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Encyclopedia > Extracellular matrix
Illustration depicting extracellular matrix (basement membrane and interstitial matrix) in relation to epithelium, endothelium and connective tissue

In biology, the extracellular matrix (ECM) is the extracellular part of animal tissue that usually provides structural support to the cells in addition to performing various other important functions. The extracellular matrix is the defining feature of connective tissue in animals. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 554 pixelsFull resolution (1513 × 1047 pixel, file size: 79 KB, MIME type: image/png) Illustration depicting extracellular matrix in relation epithelium, endothelium and connective tissue; made from scratch in OpenOffice Draw. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 554 pixelsFull resolution (1513 × 1047 pixel, file size: 79 KB, MIME type: image/png) Illustration depicting extracellular matrix in relation epithelium, endothelium and connective tissue; made from scratch in OpenOffice Draw. ... ... This article is about the epithelium as it relates to animal anatomy. ... The endothelium is the layer of thin, flat cells that lines the interior surface of blood vessels, forming an interface between circulating blood in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall. ... Connective tissue is one of the four types of tissue in traditional classifications (the others being epithelial, muscle, and nervous tissue. ... For the song by Girls Aloud see Biology (song) Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: Βιολογία - βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, speech lit. ... In cell biology, molecular biology and related fields, the word extracellular means outside the cell. It is used in contrast to intracellular (inside the cell). ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the... Connective tissue is one of the four types of tissue in traditional classifications (the others being epithelial, muscle, and nervous tissue. ...


Extracellular matrix includes the interstitial matrix and the basement membrane.[1] Interstitial matrix is present between various cells (i.e., in the intercellular spaces). Gels of polysaccharides and fibrous proteins fill the interstitial space and act as a compression buffer against the stress placed on the ECM.[2] Basement membranes are sheet-like depositions of ECM on which various epithelial cells rest. ... Polysaccharides (sometimes called glycans) are relatively complex carbohydrates. ... In zootomy, epithelium is a tissue composed of a layer of cells. ...

Contents

Role and importance

Due to its diverse nature and composition, the ECM can serve many functions, such as providing support and anchorage for cells, segregating tissues from one another, and regulating intercellular communication. The ECM regulates a cell's dynamic behavior. In addition, it sequesters a wide range of cellular growth factors, and acts as a local depot for them.[1] Changes in physiological conditions can trigger protease activities that cause local release of such depots. This allows the rapid and local growth factor-mediated activation of cellular functions, without de novo synthesis. Growth factor is a protein that acts as a signaling molecule between cells (like cytokines and hormones) that attaches to specific receptors on the surface of a target cell and promotes differentiation and maturation of these cells. ... Proteases (proteinases, peptidases, or proteolytic enzymes) are enzymes that break peptide bonds between amino acids of proteins. ... In general usage, de novo is a Latin expression meaning afresh, anew, beginning again. In USA Banking, a de novo bank is defined as a state member bank that has been in operation for five years or less. ...


Formation of the extracellular matrix is essential for processes like growth, wound healing and fibrosis. An understanding of ECM structure and composition also helps in comprehending the complex dynamics of tumor invasion and metastasis in cancer biology[1] as metastasis often involves the destruction of extracellular matrix[3] by enzymes such as serine and Threonine proteases and Matrix metalloproteinase.[1] Growth can mean increase in spatial number or complexity for concrete entities in time or increase in some other dimension for abstract or hard-to-measure entities. ... Wound healing, or wound repair, is the bodys natural process of regenerating dermal and epidermal tissue. ... Fibrosis is the formation or development of excess fibrous connective tissue in an organ or tissue as a reparative or reactive process, as opposed to a formation of fibrous tissue as a normal constituent of an organ or tissue. ... For malignant tumors specifically, see cancer. ... For the musical composition, see Metastasis (Xenakis composition). ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... Crystal structure of Trypsin, a typical serine protease. ... Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are zinc-dependent endopeptidases; other family members are adamalysins, serralysins, and astacins. ...


Molecular components

Components of the ECM are produced intracellularly by resident cells, and secreted into the ECM via exocytosis.[4] Once secreted they then aggregate with the existing matrix. The ECM is composed of an interlocking mesh of fibrous proteins and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Neuron A (transmitting) to neuron B (receiving) 1. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... Chondroitin sulfate Hyaluronan Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) or mucopolysaccharides are long unbranched polysaccharides consisting of a repeating disaccharide unit. ...


Proteoglycan matrix components

GAGs are carbohydrate polymers and are usually attached to extracellular matrix proteins to form proteoglycans (hyaluronic acid is a notable exception, see below). Proteoglycans have a net negative charge that attracts water molecules, keeping the ECM and resident cells hydrated. Proteoglycans may also help to trap and store growth factors within the ECM. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... A polymer (from Greek: πολυ, polu, many; and μέρος, meros, part) is a substance composed of molecules with large molecular mass composed of repeating structural units, or monomers, connected by covalent chemical bonds. ... Proteoglycans represent a special class of glycoprotein that are heavily glycosylated. ... Growth factor is any of about twenty small proteins that attach to specific receptors on the surface of stem cells in bone marrow and promote differentiation and maturation of these cells into morphotic constituents of blood. ...


Described below are the different types of proteoglycan found within the extracellular matrix.

Heparan sulfate proteoglycans

Heparan sulfate (HS) is a linear polysaccharide found in all animal tissues. It occurs as a proteoglycan (PG) in which two or three HS chains are attached in close proximity to cell surface or extracellular matrix proteins.[5][6] It is in this form that HS binds to a variety of protein ligands and regulates a wide variety of biological activities, including developmental processes, angiogenesis, blood coagulation and tumour metastasis. Heparan Sulfate (HS) is a linear polysaccharide found in all animal tissues. ... Polysaccharides (sometimes called glycans) are relatively complex carbohydrates. ... Proteoglycans represent a special class of glycoprotein that are heavily glycosylated. ... In chemistry, a ligand is an atom, ion, or molecule (see also: functional group) that generally donates one or more of its electrons through a coordinate covalent bond to, or shares its electrons through a covalent bond with, one or more central atoms or ions (these ligands act as a... Angiogenesis is the physiological process involving the growth of new blood vessels from pre-existing vessels. ... Coagulation is the thickening or congealing of any liquid into solid clots. ... For the musical composition, see Metastasis (Xenakis composition). ...


In the extracellular matrix, especially basement membranes, the multi-domain proteins perlecan, agrin and collagen XVIII are the main proteins to which heparan sulfate is attached. ... --RAG 01:54, 16 March 2007 (UTC) The concept of the domain was first proposed in 1973 by Wetlaufer after X-ray crystallographic studies of hen lysozyme (Phillips, 1966), papain (Drenth et al. ... Perlecan is a large multidomain proteoglycan that binds to and cross-links many extracellualr matrix (ECM) components and cell-surface molecules. ... Large proteoglycan that is required for the formation of the neuromuscular junction Agrins mechanism of action During development, the growing end of motor neuron axons secrete a protein called agrin. ... Type XVIII collagen is a type of collagen which can be cleaved to form endostatin. ...

Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans

Chondroitin sulfates contribute to the tensile strength of cartilage, tendons, ligaments and walls of the aorta. They have also been known to affect neuroplasticity.[7] Chondroitin sulfate (CS) is a glycosaminoglycan (GAG) found in connective tissue and the nervous system, normally attached to a protein core. ... For other uses, see Tendon (disambiguation). ... In anatomy, the term ligament is used to denote three different types of structures:[1] Fibrous tissue that connects bones to other bones. ... The aorta (generally pronounced [eɪˈɔːtə] or ay-orta) is the largest artery in the human body, originating from the left ventricle of the heart and bringing oxygenated blood to all parts of the body in the systemic circulation. ... Neuroplasticity challenges the idea that brain functions are fixed in certain locations. ...

Keratan sulfate proteoglycans

Keratan sulfates have a variable sulfate content and unlike many other GAGs, does not contain uronic acid. It is present in the cornea, cartilage, bones and the horns of animals. Keratan sulfate, also called keratosulfate, is any of several sulfated glycosaminoglycans that have been found especially in the cornea, cartilage, and bone. ... The Fischer projections of glucose and glucuronic acid. ... The cornea is the transparent front part of the eye that covers the iris, pupil, and anterior chamber, providing most of an eyes optical power [1]. Together with the lens, the cornea refracts light and, as a result, helps the eye to focus. ... This article is about the skeletal organs. ... For other uses, see Horn. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ...


Non-proteoglycan matrix components

Hyaluronic acid

Hyaluronic acid (or "hyaluronan") is a polysaccharide consisting of alternative residues of D-glucuronic acid and N-acetylglucosamine, and unlike other GAGs is not found as a proteoglycan. Hyaluronic acid in the extracellular space confers upon tissues the ability to resist compression by providing a counteracting turgor (swelling) force by absorbing a lot of water. Hyaluronic acid is thus found in abundance in the ECM of load-bearing joints. It is also a chief component of the interstitial gel. Hyaluronic acid is found on the inner surface of the cell membrane and is translocated out of the cell during biosynthesis.[8] Hyaluronan (also called hyaluronic acid or hyaluronate) is a glycosaminoglycan distributed widely throughout connective, epithelial, and neural tissues. ... Polysaccharides (sometimes called glycans) are relatively complex carbohydrates. ... Turgor (also called turgor pressure or osmotic pressure) is the pressure that can build in a space that is enclosed by a membrane that is permeable to a solvent of a solution such as water but not to the solutes of the soluton. ...


Hyaluronic acid acts as an environmental cue that regulates cell behavior during embryonic development, healing processes, inflammation and tumor development. It interacts with a specific transmembrane receptor, CD44.[9] An abscess on the skin, showing the redness and swelling characteristic of inflammation. ... For malignant tumors specifically, see cancer. ... The CD44 protein is a cell-surface glycoprotein involved in cell-cell interactions, cell adhesion and migration. ...

Collagen

Collagens are, in most animals, the most abundant glycoproteins in the ECM. In fact, collagen is the most abundant protein in the human body[10][11] and accounts for 90% of bone matrix protein content.[12] Collagens are present in the ECM as fibrillar proteins and give structural support to resident cells. Collagen is exocytosed in precursor form (procollagen), which is then cleaved by procollagen proteinases to allow extracellular assembly. Diseases such as osteogenesis imperfecta and epidermolysis bullosa are linked with genetic defects in collagen-encoding genes.[4]The collagen can be divided into several families according to the types of structure they form: Tropocollagen triple helix. ... A precursor is something that existed before and was incorporated into something that came later. ... Tropocollagen triple helix. ... Peptidases (proteases [pronounced pro-tea-aces] and proteolytic enzymes are also commonly used) are enzymes which break peptide bonds of proteins. ... Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI and sometimes known as Brittle Bone Disease) is a genetic bone disorder. ... A genetic disorder, or genetic disease is a disease caused, at least in part, by the genes of the person with the disease. ... For other uses, see Gene (disambiguation). ...

  1. Fibrillar (Type I,II,III,V,XI)
  2. Facit (Type IX,XII,XIV)
  3. Short chain (Type VIII,X)
  4. Basement membrane (Type IV)
  5. Other (Type VI,VII, XIII
Fibronectin

Fibronectins are proteins that connect cells with collagen fibers in the ECM, allowing cells to move through the ECM. Fibronectins bind collagen and cell surface integrins, causing a reorganization of the cell's cytoskeleton and facilitating cell movement. Fibronectins are secreted by cells in an unfolded, inactive form. Binding to integrins unfolds fibronectin molecules, allowing them to form dimers so that they can function properly. Fibronectins also help at the site of tissue injury by binding to platelets during blood clotting and facilitating cell movement to the affected area during wound healing.[4] Fibronectin is a high-molecular-weight glycoprotein containing about 5% carbohydrate that binds to receptor proteins that span the cells membrane, called integrins. ... Integrins are cell surface receptors that interact with the extracellular matrix and mediate various intracellular signals. ... The eukaryotic cytoskeleton. ... Sucrose, or common table sugar, is composed of glucose and fructose. ... A 250 ml bag of newly collected platelets. ... Coagulation is the thickening or congealing of any liquid into solid clots. ...

Elastin

Elastins, in contrast to collagens, give elasticity to tissues, allowing them to stretch when needed and then return to their original state. This is useful in blood vessels, the lungs and in skin, and these organs contain high amounts of elastins. Elastins are synthesized by fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells. Elastins are highly insoluble, and tropoelastins are secreted inside a chaperone molecule, which releases the precursor molecule upon contact with a fiber of mature elastin. Tropoelastins are then deaminated to become incorporated into the elastin strand. Diseases such as cutis laxa and Williams syndrome are associated with deficient or absent elastin fibers in the ECM.[4] Elastin is a protein in connective tissue that is elastic and allows many tissues in the body to resume their shape after stretching or contracting. ... The blood vessels are part of the circulatory system and function to transport blood throughout the body. ... The heart and lungs (from an older edition of Grays Anatomy) The lung is an organ belonging to the respiratory system and interfacing to the circulatory system of air-breathing vertebrates. ... This article is about the organ. ... NIH/3T3 Fibroblasts A fibroblast is a type of cell that synthesizes and maintains the extracellular matrix of many animal tissues. ... Smooth muscle Layers of Esophageal Wall: 1. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... In biology, chaperones are proteins that assist the non-covalent folding/unfolding and the assembly/disassembly of other macromolecular structures, but do not occur in these structures when the latter are performing their normal biological functions. ... Cutis laxa (also called elastolysis) is a group of rare connective tissue disorders in which the skin becomes inelastic and hangs loosely in folds. ... Williams syndrome (also Williams-Beuren syndrome) is a rare genetic disorder,[1] occurring in fewer than 1 in 20,000 live births. ...

Laminin

Laminins are proteins found in the basal laminae of virtually all animals. Rather than forming collagen-like fibers, laminins form networks of web-like structures that resist tensile forces in the basal lamina. They also assist in cell adhesion. Laminins bind other ECM components such as collagens, nidogens, and entactins.[4] Laminins are the major non-collagenous component of the basal lamina, such as those on which cells of an epithelium sit. ... The basal lamina (often erroneously called basement membrane) is a layer on which epithelium sits. ... Entactin : a component of the basement membrane along side other components such as collagen type IV, proteoglycans ( heparan sulphate and glycosaminoglycans), laminin and fibronectin. ...


Cell adhesion to the ECM

Many cells bind to components of the extracellular matrix. This cell-to-ECM adhesion is regulated by specific cell surface cellular adhesion molecules (CAM) known as integrins. Integrins are cell surface proteins that bind cells to ECM structures, such as fibronectin and laminin, and also to integrin proteins on the surface of other cells. Cell Adhesion Molecules (CAMs) are proteins located on the cell surface involved with the binding with other cells or with the extracellular matrix (ECM) in the process called cell adhesion. ... An integrin, or integrin receptor, is an integral membrane protein in the plasma membrane of cells. ...


Fibronectins bind to ECM macromolecules and facilitate their binding to transmembrane integrins. The attachment of fibronectin to the extracellular domain initiates intracellular signaling pathways as well as association with the cellular cytoskeleton via a set of adaptor molecules such as actin.[2] G-Actin (PDB code: 1j6z). ...


Cell types involved in ECM formation

There are many cell types that contribute to the development of the various types of extracellular matrix found in plethora of tissue types. The local components of ECM determine the properties of the connective tissue.


Fibroblasts are the most common cell type in connective tissue ECM, in which they synthesize, maintain and provide a structural framework; fibroblasts secrete the precursor components of the ECM, including the ground substance. Chondrocytes are found in cartilage and produce the cartilagenous matrix. Osteoblasts are responsible for bone formation. NIH/3T3 Fibroblasts A fibroblast is a type of cell that synthesizes and maintains the extracellular matrix of many animal tissues. ... Chemical structure of one unit in a chondroitin sulfate chain. ... Chondrocytes (< Greek chondros cartilage + kytos cell) are the only cells found in cartilage. ... Cartilage is a type of dense connective tissue. ... An osteoblast (from the Greek words for bone and germ or embryonic) is a mononucleate cell that is responsible for bone formation. ...


Extracellular matrix in plants

Plant cells are tesselated to form tissues. The cell wall is the relatively rigid structure surrounding the plant cell. The cell wall provides lateral strength to resist osmotic turgor pressure, but is flexible enough to allow cell growth when needed; it also serves as a medium for intercellular communication. The cell wall comprises multiple laminate layers of cellulose microfibrils embedded in a matrix of glycoproteins such as hemicellulose, pectin, and extensin. The components of the glycoprotein matrix help cell walls of adjacent plant cells to bind to each other. The selective permeability of the cell wall is chiefly governed by pectins in the glycoprotein matrix. Plasmodesmata (singular: plasmodesma) are pores that traverse the cell walls of adjacent plant cells. These channels are tightly regulated and selectively allow molecules of specific sizes to pass between cells.[8] Plant cells separated by transparent cell walls. ... Cellulose as polymer of β-D-glucose Cellulose in 3D Cellulose (C6H10O5)n is a polysaccharide of beta-glucose. ... The microfibril is a very fine fibril, or fiber-like strand, consisting of glycoproteins. ... A hemicellulose can be any of several heteropolymers (matrix polysaccharides) present in almost all cell walls along with cellulose. ... Pectin, a white to light brown powder, is a heterosaccharide derived from the cell wall of higher terrestrial plants. ... Extensin was discovered by Derek T.A. Lamport at Cambridge University[1], they are hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins (HRGPs) of the plant cell wall[2]. Extensins defined: A family of flexuous rodlike hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins (HRGPs) arguably among the most abundant proteins on planet earth. ... Image:Partially Permeable membrane. ... Plasmodesmata (Singular, plasmodesma) are small cell junctions in a plant cell which connect the cytoplasm of adjacent plant cells, forming a circulatory and communication system connecting the cells in plant tissue. ...


References

  1. ^ a b c d Kumar, Abbas, Fausto; Robbins and Cotran: Pathologic Basis of Disease; Elsevier; 7th ed.
  2. ^ a b Alberts B, Bray D, Hopin K, Johnson A, Lewis J, Raff M, Roberts K, Walter P (2004). "Tissues and Cancer", Essential cell biology. New York and London: Garland Science. ISBN 0-8153-3481-8. 
  3. ^ Liotta LA, Tryggvason K, Garbisa S, Hart I, Foltz CM, Shafie S (1980). "Metastatic potential correlates with enzymatic degradation of basement membrane collagen". Nature 284 (5751): 67–8. PMID 6243750. 
  4. ^ a b c d e Plopper G (2007). The extracellular matrix and cell adhesion, in Cells (eds Lewin B, Cassimeris L, Lingappa V, Plopper G). Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett. ISBN 0-7637-3905-7. 
  5. ^ Gallagher, J.T., Lyon, M. (2000). "Molecular structure of Heparan Sulfate and interactions with growth factors and morphogens", in Iozzo, M, V.: Proteoglycans: structure, biology and molecular interactions. Marcel Dekker Inc. New York, New York, 27-59. 
  6. ^ Iozzo, R. V. (1998). "Matrix proteoglycans: from molecular design to cellular function". Annu. Rev. Biochem. 67: 609-652. PMID 9759499. 
  7. ^ Takao K. Hensch, Critical Period Mechanisms in Developing Visual Cortex. Current Topics in Developmental Biology, Volume 69, 2005, Pages 215-237. DOI:oi:10.1016/S0070-2153(05)69008-4.
  8. ^ a b Lodish H, Berk A, Matsudaira P, Kaiser CA, Krieger M, Scott MP, Zipursky SL, Darnell J. Molecular Cell Biology, 5th, New York: WH Freeman and Company, 197–234. 
  9. ^ Peach et al 1993. Identification of hyaluronic acid binding sites in the extracellular domain of CD44. The Journal of Cell Biology, Vol 122, 257-264
  10. ^ Di Lullo GA, Sweeney SM, Korkko J, Ala-Kokko L, San Antonio JD (2002). "Mapping the ligand-binding sites and disease-associated mutations on the most abundant protein in the human, type I collagen". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (6): 4223–31. doi:10.1074/jbc.M110709200. PMID 11704682. 
  11. ^ Karsenty G, Park RW (1995). "Regulation of type I collagen genes expression". Int. Rev. Immunol. 12 (2-4): 177–85. PMID 7650420. 
  12. ^ Kern B, Shen J, Starbuck M, Karsenty G (2001). "Cbfa1 contributes to the osteoblast-specific expression of type I collagen genes". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (10): 7101–7. doi:10.1074/jbc.M006215200. PMID 11106645. 

A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

External links

  • MeSH Extracellular+matrix
  • ANAT3231 Lecture 08 Extracellular Matrix - Lecture about extracellular matrix from UNSW Cell Biology website.
  • Extracellular matrix: review of its roles in acute and chronic wounds
  • Usage of Extracellular Matrix from pigs to regrow human extremities
  • "The Extracellular Matrix of Animals", from Chapter 19 of The Molecular Biology of the Cell, 4th edition, Alberts et al.
  • Biology, John W. Kimball. An online Biology textbook.
  • [1], The man who grew a finger, By Matthew Price, BBC News
Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... A thin section of lung tissue stained with hematoxylin and eosin. ... Connective tissue is one of the four types of tissue in traditional classifications (the others being epithelial, muscle, and nervous tissue. ... Gel-like matrix with all three fiber types Areoloar tissue is the most common connnective tissue type and can be found in the skin as well as in places that connect epithelium to other tissues. ... Dense Connective Tissue is. ... Adipose tissue is one of the main types of connective tissue. ... Brown adipose tissue (BAT) or brown fat is one of the two types of adipose tissue (the other being white adipose tissue) that is present in many newborn or hibernating mammals. ... White adipose tissue (WAT) or white fat is one of the two types of adipose tissue found in mammals (compare to brown adipose tissue). ... Reticular connective tissue are a network of reticular fibers (fine collagen) that form a soft skeleton (stroma) to support the lymphoid organs (lymph nodes, bone marrow, and spleen. ... Mucous connective tissue (or mucous tissue) is a type of connective tissue found during fetal development. ... Mesenchyme (also known as embryonic connective tissue) is the mass of tissue that develops mainly from the mesoderm (the middle layer of the trilaminar germ disc) of an embryo. ... Cartilage is a type of dense connective tissue. ... This article is about the skeletal organs. ... For other uses, see Blood (disambiguation). ... Chemical structure of one unit in a chondroitin sulfate chain. ... Interstitial fluid (or tissue fluid, or intercellular fluid) is a solution which bathes and surrounds the cells of multicellular animals. ... Tropocollagen triple helix. ... Reticular fibers are the structural fiber in some connective tissues. ... Elastic fibers are bundles of proteins (elastin) found in connective tissue and produced by fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells in arteries. ... NIH/3T3 Fibroblasts A fibroblast is a type of cell that synthesizes and maintains the extracellular matrix of many animal tissues. ... Adipocytes are the cells that primarily compose adipose tissue, specialized in storing energy as fat. ... A chondroblast is a cell, which originates from a mesenchymal stem cell and forms Chondrocytes, commonly known as cartilage cells. ... An osteoblast (from the Greek words for bone and germ or embryonic) is a mononucleate cell that is responsible for bone formation. ... In anatomy and histology, the term wandering cell (or ameboid cell) is used to describe cells that are found in loose connective tissue, but arent fixed in place. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Matrix - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (275 words)
Extracellular matrix, any material part of a tissue that is not part of any cell.
Matrix (geology), the outer material of a rock consisting of larger grains embedded in a material consisting of smaller ones.
Matrix (IT), a group of data which forms the "essence" of an application.
Extracellular matrix - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (159 words)
In biology, extracellular matrix (ECM) is any material part of a tissue that is not part of any cell.
Extracellular matrix is the defining feature of connective tissue.
The integrins transmit mechanical stimuli from the ECM to the cytoskeleton.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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