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Encyclopedia > Extinction
The Dodo, shown here in a 1651 illustration by Jan Savery, is an often-cited example of modern extinction.
The Dodo, shown here in a 1651 illustration by Jan Savery, is an often-cited[1] example of modern extinction.

In biology and ecology, extinction is the cessation of existence of a species or group of taxa, reducing biodiversity. The moment of extinction is generally considered to be the death of the last individual of that species (although the capacity to breed and recover may have been lost before this point). Because a species' potential range may be very large, determining this moment is difficult, and is usually done retrospectively. This difficulty leads to phenomena such as Lazarus taxa, where a species presumed extinct abruptly "re-appears" (typically in the fossil record) after a period of apparent absence. Look up extinction in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File links ExtinctDodoBird. ... Image File history File links ExtinctDodoBird. ... For other uses, see Dodo (disambiguation). ... Jan Savery (1589–1654) was a Flemish painter best-known for his 1651 depiction of the dodo now held by the Oxford University Museum of Natural History. ... The Dodo, a bird of Mauritius, became extinct during the mid-late 17th century after humans destroyed the forests where the birds made their homes and introduced animals that ate their eggs. ... Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, knowledge), also referred to as the biological sciences, is the study of living organisms utilizing the scientific method. ... For the journal, see Ecology (journal). ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... A taxon (plural taxa), or taxonomic unit, is a grouping of organisms (named or unnamed). ... Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity is the variation of taxonomic life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire Earth. ... A population bottleneck (or genetic bottleneck) is an evolutionary event in which a significant percentage of a population or species is killed or otherwise prevented from reproducing, and the population is reduced by 50% or more, often by several orders of magnitude. ... In biology, the range of an species is the geographical area within which that species can be found. ... The takahe is an example of a Lazarus taxon. ... For other uses, see Fossil (disambiguation). ...


Through evolution, new species arise through the process of speciation — where new varieties of organisms arise and thrive when they are able to find and exploit an ecological niche — and species become extinct when they are no longer able to survive in changing conditions or against superior competition. A typical species becomes extinct within 10 million years of its first appearance,[2] although some species, called living fossils, survive virtually unchanged for hundreds of millions of years. Only one in a thousand species that have existed remain today.[2][3] This article is about evolution in biology. ... Charles Darwins first sketch of an evolutionary tree from his First Notebook on Transmutation of Species (1837) Speciation is the evolutionary process by which new biological species arise. ... Two lichens on a rock, in two different ecological niches In ecology, a niche; (pronounced nich, neesh or nish)[1] is a term describing the relational position of a species or population in its ecosystem[1]. The ecological niche; describes how an organism or population responds to the distribution of... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Prior to the dispersion of humans across the earth, extinction generally occurred at a continuous low rate, mass extinctions being relatively rare events. Starting approximately 100,000 years ago, and coinciding with an increase in the numbers and range of humans, species extinctions have increased to a rate unprecedented[4] since the Cretaceous–Tertiary extinction event. This is known as the Holocene extinction event and is at least the sixth such extinction event. Some experts have estimated that up to half of presently existing species may become extinct by 2100.[5] An extinction event (also extinction-level event, ELE) is a period in time when a large number of species die out. ... Map of countries by population density (See List of countries by population density. ... Artists impression of a major impact event. ... The Dodo, a bird of Mauritius, became extinct during the mid-late 17th century after humans destroyed the forests where the birds made their homes and introduced animals that ate their eggs. ... An extinction event (also known as: mass extinction; extinction-level event, ELE) occurs when there is a sharp decrease in the number of species in a relatively short period of time. ...

Contents

Definition

Look up extinction in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

A species becomes extinct when the last existing member of that species dies. Extinction therefore becomes a certainty when there are no surviving individuals that are able to reproduce and create a new generation. A species may become functionally extinct when only a handful of individuals survive, which are unable to reproduce due to poor health, age, sparse distribution over a large range, a lack of individuals of both sexes (in sexually reproducing species), or other reasons. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... Functional extinction is the extinction of a species or other taxon, as measured by one of the following: it disappears from the fossil record, or historic reports of its existence cease; or[1] the population is reduced to an extent that it no longer plays a significant role in ecosystem... Sexual reproduction is a union that results in increasing genetic diversity of the offspring. ...

Bark from the extinct Lepidodendron, which died out after the Carboniferous, likely due to competition from newer plant life.
Bark from the extinct Lepidodendron, which died out after the Carboniferous, likely due to competition from newer plant life.[6]

Pinpointing the extinction (or pseudoextinction) of a species requires a clear definition of that species. If it is to be declared extinct, the species in question must be uniquely identifiable from any ancestor or daughter species, or from other closely related species. Extinction of a species (or replacement by a daughter species) plays a key role in the punctuated equilibrium hypothesis of Stephen Jay Gould and Niles Eldredge. [7] Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Species See text. ... President Bush- Deres gold in dem dere mines The Carboniferous is a major division of the geologic timescale that extends from the end of the Devonian period, about 359. ... Pseudoextinction of a species occurs where there are no more living members of that species, but members of a daughter species or subspecies remain alive. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... Punctuated equilibrium (or punctuated equilibria) is a theory in evolutionary biology which states that most sexually reproducing species will show little to no evolutionary change throughout their history. ... Stephen Jay Gould (September 10, 1941 – May 20, 2002) was an American paleontologist, evolutionary biologist, and historian of science. ... Dr. Niles Eldredge (born August 25, 1943) is an American paleontologist, who, along with Stephen Jay Gould, proposed the theory of punctuated equilibrium in 1972. ...


In ecology, extinction is often used informally to refer to local extinction, in which a species ceases to exist in the chosen area of study, but still exists elsewhere. This phenomenon is also known as extirpation. Local extinctions may be followed by a replacement of the species taken from other locations; wolf reintroduction is an example of this. Species which are not extinct are termed extant. Those that are extant but threatened by extinction are referred to as threatened or endangered species. For the journal, see Ecology (journal). ... The Dodo, shown here in illustration, is an often-cited[1] example of extinction. ... A reintroduced gray wolf in Yellowstone National Park Wolf reintroduction involves the artificial reestablishment of a population of wolves into areas where they had been previously extirpated. ... In biology, extant taxon is commonly used in discussions of living and fossil species. ... Threatened species refers to animal and plant species under a serious, but perhaps not imminent, threat of extinction. ... The Siberian Tiger is a subspecies of tiger that are critically endangered. ...


An important aspect of extinction at the present time are human attempts to preserve critically endangered species, which is reflected by the creation of the conservation status "Extinct in the Wild" (EW). Species listed under this status by the World Conservation Union (IUCN) are not known to have any living specimens in the wild, and are maintained only in zoos or other artificial environments. Some of these species are functionally extinct, as they are no longer part of their natural habitat and it is unlikely the species will ever be restored to the wild.[8] When possible, modern zoological institutions attempt to maintain a viable population for species preservation and possible future reintroduction to the wild through use of carefully planned breeding programs. The conservation status of a species is an indicator of the likelihood of that species continuing to survive either in the present day or the future. ... Diagram of Extinct in the Wild in relation to other IUCN categories. ... The World Conservation Union or International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation. ... Giraffes in Sydneys Taronga Zoo A zoological garden, zoological park, or zoo is a facility in which animals are confined within enclosures and displayed to the public, and in which they may also be bred. ... Zoology (from Greek: ζῴον, zoion, animal; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the biological discipline which involves the study of animals. ... Species with a small population size are subject to a higher chance of extinction because their small population size makes them more vulnerable to genetic drift, resulting in stochastic variation in their gene pool, their demography and their environment. ... Reintroduction is the deliberate release of animals from captivity into the wild. ... A breeding program is the planned breeding of a group of animals or plants, usually involving at least several individuals and extending over several generations. ...


The extinction of one species' wild population can have knock-on effects, causing further extinctions. These are also called "chains of extinction"[9].


Pseudoextinction

Main article: Pseudoextinction

Descendants may or may not exist for extinct species. Daughter species that evolve from a parent species carry on most of the parent species' genetic information, and even though the parent species may become extinct, the daughter species lives on. In other cases, species have produced no new variants, or none that are able to survive the parent species' extinction. Extinction of a parent species where daughter species or subspecies are still alive is also called pseudoextinction. Pseudoextinction of a species occurs where there are no more living members of that species, but members of a daughter species or subspecies remain alive. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Pseudoextinction of a species occurs where there are no more living members of that species, but members of a daughter species or subspecies remain alive. ...


Pseudoextinction is difficult to demonstrate unless one has a strong chain of evidence linking a living species to members of a pre-existing species. For example, it is sometimes claimed that the extinct Hyracotherium, which was an ancient animal similar to the horse, is pseudoextinct, rather than extinct, because there are several extant species of equus, including zebra and donkeys. However, as fossil species typically leave no genetic material behind, it is not possible to say whether Hyracotherium actually evolved into more modern horse species or simply evolved from a common ancestor with modern horses. Pseudoextinction is much easier to demonstrate for larger taxonomic groups. It is said that dinosaurs are pseudoextinct, because some of their descendants, the birds, survive today. This little horse lived 50 million years ago the person who discovered it called Mole Beast or Hyracotherium later they found another one but called it Dawn Horse the name was given to another Hyracotherium but it also goes by Eohippus. ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... In biology, extant taxon is commonly used in discussions of living and fossil species. ... Species - Donkey - Domestic Horse - Grevys Zebra - Onager - Przewalskis Horse - Plains Zebra - Mountain Zebra Equidae is the family of horse-like animals, order Perissodactyla. ... For other uses, see Zebra (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Equus asinus The donkey or ass (Equus asinus) is a domesticated animal of the horse family, Equidae. ... Reconstruction, left forefoot skeleton (third digit emphasized yellow) and longitudinal section of molars of selected prehistoric horses The evolution of the horse involves the gradual development of the modern horse from the fox-sized, forest-dwelling Hyracotherium. ... Orders & Suborders Saurischia Sauropodomorpha Theropoda Ornithischia Thyreophora Ornithopoda Marginocephalia Dinosaurs were vertebrate animals that dominated the terrestrial ecosystem for over 160 million years, first appearing approximately 230 million years ago. ... For other uses, see Bird (disambiguation). ...


Causes

The passenger pigeon, one of several species of extinct birds, was hunted to extinction over the course of a few decades.
The passenger pigeon, one of several species of extinct birds, was hunted to extinction over the course of a few decades.
The Bali Tiger was declared extinct in 1937 due to hunting loss.
The Bali Tiger was declared extinct in 1937 due to hunting loss.

There are a variety of causes that can contribute directly or indirectly to the extinction of a species or group of species. "Just as each species is unique," write Beverly and Stephen Stearns, "so is each extinction... the causes for each are varied — some subtle and complex, others obvious and simple".[10] Most simply, any species that is unable to survive or reproduce in its environment, and unable to move to a new environment where it can do so, dies out and becomes extinct. Extinction of a species may come suddenly when an otherwise healthy species is wiped out completely, as when toxic pollution renders its entire habitat unlivable; or may occur gradually over thousands or millions of years, such as when a species gradually loses out in competition for food to better adapted competitors. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (640x1024, 177 KB) Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Passenger Pigeon Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (640x1024, 177 KB) Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Passenger Pigeon Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1766) The Passenger Pigeon (Ectopistes migratorius) or Wild Pigeon was a species of pigeon that was once the most common bird in North America. ... Since 1500, over 100 species of birds have become extinct, and this rate of extinction seems to be increasing. ... Image File history File links Panthera_tigris_balica. ... Image File history File links Panthera_tigris_balica. ... Trinomial name Panthera tigris balica (Schwarz, 1912) The Bali tiger (Panthera tigris balica), also called the Balinese tiger, is an extinct subspecies of tiger found solely on the small Indonesian island of Bali. ... Survival skills are skills that may help one to survive dangerous situations (such as storms or earthquakes), or in dangerous places (such as the desert, the mountains, and the jungle). ... For other uses, see Reproduction (disambiguation) Reproduction is the biological process by which new individual organisms are produced. ... Toxic redirects here, but this is also the name of a song by Britney Spears; see Toxic (song) Look up toxic and toxicity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Air pollution Pollution is the introduction of pollutants (whether chemical substances, or energy such as noise, heat, or light) into the environment to such a point that its effects become harmful to human health, other living organisms, or the environment. ... Look up habitat in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Assessing the relative importance of genetic factors compared to environmental ones as the causes of extinction has been compared to the nature-nurture debate.[3] The question of whether more extinctions in the fossil record have been caused by evolution or by catastrophe is a subject of discussion; Mark Newman, the author of Modeling Extinction argues for a mathematical model that falls between the two positions.[2]. By contrast, conservation biology uses the extinction vortex model to classify extinctions by cause. When concerns about human extinction have been raised, for example in Sir Martin Rees' 2003 book Our Final Hour, those concerns lie with the effects of climate change or technological disaster. Nature vs Nurture is a shorthand expression for debates about the relative importance of an individuals innate qualities (nature) versus personal experiences (nurture) in determining or causing individual differences in physical and behavioral traits. ... For other uses, see Fossil (disambiguation). ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... Conservation biology, or conservation ecology, is the science of analyzing and protecting Earths biological diversity. ... Extinction Vortices are a means through which conservation biologists, geneticists and ecologists can understand the dynamics of and categorize extinctions in the context of their causes. ... Human extinction would be the extinction of the human species, Homo sapiens. ... The Right Honourable Martin John Rees, Baron Rees of Ludlow, FRS (born 23 June 1942) is a professor of astronomy. ... Our Final Hour is a 2003 book by the British Astronomer Royal Sir Martin Rees. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 450,000 years For current global climate change, see Global warming. ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ...


Currently, environmental groups and some governments are concerned with the extinction of species caused by humanity, and are attempting to combat further extinctions[4] through a variety of conservation programs. Humans can cause extinction of a species through overharvesting, pollution, habitat destruction, introduction of new predators and food competitors, and other influences. According to the World Conservation Union (WCU, also known as IUCN), 784 extinctions have been recorded since the year 1500, the arbitrary date selected to define "modern" extinctions, with many more likely to have gone unnoticed.[11] The conservation movement is a political and social movement that seeks to protect natural resources including plant and animal species as well as their habitat for the future. ... For the journal, see Ecology (journal). ... Air pollution Pollution is the introduction of pollutants (whether chemical substances, or energy such as noise, heat, or light) into the environment to such a point that its effects become harmful to human health, other living organisms, or the environment. ... Habitat destruction is a process of land use change in which one habitat-type is removed and replaced with another habitat-type. ... This snapping turtle is trying to make a meal of a Canada goose, but the goose is too wary. ... Competition characterises a biochemical, ecologic, economic, political, or sporting activity whereby two or more individuals or groups strive antagonistically against one another for some reward. ... The World Conservation Union or International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation. ...


Genetics and demographic phenomena

Population genetics and demographic phenomena affect the evolution, and therefore the risk of extinction, of species. Species with small populations are much more vulnerable to these types of effects.[citation needed] Limited geographic range is the most important determinant of genus extinction at background rates but becomes increasingly irrelevant as mass extinction arises.[12] Population genetics is the study of the distribution of and change in allele frequencies under the influence of the four evolutionary forces: natural selection, genetic drift, mutation, and migration. ... Species with a small population size are subject to a higher chance of extinction because their small population size makes them more vulnerable to genetic drift, resulting in stochastic variation in their gene pool, their demography and their environment. ... For other uses, see Genus (disambiguation). ...


Natural selection acts to propagate beneficial genetic traits and eliminate weaknesses. It is nevertheless possible for a deleterious mutation to be spread throughout a population through the effect of genetic drift. For other uses, see Natural selection (disambiguation). ... In population genetics, genetic drift is the statistical effect that results from the influence that chance has on the success of alleles (variants of a gene). ...


A diverse or "deep" gene pool gives a population a higher chance of surviving an adverse change in conditions. Effects that cause or reward a loss in genetic diversity can increase the chances of extinction of a species. Population bottlenecks can dramatically reduce genetic diversity by severely limiting the number of reproducing individuals and make inbreeding more frequent. The founder effect can cause rapid, individual-based speciation and is the most dramatic example of a population bottleneck. The gene pool of a species or a population is the complete set of unique alleles that would be found by inspecting the genetic material of every living member of that species or population. ... Genetic diversity is a characteristic of ecosystems and gene pools that describes an attribute which is commonly held to be advantageous for survival -- that there are many different versions of otherwise similar organisms. ... A population bottleneck (or genetic bottleneck) is an evolutionary event in which a significant percentage of a population or species is killed or otherwise prevented from reproducing, and the population is reduced by 50% or more, often by several orders of magnitude. ... It has been suggested that inbreeding depression be merged into this article or section. ... Simple illustration of founder effect. ...

See also: Extinction Vortex
See also: Genetic erosion

Extinction Vortices are a means through which conservation biologists, geneticists and ecologists can understand the dynamics of and categorize extinctions in the context of their causes. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...

Genetic pollution

Main article: Genetic pollution

Purebred naturally evolved region specific wild species can be threatened with extinction in a big way[13] through the process of Genetic Pollution i.e. uncontrolled hybridization, introgression and Genetic swaping which leads to homogenization or replacement of local genotypes as a result of either a numerical and/or fitness advantage of introduced plant or animal[14]. Nonnative species can bring about a form of extinction of native plants and animals by hybridization and introgression either through purposeful introduction by humans or through habitat modification, bringing previously isolated species into contact. These phenomena can be especially detrimental for rare species coming into contact with more abundant ones where the abundant ones can interbreed with them swamping the entire rarer gene pool creating hybrids thus driving the entire original purebred native stock to complete extinction. Attention has to be focused on the extent of this under appreciated problem that is not always apparent from morphological (outward appearance) observations alone. Some degree of gene flow may be a normal, evolutionarily constructive process, and all constellations of genes and genotypes cannot be preserved however, hybridization with or without introgression may, nevertheless, threaten a rare species' existence[15][16]. Genetic pollution, genetic contamination or genetic swamping happens when original set of naturally evolved (wild) region specific genes / gene pool of wild animals and plants become hybridized with domesticated and feral varieties or with the genes of other nonnative wild species or subspecies from neighboring or far away regions. ... This article is about a biological term. ... Introgression is a term used in genetics, particularly plant genetics, to describe the movement of a gene from one species into the gene pool of another by backcrossing an interspecific hybrid with one of its parents. ... Fitness (often denoted in population genetics models) is a central concept in evolutionary theory. ... The term morphology in biology refers to the outward appearance (shape, structure, colour, pattern) of an organism or taxon and its component parts. ... In population genetics, gene flow (also known as gene migration) is the transfer of alleles of genes from one population to another. ...


Widespread genetic pollution also leads to weakening of the naturally evolved (wild) region specific gene pool leading to weaker hybrid animals and plants which are not able to cope with natural environs over the long run and fast tracks them towards final extinction.


The gene pool of a species or a population is the complete set of unique alleles that would be found by inspecting the genetic material of every living member of that species or population. A large gene pool indicates extensive genetic diversity, which is associated with robust populations that can survive bouts of intense selection. Meanwhile, low genetic diversity (see inbreeding and population bottlenecks) can cause reduced biological fitness and an increased chance of extinction amongst the reducing population of purebred individuals from a species. The gene pool of a species or a population is the complete set of unique alleles that would be found by inspecting the genetic material of every living member of that species or population. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... An allele is any one of a number of alternative forms of the same gene occupying a given locus (position) on a chromosome. ... Genetic diversity is a characteristic of ecosystems and gene pools that describes an attribute which is commonly held to be advantageous for survival -- that there are many different versions of otherwise similar organisms. ... For other uses, see Selection (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that inbreeding depression be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that Near-Extinction evolution theory be merged into this article or section. ... Fitness (often denoted in population genetics models) is a central concept in evolutionary theory. ...


Habitat degradation

Main article: Habitat destruction

The degradation of a species' habitat may alter the fitness landscape to such an extent that the species is no longer able to survive and becomes extinct. This may occur by direct effects, such as the environment becoming toxic, or indirectly, by limiting a species' ability to compete effectively for diminished resources or against new competitor species. Habitat destruction is a process of land use change in which one habitat-type is removed and replaced with another habitat-type. ... Habitat (which is Latin for it inhabits) is the place where a particular species live and grow. ... In evolutionary biology, fitness landscapes or adaptive landscapes are used to visualize the relationship between genotypes (or phenotypes) and replicatory success. ... // Toxic and Intoxicated redirect here – toxic has other uses, which can be found at Toxicity (disambiguation); for the state of being intoxicated by alcohol see Drunkenness. ...


Habitat degradation through toxicity can kill off a species very rapidly, by killing all living members through contamination or sterilizing them. It can also occur over longer periods at lower toxicity levels by affecting life span, reproductive capacity, or competitiveness. The Lachine Canal, in Montreal, is badly polluted Pollution is the release of harmful environmental contaminants, or the substances so released. ... Sterilization (or sterilisation) refers to any process that effectively kills or eliminates transmissible agents (such as fungi, bacteria, viruses and prions) from a surface, equipment, foods, medications, or biological culture medium. ...


Habitat degradation can also take the form of a physical destruction of niche habitats. The widespread destruction of tropical rainforests and replacement with open pastureland is widely cited as an example of this;[5] elimination of the dense forest eliminated the infrastructure needed by many species to survive. For example, a fern that depends on dense shade for protection from direct sunlight can no longer survive without forest to shelter it. Another example is the destruction of ocean floors by bottom trawling.[17] Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests of the world Amazon river rain forest in Peru Amazon river rain forest in Brazil Tropical rainforests are rainforests generally found near the equator. ... This article is about the group of pteridophyte plants. ... The Celtic Explorer, a research vessel engaged in bottom trawling Bottom trawling (known in the scientific community as Benthic trawling) is a fishing method which involves towing trawl nets along the sea floor, as opposed to pelagic trawling, where a net is towed higher in the water column. ...


Diminished resources or introduction of new competitor species also often accompany habitat degradation. Global warming has allowed some species to expand their range, bringing unwelcome competition to other species that previously occupied that area. Sometimes these new competitors are predators and directly affect prey species, while at other times they may merely outcompete vulnerable species for limited resources. Vital resources including water and food can also be limited during habitat degradation, leading to extinction. Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ...

The Golden Toad was last seen on May 15, 1989. Decline in amphibian populations is ongoing worldwide.
The Golden Toad was last seen on May 15, 1989. Decline in amphibian populations is ongoing worldwide.

Download high resolution version (3593x2400, 1410 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (3593x2400, 1410 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Binomial name Bufo periglenes Savage, 1967 The Golden Toad or Monte Verde Toad (Bufo periglenes) lived in handfulls of places in the Monteverde forest located in Costa Rica, a country in Central America. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... The Golden Toad of Monteverde, Costa Rica was among the first casualties of amphibian declines. ...

Predation, competition, and disease

Humans have been transporting animals and plants from one part of the world to another for thousands of years, sometimes deliberately (e.g., livestock released by sailors onto islands as a source of food) and sometimes accidentally (e.g., rats escaping from boats). In most cases, such introductions are unsuccessful, but when they do become established as an invasive alien species, the consequences can be catastrophic. Invasive alien species can affect native species directly by eating them, competing with them, and introducing pathogens or parasites that sicken or kill them or, indirectly, by destroying or degrading their habitat. Human populations may themselves act as invasive predators. According to the "overkill hypothesis", the swift extinction of the megafauna in areas such as New Zealand, Australia, Madagascar and Hawaii resulted from the sudden introduction of human beings to environments full of animals that had never seen them before, and were therefore completely unadapted to their predation techniques.[18] For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Sheep are commonly bred as livestock. ... Species 50 species; see text *Several subfamilies of Muroids include animals called rats. ... Lantana invasion of abandoned citrus plantation; Moshav Sdey Hemed, Israel The term invasive species refers to a subset of introduced species or non-indigenous species that are rapidly expanding outside of their native range. ... In biology and ecology endemic means exclusively native to a place or biota, in contrast to cosmopolitan or introduced. ... A pathogen or infectious agent is a biological agent that causes disease or illness to its host. ... A parasite is an organism that spends a significant portion of its life in or on the living tissue of a host organism and which causes harm to the host without immediately killing it. ... It has been suggested that Charismatic megafauna be merged into this article or section. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ...


Coextinction

Main article: Coextinction

Coextinction refers to the loss of a species due to the extinction of another; for example, the extinction of parasitic insects following the loss of their hosts. Coextinction can also occur when a species loses its pollinator, or to predators in a food chain who lose their prey. "Species coextinction is a manifestation of the interconnectedness of organisms in complex ecosystems ... While coextinction may not be the most important cause of species extinctions, it is certainly an insidious one"[19]. Coextinction of a species is the loss of one species upon the extinction of another. ... A parasite is an organism that lives in or on the living tissue of a host organism at the expense of it. ... A pollinator is the agent that moves pollen from the male anthers of a flower to the female stigma of a flower to accomplish fertilization or syngamy of the female gamete in the ovule of the flower by the male gamete from the pollen grain. ... This snapping turtle is trying to make a meal of a Canada goose, but the goose is too wary. ... == HEADLINE TEXT== Food chains, food webs and/or food networks describe the feeding relationships between other species to another within an ecosystem. ...


Mass extinctions

Apparent fraction of genera going extinct at any given time, as reconstructed from the fossil record. Does not attempt to include recent Holocene extinction event.
Apparent fraction of genera going extinct at any given time, as reconstructed from the fossil record. Does not attempt to include recent Holocene extinction event.
Main article: Extinction event

There have been at least five mass extinctions in the history of life, and four in the last 3.5 billion years in which many species have disappeared in a relatively short period of geological time. The most recent of these, the Cretaceous–Tertiary extinction event 65 million years ago at the end of the Cretaceous period, is best known for having wiped out the non-avian dinosaurs, among many other species. Image File history File links Description Total Phanerozoic biodiversity during the same interval. ... Image File history File links Description Total Phanerozoic biodiversity during the same interval. ... For other uses, see Genus (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Fossil. ... The Dodo, a bird of Mauritius, became extinct during the mid-late 17th century after humans destroyed the forests where the birds made their homes and introduced animals that ate their eggs. ... An extinction event (also known as: mass extinction; extinction-level event, ELE) occurs when there is a sharp decrease in the number of species in a relatively short period of time. ... // The Cretaceous Period is one of the major divisions of the geologic timescale, reaching from the end of the Jurassic Period (i. ... Orders & Suborders Saurischia Sauropodomorpha Theropoda Ornithischia Thyreophora Ornithopoda Marginocephalia Dinosaurs were vertebrate animals that dominated the terrestrial ecosystem for over 160 million years, first appearing approximately 230 million years ago. ...


Modern mass extinction

Main article: Holocene extinction event

According to a 1998 survey of 400 biologists conducted by New York's American Museum of Natural History, nearly 70 percent believed that they were currently in the early stages of a human-caused mass extinction,[20] known as the Holocene extinction event. In that survey, the same proportion of respondents agreed with the prediction that up to 20 percent of all living populations could become extinct within 30 years (by 2028). Biologist E. O. Wilson estimated [5] in 2002 that if current rates of human destruction of the biosphere continue, one-half of all species of life on earth will be extinct in 100 years.[21] More significantly the rate of species extinctions at present is estimated at 100 to 1000 times "background" or average extinction rates in the evolutionary time scale of planet Earth;[22] moreover, this current rate of extinction is thus 10 to 100 times greater than any of the prior mass extinction events in the history of the Earth. The Dodo, a bird of Mauritius, became extinct during the mid-late 17th century after humans destroyed the forests where the birds made their homes and introduced animals that ate their eggs. ... This article is about the state. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Dodo, a bird of Mauritius, became extinct during the mid-late 17th century after humans destroyed the forests where the birds made their homes and introduced animals that ate their eggs. ... Edward Osborne Wilson (b. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ...


History of scientific understanding

Dilophosaurus, one of the many extinct dinosaur genera. The cause of the Cretaceous–Tertiary extinction event is a subject of much debate amongst researchers.
Dilophosaurus, one of the many extinct dinosaur genera. The cause of the Cretaceous–Tertiary extinction event is a subject of much debate amongst researchers.

In the 1800s when extinction was first described, the idea of extinction was threatening to those who held a belief in the Great Chain of Being, a theological position that did not allow for "missing links".[23] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1000x955, 53 KB) Dilophosaurus Author:User:ArthurWeasley File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Extinction Dilophosaurus Wikipedia:WikiProject Dinosaurs/Image review/Archive November 2006 Fauna of Connecticut User... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1000x955, 53 KB) Dilophosaurus Author:User:ArthurWeasley File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Extinction Dilophosaurus Wikipedia:WikiProject Dinosaurs/Image review/Archive November 2006 Fauna of Connecticut User... Species  ? Dilophosaurus was a theropod dinosaur from the Early Jurassic Period. ... Artists impression of a major impact event. ... 1579 drawing of the great chain of being from Didacus Valades, Rhetorica Christiana The great chain of being or scala naturæ is a classical and western medieval conception of the order of the universe, whose chief characteristic is a strict hierarchical system. ... Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ...


The possibility of extinction was not widely accepted before the 1800s.[23] [24] The devoted naturalist Carl Linnaeus, could "hardly entertain" the idea that humans could cause the extinction of a species.[25] When parts of the world had not been thoroughly examined and charted, scientists could not rule out that animals found only in the fossil record were not simply "hiding" in unexplored regions of the Earth.[26] Georges Cuvier is credited with establishing extinction as a fact in a 1796 lecture to the French Institute.[24] Cuvier's observations of fossil bones convinced him that they did not originate in extant animals. This discovery was critical for the spread of uniformitarianism[27] and lead to the first book publicizing the idea of evolution [28], though Cuvier himself strongly opposed the theories of evolution advanced by Lamarck and others. A painting of Carolus Linnaeus Carl Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as Carl von Linné, and who wrote under the Latinized name Carolus Linnaeus (May 23, 1707 – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish scientist who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of taxonomy. ... Georges Cuvier Baron Georges Léopold Chrétien Frédéric Dagobert Cuvier (August 23, 1769–May 13, 1832) was a French naturalist and zoologist. ... The Institut de France (French Institute) is a French learned society, grouping five académies, the most famous of which is probably the Académie française. ... Uniformitarianism, in the philosophy of science, is the assumption that the natural processes operating in the past are the same as those that can be observed operating in the present. ... Jean-Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet, Chevalier de Lamarck (August 1, 1744 - December 28, 1829) was a major 19th century naturalist, who was one of the first to use the term biology in its modern sense. ...


Human attitudes and interests

Extinction is an important research topic in the field of zoology, and biology in general, and has also become an area of concern outside the scientific community. A number of organizations, such as the Worldwide Fund for Nature, have been created with the goal of preserving species from extinction. Governments have attempted, through enacting laws, to avoid human overharvesting or habitat destruction. While many human-caused extinctions have been accidental, humans have also engaged in the deliberate destruction of some species, such as dangerous viruses, and the extirpation of other problematic species has been suggested. Zoology (from Greek: ζῴον, zoion, animal; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the biological discipline which involves the study of animals. ... Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, knowledge), also referred to as the biological sciences, is the study of living organisms utilizing the scientific method. ... WWF, the global environment conservation organization, was constituted and registered in 1961 pursuant to Sections 80 et seq. ... This article is about biological infectious particles. ...


Biologist Bruce Walsh of the University of Arizona states three reasons for scientific interest in the preservation of species; genetical resources, ecosystem stability, and ethics.[29], and today the scientific community "stress[es] the importance" of maintaining biodiversity[30][29]. The University of Arizona (UA or U of A) is a land-grant and space-grant public institution of higher education and research located in Tucson, Arizona, United States. ... For other uses, see Ethics (disambiguation). ...

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Extinction

In modern times, commercial and industrial interests often have to contend with the effects of production on plant and animal life. However, some technologies with minimal, or no, proven harmful effects on Homo sapiens can be devastating to wildlife (for example, DDT[31]). Biogeographer Jared Diamond notes that while big business may label environmental concerns as "exaggerated", and often cause "devastating damage", some corporations find it in their interest to adopt good conservation practices, and even engage in preservation efforts that surpass those taken by national parks.[32] Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... Homo sapiens (Latin: wise man) is the scientific name for the human species. ... DDT or Dichloro-Diphenyl-Trichloroethane is the first modern pesticide and is one of the best known synthetic pesticides. ... Biogeography is the science which deals with patterns of species distribution and the processes that result in such patterns. ... Jared Mason Diamond (b. ... Big Business or big business is a term used to describe large corporations, individually or collectively. ... This article is about national parks. ...


Governments sometimes see the loss of native species as a loss to ecotourism,[33] and can enact laws with severe punishment against the trade in native species in an effort to prevent extinction in the wild. Nature preserves are created by governments as a means to provide continuing habitats to species crowded by human expansion. The 1992 Convention on Biological Diversity has resulted in international Biodiversity Action Plan programmes, which attempt to provide comprehensive guidelines for government biodiversity conservation. Advocacy groups, such as The Wildlands Project[34] and the Alliance for Zero Extinctions,[35] work to educate the public and pressure governments into action. Tapanti National Park in Costa Rica Ecotourism, also known as ecological tourism, is a form of tourism which appeals to the ecologically and socially conscious. ... A nature reserve is an area of importance for wildlife, flora, fauna or features of geological or other special interest, which is reserved and managed for conservation and to provide special opportunities for study or research. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... The Convention on Biological Diversity is an international treaty that was adopted at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro in 1992. ... Diademed Sifaka, an endangered primate of Madagascar Biodiversity Action Plan (BAP) is a an internationally recognized programme addressing threatened species or habitats, which is designed to protect and restore biological systems. ...


People who live close to nature can be dependent on the survival of all the species in their environment, leaving them highly exposed to extinction risks. However, people prioritize day-to-day survival over species conservation; with human overpopulation in tropical developing countries, there has been enormous pressure on forests due to subsistence agriculture, including slash-and-burn agricultural techniques that can reduce endangered species's habitats.[36]. Lets talk about risk control strategies, anyone with more information and willing to share, please do so. ... Map of countries by population density (See List of countries by population density. ...  High human development Medium human development Low human development Unavailable (colour-blind compliant map)   Developing countries not listed as least developed countries or as newly industrialized countries, in their respective articles. ... Like most farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa, this Cameroonian man cultivates at the subsistence level. ... This article is about the agricultural practice of slash and burn. ...


Planned extinction

Humans have aggressively worked towards the extinction of many species of virus in the cause of disease eradication. For example, the smallpox virus is now essentially extinct in the wild[37] — although samples are retained in laboratory settings, and the polio virus is now confined to small parts of the world as a result of human efforts to cure the disease it causes.[38] Smallpox (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera) is a contagious disease unique to humans. ... Poliomyelitis (polio), or infantile paralysis, is a viral paralytic disease. ...


Olivia Judson is one of few modern scientists to have advocated the deliberate extinction of any species. Her September 25, 2003 New York Times article, "A Bug's Death", advocates "specicide" of thirty mosquito species through the introduction of recessive "knockout genes". Her arguments for doing so are that the Anopheles mosquitoes (which spread malaria) and Aedes mosquitoes (which spread dengue fever, yellow fever, elephantiasis, and other diseases) represent only 30 species; eradicating these would save at least one million human lives per annum at a cost of reducing the genetic diversity of the family Culicidae by only 1%. She further argues that since species go extinct "all the time" the disappearance of a few more will not destroy the ecosystem: "We're not left with a wasteland every time a species vanishes. Removing one species sometimes causes shifts in the populations of other species - but different need not mean worse." In addition, anti-malarial & mosquito control programs offer little realistic hope to the 300 million people in developing nations who will be infected with acute illnesses this year; although trials are ongoing she writes that if they fail: "We should consider the ultimate swatting." [39] Olivia Judson is an evolutionary biologist at Imperial College London, under the pseudonym of Dr. Tatiana she wrote a bestselling guidebook to sex throughout the natural kingdom called Dr. Tatianas Sex Advice to all Creation. She has supported a possible future campaign to completely wipeout the malarial mosquito (see... is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... For other uses, see Mosquito (disambiguation). ... In genetics, the term recessive gene refers to an allele that causes a phenotype (visible or detectable characteristic) that is only seen in a homozygous genotype (an organism that has two copies of the same allele). ... A gene knockout is a genetically engineered organism that carries one or more genes in its chromosomes that has been made inoperative. ... Some Species Anopheles atroparvus Anopheles barberi Anopheles beklemishevi Anopheles coustani Anopheles crypticus Anopheles culicifacies Anopheles earlei Anopheles farauti Anopheles fluviatilis Anopheles forattinii Anopheles funestus Anopheles gambiae Anopheles grabhamii Anopheles hailarensis Anopheles halophylus Anopheles hyrcanus Anopheles introlatus Anopheles kosiensis Anopheles latens Anopheles maculipennis Anopheles minimus Anopheles moucheti Anopheles nili Anopheles ovengensis... Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites. ... Species Aedes albopictus Aedes aegypti This page is about the genus of mosquito, for the Roman building see aedes (Roman) Aedes is a genus of mosquito found in tropical and subtropical zones. ... “Dengue Fever” redirects here. ... Elephantiasis (Greek ελεφαντίασις, from ελέφαντας, the elephant) is a disease that is characterized by the thickening of the skin and underlying tissues, especially in the legs and genitals. ... Genetic diversity is a characteristic of ecosystems and gene pools that describes an attribute which is commonly held to be advantageous for survival -- that there are many different versions of otherwise similar organisms. ... The hierarchy of scientific classification In biological classification, family (Latin: familia, plural familiae) is a rank, or a taxon in that rank. ... This article is about the insect; for the WWII aircraft see De Havilland Mosquito. ... A coral reef near the Hawaiian islands is an example of a complex marine ecosystem. ... Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites. ... For other uses, see Mosquito (disambiguation). ... A developing country is a country with low average income compared to the world average. ...


Cloning

While no extinct species has currently ever been recreated, recent technological advances have encouraged the hypothesis that through the process of cloning, extinct species may be "brought back to life".[40] Proposed targets for cloning include the mammoth[40] and thylacine, although the latter attempt has been abandoned.[41] In order for such a program to succeed, a sufficient number of individuals would need to be cloned (in the case of sexually reproducing organisms) to create a viable population size. The cloning of an extinct species has not yet been attempted, primarily due to technological limitations, though bioethical and philosophical objections have also been raised. The concept of cloning extinct species was popularized in the successful novel and movie Jurassic Park. For other uses, see clone. ... This article is about the genus Mammuthus. ... Binomial name (Harris, 1808) The Thylacine (Thylacinus cynocephalus) was the largest known carnivorous marsupial of modern times. ... Bioethics is the ethics of biological science and medicine. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... Jurassic Park is a techno-thriller novel written by Michael Crichton that was published in 1990. ...


See also

Conservation status
the risk of extinction
Extinction

Extinct
Extinct in the Wild
The conservation status of a species is an indicator of the likelihood of that species continuing to survive either in the present day or the future. ... Diagram of Extinct in the Wild in relation to other IUCN categories. ...

Threatened

Critically Endangered
Endangered
Vulnerable
Threatened
. ... The Siberian Tiger is a subspecies of tiger that are critically endangered. ... This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... The threatened categories (IUCN Red List) Threatened species are any species (including animals, plants, fungi, insects, bugs, etc. ...

Lower risk

Conservation Dependent
Near Threatened
Least Concern
Domesticated
Conservation Dependent (LR/cd) was an IUCN category assigned to species or lower taxa which were dependent on conservation efforts to prevent the taxon becoming threatened with extinction. ... Near Threatened (NT) is an conservation status assigned to species or lower taxa which may be considered threatened with extinction in the near future, although it does not currently qualify for the threatened status. ... Least Concern (LC) is an IUCN category assigned to extant species or lower taxa which have been evaluated but do not qualify for any other category. ... Dogs and sheep were among the first animals to be domesticated. ...

See also

World Conservation Union
IUCN Red List
The World Conservation Union or International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation. ... The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List and Red Data List), created in 1963, is the worlds most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of plant and animal species and can be found here. ...

Extinction Portal

Image File history File links Portal. ... // Extinct Animals redirects here. ... // Main article: Prehistoric plant Cooksonia sp. ... The timeline of extinctions is an historical account of species that have gone extinct during the time that modern humans have occupied the earth. ... The Living Planet Index (LPI) is an indicator of the state of global biological diversity, based on trends in vertebrate [1] populations of species from around the world. ... The gene pool of a species or a population is the complete set of unique alleles that would be found by inspecting the genetic material of every living member of that species or population. ... Genetic pollution, genetic contamination or genetic swamping happens when original set of naturally evolved (wild) region specific genes / gene pool of wild animals and plants become hybridized with domesticated and feral varieties or with the genes of other nonnative wild species or subspecies from neighboring or far away regions. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Habitat fragmentation is a process of environmental change important in evolution and conservation biology. ... The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List and Red Data List), created in 1963, is the worlds most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of plant and animal species and can be found here. ... The Red List Index (RLI), based on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, is an indicator of the changing state of global biodiversity. ...

Notes and references

  1. ^ Diamond, Jared (1999). "Up to the Starting Line", Guns, Germs, and Steel. W. W. Norton, 43-44. ISBN 0-393-31755-2. 
  2. ^ a b c Newman, Mark. "A Mathematical Model for Mass Extinction". Cornell University. May 20, 1994. URL accessed July 30, 2006.
  3. ^ a b Raup, David M. Extinction: Bad Genes or Bad Luck? W.W. Norton and Company. New York. 1991. pp.3-6 ISBN 978-0393309270
  4. ^ a b Species disappearing at an alarming rate, report says. MSNBC. URL accessed July 26, 2006.
  5. ^ a b c Wilson, E.O., The Future of Life (2002) (ISBN 0-679-76811-4). See also: Leakey, Richard. The Sixth Extinction : Patterns of Life and the Future of Humankind ( ISBN 0-385-46809-1 ).
  6. ^ Davis, Paul and Kenrick, Paul. Fossil Plants. Smithsonian Books, Washington D.C. (2004). Morran, Robin, C.; A Natural History of Ferns. Timber Press (2004). ISBN 0-88192-667-1
  7. ^ See: Niles Eldredge, Time Frames: Rethinking of Darwinian Evolution and the Theory of Punctuated Equilibria, 1986, Heinemann ISBN 0-434-22610-6
  8. ^ Maas, Peter. "[http://www.petermaas.nl/extinct/wilduk.htm Extinct in the Wild" The Extinction Website. URL accessed January 26, 2007.
  9. ^ Quince, C. et al.. "Deleting species from model food webs" (pdf). Retrieved on 2007-02-15.
  10. ^ Stearns, Beverly Peterson and Stephen C. (2000). "Preface", Watching, from the Edge of Extinction. Yale University Press, x. ISBN 0300084692. 
  11. ^ World Conservation Union. "2004 Red List". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. URL accessed September 20, 2006.
  12. ^ Payne, J.L. & S. Finnegan (2007). "The effect of geographical range on extinction risk during background and mass extinction.". Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 104 (25): 10506-11. doi:10.1073/pnas.0701257104. 
  13. ^ Hybridization and Introgression; Extinctions; from "The evolutionary impact of invasive species; by H. A. Mooney and E. E. Cleland" Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 May 8; 98(10): 5446–5451. doi: 10.1073/pnas.091093398. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, v.98(10); May 8, 2001, The National Academy of Sciences
  14. ^ Glossary: definitions from the following publication: Aubry, C., R. Shoal and V. Erickson. 2005. Grass cultivars: their origins, development, and use on national forests and grasslands in the Pacific Northwest. USDA Forest Service. 44 pages, plus appendices.; Native Seed Network (NSN), Institute for Applied Ecology, 563 SW Jefferson Ave, Corvallis, OR 97333, USA
  15. ^ EXTINCTION BY HYBRIDIZATION AND INTROGRESSION; by Judith M. Rhymer , Department of Wildlife Ecology, University of Maine, Orono, Maine 04469, USA; and Daniel Simberloff, Department of Biological Science, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida 32306, USA; Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, November 1996, Vol. 27, Pages 83-109 (doi: 10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.27.1.83), [1]
  16. ^ Genetic Pollution from Farm Forestry using eucalypt species and hybrids; A report for the RIRDC/L&WA/FWPRDC; Joint Venture Agroforestry Program; by Brad M. Potts, Robert C. Barbour, Andrew B. Hingston; September 2001; RIRDC Publication No 01/114; RIRDC Project No CPF - 3A; ISBN 0 642 58336 6; ISSN 1440-6845; Australian Government, Rural Industrial Research and Development Corporation
  17. ^ Clover, Charles. 2004. The End of the Line: How overfishing is changing the world and what we eat. Ebury Press, London. ISBN 0-09-189780-7
  18. ^ Lee, Anita. "The Pleistocene Overkill Hypothesis." University of California at Berkeley Geography Program. URL accessed January 11, 2007.
  19. ^ Koh, Lian Pih. Science, Vol 305, Issue 5690, 1632-1634, 10 September 2004.
  20. ^ American Museum of Natural History. "National Survey Reveals Biodiversity Crisis - Scientific Experts Believe We are in the Midst of the Fastest Mass Extinction in Earth's History". URL accessed September 20, 2006.
  21. ^ Ulansey, David, "The current mass extinction" repeats this statement with links to dozens of news reports on the phenomenon. URL accessed January 26, 2007.
  22. ^ J.H.Lawton and R.M.May, Extinction rates, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK
  23. ^ a b Viney, Mike. "Extinction Part 2 of 5". Colorado State University. URL accessed September 12, 2006.
  24. ^ a b Academy of Natural Sciences, "Fossils and Extinction" (http://www.ansp.org/museum/jefferson/otherPages/extinction.php) and U.C. Berkeley "History of Evolutionary Thought - Extinction" http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evosite/history/extinction.shtml.
  25. ^ Koerner, Lisbet (1999). "God's Endless Larder", Linnaeus: Nature and Nation. Harvard University Press, 85. ISBN 0-674-00565-1. 
  26. ^ Ideas: A History from Fire to Freud (Peter Watson Weidenfeld & Nicolson ISBN 0-297-60726-X)
  27. ^ Watson, p.16
  28. ^ Robert Chambers, 1844, Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation, 1994 reprint: University of Chicago Press ISBN 0-226-10073-1
  29. ^ a b Walsh, Bruce. Extinction. Bioscience at University of Arizona. URL accessed July 26, 2006.
  30. ^ Committee on Recently Extinct Organisms. "Why Care About Species That Have Gone Extinct?". URL accessed July 30, 2006.
  31. ^ International Programme on Chemical Safety (1989). "DDT and its Derivatives -- Environmental Aspects". Environmental Health Criteria 83. URL accessed September 20, 2006.
  32. ^ Diamond, Jared (2005). "A Tale of Two Farms", Collapse. Penguin, 15-17. ISBN 0-670-03337-5. 
  33. ^ Drewry, Rachel. "Ecotourism: Can it save the orangutans?" Inside Indonesia. URL accessed January 26, 2007.
  34. ^ The Wildlands Project. URL accessed January 26, 2007.
  35. ^ Alliance for Zero Extinctions. URL accessed January 26, 2007.
  36. ^ (1981) Extinction: The Causes and Consequences of the Disappearance of Species. Random House, New York. ISBN 0-394-51312-6. 
  37. ^ WHO FactsheetWHO meeting agenda Scientists certified it eradicated in December 1979, WHO formally ratified this on 8 May 1980 in resolution WHA33.3
  38. ^ Global Polio Eradication Initiative. "The History". URL accessed January 24, 2007.
  39. ^ Judson, Olivia. ""A Bug's Death"", New York Times, September 25, 2003. Retrieved on 2006-07-30. 
  40. ^ a b Discover Channel staff. Will mammoths walk again?. Discovery Channel. March 9, 2001. URL accessed July 30, 2006.
  41. ^ ""Museum ditches thylacine cloning project"", February 15, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-07-30. 

Jared Mason Diamond (b. ... Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies is a 1997 book by Jared Diamond, professor of geography and physiology at UCLA. In 1998 it won a Pulitzer Prize and the Aventis Prize for Best Science Book. ... W. W. Norton & Company is an American book publishing company that has remained independent since its founding. ... Cornell redirects here. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the news website, see msnbc. ... is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... E.O. Wilson with Dynastes hercules E. O. Wilson, or Edward Osborne Wilson, (born June 10, 1929) is an entomologist and biologist known for his work on ecology, evolution, and sociobiology. ... In 1977, Leaky sat next to the rare Half Monkey Half Man, who took a bite out of him, and made Leaky cry. ... is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Yale University Press is a book publisher founded in 1908. ... The World Conservation Union or International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation. ... is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA), mostly commonly referred to as PNAS, is the official publication of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Science is the journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). ... is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The University of Oxford, located in the city of Oxford in England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... Colorado State University is a public institution of higher learning located in Fort Collins, Colorado in the United States. ... is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Harvard University Press is a publishing house, a division of Harvard University, that is highly respected in academic publishing. ... Peter Watson is a business writer and intellectual historian from London, England. ... Robert Chambers (10 July 1802 – 17 March 1871), Scottish author and publisher, was born in Peebles. ... is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Jared Mason Diamond (b. ... is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Discovery Channel is a cable and satellite TV channel founded by John Hendricks which is distributed by Discovery Communications. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Extinction (4728 words)
Extinction strikes in both the land and the sea, though higher rates are generally cited among marine forms.
The Ordovician extinction was significantly the greater in terms of number of taxa killed, but did not disrupt global ecology to the extent of the end-Devonian extinction (Droser 2000).
However, other researchers observe that a mass extinction event is not necessary to explain the disappearance of the Ediacarans from the fossil record; conditions may simply have ceased to be favourable to their preservation with the arrival of more numerous and more diverse scavenging and bioturbating organisms.
The Great Mystery: Background (1283 words)
The largest would be the "Permo-Triassic" extinction, between the Permian and Triassic periods, of the Paleozoic and Mesozoic eras.
The Nature of Extinction: Extinction is not a simple event; it is not simply the death of all representatives of a group.
This is not to say that all extinction hypotheses are not science; many are excellent examples of good science, but a linkage of direct causation is a problem.
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