In yacht racing, there are often separate divisions depending on whether or not extras are permitted. A race or division in which extras are not permitted is commonly called a non spinnaker race or division.
Modern sails are designed such that the warp and the weft of the sailcloth are oriented parallel to the luff and foot of the sail.
In modern times a sail is cut of the extreme size which is capable of being carried in fine weather, and when the wind increases in strength it is reefed -- part is gathered up and fastened by reef points, small cords attached to the sail.
Outboard of the square sails might be set studdingsails [studding sail, studsail, stun's'l) -- a sail on a special spar, extended outboard of a square sail or sails, for added sail area in moderate winds.
In all sail plans, the architect attempts to balance the force of the sails against the drag of the underwater keel in such a way that the vessel naturally points into the wind.
However, due to the gaff on the top edge of the sail the center of effort is typically lower, somewhat reducing the angle of heel (leaning of the boat caused by wind force on the sails) compared to a similar sized Bermuda rigged sail.
On many warships, sails above the fighting top (a platform just above the lowest sail on which snipers were positioned) were mounted on separate masts ("topmasts" or "topgallant masts") held in wooden sockets called "tabernacles." These masts and their stays could be rigged or struck as the weather and tactical situation demanded.
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