The body fluids found outside the cells, such as plasma (the liquid portion of blood and lymph), and interstitial fluid, are generically termed extracellularfluid.
The extracellularfluid filtered from the blood vessels (arterial capillaries) into the extracellular matrix flows among the cells transporting nutrients and chemical messengers and receives from cells metabolites, ions, proteins, and other substances, and is then reabsorbed by either the venous or the lymphatic capillaries.
In humans, the normal glucose concentration of extracellularfluid that is regulated by homeostasis is approximately 5 mM.
The third component of fluid therapy is to determine the amount of fluid lost from ongoing disease such as vomiting, diarrhea, or polyuria, pathologic gastrointestinal and urinary tract losses contain electrolytes and water, and are therefore considered isotonic losses of fluid.
Syringe administration of fluids is most easily accomplished by pulling the lip away from the teeth creating a pouch, slightly tilting back the animals head, and pouring the fluid from the syringe into the pouch, allowing it to flow between the teeth into the pharynx.
Fluids for subcutaneous administration should be sterile and relatively close in tonicity to extracellularfluid.
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