohibits it. ... The Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, also known as the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR), was adopted under the auspices of the Council of Europe[1] in 1950 to protect human rights and fundamental freedoms. ... CAT states: members in green, non-members in grey The United Nations Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (UNCAT) is an international human rights instrument, organized by the United Nations and intended to prevent torture and other similar activities. ...


According to ABC News two such facilities, in countries mentioned by Human Rights Watch, have been closed following the recent publicity. CIA officers say the captives were relocated to the North African desert. All but one of these 11 high-value al Qaeda prisoners were subjected to the harshest interrogation techniques in the CIA's secret arsenal, the so-called "enhanced interrogation techniques" authorized for use by about 14 CIA officers.[28] ABC News is a division of ABC television and radio networks (ABC), owned by The Walt Disney Company. ... Al-Qaeda (also al-Qaida or al-Qaida) (Arabic: ‎ , translation: The Base) is an international alliance of militant jihadist organizations established by Osama bin Laden and others around the time of the Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan in 1989. ...


Debate over legality, utility

Evidence obtained illegally or under duress is inadmissible in US courts, and hampers court cases against suspected terrorists in the US. The trial of Zacarias Moussaoui, the only person to be indicted in the US in connection with the 9/11 attacks, was in part complicated by Moussaoui's requests for access to confidential documents and his assertion of a right to call al-Qaida members held in captivity in Guantanamo Bay Naval Base as witnesses, a demand rejected by government attorneys on the grounds that it would compromise confidential sources. This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... For other titular locales, see Guantánamo (disambiguation). ...


The House of Commons Select Committee on Foreign Affairs in their first report published on 15 February 2006, points out that although both the UK and the U.S. have ratified UNCAT, the UK ratified it without reservations, while the US ratified CAT with a reservations that specifies the meaning of "mental pain or suffering" in more detail than Article 1 CAT; and that under U.S. legislation, the term "cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment" is interpreted according to the U.S. Constitution, (see Treaty obligations, below). Having made this point the report goes on to say in paragraph 44 that:[29] The Foreign Affairs Committee is one of many Select Committees of the British House of Commons, which scrutinises the work of the Foreign and Commonwealth Office. ... February 15 is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Extraordinary rendition and irregular rendition are terms used to describe the extrajudicial transfer of a person from one state to another with the intent of legally torturing them outside of the jurisdiction of a state which prohibits it. ...

The US Secretary of State, Condoleeza Rice has denied the use of torture, in response to a letter written by Foreign Secretary Jack Straw on behalf of the United Kingdom as Presidency of the European Union. On 5 December 2005 she said: Rendition is a vital tool in combating trans-national terrorism. Its use is not unique to the United States, or to the current administration…[However] the United States does not permit, tolerate or condone torture under any circumstances. The title of Foreign Secretary has been traditionally used to refer to the British Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs. ... John Whitaker Straw (born August 3, 1946) is a British Labour Party politician. ... The Presidency of the Council of the European Union refers to the responsibility of presiding over all aspects of the Council of the European Union, when exercised collectively by a government, on a pre-established rota of the member states, of the European Union. ...

  • The United States has respected—and will continue to respect—the sovereignty of other countries.
  • The United States does not transport, and has not transported, detainees from one country to another for the purpose of interrogation under torture.
  • The United States does not use the airspace or the airports of any country for the purpose of transporting a detainee to a country where he or she will be tortured.
  • The United States has not transported anyone, and will not transport anyone, to a country when we believe he will be tortured. Where appropriate, the United States seeks assurances that transferred people will not be tortured.

While Rice has denied that the CIA used torture, she refused to address the allegations of covert prisons that have caused consternation across Europe and not least in Romania.[30][31][32]


The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), Physicians Committee for Human Rights and Veterans for America have sought access to presidential directives expressly authorizing extraordinary rendition.[33] A story published in The NewStandard in December 2005 notes: The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) is a major American non-profit organization with headquarters in New York City, New York, whose stated mission is to defend and preserve the individual rights and liberties guaranteed to every person in this country by the Constitution and laws of the United States... Veterans for America, founded in 2002 as Veterans for Common Sense, is a non-profit stakeholder organization dedicated to advocacy on behalf of United States veterans who continue to serve their country by protecting the rights and interests of fellow citizens. ... The NewStandard is an independent, nonprofit, ad-free news website. ...

To date, there have been no Congressional or other governmental inquiries into the CIA's use of extraordinary renditions, despite repeated calls for such investigations.[34]

Torture

Further information: Torture and Ethical arguments regarding torture

Some proponents of extraordinary rendition, and the similarly controversial concept of unlawful combatant, agree with Alan Dershowitz that torturing terror suspects, however distasteful, is necessary to help prevent further terrorist attacks, which may only be a matter of hours or days away. [35] Critics argue, however, that such practices are unethical, unconstitutional, and defy the Geneva Conventions. Even within the US government, opinions are divided; the State Department opposes ignoring the Geneva Conventions, and has warned the Bush administration that not only could US soldiers be denied protection of the conventions but that President Bush and other members of the administration could also be prosecuted for war crimes.[citation needed] Torture is defined by the United Nations Convention Against Torture as any act by which severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental, is intentionally inflicted on a person for such purposes as obtaining from him or a third person information or a confession, punishing him for an act he... Ethical arguments have arisen regarding torture, and its debated value to society. ... The term unlawful combatant (also unlawful enemy combatant or unprivileged combatant/belligerent) denotes people denied the protection of the Geneva Conventions; those to whom protection is recognised as due are referred to as lawful combatants. ... Alan Morton Dershowitz (born September 1, 1938) is a Jewish-American political figure and criminal law professor at Harvard Law School, known for his extensive published works, support for Zionism and Israel and work as an attorney in several high-profile law cases. ... The ticking time bomb scenario is a thought experiment that has been used in the debate over whether torture can ever be justified in the War on Terrorism. ... Development of the Geneva Conventions from 1864 to 1949. ... ... The United States Department of State, often referred to as the State Department, is the Cabinet-level foreign affairs agency of the United States government, equivalent to foreign ministries in other countries. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... In the context of war, a war crime is a punishable offense under International Law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ...


Aside from ethical issues, pragmatic reservations have also arisen about the practice. For one, it appears that while torturing a suspect frequently results in a confession, the confessions tend to be useless; many suspects will say nearly anything to end their suffering. Some investigators argue that better results are achieved by treating suspects with respect, allowing them due process, and arranging plea bargains with defense lawyers. A plea bargain (also plea agreement, plea deal or copping a plea) is an agreement in a criminal case in which a prosecutor and a defendant arrange to settle the case against the defendant. ...


Investigations

Craig Murray 2003 revelations

In 2003, the United Kingdom's Ambassador for Uzbekistan, Craig Murray made accusations that information was being extracted under extreme torture from dissidents in that country, and that the information was subsequently being used by the UK and other western, democratic countries which disapproved of torture.[36] In March 2003 he was informed in the London offices of the Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO) by Sir Michael Wood, chief Legal Adviser, that it was not illegal under the UN Convention Against Torture for the UK to obtain or to use intelligence gained under torture, provided the British government itself did not use torture or request that a named individual be tortured. Craig Murray (born October, 1958)[1] is a writer and broadcaster[1] and was the United Kingdoms Ambassador to Uzbekistan. ... The Foreign and Commonwealth Office, Whitehall, seen from St. ... The United Nations Convention Against Torture is an international human rights instrument, organized by the United Nations and intended to prevent torture and other similar activities. ...


The unanimous Law Lords judgment on December 8, 2005 confirmed this position. They ruled that, under English law tradition, "torture and its fruits" could not be used in court.[37] But the information thus obtained could be used by the British police and security services as "it would be ludicrous for them to disregard information about a ticking bomb if it had been procured by torture."[38] The Law Lords thus dismissed concerns about the validity of information obtained under torture, which have been expressed by various security agents and human rights activists. The House of Lords, in addition to having a legislative function, has a judicial function as a court of last resort within the United Kingdom. ... December 8 is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Murray's accusations did not lead to any investigation by his employer, the FCO, and he resigned after disciplinary action was taken against him in 2004. The Foreign and Commonwealth Office itself is being investigated by the National Audit Office because of accusations that it has victimized, bullied and intimidated its own staff.[39] Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...


Murray later stated that he felt that he had unwittingly stumbled upon what has been called "torture by proxy".[40] He thought that Western countries moved people to regimes and nations where it was known that information would be extracted by torture, and made available to them.


Murray states that he was aware from August 2002 "that the CIA were bringing in detainees to Tashkent from Bagram airport Afghanistan, who were handed over to the Uzbek security services (SNB). I presumed at the time that these were all Uzbek nationals – that may have been a false presumption. I knew that the CIA were obtaining intelligence from their subsequent interrogation by the SNB." He goes on to say that he did not know at the time that any non-Uzbek nationals were flown to Uzbekistan and although he has studied the reports by several journalists and finds their reports credible he is not a firsthand authority on this issue.[41] Bagram Air Base Bagram Air Base is located at the antique city of Bagram near Charikar in Parvan, Afghanistan. ...


Public revelations concerning the extraordinary renditions

Furthermore, Amnesty International mentions Muhammad al-Assad, Salah Nasser Salim ‘Ali and Muhammad Faraj Ahmed Bashmilah. The three, all nationals of Yemen, had "disappeared" in 2003, and had been kept in complete isolation-–even from each other-–in a series of secret detention centres run apparently by US agents.[42] Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a non-governmental organization that promotes human rights. ... Muhammad Assad, Salah Ali and Muhammad Bashmilah are three Yemenis who, according to Amnesty International, were captured and covertly transported to, detained in, and interrogated at, covert CIA interrogation centres -- black sites. ...


Based upon statements by current and former intelligence officials and diplomats from three continents, the Washington Post reported that captives might be subject to techniques of interrogation illegal in the United States.[43] Since it might violate US law these suspects are flown to facilities around the world. Eight countries have been implicated, including Thailand, Afghanistan and several democracies in Eastern Europe, as well as a small center at the Guantánamo Bay prison in Cuba. Map of Eastern Europe Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange),members of the Warsaw pact (light orange), and other former Communist regimes not aligned with Moscow (lightest orange). ... Map of Cuba with location of Guantánamo Bay indicated. ...


The CIA and the White House strongly resist any in-depth investigation into the details of rendition, refusing to release information on the subjects detained and the facilities used throughout the world.[44] Critics think this procedure might be kept from scrutiny as it could result in legal challenges to the U.S. government, inside the U.S. as well as in those countries used for detention.[45][46] (For a more detailed discussion on these possible violations of U.S. and international law please see below and unlawful combatant.) The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ... Extraordinary rendition and irregular rendition are terms used to describe the extrajudicial transfer of a person from one state to another with the intent of legally torturing them outside of the jurisdiction of a state which prohibits it. ... The term unlawful combatant (also unlawful enemy combatant or unprivileged combatant/belligerent) denotes people denied the protection of the Geneva Conventions; those to whom protection is recognised as due are referred to as lawful combatants. ...


Extraordinary renditions and black sites in Europe

Further information: Black sites

In January 2005, Swiss senator Dick Marty, representative at the Council of Europe in charge of the European investigations, concluded that a hundred persons had been kidnapped by the CIA in Europe - thus qualifying as ghost detainees - and then rendered to a country where they may be tortured. Dick Marty qualified the sequestration of Hassan Mustafa Osama Nasr (aka "Abu Omar") in Milan in February 2003 as a "perfect example of extraordinary rendition"[47] It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into CIA prison system. ... Dick Marty (born January 7, 1945 in Sorengo) is a Swiss politician (Free Democratic Party) and former state prosecutor of the canton of Ticino. ... Anthem Ode to Joy (orchestral)  ten founding members joined subsequently observer at the Parliamentary Assembly observer at the Committee of Ministers  official candidate Seat Strasbourg, France Membership 47 European states 6 observers (Council) 3 observers (Assembly) Leaders  -  Secretary General  Terry Davis  -  Commissioner for Human Rights   Establishment  -  Treaty of London May... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Extrajudicial prisoners of the United States. ... Hassan Mustafa Osama Nasr (born c. ...


In addition to their own investigation the European countries will formally request an answer from the Bush administration on the matter.[48][49][50] (See below: The European investigation and its June 2006 report) The Bush administration includes President George W. Bush, Vice President Richard Cheney, Bushs Cabinet, and other select officials and advisors. ... Extraordinary rendition and irregular rendition are terms used to describe the extrajudicial transfer of a person from one state to another with the intent of legally torturing them outside of the jurisdiction of a state which prohibits it. ...


The Guardian reported on December 5, 2005, that the British government is "guilty of breaking international law if it knowingly allowed secret CIA "rendition" flights of terror suspects to land at UK airports, according to a report by American legal scholars."[51][52] The Guardian is a British newspaper owned by the Guardian Media Group. ... December 5 is the 339th day (340th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The United Kingdom is a unitary state and a democratic constitutional monarchy. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Criticisms of the Washington Post's decision to withhold locations of the black sites

A comment by FAIR[53] on the Washington Post's decision, to withhold the locations of these secret prisons, was that since the revelations "could open the U.S. government to legal challenges, particularly in foreign courts, and increase the risk of political condemnation at home and abroad," the Post did its part to minimize these risks. Yet, according to FAIR, "the possibility that illegal, unpopular government actions might be disrupted is not a consequence to be feared, however — it's the whole point of the U.S. First Amendment. Furthermore, by not disclosing these locations it would make it impossible to have them closed and thereby the Post is enabling the rendition, secret detention, and torture of prisoners at these locations to continue. Another consequence might be that U.S. soldiers and civilians are put at risk."[54] ... The Bill of Rights in the National Archives The First Amendment to the United States Constitution is a part of the United States Bill of Rights. ...


UN report by Manfred Nowak

Manfred Nowak, a special reporter on torture, has catalogued in a 15-page U.N. report presented to the 191-member General Assembly that the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, France, Sweden and Kyrgyzstan are violating international human rights conventions by deporting terrorist suspects to countries such as Egypt, Syria, Algeria and Uzbekistan, where they may have been tortured.[55] Manfred Nowak is an Austrian human rights lawyer. ... The United Nations General Assembly (GA) is one of the five principal organs of the United Nations. ...


"The United States is holding at least 26 persons as “ghost detainees” at undisclosed locations outside of the United States," Human Rights Watch said on December 1, 2005, as it released a list naming some of the detainees. The detainees are being held indefinitely and incommunicado, without legal rights or access to counsel.[56][57] It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Extrajudicial prisoners of the United States. ... Human Rights Watch Banner Human Rights Watch is a United States-based international non-government organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. ...


"Erroneous rendition"

An article published in the December 5, 2005, Washington Post reported that the CIA's Inspector General was investigating what it calls erroneous renditions.[58] The term appears to refer to cases in which innocent people were subjected to extraordinary rendition. December 5 is the 339th day (340th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... Inspector General is a fact finding officer whose responsibility is to investigate charges of corruption, fraud, waste and abuse and other complaints regarding government officials. ...


Khalid El-Masri is the most well-known person who is believed to have been subjected to the process of "extraordinary rendition," as a result of mistaken identity (see Extraordinary rendition#The Khalid El-Masri case). Laid Saidi, an Algerian detained and tortured along with El-Masri, was apprehended apparently because of a taped telephone conversation in which the word tirat, meaning "tires" in Arabic, was mistaken for the word tairat, meaning "airplanes."[59] Khalid El-Masri. ... Extraordinary rendition and irregular rendition are terms used to describe the extrajudicial transfer of a person from one state to another with the intent of legally torturing them outside of the jurisdiction of a state which prohibits it. ... Laid Saidi is an Algerian who claims he was imprisoned, for several years, in a CIA black site in Afghanistan called the salt pit.[1] Saidi was imprisoned near Khalid el-Masri during the five months el-Masri was imprisoned in the salt pit, in a prominent instance of mistaken...


The Post's anonymous sources say that the Inspector General is looking into a number of similar cases — possibly as many as thirty innocent men who were captured and transported through what has been called "erroneous renditions." Inspector General is a fact finding officer whose responsibility is to investigate charges of corruption, fraud, waste and abuse and other complaints regarding government officials. ...


A December 27, 2005 story quotes anonymous CIA insiders claiming there have been 10 or fewer of such erroneous renditions.[34] It names the CIA's inspector general, John Helgerson, as the official responsible for the inquiry. December 27 is the 361st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (362nd in leap years). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Inspector General is a fact finding officer whose responsibility is to investigate charges of corruption, fraud, waste and abuse and other complaints regarding government officials. ...


The AP story quotes Tom Malinowski, Washington office director of Human Rights Watch who said:

"I am glad the CIA is investigating the cases that they are aware of, but by definition you are not going to be aware of all such cases, when you have a process designed to avoid judicial safeguards."[34]

Examples and specific cases

This is a non-exhaustive list of some known examples of extraordinary rendition.

  • A Pakistani newspaper reported that in the early hours of October 23, 2001 a Yemeni citizen, Jamil Qasim Saeed Mohammed, a 27-year-old microbiology student at Karachi University, was spirited aboard a private plane at Karachi's airport by Pakistani security officers.[60]
  • In October 2001, Mamdouh Habib, who lives in Australia and has both Australian and Egyptian nationality (having been born in Egypt), was detained in Pakistan, where he was interrogated for three weeks, and then flown to Egypt in a private plane. From Egypt, he was later flown to a US airbase in Afghanistan. He told the BBC that he did not know who had held him, but had seen Americans, Australians, Pakistanis, and Egyptians among his captors. He also said that he had been beaten, given electric schock, deprived of sleep, blindfolded for eight months and brainwashed[61] After signing confessions of involvement with al-Qaeda, which he has now retracted, Mr Habib was transferred to Guantanamo Bay. He was released without charge in January 2005.[62] Former Pakistani Interior Minister Makhdoom Syed Faisal Sawleh Hayat told in an interview by the Australian current affairs programme Dateline that Mr Habib was linked with the "terrorist element" operating at that time. But he contradicted him a few minutes after, in the same interview, saying that Mamdouh Habib had been assumed guilty just because he was in the restricted province of Baluchistan without proper visa documents.[63]
  • In 2002, captured Al Qaeda leader Ibn al-Shaykh al-Libi was rendered to Egypt where he was allegedly tortured. The information he provided to his interrogators formed a fundamental part of the Bush administration case for attacking Iraq, alleging links between Al Qaeda and Iraq. Al-Libi later recanted his story and it is generally believed that his stories of contact between the Saddam Hussein regime and Al-Qaeda were fabricated to please his interrogators.[64]
  • Ahmed Agiza and Muhammad al-Zery, two Egyptians who had been seeking asylum in Sweden, were arrested by Swedish police in December 2001. They were taken to an airport and put on an executive jet with American registration N379P with a crew of masked men. Within hours, they were flown to Egypt, where they were imprisoned, beaten, and tortured. A Swedish diplomat visited them several weeks later. Agiza was charged with being an Islamic militant and he was sentenced to 25 years. Al-Zery wasn't charged, and after two years in jail he was sent to his village in Egypt.
  • In March 2002, Abou Elkassim Britel, an Italian citizen with Moroccan origins, was arrested in Pakistan and subsequently interrogated by Pakistani and US officials. He was then rendered to Moroccan authorities, detained and torture in a secret detention center in Temara. He was finally released without any charges brought against him, before being rearrested in May 2003 at the border crossing of the Spanish enclave of Melilla in North Africa. He is currently imprisoned in Äin Bourja prison in Casablanca after having been sentenced to nine years in January 2004 for membership of a subversive organisation and for activities including the holding unauthorised meetings. This in spite of conclusions in September 2006 by Italian Justice, after a five years investigation, that there was "an absolute lack of grounds of evidence of charge which may be used in trial" and that the suspicion motivating the inquiries had proved unfounded. Nonetheless, allegations in the Italian press and the judicial proceedings that were underway in Italy influenced court proceedings against Britel in Morocco that led to him being sentenced. MPs from Italy and from the European Parliament are set to ask the Moroccan Royal Cabinet to grant a pardon to the Italian citizen[65] According to the European Parliament Temporary Committee on the Alleged Use of European Countries by the CIA for the Transport and the Illegal Detention of Prisoners headed by rapporteur Giovanni Claudio Fava, documents demonstrated that "the Italian judicial authorities and the Italian Ministry for Home Affairs (the latter, acting on behalf of the Direzione Centrale della Polizia di Prevenzione cited in connection with the investigation by the Divisione Investigazioni Generali ed Operazioni Speciali) cooperated constantly with foreign secret services and were well aware of all Britel's movements and whatever unlawful treatments he received, from the time of his initial arrest in Pakistan."[66]
  • In February 2003, Hassan Mustafa Osama Nasr (aka "Abu Omar") was kidnapped by the CIA in Milan (Italy), and deported to Egypt. His case has been qualified by Swiss senator Dick Marty to be a "perfect example of extraordinary rendition".[47] Italian justice has since issued arrest warrants against CIA agents (See The Abu Omar Case). Photos of defendants in the Abu Omar case recently have surfaced on the Web.[67]
  • In 2003, Khalid El-Masri, a Kuwait-born citizen with German nationality, was detained by Macedonian agents in Republic of Macedonia, then turned over to the CIA (See The Khaled Masri case)
  • In 2003, an Algerian named Laid Saidi was abducted in Tanzania and taken to Afghanistan, where he was imprisoned and tortured along with Khalid El-Masri.[59] His detention appears to have arisen through a mistranslation of a telephone conversation, in which U.S. officials believed he was speaking about airplanes (tairat in Arabic) when he had in fact been speaking about tires (tirat in Arabic).
  • Maher Arar, a Syrian-born Canadian citizen, 34 in 2005, was detained at Kennedy International Airport on 26 September 2002, by US Immigration and Naturalization Service officials. He was heading home to Canada after a family holiday in Tunisia. After almost two weeks, enduring hours of interrogation chained, he was sent, shackled and bound, in a private jet to Jordan and then Syria, instead of being extradited to Canada. There, he was interrogated and tortured by Syrian intelligence. Maher Arar was eventually released a year later. He told the BBC that he was repeatedly tortured during 10 months' detention in Syria - often whipped on the palms of his hands with metal cables. Syrian intelligence officers forced him to sign a confession linking him to Al Qaeda. He was finally released following intervention by the Canadian government. The Canadian government lodged an official complaint with the US government protesting Arar's deportation. On September 18, 2006, a Canadian public enquiry presented its findings entirely clearing Arar of any terrorist activities.[68] In 2004 Arar filed a lawsuit in a federal court in New York against senior U.S. officials, on charges that whomever sent him to Syria knew he would be tortured by intelligence agents.[61] US Attorney General John Ashcroft, Homeland Security Secretary Tom Ridge and FBI Director Robert Mueller are all named in the lawsuit.[69]
  • Binyam Mohammed, an Ethiopian student who lived in London, was apprehended in Pakistan in April 2002. He allegedly spent three years in "black sites," including in Morocco and Afghanistan. He was supposed to be part of a plot involving José Padilla. The Observer reported: He went to Pakistan in June 2001 because, he says, he had a drug problem and wanted to kick the habit. He was arrested on 10 April at the airport on his way back to England because of an alleged passport irregularity. Initially interrogated by Pakistani and British officials, he told Stafford Smith: 'The British checked out my story and said they knew I was a nobody. They said they would tell the Americans. He was deprived of sleep by having heavy rock music played loudly throughout the day and night.[70][61]
  • In late 2001 Saddiq Ahmad Turkistani was freed by US forces from a Taliban prison in Kandahar, Afghanistan. At a news conference he told reporters and U.S. officials he had been wrongly imprisoned for allegedly plotting to kill Osama bin Laden. He was then taken to a U.S. military base in Afghanistan, where he was stripped, bound and thrown behind bars. According to U.S. lawyers who represent him, in January 2002 he was sent to the U.S. detention facility at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. Nearly four years later, Turkistani remains there, despite being cleared for release early 2005 after a government review concluded he is "no longer an enemy combatant." It is unclear exactly when that determination was made, but Justice Department lawyers gave notice of it in an October 11 court filing.[71] According to a June 26, 2006 press release from the Saudi Arabian embassy,[72] Turkistani was released from Guantanamo to Saudi custody

October 23 is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The University of Karachi, located in Karachi is Pakistans largest public university. ... Mamdouh Habib (Arabic: ممدوح حبيب) is an independent political candidate in New South Wales, Australia, and a Muslim suspected of terrorist links. ... Baluchistan (or Balochistan), also known as Greater Baluchistan is an arid region of south Asia, presently split between Iran, Pakistan and Afghanistan. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Ahmed Agiza and Muhammad al-Zery were two Egyptian asylum-seekers who were secretly deported to Egypt from Sweden on December 18, 2001, reputedly following a request from the United States Central Intelligence Agency. ... The jet with an earlier tail number, sitting in Geneva Rendition aircraft are aircraft used by national governments to move prisoners internationally, a practice known as rendition, sometimes referred to as extraordinary rendition. ...  Spain Area  â€“ Total    20 km² (8 mi²) Population  â€“ Total (2006)  â€“ Density  66,871  3,343. ... Politics of Morocco takes place in a framework of a parliamentary constitutional monarchy, whereby the Prime Minister of Morocco is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ... Claudio Fava Giovanni Claudio Fava (born 15 April 1957) is an Italian politician and Member of the European Parliament for the Italian Islands with the Democrats of the Left (DS), part of the Socialist Group and is vice-chair of the European Parliaments Committee on Regional Development. ... Hassan Mustafa Osama Nasr (born c. ... This article is about the city in Italy. ... Dick Marty (born January 7, 1945 in Sorengo) is a Swiss politician (Free Democratic Party) and former state prosecutor of the canton of Ticino. ... Extraordinary rendition and irregular rendition are terms used to describe the extrajudicial transfer of a person from one state to another with the intent of legally torturing them outside of the jurisdiction of a state which prohibits it. ... Khalid El-Masri. ... For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... Extraordinary rendition and irregular rendition are terms used to describe the extrajudicial transfer of a person from one state to another with the intent of legally torturing them outside of the jurisdiction of a state which prohibits it. ... Maher Arar (Arabic: ‎; born 1970 in Syria) is a Canadian software engineer. ... John F. Kennedy International Airport (IATA Airport Code: JFK, ICAO Airport Code: KJFK) is the main international airport in New York City, and is one of the largest airports in the world. ... September 26 is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... The United States Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) was a part of the United States Department of Justice and handled legal and illegal immigration and naturalization. ... Idarat al-Mukhabarat al-Amma is the general intelligence service of Syria. ... Modern confessional in the Church of the Holy Name, Dunedin, New Zealand. ... September 18 is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The United States Attorney General is the head of the United States Department of Justice concerned with legal affairs and is the chief law enforcement officer of the United States government. ... John David Ashcroft (born May 9, 1942) was the 79th Attorney General of the United States. ... Thomas Joseph Ridge (born August 27, 1945 near Pittsburgh) is a U.S. political figure who served as a member of the United States House of Representatives (1983–1995), Governor of Pennsylvania (1995–2001), Assistant to the President for Homeland Security (2001–2003), and the first United States Secretary of... Official FBI Seal The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is a Federal police force and intelligence agency which is the principal investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). ... Robert Swan Mueller III (born August 7, 1944) is the current Director of the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation. ... Benyam (Benjamin) Mohammed (also transliterated as Binyam Mohammed) is an alleged victim of extraordinary rendition. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into CIA prison system. ... José Padilla (also known as Abdullah al-Muhajir) (born October 18, 1970) is a U.S. citizen accused of being a terrorist by the United States government. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... April 10 is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Saddiq Ahmad Turkistani is an ethnic Uyghur born and raised in Saudi Arabia and an opponent of the Taliban. ... For the position of women during the Talibans rule, see Taliban treatment of women. ... This article is about the city in Afghanistan. ... Osama bin Muhammad bin Awad bin Laden (Arabic: ‎; born March 10, 1957[1]), most often mentioned as Osama bin Laden or Usama bin Laden, is a Saudi Arabian militant Islamist and is widely believed to be one of the founders of the organization called al-Qaeda. ... An enemy combatant has historically referred to members of the armed forces of the state with which another state is at war. ... The United States Department of Justice (DOJ) is a Cabinet department in the United States government designed to enforce the law and defend the interests of the United States according to the law and to ensure fair and impartial administration of justice for all Americans. ... October 11 is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... June 26 is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... April 5 is the 95th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (96th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a non-governmental organization that promotes human rights. ... Map of Eastern Europe Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange),members of the Warsaw pact (light orange), and other former Communist regimes not aligned with Moscow (lightest orange). ...

The Khaled Masri case

Main article: Khalid El-Masri

In 2003, Khalid El-Masri, a Kuwait-born citizen with German nationality, was detained by Macedonian agents in Republic of Macedonia. While allegedly on vacation in Macedonia, local police, apparently acting on a tip, took him off a bus, held him for three weeks, then took him to the Skopje airport where he was turned over to the CIA. Khalid El-Masri. ... Khalid El-Masri. ... For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ...


El-Masri says he was injected with drugs, and after his flight, he woke up in an American-run prison in Afghanistan containing prisoners from Pakistan, Tanzania, Yemen and Saudi Arabia. El-Masri said that he was held five months and interrogated by Americans through an interpreter. He declared thet he had been beaten and kept in solitary confinement. Participating in some of these interrogation sessions was an officer of the German foreign intelligence service (Bundesnachrichtendienst or BND) using the pseudonym "Sam", who has reportedly been identified by al-Masri as Gerhard Lehmann. Lehmann served on the UN Mehlis commission into the Rafik Hariri assassination before he was withdrawn in early February 2006, possibly to prevent the repercussions of his identification.[74] The Bundesnachrichtendienst (Federal Intelligence Service, BND) is the foreign intelligence agency of the German government, under the control of the Bundeskanzleramt (Federal Chancellery). ... The Mehlis Report is the result of the United Nations investigation into the 14 February 2005 assassination of Lebanons former prime minister Rafik al-Hariri. ... Rafik Baha ad-Din Hariri — (November 1, 1944 – February 14, 2005), (Arabic: ) a self-made billionaire and business tycoon, was the Prime Minister of Lebanon from 1992 to 1998 and again from 2000 until his resignation on 20 October 2004. ...


Then, after his five months of questioning, he was simply released. "They told me that they had confused names and that they had cleared it up, but I can't imagine that," El-Masri told ABC News. "You can clear up switching names in a few minutes." Khalid el-Masri had allegedly been confused with Khalid al-Masri, wanted for contacts with the Hamburg Cell involved in the September 2001 attacks. The American Broadcasting Company ( oftenly known as ABC) operates television and radio networks in the United States and is also shown on basic cable in Canada. ... Khalid al-Masri (Arabic: خالد المصري, sometimes transliterated Almasri) is a member of al-Qaida who was instrumental in persuading some of the organizers of the September 11, 2001 attacks to go to Afghanistan, and to therefore meet with Osama bin Laden... The Hamburg cell was, according to U.S. and German intelligence agencies, a group of radical Islamists that included students who eventually came to be key operatives in the 9/11 attacks. ...


Khalid el-Masri was then flown out of Afghanistan and dumped on a road in Albania, from where he made his way back home in Germany. Using a method called isotope analysis, scientists at the Bavarian archive for geology in Munich subsequently analyzed several strands of his hair and verified his story. During a visit to Washington, German Interior Minister Otto Schily was told that American agents admitted to kidnapping El-Masri, and indicated that the matter had somehow got out of hand. Masri was held for five months largely because the head of the CIA's Counterterrorist Center's al Qaeda unit "believed he was someone else," one former CIA official said. "She didn't really know. She just had a hunch."[19] Isotopes are any of the several different forms of an element each having different atomic mass (mass number). ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Otto Georg Schily (SPD; born July 20, 1932) was Federal Minister of the Interior of Germany from 1998-2005, in the cabinet of former Bundeskanzler Gerhard Schröder. ...


Khalid el-Masri's case has been given as an example of so-called "erroneous renditions," meaning extraordinary renditions of completely innocent people. Although the "confusion" was admitted to Germany's then-Interior Minister Otto Schily, the CIA tried to keep the specifics of Masri's case from becoming public.[75] The German government was requested by the CIA not to disclose what it had been told (even if el-Masri went public), on fears that this might expose the covert extraordinary rendition program, and thereby open up legal challenges. Some CIA officials have argued that Guantanamo Bay has become, as one former senior official put it, "a dumping ground" for CIA mistakes. Otto Georg Schily (SPD; born July 20, 1932) was Federal Minister of the Interior of Germany from 1998-2005, in the cabinet of former Bundeskanzler Gerhard Schröder. ... Detainees upon arrival at Camp X-Ray, January 2002 Guantánamo Bay detainment camp serves as a joint military prison and interrogation center under the leadership of Joint Task Force Guantanamo (JTF-GTMO), has occupied a portion of the United States Navys base at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba since 2002. ...


A German prosecutor is working to verify or debunk Masri's claims of kidnapping and torture, yet that part of the German government which was informed has remained silent on the subject. Masri's attorneys have filed a lawsuit in U.S. courts. On January 31, 2007, Munich Prosecutor Christian Schmidt-Sommerfeld said he had issued 13 arrest warrants connected with rendition of Khalid El-Masri from Macedonia.[76] January 31 is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ...


The Abu Omar case

Main article: The Imam Rapito affair

On 17 February 2003, Hassan Mustafa Osama Nasr (aka "Abu Omar") was kidnapped by the CIA in Milan (Italy), and deported to Egypt. His case has been qualified by Swiss senator Dick Marty to be a "perfect example of extraordinary rendition".[47] In June 2005, Italian judge Guido Salvini issued a warrant for the arrest of 13 persons said to be agents or operatives of the CIA. In December 2005, an Italian court issued an European arrest warrant against 22 CIA agents suspected of this kidnapping (including Robert Seldon Lady, Eliana Castaldo, Lt. Col. Joseph L. Romano, III, etc.[77]). The CIA hasn't commented on the case, while Berlusconi's government has denied any knowledge of a kidnapping plot.[78] Just after the 2006 Italian general elections, Roberto Castelli (Lega Nord), outgoing Justice Minister, declared to Italian prosecutors that he had not passed the extradition request to the US. Immage from the CIAs surveillance of Hassan Mustafa Osama Nasr recovered during investigations by the prosecuting authority of Milan [1] The Abu Omar Case (or Imam Rapito affair - Kidnapped Imam affair) refers to the abduction and transfer in Egypt of the Imam of Milan Hassan Mustafa Osama Nasr, also... Hassan Mustafa Osama Nasr (born c. ... This article is about the city in Italy. ... Dick Marty (born January 7, 1945 in Sorengo) is a Swiss politician (Free Democratic Party) and former state prosecutor of the canton of Ticino. ... The European Arrest Warrant (EAW) is an arrest warrant to allow the arrest of criminal suspects and their transfer for trial or detention which is valid throughout the states of the European Union (EU). ... Robert Seldon Lady (b. ... Eliana Castaldo (b. ... Lieutenant-Colonel Joseph L. Romano is an officer in the United States Air Force and the only known military officer out of 26 American nationals charged with the 2003 kidnapping of Italian cleric Hassan Nasr as part of an alleged covert CIA operation. ...   (born September 29, 1936) is an Italian politician, entrepreneur, and media proprietor. ... A general election for the renewal of the two Chambers of the Parliament of Italy was held on April 9 and April 10, 2006. ... Roberto Castelli (Lecco 12Th of July 1946) is the current Minister of Justice in italian Government, Senator and a preeminent exponent of Lega Nord party. ... The Northern League (Italian: Lega Nord) is an Italian political party that advocates autonomy for a part of Northern Italy called Padania. It is a personality-driven party led by Umberto Bossi. ... Extradition is the official process by which one nation or state requests and obtains from another nation or state the surrender of a suspected or convicted criminal. ...


Furthermore, Marco Mancini, the SISMI director of anti-terrorism and counterespionage, and Gustavo Pignero, the department's director in 2003, have been arrested, on charges of complicity in a kidnapping with the aggravating circumstances of abuse of power. There are now 26 EU arrest warrants for U.S. citizens in connection to this event.[79] A judge also issued arrest warrants for four Americans, three CIA agents and an Air Force officer who commanded the security forces at Aviano Air Base at the time of the abduction.[80] Marco Mancini is a senior official in Sismi, the military intelligence agency of Italy. ... Servizio per le Informazioni e la Sicurezza Militare (Military Intelligence and Security Service, SISMI) is the military intelligence agency of Italy. ... The United States Air Force (USAF) is the aerial warfare branch of the United States armed forces and one of the seven uniformed services. ... Security Forces members survey the installation perimeter at Manas Air Base. ... US F-16s at Aviano Aviano Air Base is a base of the United States Air Force, in the northeastern part of Italy, at the foot of the Italian Alps, about 20 miles (32 kilometers) north of Pordenone. ...


On February 17, 2003 CIA agents allegedly kidnapped Hassan Mustafa Osama Nasr, also known as Abu Omar, as he walked to his mosque in Milan for noon prayers. Omar was flown to Egypt for interrogation in the frame of the US extraordinary rendition program. His family and friends claim that he has been tortured. At the time of his disappearance, Italian police were investigating allegations that Nasr had tried to recruit jihadists. Prosecutor Guido Salvini said the abduction was illegal because it violated Italian sovereignty and that it disrupted an ongoing police investigation. February 17 is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


On December 6, 2005, the Washington Post reported Italian court documents showed the CIA tried to mislead Italian anti-terrorism police who were looking for the cleric. Robert Seldon Lady, the CIA's substation chief in Milan, has been implicated in the abduction. In a written opinion upholding the arrest warrant, judge Enrico Manzi wrote that the evidence taken from Lady's home "removes any doubt about his participation in the preparatory phase of the abduction."[81][82] Robert S. Lady however, alleged that the evidence has been gathered illegally, and has denied involvement in the abduction.[81] Photos of Robert (Bob) Lady and other defendants recently have surfaced on the Web.[83] December 6 is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... ... Robert Seldon Lady (b. ...



On February 12, 2007 Mr Nasr's lawyer said he had been released and was back with his family.[84] February 12 is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ...


The Majid Mahmud Abdu Ahmad case

A story in the Los Angeles Times on December 8, 2005, seems to corroborate the claims of "torture by proxy." It mentions the attorneys for Majid Mahmud Abdu Ahmad, a detainee held by the Pentagon at Guantanamo Bay, filed a petition to prevent his being transferred to foreign countries. According to the petition's description of a redacted classified Defense Department memo from March 17, 2004, its contents say "officials suggested sending Ahmad to an unspecified foreign country that employed torture in order to increase chances of extracting information from him." The Los Angeles Times (also known as the LA Times) is a daily newspaper published in Los Angeles, California and distributed throughout the Western United States. ... December 8 is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Extraordinary rendition or torture by proxy is a procedure used by the government of the United States and other Western countries whereby foreign suspects are sent to another country for interrogation under less humane conditions. ... Majid Mahmud Abdu Ahmad is currently detained in Camp Delta in Guantanamo Bay. ... The United States Department of Defense, abbreviated DoD or DOD and sometimes called the Defense Department, is a civilian Cabinet organization of the United States government. ... March 17 is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... shelby was here 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Mr Falkoff, representing Ahmad, continued: "There is only one meaning that can be gleaned from this short passage," the petition says. "The government believes that Mr. Ahmad has information that it wants but that it cannot extract without torturing him." The petition goes on to say that because torture is not allowed at Guantanamo, "the recommendation is that Mr. Ahmad should be sent to another country where he can be interrogated under torture."[85] In a report, regarding the allegations of CIA flights, on December 13, 2005, by the rapporteur and Chair of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe’s Committee on Legal Affairs and Human Rights, Swiss councillor Dick Marty, it was concluded: "The elements we have gathered so far tend to reinforce the credibility of the allegations concerning the transport and temporary detention of detainees - outside all judicial procedure - in European countries."[86][87] In a press conference in January 2006, he stated "he was personally convinced the US had undertaken illegal activities in Europe in transporting and detaining prisoners."[88] The Palace of Europe in Strasbourg The Council of Europe is an international organisation of 46 member states in the European region. ... Dick Marty (born January 7, 1945 in Sorengo) is a Swiss politician (Free Democratic Party) and former state prosecutor of the canton of Ticino. ...


The Muhammad Bashmila case

Muhammad Bashmila, a former illegally arrested prisoner, now free in Yemen, gave an interview to the BBC Newsnight programme, where he spoke of being transferred from Afghanistan to a detention center where it was cold, where the food appeared European and where evening prayers were held at the late hour of 2045. Somewhere in Eastern Europe is suspected.[89] The British Broadcasting Corporation, usually known as the BBC, is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world in terms of audience numbers, employing 26,000 staff in the United Kingdom alone and with a budget of more than GB£4 billion (US$7. ... Newsnight is a British daily news analysis, current affairs and politics programme broadcast between 22:30 and 23:20 on weekdays on BBC Two. ... Dorchester Penitentiary in New Brunswick, Canada is an institution that is part of Corrections Canada. ...


Investigations in Europe

Shannon Airport, Ireland

The government of the Republic of Ireland has come under internal and external pressure to inspect airplanes at Shannon Airport to investigate whether or not they contain extraordinary rendition captives.[90][91] Police at Shannon have said that they have received political instruction not to approach, search or otherwise interfere with US aircraft suspected of being involved in extraordinary rendition flights. Ireland has recently been shamed by the EU Parliament for its role in facilitating extraordinary rendition and taking insufficient or no measures to uphold its obligations under the UN CAT.[citation needed] Shannon Airport (IATA: SNN, ICAO: EINN), or Aerfort na Sionna in Irish, 3. ...


The situation is complicated at Shannon Airport because, (along with Dublin Airport, the only other airport in Europe to have such a facility),[92] passengers flying to the USA are cleared for immigration to the USA by U.S. Department of Homeland Security Bureau of Customs and Border Protection before bording the flights and are kept in a "sterile gate lounge"[93] Dublin Airport (IATA: DUB, ICAO: EIDW), or Aerfort Bhaile Átha Cliath in Irish, is operated by the Dublin Airport Authority plc. ... The United States maintains border preclearance facilities at a number of ports and airports in foreign countries. ...


July 2005 opening of investigations in France concerning CIA flights

The French attorney general of Bobigny opened up an instruction in order "to verify the presence in Le Bourget Airport, on July 20, 2005, of the plane numbered N50BH." This instruction was opened following a complaint deposed in December 2005 by the Ligue des droits de l'homme (LDH) NGO ("Human Rights League") and the International Federation of Human Rights Leagues (FIDH) NGO on charges of "arbitrary detention", "crime of torture" and "non-respect of the rights of war prisoners". It has as objective to determine if the plane was used to transport CIA prisoners to Guantanamo Bay detainment camp and if the French authorities had knowledge of this stop. However, the lawyer defending the LDH declared that he was surprised that the instruction was only opened on January 20, 2006, and that no verifications had been done before. On December 2, 2005, conservative newspaper Le Figaro had revealed the existence of two CIA planes that had landed in France, suspected of transporting CIA prisoners. But the instruction concerned only N50BH, which was a Gulfstream III, which would have landed at Le Bourget on July 20, 2005, coming from Oslo, Norway. The other suspected aircraft would have landed in Brest on March 31, 2002. It is investigated by the Canadian authorities, as it would have been flying from St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador in Canada, via Keflavík in Iceland before going to Turkey.[94] In most common law jurisdictions, the Attorney General is the main legal adviser to the government, and in some jurisdictions may in addition have executive responsibility for law enforcement or responsibility for public prosecutions. ... Bobigny is a town and commune of France, in the suburbs is of Paris, chief town of the arrondissement of the Seine-Saint-Denis. ... Le Bourget airport (Aéroport du Bourget) is an airport, located in Le Bourget, close to Paris, France, nowadays only used for general aviation (business jets) as well as air shows. ... July 20 is the 201st day (202nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 164 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 2005 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December- → 31 December 2005 (Saturday) 25-year-old Scottish human rights worker Kate Burton and her parents are freed unharmed in the Gaza Strip by the Palestinian gunmen who kidnapped them two days earlier. ... The Ligue des droits de lhomme (Human Rights League) is a French NGO founded on June 4, 1898, by the republican Ludovic Trarieux to defend captain Alfred Dreyfus, a Jew wrongly accused of treason - this would be known as the Dreyfus Affair. ... The International Federation of Human Rights Leagues, founded in 1922, is composed of 144 NGOs, among whom the French Ligue des droits de lhomme (LDH) and the Palestinian Society for the Protection of Human Rights. ... Austro-Hungarian POWs in Russia; a 1915 photo by Prokudin-Gorskii A prisoner of war (POW, PoW, or PW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... Detainees upon arrival at Camp X-Ray, January 2002 Guantánamo Bay detainment camp serves as a joint military prison and interrogation center under the leadership of Joint Task Force Guantanamo (JTF-GTMO), has occupied a portion of the United States Navys base at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba since 2002. ... January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 2 is the 336th day (337th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Le Figaro (English: ) is one of the leading French morning daily newspapers. ... The C-20 Gulfstream is the military designation of the commercial Gulfstream bizjets used by the US military forces. ... July 20 is the 201st day (202nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 164 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... County Oslo NO-03 District Viken Municipality NO-0301 Administrative centre Oslo Mayor (2004) Per Ditlev-Simonsen (H) Official language form BokmÃ¥l Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 224 454 km² 426 km² 0. ... Brest (lol) is a city in Brittany, or the Bretagne région, north-west France, sous-préfecture of the Finistère département. ... March 31 is the 90th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (91st in leap years), with 275 days remaining. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... Nickname: The City of Legends Motto: Avancez (Go forward) Coordinates: Country Canada Province Newfoundland and Labrador Established August 5, 1583 by Royal Charter of Queen Elizabeth I Government  - City Mayor Andy Wells  - Governing body St. ... Keflavík on the Reykjanes peninsula of Iceland Keflavík is a town of around 10,200 inhabitants in the Reykjanes region in southwest Iceland (64°01′N 22°34′W). ...


November 2005 opening of investigations in Spain concerning CIA flights

In November 2005, Spanish newspaper El Pais reported that CIA planes had landed in the Canary Islands and in Palma de Mallorca. An attorney opened up an investigation concerning these landings which, according to Madrid, were made without official knowledge, thus being a breach of national sovereignty.[95][96][97] El País (The country) is one of the most widely read Spanish newspapers. ... Sovereignty is the exclusive right to exercise supreme authority over a geographic region or group of people, such as a nation or a tribe. ...


Germany

Business daily Handelsblatt reported November 24, 2005, that the CIA still uses an American military base in Germany to transport terrorism suspects without informing the German government. The Berliner Zeitung reported the following day there was documentation of 85 takeoffs and landings by planes with a "high probability" of being operated by the CIA, at Ramstein, the Rhein-Main Air Base and others. The newspaper cited experts and "plane-spotters" who observed the planes as responsible for the tally.[98] The Handelsblatt is a leading German commercial newspaper published by the Verlagsgruppe Handelsblatt in Düsseldorf. ... The Berliner Zeitung, founded in 1945, is an East German center-left daily newspaper based in Berlin. ... Boeing C-17A Lot XII Globemaster III Serial 00-0172 Spirit of the Cascades at the Ramstein cargo terminal. ... Rhein-Main Air Base (located at ) was a U.S. Air Force / NATO military airbase near the city of Frankfurt am Main, Germany. ...


Kosovo

In 2002, the Council of Europe's Human rights commissioner Alvaro Gil-Robles witnessed 'a smaller version of Guantanamo', he told France's Le Monde newspaper.[99][100] Gil-Robles told the daily he had inspected the centre, located within the US military's Camp Bondsteel in Kosovo, in 2002, to investigate reports of extrajudicial arrests by NATO-led peacekeepers.[101] Anthem Ode to Joy (orchestral)  ten founding members joined subsequently observer at the Parliamentary Assembly observer at the Committee of Ministers  official candidate Seat Strasbourg, France Membership 47 European states 6 observers (Council) 3 observers (Assembly) Leaders  -  Secretary General  Terry Davis  -  Commissioner for Human Rights   Establishment  -  Treaty of London May... Alvaro Gil-Robles (born in September 9, 1944 in Lissabon, Portugal) is a Spanish jurist and human rights activist. ... Le Monde is also the name of a song by the Thievery Corporation. ... The armed forces of the United States of America consist of the United States Army United States Navy United States Air Force United States Marine Corps United States Coast Guard Note: The United States Coast Guard has both military and law enforcement functions. ... Camp Bondsteel, Kosovo Davidson SEAhuts Mt Duke looming over Camp Bondsteel Camp Bondsteel is the main base of the United States Army under KFOR command in the UN administered province of Kosovo, Serbia. ... For uses of the name Kosova, see Kosova (disambiguation). ...


The Council of Europe investigation and its June 2006 report

Report regarding the Egyptian fax intercepted on 10 November 2005 by the Swiss Onyx interception system, as published in the Swiss press
Report regarding the Egyptian fax intercepted on 10 November 2005 by the Swiss Onyx interception system, as published in the Swiss press

On November 25, 2005, the lead investigator for the Council of Europe, Swiss lawmaker Dick Marty announced that he had obtained latitude and longitude coordinates for suspected black sites, and he was planning to use satellite imagery over the last several years as part of his investigation. On November 28, 2005, EU Justice Commissioner Franco Frattini asserted that any EU country which had operated a secret prison would have its voting rights suspended.[102] In a preliminary report, Dick Marty declared that it was "highly unlikely that European governments, or at least their intelligence services, were unaware" of the CIA kidnapping of a "hundred" persons on European territory and their subsequent rendition to countries where they may be tortured.[103] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x872, 563 KB) This work is copyrighted and unlicensed. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x872, 563 KB) This work is copyrighted and unlicensed. ... November 10 is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 51 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Onyx is a Swiss intelligence gathering system. ... November 25 is the 329th (in leap years the 330th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Anthem Ode to Joy (orchestral)  ten founding members joined subsequently observer at the Parliamentary Assembly observer at the Committee of Ministers  official candidate Seat Strasbourg, France Membership 47 European states 6 observers (Council) 3 observers (Assembly) Leaders  -  Secretary General  Terry Davis  -  Commissioner for Human Rights   Establishment  -  Treaty of London May... Dick Marty (born January 7, 1945 in Sorengo) is a Swiss politician (Free Democratic Party) and former state prosecutor of the canton of Ticino. ... November 28 is the 332nd day (333rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Franco Frattini. ...


The report from the Committee on Legal Affairs and Human Rights of the Council of Europe directed by Dick Marty, and given public on June 7, 2006, was titled: "Alleged secret detentions and unlawful inter-state transfers involving Council of Europe member states."[104] Anthem Ode to Joy (orchestral)  ten founding members joined subsequently observer at the Parliamentary Assembly observer at the Committee of Ministers  official candidate Seat Strasbourg, France Membership 47 European states 6 observers (Council) 3 observers (Assembly) Leaders  -  Secretary General  Terry Davis  -  Commissioner for Human Rights   Establishment  -  Treaty of London May... Dick Marty (born January 7, 1945 in Sorengo) is a Swiss politician (Free Democratic Party) and former state prosecutor of the canton of Ticino. ...


Following the publication of this report, the Council of Europe published its draft Recommendation and Resolution document which found grounds for concern with the conduct of both the US and member states of the EU and expresses concern for the disregard of international law and the Geneva Convention. Following a 23 point resolution the document makes 5 recommendations.

  • 1 refers to its Resolution on alleged secret detentions and unlawful inter-state transfers involving Council of Europe member states.
  • 2 recalling its previous recommendation on the legality of the detention of persons by the United States in Guantanamo Bay
  • 3 urges the Committee of Ministers to draft a recommendation to Council of Europe member States containing:
common measures to guarantee more effectively the human rights of persons suspected of terrorist offences who are captured from, detained in or transported through Council of Europe member States; and a set of minimum requirements for "human rights protection clauses", for inclusion in bilateral and multilateral agreements with third parties, especially those concerning the use of military installations on the territory of Council of Europe member States.
  • 4 urgently requests that: an initiative be launched on an international level, expressly involving the United States, an Observer to the Council of Europe, to develop a common, truly global strategy to address the terrorist threat. The strategy should conform in all its elements with the fundamental principles of our common heritage in terms of democracy, human rights and respect for the rule of law. Also, a proposal be considered, in instances where States are unable or unwilling to prosecute persons accused of terrorist acts, to bring these persons within the jurisdiction of an international court that is competent to try them. One possibility worth considering would be to vest such a competence in the International Criminal Court, whilst renewing invitations to join the Court to the United States and other countries that have not yet done so.
  • 5 recommends improving the Council of Europe’s ability to react rapidly and effectively to allegations of systematic human rights abuse involving several member States.

Several months before the publication of the Council of Europe report directed by Dick Marty, Gijs de Vries, the EU's antiterrorism coordinator, asserted in April 2006 that no evidence existed that extraordinary rendition had been taking place in Europe. It was also said that the European Union's probe, and a similar one by the continent's leading human rights group had not found any human rights violations nor other crimes that could be proven to the satisfaction of the courts.[105] This denial from a member of the executive power of the EU institutions has been flatly denied by the European Parliament report, which was accepted by a vast majority of the Parliament in February 2007 (See below:The European Parliament's February 14, 2007 report). Dick Marty (born January 7, 1945 in Sorengo) is a Swiss politician (Free Democratic Party) and former state prosecutor of the canton of Ticino. ... Gijs de Vries (born February 22, 1956 in New York) was a Dutch Peoples Party for Freedom and Democracy (VVD) politician and deputy Interior Minister between 1998 and 2002 who on March 25, 2004 bacame the European Unions anti-terrorism co-ordinator. ... Under the doctrine of the separation of powers, the executive is the branch of a government charged with implementing, or executing, the law. ... Established 1952, as the Common Assembly President Hans-Gert Pöttering (EPP) Since 16 January 2007 Vice-Presidents 14 Political parties 8 Committees 22 Last election June 2004 (785 MEPs) Meeting place Brussels and Strasbourg Secretariat Luxembourg and Brussels Website europarl. ... Extraordinary rendition is an American extra-judicial procedure which involves the sending of untried criminal suspects, suspected terrorists or alleged supporters of groups which the US Government considers to be terrorist organizations, to countries other than the United States for imprisonment and interrogation. ...


On the other hand, Dick Marty explained the difference of approach concerning terrorism between the EU and the US as following: Terrorist redirects here. ...

While the states of the Old World have dealt with these threats primarily by means of existing institutions and legal systems, the United States appears to have made a fundamentally different choice: considering that neither conventional judicial instruments nor those established under the framework of the laws of war could effectively counter the new forms of international terrorism, it decided to develop new legal concepts. This legal approach is utterly alien to the European tradition and sensibility, and is clearly contrary to the European Convention on Human Rights and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.[89] The Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, also known as the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR), was adopted under the auspices of the Council of Europe[1] in 1950 to protect human rights and fundamental freedoms. ... Bold text Eleanor Roosevelt with the Spanish version of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. ...

However, despite Marty's claims, the European Parliament investigations uncovered cooperation between European secret services and governments and the extraordinary renditions programs, making such a clear-cut distinction over-simplistic (see below). Dick Marty himself has not accepted such a dualistic approach, as he showed that for the British government also, the phenomenon of Islamic terrorism was alleged to be so grave that the balance of liberties had to be reconsidered.[89] Marty's report stated that: This article is about the form of government policing. ... Extraordinary rendition is an American extra-judicial procedure which involves the sending of untried criminal suspects, suspected terrorists or alleged supporters of groups which the US Government considers to be terrorist organizations, to countries other than the United States for imprisonment and interrogation. ...

"The compilation of so-called "black lists" of individuals and companies suspected of maintaining connections with organisations considered terrorist and the application of the associated sanctions clearly breach every principle of the fundamental right to a fair trial: no specific charges, no right to be heard, no right of appeal, no established procedure for removing one's name from the list."[89]

June 27, 2006 Council of Europe resolution

Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe (PACE) calls for EU regulations governing foreign intelligence services operating in Europe, and demands “human rights clauses” in military base agreements with the USA. The Palace of Europe in Strasbourg The Council of Europe is an international organisation of 46 member states in the European region. ... PACE may refer to: Planetary Association for Clean Energy Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984, in the United Kingdom Academy for Gifted Children in Richmond Hill, Ontario, the acronym PACE stands for Programming for Academic and Creative Excellence Partnership for Academic Competition Excellence...


In a resolution and recommendation approved by a large majority, the Assembly also called for:

  • The dismantling by the US of its system of secret detentions and unlawful inter-state transfers.
  • A review of bilateral agreements between Council of Europe member states and the US, particularly on the status of US forces stationed in Europe and on the use of military and other instrastructures, to ensure they conform to international human rights norms.
  • Official apologies and compensation for victims of illegal detentions against whom no formal accusations, nor any court proceedings, have ever been brought
  • An international initiative, expressly involving the United States, to develop a common, truly global strategy to address the terrorist threat which conforms to democracy, human rights and the rule of law.[106]

2007 Investigations in Portugal concerning CIA flights

Portugal opened up an investigation concerning CIA flights in February 2007, on the basics of declarations by Socialist MEP Ana Gomes and by Rui Costa Pinto, journalist of Visão review. The Portuguese general prosecutor, Cândida Almeida, head of the Central Investigation and Penal Action Department (DCIAP), announced the opening of investigations on February 5, 2007. They will be centered on the issue of "torture or inhuman and cruel treatment," and instigated by illegationsn of "illegal activities and serious human rights violations" made by MEP Ana Gomes to the attorney general, Pinto Monteiro, on January 26, 2007.[107] The Socialist Party (Portuguese: Partido Socialista, pron. ... A Member of the European Parliament (English abbreviation MEP) is a member of the European Unions directly-elected legislative body, the European Parliament. ... Ana Maria Gomes, GCC (born February 9, 1954 in Lisbon) is a Portuguese politician and Member of the European Parliament for the Socialist Party; part of the Party of European Socialists. ...


One of the most critic voice against the scarce collaboration provided by the Portuguese government to the European Parliament Commission which investigated CIA flights, Ana Gomes declared that, although she had no doubt that permission of these illegal flights were frequent during Durão Barroso (2002-2004) and Santana Lopes (2004-2005)' governments, "during the [Socialist] government of José Sócrates [2005-], 24 flights which passed through Portuguese territory" are registered.[108] Active in the TDIP commission, Ana Gomes complained about the Portuguese state's reluctance to provide information, leading her to tensions with the Foreign minister, Luís Amado, member of the same party. Ana Gomes declared herself satisfied with the opening of the investigations, but underlined that she had always claimed that a parliamentary inquiry would be necessary.[107] José Manuel Durão Barroso (pronunced: IPA, ) (born in Lisbon, March 23, 1956) is a Portuguese politician. ... Pedro Miguel de Santana Lopes (pron. ... José Sócrates de Carvalho Pinto de Sousa, GCIH (pron. ... Luís Filipe Marques Amado (b. ... The Socialist Party (Portuguese: Partido Socialista, pron. ...


On the other hand, journalist Rui Costa Pinto was heard by the DCIAP, as he had written an article, refused by Visão, about flights passing by Lajes Field, a Portuguese airbase used by the US airforces, in the Azores.[107] Lajes Air Base Diagram Lajes Field (or Air Base NR4), (IATA: TER, ICAO: LPLA), is a United States Air Force facility located near Lajes on Terceira Island in the Azores, Portugal. ... Motto Antes morrer livres que em paz sujeitos Rather die free than in peace subjugated Anthem A Portuguesa (national) Hino dos Açores (local) Capital Ponta Delgada1 Angra do Heroísmo2 Horta3 Largest city Ponta Delgada Official languages Portuguese Government Autonomous region  -  President Carlos César Establishment  -  Settled 1439   -  Autonomy...


The European Parliament's February 14, 2007 report

The European Parliament's report, adopted by a large majority (382 MEPs voting in favour, 256 against and 74 abstaining) passed on February 14, 2007 concludes that many European countries tolerated illegal actions of the CIA including secret flights over their territories. The countries named were: Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Denmark, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom.[109] The report... Established 1952, as the Common Assembly President Hans-Gert Pöttering (EPP) Since 16 January 2007 Vice-Presidents 14 Political parties 8 Committees 22 Last election June 2004 (785 MEPs) Meeting place Brussels and Strasbourg Secretariat Luxembourg and Brussels Website europarl. ... A Member of the European Parliament (English abbreviation MEP) is a member of the European Unions directly-elected legislative body, the European Parliament. ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ...

Denounces the lack of co-operation of many member states and of the Council of the European Union with the investigation;
Regrets that European countries have been relinquishing control over their airspace and airports by turning a blind eye or admitting flights operated by the CIA which, on some occasions, were being used for illegal transportation of detainees;
Calls for the closure of [the US military detention mission in] Guantanamo and for European countries immediately to seek the return of their citizens and residents who are being held illegally by the US authorities;
Considers that all European countries should initiate independent investigations into all stopovers by civilian aircraft [hired by] the CIA;
Urges that a ban or system of inspections be introduced for all CIA-operated aircraft known to have been involved in extraordinary rendition.[110] The Justus Lipsius building, the headquarter of the EU Council in Brussels The Council of the European Union (German: Rat der Europäischen Union, French: Le Conseil de lUnion européenne), is a governing body that forms, along with the European Parliament, the legislative arm of the European Union...

In April 2006, MEP in charge of the investigations had already expressed concerns that the CIA had conducted more than 1,000 secret flights over European territory since 2001, some to transfer terror suspects. Agents' names repeatedly came up in the investigation — which was said to suggest a pattern of operations, and flight configurations were highly suspicious.[111]


The report criticized a number of European countries (including Austria, Italy, Poland, Portugal and the UK) for their "unwillingness to co-operate" and the action of secret services for lack of cooperation with the Parliaments' investigators and acceptance of the illegal abductions. The European Parliament voted in favour of a resolution condemning member states which accepted or ignored the practice. According to the report, the CIA had operated 1,245 flights, many of them to destinations where suspects could face torture. The Parliament also called for the creation of an independent investigation commission and the closure of the Guantanamo camp. According to Italian Socialist Giovanni Fava, who drafted the document, there was a "strong possibility" that the intelligence obtained under the illegal extraordinary rendition program had been passed on to EU governments who were aware of how it was obtained. The report also uncovered the use of secret detention facilities used in Europe, including Romania and Poland. The report defines extraordinary renditions as instances where "an individual suspected of involvement in terrorism is illegally abducted, arrested and/or transferred into the custody of US officials and/or transported to another country for interrogation which, in the majority of cases involves incommunicado detention and torture". This article is about the form of government policing. ...


Treaty obligations of the United States

The United Nations Convention Against Torture (UNCAT) Article 3 states: CAT states: members in green, non-members in grey The United Nations Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (UNCAT) is an international human rights instrument, organized by the United Nations and intended to prevent torture and other similar activities. ...

1. No State Party shall expel, return ("refouler") or extradite a person to another State where there are substantial grounds for believing that he would be in danger of being subjected to torture.
2. For the purpose of determining whether there are such grounds, the competent authorities shall take into account all relevant considerations including, where applicable, the existence in the State concerned of a consistent pattern of gross, flagrant or mass violations of human rights.

Any state that is a signatory of the UNCAT and passes an individual to another state "where there are substantial grounds for believing that he would be in danger of being subjected to torture" would be in breach of their treaty obligations, which most Western governments would be reluctant to do.


The United States Senate, however, ratified the treaty with certain reservations, declarations, and understandings, which may alter the nature of their treaty obligation with regard to UNCAT Article 3. Congressional Record S17486-01 II.3 reads "the United States understands the phrase, 'where there are substantial grounds for believing that he would be in danger of being subjected to torture,' as used in Article 3 of the Convention, to mean 'if it is more likely than not that he would be tortured.'" This "understanding" with regard to U.S. ratification perhaps increases the difficulty of proving a treaty violation.[112] Seal of the U.S. Senate Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      Senate composition following 2006 elections The United States Senate is...


On May 19, 2006, the United Nations Committee Against Torture (the U.N. body that monitors compliance with the United Nations Convention Against Torture), recommended that the United States cease holding detainees in alledged secret detention facilities, and to publicly condem any such policy. It also recommended that the United States stop the practice of rendering prisoners to countries where they are likely to be tortured. The decision was made in Geneva following two days of hearings at which a 26-member U.S. delegation defended the practices.[113][114] May 19 is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... CAT states: members in green, non-members in grey The United Nations Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment is an international human rights instrument, under the purview of the United Nations, that aims to prevent torture around the world. ... CAT states: members in green, non-members in grey The United Nations Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (UNCAT) is an international human rights instrument, organized by the United Nations and intended to prevent torture and other similar activities. ...


Others reports

The World Policy Council (WPC), a think tank of the Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, released The Centenary Report of the Alpha Phi Alpha World Policy Council in 2006 in connection with its centennial. The topic "Extraordinary Rendtion": Justice Denied, was one of five issues addressed by the council. This article is about the institution. ... Alpha Phi Alpha (ΑΦΑ) is the first intercollegiate fraternity established by African Americans. ... A centennial is a 100-year anniversary of an event, or the celebrations pertaining thereto. ...


The WPC condemned the practice of taking terrorist suspects to countries known for their practices of inhumane treatment and torture as a means of avoiding such detention in the United States, but at the same time encouraging it abroad. The report criticizes the Bush Administration for its use of this practice as one of its many assaults on civil and human rights in the name of "the war on terror".[115]


Bibliography

  • Grey, Stephen (2006). Ghost Plane: The True Story of the CIA Torture Program. New York, New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-36023-1.
  • Thompson, A. C., and Trevor Paglen (2006). Torture Taxi: On the Trail of the CIA's Rendition Flights. Hoboken, New Jersey: Melville House. ISBN 1-933633-09-3.

See also

Operation Enduring Freedom - Trans Sahara (OEF-TS) is the name of the military operation conducted by the United States and partner nations in the Sahara/Sahel region of Africa, consisting of counterterrorism efforts and policing of arms and drug trafficking across central Africa. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... The Samjhauta Express bombings were terrorist attacks that occurred just before midnight and into the early hours of February 19, 2007, on the Friendship Express, a twice-weekly train service connecting Delhi, India, and Lahore, Pakistan. ... February 19 is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Combatants Wana tribesmen Pakistani Army [1] Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan and their local supporters Commanders Maulvi Nazir Tohir Yo‘ldosh Strength 800-1,200 (est. ... March 19 is the 78th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (79th in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... The 2007 Algiers bombings occurred on April 11, 2007 when two suicide car bombs exploded in the Algerian capital Algiers. ... April 11 is the 101st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (102nd in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Map of Iraq highlighting Abu Ghraib Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Abu Ghraib prisoner abuse images The Abu Ghraib prison (Arabic: سجن أبو غريب; also Abu Ghurayb) is in Abu Ghraib, an Iraqi city 32 km (20 mi) west of Baghdad. ... Behind Enemy Lines II: Axis of Evil, see Behind Enemy Lines II. Bushs axis of evil includes Iran, Iraq, and North Korea (darker red). ... Canadian soldiers in Afghanistan. ... This is the trailer where the Combatant Status Review Tribunals were held. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Ghost detainee. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Detention, Treatment, and Trial of Certain Non-Citizens in the War Against Terrorism Detainees upon arrival at Camp X-Ray, January 2002 Guantanamo Bay detainment camp serves as a joint military prison and interrogation camp under the leadership of Joint Task Force... Military commissions are among procedures planned by the U.S. Bush administration to deal with detainees it links to al-Qaeda. ... President George W. Bush signs into law S. 3930, the Military Commissions Act of 2006, during a ceremony on October 17, 2006 in the East Room of the White House. ... The NSA call database is a reported database of telephone calls created by the United States National Security Agency (NSA) with the cooperation of four of the largest telephone carriers in the United States: AT&T, SBC, Verizon and BellSouth. ... An NSA electronic surveillance program that operates without judicial oversight mandated by Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) was named the Terrorist Surveillance Program by the George W. Bush administration[1] in response to the NSA warrantless surveillance controversy which followed the disclosure of the program. ... The Bojinka Plot was a planned large-scale terrorist attack on airliners in 1995. ... The term unlawful combatant (also unlawful enemy combatant or unprivileged combatant/belligerent) denotes people denied the protection of the Geneva Conventions; those to whom protection is recognised as due are referred to as lawful combatants. ... The Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001 (Public Law 107-56), known as the USA PATRIOT Act or simply the Patriot Act, is an American act which President George W. Bush signed into law on October 26, 2001. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Afghanistan_1992_free. ... Flag flown by the UIF. The United Islamic Front for the Salvation of Afghanistan (UIF, Jabha-yi Muttahid-i Islami-yi Milli bara-yi Nijat-i Afghanistan), also known as the Northern Alliance (term used by the Western media, Taliban and Al-Qaeda), was a military-political umbrella organization of... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Canada. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Denmark. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ethiopia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_France. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Indonesia_(bordered). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Isaf_1. ... Logo of ISAF. Persian writing: Ú©Ù…Ú© Ùˆ همکاری (Komak va Hamkari) means Help and Cooperation. International Security Assistance Force (10) (ISAF) is an international military force in Afghanistan led by NATO and consisting of about 32,000 personnel from 37 nations as of October 5, 2006. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iraq. ... The Iraqi Army is a component of the Iraqi Security Forces tasked with assuming responsibility for all Iraqi land-based military operations following the 2003 Invasion of Iraq. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel_(bordered). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Korea_(bordered). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_NATO.svg The flag of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO). ... NATO 2002 Summit in Prague. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Pakistan_(bordered). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Philippines. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland_corrected_(bordered). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Romania. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Saudi_Arabia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Abu Sayyaf Group (Arabic: جماعة أبو سياف; Jamāyeh AbÅ« Sayyāf; ASG), also known as al-Harakat al-Islamiyya is one of several militant Islamist separatist groups based in and around the southern islands of the Philippines, in Bangsamoro (Jolo, Basilan, and Mindanao) where for almost 30 years various groups have... Image File history File links Flag_of_jihad. ... Al-Qaeda (Arabic: القاعدة, the foundation or the base) is the name given to a worldwide network of militant Islamist organizations under the leadership of Osama bin Laden. ... The Iraq resistance movement is the armed resistance by diverse groups to the coalition occupation of Iraq. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Hezbollah. ... For other uses, see Hezbollah (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Icu_flag. ... Motto: none Anthem: none Capital formerly Mogadishu and Kismayu Largest city n/a Official languages Somali and Arabic Government Sharia Krytocracy  - Executive Chairman Sharif Sheikh Ahmed  - Shura Chairman Hassan Dahir Aweys Civil War Faction Has not declared autonomy or independence   - Established June 6th 2006 in Mogadishu  Area  - Total not finalized... Jemaah Islamiyah[1] (JI, Arabic phrase meaning Islamic Group or Islamic Community) is a Southeast Asian militant Islamic organization dedicated to the establishment of a Daulah Islamiyah[2] (Islamic State) in Southeast Asia incorporating Indonesia, Malaysia, the southern Philippines, Singapore and Brunei[3]. JI was added to the United Nations... Image File history File links Flag_of_Taliban_(bordered). ... For the position of women during the Talibans rule, see Taliban treatment of women. ...

Notes

  1. ^ "Rendition" and secret detention: A global system of human rights violations, Amnesty International, 1 January 2006
  2. ^ Michael John Garcia, Legislative Attorney American Law Division. Renditions: Constraints Imposed by Laws on Torture April 5, 2006 p.2 link from the United States Counter-Terrorism Training and Resources for Law Enforcement web site
  3. ^ Gordon Corera Does UK turn a blind eye to torture?, BBC 5 April, 2005 "One member of the [parliamentary foreign affairs] committee described the policy as 'effectively torture by proxy'".
  4. ^ James Naughtie's Interview of Secretary Rice With British Foreign Secretary Jack Straw] on BBC Radio 4's Today Programme 1 April 2006 on the website of the United States Embassy in London
  5. ^ a b Mayer, Jane. The New Yorker, February 14, 2005. "Outsourcing Torture: The secret history of America's 'extraordinary rendition' program.". Retrieved on 2007-02-20.
  6. ^ According to former CIA case officer Bob Baer, "If you want a serious interrogation, you send a prisoner to Jordan. If you want them to be tortured, you send them to Syria. If you want someone to disappear — never to see them again - you send them to Egypt." The CIA's Rendition Flights to Secret Prisons: The Torture-Go-Round By Lila Rajiva in CounterPunch, 5 December 2005
  7. ^ Directed by Swiss senator Dick Marty, Entitled "Alleged secret detentions and unlawful inter-state transfers involving Council of Europe member states," see: Information memorandum II on the alleged secret detentions in Council of Europe state, reported by Dick Marty, 22 January 2006
  8. ^ International Herald Tribune, 16 February 2007, Italy indicts 31 linked to CIA rendition case (English)
  9. ^ Raymond Bonner: The CIA's Secret Torture. The New York Review Of Books, January 11, 2007
  10. ^ Presidential directive PDD 39, 1995.
  11. ^ Google Books search
  12. ^ Christopher H. Pyle: Torture by proxy - How immigration threw a traveler to the wolves. San Francisco Chronicle, January 4, 2004
  13. ^ Torture flights: what No 10 knew and tried to cover up. Retrieved on 2006-01-23.
  14. ^ 'Rendition' Realities by David Ignatius Washington Post, March 9, 2005; Page A21
  15. ^ a b Neil Mackay, "experts on extraordinary rendition: one invented it, the other has seen its full horrors," Sunday Herald, October 18, 2005 (link is to text of article on Craig Murray's website).
  16. ^ Outsourcing Torture: The Secret History of America's "Extraordinary Rendition" 17 February 2005
  17. ^ Fact sheet: Extraordinary rendition, American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), URL accessed on March 29, 2007 (English)
  18. ^ Richard Clarke, Enemies pp. 143-144
  19. ^ a b Dana Priest. "Wrongful Imprisonment: Anatomy of a CIA Mistake", Washington Post, December 4, 2005. Retrieved on 2005-12-18. 
  20. ^ "Guardian Unlimited: Special reports: CIA's secret jails open up new transatlantic rift", The Guardian, December 5, 2005. Retrieved on 2005-12-18. 
  21. ^ Senate Is Set to Require White House to Account for Secret Prisons (December 15, 2005). Retrieved on 2005-12-18.
  22. ^ Stephen Grey and Ian Cobain Suspect's tale of travel and torture The Guardian 2 August 2005. "He says he was flown on what he believes was a US aircraft to Morocco, while shackled, blindfolded and wearing earphones"
  23. ^ US military planes criss-cross Europe using bogus call sign February 17 2007, The Sunday Times.
  24. ^ Mayer, Jane. The C.I.A.'s Travel Agent. The New Yorker. 2006-10-23.
  25. ^ "Europeans Probe Secret CIA Flights", The Washington Post. Retrieved on 2005-12-18. 
  26. ^ "Europe : EU to look into 'secret US jails'", BBC. Retrieved on 2005-12-18. 
  27. ^ "U.S. Faces Scrutiny Over Secret Prisons", The Washington Post. Retrieved on 2005-12-18. 
  28. ^ "EXCLUSIVE: Sources Tell ABC News Top Al Qaeda Figures Held in Secret CIA Prisons", ABC News, December 5, 2005. Retrieved on 2005-12-18. 
  29. ^ Extraordinary or irregular rendition
  30. ^ "Opinion: Condi's Trail of Lies - International - SPIEGEL ONLINE - News", Der Spiegel, December 8, 2005. Retrieved on 2005-12-18. 
  31. ^ "'Renditions save lives': Condoleezza Rice's full statement", The Times, December 5, 2005. Retrieved on 2005-12-18. 
  32. ^ "Keep quiet about secret flights to secret jails, Rice tells Europe", The Times, December 6, 2006. Retrieved on 2005-12-18. 
  33. ^ CIA Self-investigation Only Known Renditions Inquiry, The NewStandard, December 28, 2005
  34. ^ a b c CIA Probes Renditions of Terror Suspects, Associated Press, December 27, 2005
  35. ^ Yasmin Alibhai-Brown: People matter more than holy books Editorial and Opinion (Page 31) in The Independent Monday 23 May 2005. Includes commentary on how some Americans have changed their attitudes to torture.
  36. ^ The envoy silenced after telling undiplomatic truths, The Daily Telegraph 23 October 2004
  37. ^ Torture evidence inadmissible in UK courts, Lords rules by Staff and agencies in The Guardian December 8, 2005
  38. ^ Torture ruling's international impact by Jon Silverman BBC 8 December 2005
  39. ^ "Foreign Office faces probe into 'manipulation'" by Robert Winnett, The Sunday Times 20 March 2005
  40. ^ Q & A: Torture by Proxy Jane Mayer answers question asked by Amy Davidson The New Yorker on 14 February 2005
  41. ^ EXTRAORDINARY RENDITION On Craig Murray website dated July 11, 2005
  42. ^ United States of America / Yemen: Secret Detention in CIA "Black Sites". Amnesty International. Retrieved on 2005-12-18.
  43. ^ "CIA Holds Terror Suspects in Secret Prisons", The Washington Post. Retrieved on 2005-12-18. 
  44. ^ Mike Whitney: the United States of Torture. Counter Punch. Retrieved on 2005-12-18.
  45. ^ "CIA Holds Terror Suspects in Secret Prisons (See above)", The Washington Post. Retrieved on 2005-12-18. 
  46. ^ t r u t h o u t - Bob Herbert: Secrets and Shame. Retrieved on 2005-12-18.
  47. ^ a b c "Europe 'knew about' CIA flights", BBC, January 24, 2006. 
  48. ^ "World : Europe: EU to query US 'secret prisons'", BBC. Retrieved on 2005-12-18. 
  49. ^ "Europe in Uproar Over CIA Operations - Los Angeles Times", Los Angeles Times. Retrieved on 2005-12-18. 
  50. ^ "CIA Flights in Europe: The Hunt for Hercules N8183J - Spiegel Online - url=http://www.spiegel.de/international/spiegel/0,1518,387185,00.html", Der Spiegel. Retrieved on 2005-12-18. 
  51. ^ "Special Reports: UK 'breaking law' over CIA secret flights", The Guardian, December 5, 2005. Retrieved on 2005-12-18. 
  52. ^ Democracy Now! British Tory MP Blasts Extraordinary Rendition, Says Britain Broke International Law and "Complicit in Torture" if Flights Passed Through UK. Democracy Now (December 5, 2005). Retrieved on 2005-12-18.
  53. ^ Fairness & Accuracy In Reporting. Retrieved on 2005-12-18.
  54. ^ The Consequences of Covering Up. Retrieved on 2005-12-18.
  55. ^ RIGHTS: U.N. Blasts Practice of Outsourcing Torture (See above). Retrieved on 2005-12-18.
  56. ^ List of “Ghost Prisoners” Possibly in CIA Custody. Retrieved on 2005-12-18.
  57. ^ U.S. Holding at Least Twenty-Six “Ghost Detainees”. Retrieved on 2005-12-18.
  58. ^ Dana Priest, Wrongful Imprisonment: Anatomy of a CIA Mistake: German Citizen Released After Months in 'Rendition', Washington Post, December 4, 2005
  59. ^ a b Algerian Tells of Dark Odyssey in U.S. Hands, New York Times, July 7, 2006 - - mirror
  60. ^ "Jet Is an Open Secret in Terror War", The Washington Post, December 27, 2004. Retrieved on 2007-02-12. 
  61. ^ a b c Renditions:tales of torture, BBC News, December 7, 2005
  62. ^ "'Tortured' Australian speaks out", BBC, December 7, 2005. Retrieved on 2005-12-18. 
  63. ^ Profile: Mamdouh Habib, BBC News, December 7, 2005
  64. ^ "Prewar claims 'sourced from rendition detainee'", The Guardian, December 9, 2005. Retrieved on 2005-12-18. 
  65. ^ Statewatch, "Renditions: Italian and European MPs set to request pardon for Abou Elkassim Britel", January 2007 (English)
  66. ^ European Parliament, "Temporary Committee on the Alleged Use of European Countries by the CIA for the Transport and the Illegal Detention of Prisoners", Rapporteur Giovanni Claudio Fava, DT/65174EN.doc 7 February 2007, made accessible by Statewatch here, URL accessed on 18 February 2007 (English)
  67. ^ Renditioner photos. "Wanted Poster for CIA's Robert Lady in Imam Rapito". Indymedia, March 30, 2007.
  68. ^ http://www.ararcommission.ca/eng/AR_English.pdf
  69. ^ Canadian sues US over deportation, BBC News, 23 January 2004
  70. ^ "MI6 and CIA 'sent student to Morocco to be tortured'", The Guardian, December 11, 2005. Retrieved on 2005-12-18. 
  71. ^ t r u t h o u t - Detainee Cleared for Release Is in Limbo at Guantanamo (December 15, 2005). Retrieved on 2005-12-18.
  72. ^ http://www.saudiembassy.net/2006News/News/TerDetail.asp?cIndex=6331
  73. ^ Below the radar: Secret flights to torture and ‘disappearance’. Retrieved on 2006-04-05.
  74. ^ "Vertuschung mit System", Junge Welt, February 23, 2006 (German)
  75. ^ "The CIA in Europe: Berlin's Silence for Washington - International - SPIEGEL ONLINE - News", Der Spiegel, December 5, 2005. Retrieved on 2005-12-18. 
  76. ^ Germany issues CIA arrest orders, BBC, January 31, 2007
  77. ^ http://www.statewatch.org/cia/documents/milan-tribunal-19-us-citizens-sought.pdf
  78. ^ "EU-wide warrant over 'CIA kidnap'", BBC, December 23, 2005. 
  79. ^ bbc.co.uk: Italians held over 'CIA kidnap', last retrieved on 2007-01-27
  80. ^ Italian Spies Arrested, Americans Sought for Kidnap, July 5, 2006 REUTERS cable mirrored by Commondreams
  81. ^ a b "Former CIA Agent to Fight Italian Warrant", New York Times mirrored by Truthout, December 9, 2005. 
  82. ^ "CIA Ruse Is Said to Have Damaged Probe in Milan: Italy Allegedly Misled on Cleric's Abduction", Washington Post, December 6, 2005. Retrieved on 2005-12-18. 
  83. ^ Renditioner photos. "Wanted Poster for CIA's Robert Lady in Imam Rapito". Indymedia, March 30, 2007.
  84. ^ BBC story on Nasr
  85. ^ Pentagon Memo on Torture-Motivated Transfer (December 8, 2006). Retrieved on 2005-12-18.
  86. ^ "CIA abduction claims 'credible'", BBC, December 13, 2005. Retrieved on 2005-12-18. 
  87. ^ Swiss Government Cites Evidence of Secret CIA Prisons, Transfers. Associated Press mirrored by Truthout (December 13, 2005). Retrieved on 2005-12-18.
  88. ^ "Europe 'complicit over CIA jails'", BBC, January 14, 2006. Retrieved on 2006-09-07. 
  89. ^ a b c d Rendition and the rights of the individual, BBC News, June 7, 2006
  90. ^ "US ‘torture flights’ stopped at Shannon", The Times, November 14, 2004. 
  91. ^ "Investigations into CIA 'torture flights'", The Village, November 25, 2005. 
  92. ^ preclearance arrangement
  93. ^ Shannon Airport - US Department of Homeland Security
  94. ^ (French)"La France enquête sur les avions de la CIA", Le Figaro, February 2, 2006. 
  95. ^ "El Gobierno canario pide explicaciones sobre vuelos de la CIA en Tenerife", El Pais, 16 November 2005. 
  96. ^ "La Fiscalía de Canarias investigará las escalas de vuelos de la CIA en Tenerife y Gran Canaria", El Mundo, 18 November 2005. 
  97. ^ "Un supuesto avión de la CIA aterriza en la base portuguesa de Azores", Canarias 7, 28 November 2005. 
  98. ^ CIA Uses German Bases to Transport Terrorists, Paper Says: Europe: Deutsche Welle: 25.11.2005. Retrieved on 2005-12-18.
  99. ^ Watching America. Retrieved on 2005-12-18.
  100. ^ Une "prison secrète" américaine a existé dans un camp de l'OTAN au Kosovo. Retrieved on 2005-12-18.
  101. ^ "US ran Guantanamo-style prison in Kosovo - Council of Europe envoy - Forbes.com", Forbes. Retrieved on 2005-12-18. 
  102. ^ Ames, Paul. "EU May Suspend Nations With Secret Prisons", ABC News, November 28, 2005. 
  103. ^ Information memorandum II on the alleged secret detentions in Council of Europe state, rapported by Dick Marty, January 22, 2006
  104. ^ June 2006 Council of Europe report available here: HTML and PDF formats.
  105. ^ EU official: No evidence of illegal CIA action: Antiterror chief advises committee, Boston Globe, April 21, 2006
  106. ^ PACE calls for oversight of foreign intelligence agencies operating in Europe, PACE News, URL accessed on March 29, 2007
  107. ^ a b c "Portugal: Renditions: Judicial investigation into CIA flights begins", Statewatch News Online, February 5-6, 2007 (available here) (English)
  108. ^ Portugal/CIA.- La Fiscalía General abre una investigación sobre los supuestos vuelos ilegales de la CIA en Portugal, Europa Press, February 5, 2007 (Spanish)
  109. ^ "EU endorses damning report on CIA", BBC, February 14, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-02-14. 
  110. ^ EU rendition report: Key excerpts, on the BBC News website
  111. ^ European Inquiry Says C.I.A. Flew 1,000 Flights in Secret, New York Times, April 27, 2006
  112. ^ United States Senate, Resolution ratifying Treaty Number 100-20.
  113. ^ William Fisher, US Groups Hail Censure of Washington's "Terror War, Inter Press Service on May 20, 2006
  114. ^ PDF file of report
  115. ^ The Centenary Report Of The Alpha Phi Alpha World Policy Council (PDF) pp. 19-26 (July 2006). Retrieved on 2007-03-07.
  116. ^ Torture by Proxy. New York Times, March 8, 2005 - - mirror
  117. ^ It's Called Torture, Der Spiegel, February 28, 2005
  118. ^ Ugly phrase conceals an uglier truth. Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved on 2007-02-01.
  119. ^ Non! Enough renditions from an iPod generation with no sensitivity chip, The Times, December 30, 2005
  120. ^ Friendly renditions to Muslim chambers of torture

Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a non-governmental organization that promotes human rights. ... January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The British Broadcasting Corporation, usually known as the BBC, is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world in terms of audience numbers, employing 26,000 staff in the United Kingdom alone and with a budget of more than GB£4 billion (US$7. ... April 5 is the 95th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (96th in leap years). ... The British Broadcasting Corporation, usually known as the BBC, is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world in terms of audience numbers, employing 26,000 staff in the United Kingdom alone and with a budget of more than GB£4 billion (US$7. ... Today, sometimes referred to as the Today programme to avoid ambiguity, is BBC Radio 4s long-running early morning news and current affairs programme, which is now broadcast from 6am to 9am from Monday to Friday and from 7am to 9am on Saturdays. ... April 1 is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New Yorker is an American magazine that publishes reportage, criticism, essays, cartoons, poetry and fiction. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... February 20 is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Robert Baer, also known as Bob Baer (born July 1, 1952), is an author and former case officer at the CIA. Reared in Aspen, Colorado, Robert Baer aspired to become a professional skier. ... Disappear redirects here. ... CounterPunch is a biweekly newsletter published in the United States that covers politics from a left-wing perspective. ... December 5 is the 339th day (340th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Dick Marty (born January 7, 1945 in Sorengo) is a Swiss politician (Free Democratic Party) and former state prosecutor of the canton of Ticino. ... January 22 is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The International Herald Tribune is a widely read English language international newspaper. ... January 11 is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Presidential directives are a form of executive order issued by the President of the United States with the advice and consent of the National Security Council. ... Todays San Francisco Chronicle was founded in 1865 as The Daily Dramatic Chronicle by teenage brothers Charles de Young and Michael H. de Young. ... January 4 is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... shelby was here 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... January 23 is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... ... March 9 is the 68th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (69th in leap years). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... February 17 is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) is a major American non-profit organization with headquarters in New York City, New York, whose stated mission is to defend and preserve the individual rights and liberties guaranteed to every person in this country by the Constitution and laws of the United States... Dana Priest is an author and a Pulitzer Prize-winning journalist. ... ... December 4th redirects here. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... In the Gregorian calendar, December 18 is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years), with 13 days remaining until the end of the year. ... The Guardian is a British newspaper owned by the Guardian Media Group. ... December 5 is the 339th day (340th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... In the Gregorian calendar, December 18 is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years), with 13 days remaining until the end of the year. ... December 15 is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... In the Gregorian calendar, December 18 is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years), with 13 days remaining until the end of the year. ... The Guardian is a British newspaper owned by the Guardian Media Group. ... August 2 is the 214th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (215th in leap years), with 151 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... In the Gregorian calendar, December 18 is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years), with 13 days remaining until the end of the year. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... In the Gregorian calendar, December 18 is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years), with 13 days remaining until the end of the year. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... In the Gregorian calendar, December 18 is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years), with 13 days remaining until the end of the year. ... ABC News is a division of ABC television and radio networks (ABC), owned by The Walt Disney Company. ... December 5 is the 339th day (340th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... In the Gregorian calendar, December 18 is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years), with 13 days remaining until the end of the year. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... December 8 is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... In the Gregorian calendar, December 18 is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years), with 13 days remaining until the end of the year. ... The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom since 1785, and under its current name since 1788. ... December 5 is the 339th day (340th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... In the Gregorian calendar, December 18 is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years), with 13 days remaining until the end of the year. ... The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom since 1785, and under its current name since 1788. ... December 6 is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... In the Gregorian calendar, December 18 is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years), with 13 days remaining until the end of the year. ... The NewStandard is an independent, nonprofit, ad-free news website. ... December 28 is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 3 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... December 27 is the 361st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (362nd in leap years). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see The Independent (disambiguation). ... May 23 is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article concerns the British newspaper. ... October 23 is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... shelby was here 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Guardian is a British newspaper owned by the Guardian Media Group. ... December 8 is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The British Broadcasting Corporation, usually known as the BBC, is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world in terms of audience numbers, employing 26,000 staff in the United Kingdom alone and with a budget of more than GB£4 billion (US$7. ... December 8 is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Sunday Times is a Sunday broadsheet newspaper distributed in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, published by Times Newspapers Ltd, a subsidiary of News International which is in turn owned by News Corporation. ... March 20 is the 79th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (80th in leap years). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The New Yorker is an American magazine that publishes reportage, criticism, essays, cartoons, poetry and fiction. ... February 14 is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... July 11 is the 192nd day (193rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 173 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a non-governmental organization that promotes human rights. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... In the Gregorian calendar, December 18 is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years), with 13 days remaining until the end of the year. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... In the Gregorian calendar, December 18 is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years), with 13 days remaining until the end of the year. ... Counterpunch can refer to: Counterpunch, a book by Fred Smeijers about the practice of typesetting CounterPunch, a bi-weekly political newsletter Counterpunch, a type of punch used in traditional typography Counterpunch, a childrens toy (see Transformers) Counterpuncher, a tennis strategy Category: ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... In the Gregorian calendar, December 18 is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years), with 13 days remaining until the end of the year. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... In the Gregorian calendar, December 18 is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years), with 13 days remaining until the end of the year. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... In the Gregorian calendar, December 18 is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years), with 13 days remaining until the end of the year. ... The British Broadcasting Corporation, usually known as the BBC, is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world in terms of audience numbers, employing 26,000 staff in the United Kingdom alone and with a budget of more than GB£4 billion (US$7. ... January 24 is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... In the Gregorian calendar, December 18 is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years), with 13 days remaining until the end of the year. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... In the Gregorian calendar, December 18 is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years), with 13 days remaining until the end of the year. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... In the Gregorian calendar, December 18 is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years), with 13 days remaining until the end of the year. ... The Guardian is a British newspaper owned by the Guardian Media Group. ... December 5 is the 339th day (340th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... In the Gregorian calendar, December 18 is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years), with 13 days remaining until the end of the year. ... Democracy Now! is an independent, award-winning news and opinion radio program airing on over 300 stations across North America every weekday, as well as both satellite television networks. ... December 5 is the 339th day (340th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... In the Gregorian calendar, December 18 is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years), with 13 days remaining until the end of the year. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... In the Gregorian calendar, December 18 is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years), with 13 days remaining until the end of the year. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... In the Gregorian calendar, December 18 is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years), with 13 days remaining until the end of the year. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... In the Gregorian calendar, December 18 is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years), with 13 days remaining until the end of the year. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... In the Gregorian calendar, December 18 is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years), with 13 days remaining until the end of the year. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... In the Gregorian calendar, December 18 is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years), with 13 days remaining until the end of the year. ... Dana Priest is an author and a Pulitzer Prize-winning journalist. ... ... December 4th redirects here. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... July 7 is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 177 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States. ... December 27 is the 361st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (362nd in leap years). ... shelby was here 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... February 12 is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The current BBC News logo BBC News and Current Affairs is a major arm of the BBC responsible for the corporations newsgathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... The British Broadcasting Corporation, usually known as the BBC, is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world in terms of audience numbers, employing 26,000 staff in the United Kingdom alone and with a budget of more than GB£4 billion (US$7. ... December 7 is the 341st day (342nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... In the Gregorian calendar, December 18 is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years), with 13 days remaining until the end of the year. ... The current BBC News logo BBC News and Current Affairs is a major arm of the BBC responsible for the corporations newsgathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... The Guardian is a British newspaper owned by the Guardian Media Group. ... December 9 is the 343rd day (344th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... In the Gregorian calendar, December 18 is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years), with 13 days remaining until the end of the year. ... Statewatch is a non-profit-making voluntary group founded in 1991 that monitors the state and civil liberties in the European Union. ... Established 1952, as the Common Assembly President Hans-Gert Pöttering (EPP) Since 16 January 2007 Vice-Presidents 14 Political parties 8 Committees 22 Last election June 2004 (785 MEPs) Meeting place Brussels and Strasbourg Secretariat Luxembourg and Brussels Website europarl. ... Claudio Fava Giovanni Claudio Fava (born 15 April 1957) is an Italian politician and Member of the European Parliament for the Italian Islands with the Democrats of the Left (DS), part of the Socialist Group and is vice-chair of the European Parliaments Committee on Regional Development. ... Statewatch is a non-profit-making voluntary group founded in 1991 that monitors the state and civil liberties in the European Union. ... The current BBC News logo BBC News and Current Affairs is a major arm of the BBC responsible for the corporations newsgathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... The Guardian is a British newspaper owned by the Guardian Media Group. ... December 11 is the 345th day (346th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... In the Gregorian calendar, December 18 is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years), with 13 days remaining until the end of the year. ... December 15 is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... In the Gregorian calendar, December 18 is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years), with 13 days remaining until the end of the year. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... April 5 is the 95th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (96th in leap years). ... Junge Welt is a socialist German newspaper published in Berlin. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... December 5 is the 339th day (340th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... In the Gregorian calendar, December 18 is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years), with 13 days remaining until the end of the year. ... The British Broadcasting Corporation, usually known as the BBC, is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world in terms of audience numbers, employing 26,000 staff in the United Kingdom alone and with a budget of more than GB£4 billion (US$7. ... The British Broadcasting Corporation, usually known as the BBC, is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world in terms of audience numbers, employing 26,000 staff in the United Kingdom alone and with a budget of more than GB£4 billion (US$7. ... December 23 is the 357th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (358th in leap years). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Reuters Group plc (LSE: RTR and NASDAQ: RTRSY); pron. ... Common Dreams NewsCenter, often referred to simply as Common Dreams, is a popular[1] U.S. based news website with a progressive perspective. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... Truthout. ... December 9 is the 343rd day (344th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... ... December 6 is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... In the Gregorian calendar, December 18 is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years), with 13 days remaining until the end of the year. ... December 8 is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... In the Gregorian calendar, December 18 is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years), with 13 days remaining until the end of the year. ... The British Broadcasting Corporation, usually known as the BBC, is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world in terms of audience numbers, employing 26,000 staff in the United Kingdom alone and with a budget of more than GB£4 billion (US$7. ... December 13 is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... In the Gregorian calendar, December 18 is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years), with 13 days remaining until the end of the year. ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... Truthout. ... December 13 is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... In the Gregorian calendar, December 18 is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years), with 13 days remaining until the end of the year. ... The British Broadcasting Corporation, usually known as the BBC, is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world in terms of audience numbers, employing 26,000 staff in the United Kingdom alone and with a budget of more than GB£4 billion (US$7. ... January 14 is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 7 is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years). ... The current BBC News logo BBC News and Current Affairs is a major arm of the BBC responsible for the corporations newsgathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom since 1785, and under its current name since 1788. ... November 14 is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 47 days remaining. ... shelby was here 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Village could refer to: The Village, a film by M. Night Shyamalan The Village, a book by Ivan Alexeyevich Bunin The Village, a poem by George Crabbe The Village, a nickname for the Greenwich Village section of Manhattan The Village, the main setting of the television series The Prisoner... November 25 is the 329th (in leap years the 330th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... February 2 is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... November 16 is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 45 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 18 is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 28 is the 332nd day (333rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... In the Gregorian calendar, December 18 is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years), with 13 days remaining until the end of the year. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... In the Gregorian calendar, December 18 is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years), with 13 days remaining until the end of the year. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... In the Gregorian calendar, December 18 is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years), with 13 days remaining until the end of the year. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... In the Gregorian calendar, December 18 is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years), with 13 days remaining until the end of the year. ... ABC News is a division of ABC television and radio networks (ABC), owned by The Walt Disney Company. ... November 28 is the 332nd day (333rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... January 22 is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The Boston Globe is the most widely-circulated daily newspaper in Boston, Massachusetts and in the greater New England region. ... April 21 is the 111th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (112th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... PACE may refer to: Planetary Association for Clean Energy Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984, in the United Kingdom Academy for Gifted Children in Richmond Hill, Ontario, the acronym PACE stands for Programming for Academic and Creative Excellence Partnership for Academic Competition Excellence... Statewatch is a non-profit-making voluntary group founded in 1991 that monitors the state and civil liberties in the European Union. ... The Europa Press was a publishing house founded and run by the Irish surrealist poet George Reavey. ... The British Broadcasting Corporation, usually known as the BBC, is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world in terms of audience numbers, employing 26,000 staff in the United Kingdom alone and with a budget of more than GB£4 billion (US$7. ... February 14 is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... February 14 is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... April 27 is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 248 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Inter Press Service (abbreviated: IPS) is a global news agency. ... May 20 is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... March 7 is the 66th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (67th in leap years). ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... March 8 is the 67th day of the year (68th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... February 28 is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... February 1 is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom since 1785, and under its current name since 1788. ... December 30 is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 1 day remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • EU to vote on CIA flights report, BBC News, February 14, 2007
  • CIA Rendition Flights, The Guardian, ongoing coverage
  • Rendition: legal news and resources, JURIST
  • Secret Prisons Timeline
  • Britain accused over CIA's secret torture flights, by Stephen Grey and Andrew Buncombe, The Independent & The Independent on Sunday, 10 February 2005 (original)
  • Richard Clarke, Against all Enemies: Inside America's War on Terror, Free Press, 2004, ISBN 0-7432-6024-4
  • Rendition Not a New tactic. 1987 - 89
  • An Open Letter to George Bush partly on this issue
  • International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance
  • counter-terrorism-law.org
  • A film report for More4 News on allegations that Pakistan's security forces has secretly detained hundreds of people over the war on terror

February 14 is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... The Guardian is a British newspaper owned by the Guardian Media Group. ... A jurist is a professional who studies, develops, applies or otherwise deals with the law. ... February 10 is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

2006

Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a non-governmental organization that promotes human rights. ... Liberty is generally considered a concept of political philosophy and identifies the condition in which an individual has immunity from the arbitrary exercise of authority. ... June 25 is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 189 days remaining. ... A jurist is a professional who studies, develops, applies or otherwise deals with the law. ... March 27 is the 86th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (87th in leap years). ... For other uses, see The Independent (disambiguation). ... February 19 is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... February 8 is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... February 18 is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... January 24 is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New Statesman is a left-of-centre political weekly published in London. ... January 23 is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... January 10 is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Counterpunch can refer to: In traditional typography, a counterpunch is a type of punch used to create the negative space in or around a character. ... October 29 is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

2005

A jurist is a professional who studies, develops, applies or otherwise deals with the law. ... December 13 is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 23 is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 38 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Guardian is a British newspaper owned by the Guardian Media Group. ... November 15 is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Herald is a common name for newspapers throughout the English-speaking world, and the Sunday editions are often called Sunday Herald. ... October 16 is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Herald is a common name for newspapers throughout the English-speaking world, and the Sunday editions are often called Sunday Herald. ... October 16 is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Herald is a common name for newspapers throughout the English-speaking world, and the Sunday editions are often called Sunday Herald. ... October 23 is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 5 is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 56 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Boston Globe is the most widely circulated daily newspaper in Boston, Massachusetts and in the greater New England region. ... September 24 is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Benyam Mohammed is an alledged victim of extraordinary rendition. ... The Guardian is a British newspaper owned by the Guardian Media Group. ... August 2 is the 214th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (215th in leap years), with 151 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... ... May 21 is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom since 1785, and under its current name since 1788. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (86th in leap years). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Common Dreams NewsCenter, based in Portland, Maine, was founded in 1997. ... March 20 is the 79th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (80th in leap years). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Los Angeles Times (also known as the LA Times) is a daily newspaper published in Los Angeles, California and distributed throughout the Western United States. ... March 11 is the 70th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (71st in leap years). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Taipei Times is one of the three English-language newspapers in Taiwan, the other two being the Taiwan News and the China Post. ... March 8 is the 67th day of the year (68th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... CBS News is the news division of American television and radio network CBS. Its current president is Sean McManus who is also head of CBS Sports. ... March 6 is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... February 28 is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... February 4 is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Guardian is a British newspaper owned by the Guardian Media Group. ... January 14 is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

2004

The Boston Globe is the most widely-circulated daily newspaper in Boston, Massachusetts and in the greater New England region. ... November 30 is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... shelby was here 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... ... October 24 is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 68 days remaining. ... ... July 25 is the 206th day (207th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 159 days remaining. ... The New Statesman is a left-of-centre political weekly published in London. ... May 17 is the 137th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (138th in leap years). ... ... May 11 is the 131st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (132nd in leap years). ...

2003

The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... November 5 is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 56 days remaining. ... ... November 5 is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 56 days remaining. ... U.S. News & World Report is a weekly newsmagazine. ... June 2 is the 153rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (154th in leap years), with 212 days remaining. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... March 9 is the 68th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (69th in leap years). ...

2002

... December 26 is the 360th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar, 361st in leap years. ... ... March 11 is the 70th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (71st in leap years). ...

2001

... December 19 is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Terminology

Rendition
In law, rendition is a "surrender" or "handing over" of persons or property, particularly from one jurisdiction to another. For criminal suspects, extradition is the most common type of rendition. Rendition can also be seen as the act of handing over, after the request for extradition has taken place.
Extraordinary rendition
This term is not yet defined in international law. Its use is often criticized as euphemistic. For example, a New York Times editorial mentions the "practice known in bureaucratese by the creepy euphemism 'extraordinary rendition.'"[116] Bob Herbert of the New York Times wrote: "an American policy that is known as extraordinary rendition. That's a euphemism. What it means is that the United States seizes individuals, presumably terror suspects, and sends them off without even a nod in the direction of due process to countries known to practice torture."[117] Author Salman Rushdie wrote in 2006 that "this phrase's brutalisation of meaning is an infallible signal of its intent to deceive," equating it to a form of newspeak.[118] Gerard Baker of The Times commented that this "must rank as euphemism of the year. [In] 2005 it became notorious as the term used by the US to describe what it does when it hands over terrorist suspects and other enemies to third countries that are rather less scrupulous about human rights than we are."[119]
Rendition, extradition, and deportation
Legal scholar L. Ali Khan, a professor of law at Washburn University School of Law in Kansas, makes the following distinctions between rendition, extradition, and deportation:
Extradition is an open procedure under which a fugitive is lawfully sent to a requesting state where he has committed a serious crime. Rendition is a covert operation under which even an innocent person may be forcibly transferred to a state where he has committed no crime. It is like a bully dispatching a helpless prey to another bully in another town.
Rendition is not even deportation. A person may be deported under US immigration laws for a variety of reasons including charges of terrorism. Deportation however implies that the person is in the United States. Rendition is not territorial. US agencies can abduct a person from anywhere in the world and render him to a friendly government. In December 2003, US agents pulled Khaled El-Masri from a bus on the Serbia-Republic of Macedonia border and flew him to Afghanistan where he was drugged and tortured [...]
Defying international treaties and US laws, rendition works on the dark fringes of legality. The [UN] Torture Convention specifies that no signatory state shall expel, return, or extradite a person to another state where there are substantial grounds for believing that he would be in danger of being subjected to torture. The Convention is so strict in its prohibition of torture that it allows no exceptions under which any such transfer may be justified. Additionally, it is a crime under US laws to commit torture outside the United States. If the victim dies of torture, the crime is punishable with death. It is also a crime for US officials to conspire to commit torture outside the United States. Under both the Convention and US laws, therefore, rendition is strictly prohibited if the rendered person would be subjected to torture.[120]

  Results from FactBites:
 
Central Intelligence Agency - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (7641 words)
The agents are alleged to have taken a suspected Egyptian terrorist, Hassan Mustafa Osama Nasr, from Milan on 17 February 2003 for extraordinary rendition to Egypt, where according to relatives of the cleric, he was tortured.
The removal of the terrorist was not unusual except that the Italian government has denied having approved the rendition.
Marty's interim report, which was based largely on a compendium of press clippings, has been described by the British Government as "clouded in myth" and "as full of holes as Swiss cheese," and has been harshly criticised by the governments of various EU member states.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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