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Encyclopedia > Extinct language

An extinct language is a language which no longer has any native speakers, in contrast to a dead language, which is is a language which has stopped changing in grammar, vocabulary, and the complete meaning of a sentence. Normally this conversion to an extinct language occurs when a language undergoes language death while being directly replaced by a different one. For example: Coptic, which was replaced by Arabic, and many Native American languages, which were replaced by English, French, Spanish, or Portuguese. “Native Language” redirects here. ... It has been suggested that Moribund language be merged into this article or section. ... The Coptic language is a direct descendant of the ancient Egyptian language which was once written in Egyptian hieroglyphic, hieratic, and demotic scripts. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... Indigenous languages of the Americas (or Amerindian Languages) are spoken by indigenous peoples from the southern tip of South America to Alaska and Greenland, encompassing the land masses which constitute the Americas. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


Language extinction also occurs when a language undergoes a rapid evolution or assimilation until it eventually gives birth to an offspring, yet, dissimilar language (or family of languages). Sanskrit is the parent of the modern Indian languages and Old English is the parent of Modern English. There are apparently children using Sanskrit as a revived language in Mathoor village (India) [1]. The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... The article describes the languages spoken in the Republic of India. ... Old English (also called Anglo-Saxon[1], Old English: ) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... // Language revival is the revival, by governments, political authorities, or enthusiasts, to recover the spoken use of a language that is no longer spoken or is endangered. ... Mattur ( also spelled mathur, matthur) is a small village near the city of shimoga, in karnataka, india. ...


In some cases, an extinct language remains in use for scientific, legal, or ecclesiastical functions. Sanskrit, Latin, Old Church Slavonic, Avestan, Coptic, Old Tibetan and Ge'ez are among the many extinct languages used as sacred languages. Part of a scientific laboratory at the University of Cologne. ... Lady Justice or Justitia is a personification of the moral force that underlies the legal system (particularly in Western art). ... Various Religious symbols, including (first row) Christian, Jewish, Hindu, Bahai, (second row) Islamic, tribal, Taoist, Shinto (third row) Buddhist, Sikh, Hindu, Jain, (fourth row) Ayyavazhi, Triple Goddess, Maltese cross, pre-Christian Slavonic Religion is the adherence to codified beliefs and rituals that generally involve a faith in a spiritual... The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... Old Church Slavonic (Old Bulgarian or Old Slavic) is the first literary Slavic language, developed from the Slavic dialect of Thessaloniki (Solun) by the 9th century Byzantine missionaries, Saints Cyril and Methodius. ... Avestan is an Eastern Old Iranian language that was used to compose the sacred hymns and canon of the Zoroastrian Avesta. ... The Coptic language is a direct descendant of the ancient Egyptian language which was once written in Egyptian hieroglyphic, hieratic, and demotic scripts. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... A sacred language is a language, frequently a dead language, that is cultivated for religious reasons by people who speak another language in their daily life. ...


A language that does have living native speakers is called a modern language. Ethnologue claims there are 6,912 living languages known. [2] A modern language is any human language that is used by societies in the world today. ... Ethnologue: Languages of the World is a web and print publication of SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics), a Christian linguistic service organization which studies lesser-known languages primarily to provide the speakers with Bibles in their native language. ...


Hebrew is an example of a formerly extinct liturgical language that has been revived to become a living language. There have been other attempts at language revival (such as Manx and Cornish), but the success of these attempts has been subject to debate, as it is not clear they will ever become the common native language of a community of speakers. “Hebrew” redirects here. ... A liturgy is the customary public worship of a religious group, according to their particular traditions. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...

Contents

Recently extinct languages

With last known speaker and/or date of death. This is a list of languages that underwent language death and currently have no native speakers. ...

  1. Adai: (late 19th century)
  2. Akkala Sami: Marja Sergina (2003)
  3. entire Alsean family
    1. Alsea: John Albert (1942)
    2. Yaquina: (1884)
  4. Apalachee: (early 18th century)
  5. Atakapa: (early 20th century)
  6. Atsugewi: (1988)
  7. Beothuk: Shanawdithit (a.k.a. "Nancy April") (1829)
  8. entire Catawban family:
    1. Catawba: before 1960
    2. Woccon
  9. Cayuse: (ca. 1930s)
  10. Chemakum: (ca. 1940s)
  11. Chicomuceltec: (late 20th century)
  12. Chimariko: (ca. 1930s)
  13. Chitimacha: Benjamin Paul (1934) & Delphine Ducloux (1940)
  14. entire Chumashan family: Barbareño language was last to become extinct.
  15. Barbareño: Mary Yee (1965)
  16. Ineseño
  17. Island Chumash
  18. Obispeño
  19. Purisimeño
  20. Ventureño
  21. Coahuilteco: (18th century)
  22. Cochimí (a Yuman-Cochimí language): (early 19th century)
  23. entire Comecrudan family
    1. Comecrudo: recorded from children (Andrade, Emiterio, Joaquin, & others) of last speakers in 1886
    2. Garza: last recorded in 1828
    3. Mamulique: last recorded in 1828
  24. entire Coosan family
    1. Hanis: Martha Johnson (1972)
    2. Miluk: Annie Miner Peterson (1939)
  25. Cornish: (Dolly Pentreath, last fluent speaker, died 1777) (undergoing attempts at revival)
  26. all Costanoan languages (which make up a subfamily of the Utian language family): (ca. 1940s)
    1. Karkin
    2. Mutsun
    3. Northern Costanoan:
      1. Ramaytush
      2. Chochenyo
      3. Tamyen
      4. Awaswas
    4. Rumsen: last recorded speaker died 1939 in Monterey, California.
    5. Chalon
  27. Cotoname: last recorded from Santos Cavázos and Emiterio in 1886
  28. Esselen: report of few speakers left in 1833, extinct before end 19th century
  29. Gabrielino (an Uto-Aztecan language): elderly speakers last recorded in 1933
  30. Galice-Applegate (an Athabaskan language):
    1. Galice dialect: Hoxie Simmons (1963)
  31. Juaneño (an Uto-Aztecan language): last recorded in 1934
  32. Kakadu (Gagadju): Big Bill Neidjie (July 2002)
  33. entire Kalapuyan family:
    1. Central Kalapuya:
      1. Ahantchuyuk, Luckimute, Mary's River, and Lower McKenzie River dialects: last speakers were about 6 persons who were all over 60 in 1937
      2. Santiam dialect: (ca. 1950s)
    2. Northern Kalapuya:
      1. Tualatin dialect: Louis Kenoyer (1937)
      2. Yamhill dialect: Louisa Selky (1915)
    3. Yonkalla: last recorded in 1937 from Laura Blackery Albertson who only partly remembered it.
  34. Kamassian: (1989)
  35. Karankawa: (1858)
  36. Kathlamet (a Chinookan language): (ca. 1930s)
  37. Kitanemuk (an Uto-Aztecan language): Marcelino Rivera, Isabella Gonzales, Refugia Duran (last recorded 1937)
  38. Kitsai (a Caddoan language): (ca. 1940)
  39. Kwalhioqua-Clatskanie (an Athabaskan language): children of the last speakers remembered a few words, recorded in 1935 & 1942
    1. Clatskanie dialect: father of Willie Andrew (ca. 1870)
    2. Kwalhioqua dialect: mother of Lizzie Johnson (1910)
  40. Lower Chinook (a Chinookan language): (ca. 1930s)
  41. Mahican: last spoken in Wisconsin (ca. 1930s)
  42. Manx: Ned Maddrell (December 1974) (but is being revived as a second language)
  43. Mattole-Bear River (an Athabaskan language):
    1. Bear River dialect: material from last elderly speaker recorded (ca. 1929)
    2. Mattole dialect: material recorded (ca. 1930)
  44. Mbabaram: Albert Bennett (1972)
  45. Miami-Illinois: (1989)
  46. Mochica: ca. 1950s
  47. Mohegan: Fidelia Fielding (1908)
  48. Molala: Fred Yelkes (1958)
  49. Munichi: Victoria Huancho Icahuate (late 1990s)
  50. Natchez: Watt Sam & Nancy Raven (early 1930s)
  51. Negerhollands: Alice Stevenson (1987)
  52. Nooksack: Sindick Jimmy (1977)
  53. Northern Pomo: (1994)
  54. Nottoway (an Iroquoian language): last recorded before 1836
  55. Pentlatch (a Salishan language): Joe Nimnim (1940)
  56. Pánobo (a Pano-Tacanan language): 1991
  57. Polabian (a Slavic language): (late 18th century)
  58. Salinan: (ca. 1960)
  59. entire Shastan family
    1. Konomihu
    2. New River Shasta
    3. Okwanuchu
    4. Shasta: 3 elderly speakers in 1980, extinct by 1990
  60. Siuslaw: (ca. 1970s)
  61. Slovincian (a Slavic language): (20th century)
  62. Susquehannock: all last speakers murdered in 1763
  63. Takelma: Molly Orton (or Molly Orcutt) & Willie Simmons (both not fully fluent) last recorded in 1934
  64. Tasmanian: (late 19th century)
  65. Tataviam (an Uto-Aztecan language): Juan José Fustero who remembered only a few words of his grandparents' language (recorded 1913)
  66. Teteté (an Tucanoan language)
  67. Tillamook (a Salishan language): (1970)
  68. Tonkawa: 6 elderly people in 1931
  69. Tsetsaut (an Athabaskan language): last fluent speaker was elderly man recorded in 1894
  70. Tunica: Sesostrie Youchigant (ca. mid 20th century)
  71. Ubykh: Tevfik Esenç (October 1992)
  72. all dialects of Upper Chinook (a Chinookan language) are extinct, except for the Wasco-Wishram dialect. The Clackamas dialect began extinct in the 1930s, other dialects have little documentation. (The Wasco-Wishram dialect is still spoken by 6 elders.)
  73. Upper Umpqua: Wolverton Orton, last recorded in 1942
  74. Vegliot Dalmatian: Tuone Udaina (Italian: Antonio Udina) (10 June 1898)
  75. Wappo
  76. Wiyot: Della Prince (1962)
  77. Yana: Ishi (1916)
  78. Yola related to English (mid 19th c.)

Adai (also Adaizan, Adaizi, Adaise, Adahi, Adaes, Adees, Atayos) is the name of a people and language that was spoken in eastern Louisiana. ... Akkala Sami is a Sami language that was spoken in the Sami villages of A´kkel and ÄŒu´kksuâl, in the inland parts of the Kola Peninsula in Russia. ... Pre-contact distribution of Alsean languages The Alsean (also Yakonan) language family consists of two closely related languages that were spoken along the central Oregon coast. ... The Alsea were a Native American tribe of Western Oregon. ... Yaquina originally denoted a tribe of Native Americans, now nearly extinct [citation needed], along with their language (an Alsean language that is also extinct, which is also known as Yakwina or Yakona). ... Apalachee were an Indian tribe that lived in Florida. ... Pre-contact distribution of the Atakapa language Atakapa is an extinct language isolate native to southwestern Louisiana and nearby eastern Texas. ... Atsugewi is a moribund Palaihnihan language of northeastern California spoken by the Atsugewi people. ... Pre-contact distribution of Beothuk language The Beothuk language (also Beothukan) was the language spoken by the Beothuk indigenous people of Newfoundland. ... Statue of Shanawdithit, at the Boyds Cove Beothuk Site, Newfoundland. ... Pre-contact distribution of the Catawban languages The Catawban (also Eastern Siouan) languages form a small language family in east North America. ... Pre-contact distribution of the Catawba The Catawba (also known as Issa or Esaw) are a tribe of Native Americans, once considered one of the most powerful eastern Siouan tribes, that traditionally lived in the Southeast United States, along the border between North and South Carolina. ... For other uses, see Cayuse (disambiguation). ... Chemakum (English pronunciation: [ˈʧɛməkəm]) (also written as Chimakum or Chimacum) were a Native American group that once lived on western Washington states Olympic Peninsula. ... Chicomuceltec (or Chicomucelteco) is a Mayan language that until recently was spoken in the towns of Mazapa de Madero, Amatenango, and Chicomuselo in Chiapas, Mexico, as well as some nearby areas of Guatemala. ... Pre-contact distribution of Chimariko Chimariko is an extinct language isolate formerly spoken in Trinity County in northwestern California by Chimariko peoples. ... The Chitimacha (also Chitimachan, Chetimacha) are a Native American group that lives in the U.S. state of Louisiana, mainly in St. ... Pre-contact distribution of Chumashan languages Chumashan is a family of languages that were spoken on the southern California coast (from San Luis Obispo to Malibu), in neighboring inland regions (San Joaquin Valley), and on three nearby islands (San Miguel, Santa Rosa, and Santa Cruz). ... Ventureño is one of the extinct Chumash languages, a group of Native American languages previously spoken along the coastal areas of Southern California from as far north as San Luis Obispo to as far south as Malibu. ... Coahuilteco (also Pajalate) was a language isolate that was spoken in southern Texas and northeastern Mexico. ... The Cochimí were the aboriginal inhabitants of the central part of the Baja California peninsula, from El Rosario in the north to San Javier in the south. ... Yuman-Cochimí languages Yuman-Cochimí is a family of languages spoken in Baja California and northern Sonora in Mexico and southern California and southwestern Arizona in the USA. Genetic relations The Yuman-Cochimí family consists of 11 languages: I. Cochimí 1. ... Comecrudan languages Comecrudan refers to a group of possibly related languages spoken in the southernmost part of Texas and in northern Mexico along the Rio Grande. ... Comecrudan refers to a group of possibly related languages spoken in the southernmost part of Texas and in northern Mexico along the Rio Grande. ... Comecrudan languages Comecrudan refers to a group of possibly related languages spoken in the southernmost part of Texas and in northern Mexico along the Rio Grande. ... Comecrudan refers to a group of possibly related languages spoken in the southernmost part of Texas and in northern Mexico along the Rio Grande. ... The Coosan (also Coos or Kusan) language family consists of two languages spoken along the southern Oregon coast: Hanis Miluk (a. ... The Coosan (also Coos or Kusan) language family consists of two languages spoken along the southern Oregon coast: Hanis Miluk (a. ... The Coosan (also Coos or Kusan) language family consists of two languages spoken along the southern Oregon coast: Hanis Miluk (a. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Dolly Pentreath (died December 1777) is considered by many to be the last native speaker of the Cornish language (that is, the last person who spoke only or predominantly Cornish). ... For the college of the same name, see Ohlone College. ... Utian (also Miwok-Costanoan) is language family consisting of Miwokan languages and Costanoan languages. ... Karkin was a Costanoan language that was spoken in northern California by Costanoans. ... Area where the Mutsun language was spoken The Mutsun (or San Juan Bautista) language is an extinct Costanoan language of the U.S. state of California. ... The Ramaytush were one of eight major divisions of the Ohlone Indians, also known as San Francisco, who lived between San Francisco Bay and the Pacific in the area which is now San Francisco and San Mateo County Categories: ‪Ethnic group stubs‬ | ‪Native American tribes‬ ... The Chochenyo (also called Chocheño, Chocenyo) are one of eight divisions of the Ohlone (Coastanoan) people of Native Americans who lived in Northern California. ... The Tamyen (also known as Tamien) are one of eight divisions of the Ohlone (Coastanoan) people groups of Native Americans who lived in Northern California. ... The Awaswas people (also known as Santa Cruz) are one of eight divisions of the Ohlone (Coastanoan) Native Americans of Northern California. ... The Rumsen (also known as the Rumsien, San Carlos or Carmel) are one of eight divisions of the Ohlone (Coastanoan) Native American people of Northern California. ... The Chalon (also known as Soledad) are one of eight Ohlone people groups of Native Americans who lived in Northern California. ... Map indicating where Cotoname is spoken Cotoname is a Southwestern language family, spoken by Native Americans indigenous to the lower Rio Grande Valley of northeastern Mexico and extreme southern Texas (United States). ... Esselen The Esselen were the Native American inhabitants of what is now known as Big Sur on the Central Coast of California. ... The Tongva are a Native American people originally inhabiting the area in and around Los Angeles, California, previously known as the Gabrieleño, San Gabrieleño, or Gabrielino tribe. ... Pre-contact distribution of Northern Uto-Aztecan languages (note: this map does not show the distribution in Mexico) Uto-Aztecan (also Uto-Aztekan) is a Native American language family. ... Athabaskan or Athabascan (also Athapascan or Athapaskan) is the name of a large group of distantly related Native American peoples, also known as the Athabasca Indians or Athapaskes, and of their language family. ... The Juaneño or Acjachemem are a Native American group from Southern California. ... Pre-contact distribution of Northern Uto-Aztecan languages (note: this map does not show the distribution in Mexico) Uto-Aztecan (also Uto-Aztekan) is a Native American language family. ... The Kakadu or Gaagudju language was an Australian language isolate spoken in Arnhem Land, northern Australia, in the environs of Kakadu National Park. ... Big Bill Neidjie (c. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... The Kalapuya (also Kalapooian, Calapooya, Calapooia) are a Native American ethnic group that once inhabited the area present-day western Oregon in the United States. ... Central Kalapuyan is a Native American language in Oregon Penutian family, indigineous to the central and southern Willamette Valley in United States. ... Northern Kalupuyan is a Native American language in the Oregon Penutian family, indigineous to northwestern Oregon in the United States. ... Yoncalla, sometimes called Southern Kalapuyan, is a Native American language in the Oregon Penutian family of languages, once spoken in southwest Oregon in the United States In the 19th century it was spoken by the Yoncalla band of the Kalapuya people in the Umpqua River valley. ... Kamassian or Kamas is an extinct Uralic language belonging to the southern group of the Samoyedic languages. ... Karankawa A group of Indian tribes, now extinct, known collectively as the Karankawa (also Karankawan, Clamcoëhs), played a pivotal part in early Texas history. ... Chinook has several meanings: The Chinookan nation of Native Americans of the Pacific Northwest, which inhabited the lower Columbia River valley in what is now Washington, Oregon, and British Columbia. ... Kitanemuk was a Northern Uto-Aztecan language of the Takic branch. ... Pre-contact distribution of Northern Uto-Aztecan languages (note: this map does not show the distribution in Mexico) Uto-Aztecan (also Uto-Aztekan) is a Native American language family. ... The Kitsai (also Kichai) language is an extinct Pawnee-Kitsai language of the Caddoan languages. ... The Caddoan languages are a family of Native American languages. ... Athabaskan or Athabascan (also Athapascan or Athapaskan) is the name of a large group of distantly related Native American peoples, also known as the Athabasca Indians or Athapaskes, and of their language family. ... Chinook has several meanings: The Chinookan nation of Native Americans of the Pacific Northwest, which inhabited the lower Columbia River valley in what is now Washington, Oregon, and British Columbia. ... Mahicans settled the Hudson River south of the Mohawk River, moved east to Massachusetts, then to Wisconsin. ... Edward Ned Maddrell (1877?–December 27, 1974) was a fisherman from the Isle of Man who was arguably the last surviving native speaker of the Manx language. ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... // Language revival is the revival, by governments, political authorities, or enthusiasts, to recover the spoken use of a language that is no longer spoken or is endangered. ... A second language is any language other than the first, or native, language learned; it is typically used because of geographical or social reasons. ... Athabaskan or Athabascan (also Athapascan or Athapaskan) is the name of a large group of distantly related Native American peoples, also known as the Athabasca Indians or Athapaskes, and of their language family. ... Mbabaram is an extinct Australian Aboriginal language of north Queensland. ... The Miami language is a Native American language formerly spoken in the United States, primarily in northern Indiana and Ohio by members of the Miami tribe. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Miami language. ... The Mochica language was spoken along the northwest coast of Peru and in some inland villages and was first documented in 1607. ... The Mohegan tribe is an Algonquian-speaking tribe living in eastern (upper Thames valley) Connecticut [1] who were jointly ruled by the Pequot tribe until 1637. ... The Molala (also Molale, Molalla, Molele) were a people of the Plateau culture area in central Oregon. ... Munichi (Ethnologue code MYR) is a recently extinct language which was spoken in the village of Munichis, about 10 miles/ 16 km West of Yurimaguas, Loreto Region, Peru. ... Pre-contact distribution of Natchez peoples Although suffering a turbulent history since European contact, the Natchez Nation still represents a vital part of the United States Native American community. ... Negerhollands is a Zeeuws creole that was once spoken in the Danish West Indies, now known as the U.S. Virgin Islands. ... Nooksack is a Native American tribe in western Washington state in the United States. ... Northern Pomo is an extinct Pomoan language formerly spoken around Clear Lake in Lake County, California by one of the several Pomo peoples. ... Iroquoian languages The Iroquoian languages are a Native American language family. ... The Pentlatch or Puntlatch language is an extinct Salishan language that was spoken in western Canada. ... The Salishan (also Salish) languages are a group of languages of western Canada and the Pacific Northwest of the United States. ... Pano-Tacanan (also Pano-Takana, Pano-Takánan, Pano-Tacana, Páno-Takána) is a family of languages spoken in Peru, western Brazil, Bolivia and northern Paraguay. ... The Polabian language, which became extinct in the 18th century, was a group of Slavic dialects spoken in present-day northern Germany: Mecklenburg, Brandenburg, Saxony-Anhalt, eastern parts of Lower Saxony, and Schleswig-Holstein. ...  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup... The Salinan Native Americans lived in what is now Northern California, in the Salinas Valley. ... Pre-contact distribution of Shastan languages The Shastan (also Sastean) family consisted of four languages, spoken in present-day northern California and southern Oregon. ... The Okwanuchu were one of a number of small Shastan speaking tribes in Northern California, who were closely related to the adjacent larger Shasta tribe. ... The Shasta language was a Shastan language spoken from northern California into southwestern Oregon. ... Siuslaw is one of the three Confederated Tribes of Coos, Lower Umpqua, and Siuslaw located on the southwest Oregon Pacific coast in the United States. ... Slovincian is an extinct dialect of the Pomeranian language, spoken between the lakes Gardno and Lebsko in Pomerania. ...  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup... Susquehannock The Susquehannock people were natives of areas adjacent to the Susquehanna River and its tributaries from the southern part of what is now New York, through Pennsylvania, to the mouth of the Susquehanna in Maryland at the north end of the Chesapeake Bay. ... Takelma was the language spoken by the Takelma people. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Tataviam language is an extinct Uto-Aztecan language that was spoken in southern California. ... Pre-contact distribution of Northern Uto-Aztecan languages (note: this map does not show the distribution in Mexico) Uto-Aztecan (also Uto-Aztekan) is a Native American language family. ... Teteté is an extinct Tucanoan language that was spoken in Ecuador close to the Ecuador-Colombia border. ... Tucanoan (also Tukanoan, Tukánoan) is a language family of Colombia, Brazil, Ecuador, and Peru. ... Tillamook is an extinct Salishan language, formerly spoken by the Tillamook tribe in northwestern Oregon, USA. // Phonology Vowels Consonants The rounded consonants, including , are not labialized—the effect is created entirely inside the mouth, by cupping the tongue. ... The Salishan (also Salish) languages are a group of languages of western Canada and the Pacific Northwest of the United States. ... The Tonkawa language was spoken in Oklahoma, Texas, and New Mexico by the Tonkawa people. ... The Tsetsaut language (also Tsetsaut) was an Athabascan language spoken in Alaska and Canada. ... Athabaskan or Athabascan (also Athapascan or Athapaskan) is the name of a large group of distantly related Native American peoples, also known as the Athabasca Indians or Athapaskes, and of their language family. ... The Tunica (or Tonica) language was a language isolate spoken in present-day Louisiana in the United States. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Tevfik Esenç at age 82 Tevfik Esenç (1904 – October 7, 1992) was a circassian exile in Turkey and the last known speaker of the Ubykh language. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... Chinook has several meanings: The Chinookan nation of Native Americans of the Pacific Northwest, which inhabited the lower Columbia River valley in what is now Washington, Oregon, and British Columbia. ... The Clackamas Indians were a tribe of American Indians of the American state of Oregon. ... Wasco is the name of two places in the United States: Wasco in California, Wasco in Oregon. ... Dalmatian is an extinct Romance language formerly spoken along the eastern Adriatic in Dalmatian coast of Croatia and as far south as Kotor (Cattaro) in Montenegro. ... Tuone Udaina (or Antonio Udina in Italian) was the last native speaker of the Dalmatian language. ... June 10 is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Wappo were a group of Native Americans who lived in the Napa and Russian River areas of Northern California. ... Wiyot (also Wishosk) is an extinct Algic language. ... The Yahi were a group of Native Americans who lived in Northern California in the Northern Sierra Nevada, on the western side of the range. ... Ishi (right), last known member of the Yahi tribe, with anthropologist Alfred L. Kroeber (1911). ... Introduction The Yola language is a branch of Middle English that evolved separately among the English who followed the Norman barons Strongbow and Robert Fitzstephens to eastern Ireland in 1169. ...

See also

An endangered language is a language with so few surviving speakers that it is in danger of falling out of use. ... This is a list of languages that underwent language death and currently have no native speakers. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... // Language revival is the revival, by governments, political authorities, or enthusiasts, to recover the spoken use of a language that is no longer spoken or is endangered. ...

External links

Notes/References

Bibliography

  • Adelaar, Willem F. H.; & Muysken, Pieter C. (2004). The languages of the Andes. Cambridge language surveys. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521362757.
  • Brenzinger, Matthias (ed.) (1992) Language Death: Factual and Theoretical Explorations with Special Reference to East Africa. Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter. ISBN 978-3-11-013404-9.
  • Campbell, Lyle; & Mithun, Marianne (Eds.). (1979). The languages of native America: Historical and comparative assessment. Austin: University of Texas Press. ISBN 0292746245.
  • Dorian, Nancy C. (1978). Fate of morphological complexity in language death: Evidence from East Sutherland Gaelic. Language, 54 (3), 590-609.
  • Dorian, Nancy C. (1981). Language death: The life cycle of a Scottish Gaelic dialect. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 0812277856.
  • Dressler, Wolfgand & Wodak-Leodolter, Ruth (eds.) (1977) Language death (International Journal of the Sociology of Language vol. 12). The Hague: Mouton.
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  Results from FactBites:
 
Behind the Name: Languages Referenced by this Site (1404 words)
The Celtic language that was spoken by the Celts of southeastern Britain and Brittany (Bretons).
The extinct language that was spoken by the Goths.
The Gaelic language of the Celts of Ireland.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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