External ballistics is the part of the science of ballistics that deals with the behaviour of a nonpowered projectile in flight. External ballistics is frequently associated with firearms, and deals with the behaviour of the bullet after it exits the barrel and before it hits the target. When in flight, the main forces acting on the projectile are gravity and air resistance. Image File history File links Mergefrom. ...
Bullet drop for a M4 and M16 rifle Bullet drop is the name given to the tendency of a bullet to drop in flight due to the effect of gravity. ...
For other uses, see Ballistics (disambiguation). ...
Firearms redirects here. ...
This article is about firearms projectiles. ...
The barrel of a firearm is the tube, usually metal, through which a controlled explosion is released in order to propel a projectile out of the end at great speed. ...
For other uses, see Force (disambiguation). ...
A projectile is any object sent through space by the application of a force. ...
Gravity is a force of attraction that acts between bodies that have mass. ...
For a solid object moving through a fluid or gas, drag is the sum of all the aerodynamic or hydrodynamic forces in the direction of the external fluid flow. ...
Forces acting on the projectile
Gravity imparts a downward acceleration on the projectile, causing it to drop from the line of sight, and the air resistance decelerates the projectile with a force proportional to the square of the velocity (or cube, or even higher powers of v, depending on the speed of the projectile). Over long periods of flight, these forces have a major impact on the path of the projectile, and must be accounted for when predicting where the projectile will travel. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...
Target shooters must be very aware of the external ballistics of their bullets. When shooting at long ranges, bullet drop can be measured in tens of feet within the accurate range of many rifle cartridges, so knowledge of the flight characteristics of the bullet and the distance to the target are essential for accurate long range shooting. At extremely long ranges, artillery must fire projectiles along trajectories that are not even approximately straight; they are closer to parabolic, although air resistance affects this. For the longer ranges and flight times, the Coriolis effect becomes important. In the case of ballistic missiles, the altitudes involved have a significant effect as well, with part of the flight taking place in a nearvacuum. Bullet drop for a M4 and M16 rifle Bullet drop is the name given to the tendency of a bullet to drop in flight due to the effect of gravity. ...
For other uses, see Rifle (disambiguation). ...
For other uses, see Artillery (disambiguation). ...
A parabola A graph showing the reflective property, the directrix (light blue), and the lines connecting the focus and directrix to the parabola (blue) In mathematics, the parabola (from the Greek: Ï€Î±ÏÎ±Î²Î¿Î»Î®) (IPA pronunciation: ) is a conic section generated by the intersection of a right circular conical surface and a plane...
In the inertial frame of reference (upper part of the picture), the black object moves in a straight line. ...
Diagram of V2, the first ballistic missile. ...
Small arms external ballistics Drag resistance modelling and measuring Mathematical models for calculating the effects of air resistance are quite complex and for the simpler mathematical models not very reliable beyond 500 m (500 yd), so the most reliable method of establishing trajectories is still by empirical measurement. A mathematical model is an abstract model that uses mathematical language to describe the behaviour of a system. ...
Mathematically the term trajectory refers to the ordered set of states which are assumed by a dynamical system over time (see e. ...
Fixed drag curve models generated for standardshaped projectiles Use of ballistics tables or ballistics software based on the Siacci/Mayevski G1 drag model, introduced in 1881, are the most common method used to work with external ballistics. Bullets are described by a ballistic coefficient, or BC, which combines the air resistance of the bullet shape (the drag coefficient) and its sectional density (a function of mass and bullet diameter). The ballistic coefficient (BC) is the mass of the object divided by the diameter squared that it presents to the airflow divided by a dimensionless constant i that relates to the shape. ...
The drag coefficient (Cd, Cx or Cw, depending on the country) is a dimensionless quantity that describes a characteristic amount of aerodynamic drag caused by fluid flow, used in the drag equation. ...
The deceleration due to drag that a projectile with mass m, velocity v, and diameter d will experience is proportional to BC, 1/m, v² and d². The BC gives the ratio of ballistic efficiency compared to the standard G1 projectile, which is a 1 pound (454 g), 1 inch (25.4 mm) diameter bullet with a flat base, a length of 3 inches (76.2 mm), and a 2 inch (50.8 mm) radius tangential curve for the point. An object falling through a gas or liquid experiences a force in direction opposite to its motion. ...
The formula for calculating the ballistic coefficient is as follows: 
where:  BC = ballistic coefficient
 sd = sectional density
 i = form factor
 m = mass of the bullet, lb or kg
 d = diameter of the object, in or m
Alternately: 
where:  BC = ballistic coefficient
 m = mass of the bullet
 A = crosssectional area
 Cd = drag coefficient
 d = average density of the bullet
 l = bullet length
Sporting bullets, with a calibre d ranging from 0.177 to 0.50 inches (4.50 to 12.7 mm), have BC’s in the range 0.12 to slightly over 1.00, with 1.00 being the most aerodynamic, and 0.12 being the least. Sectional density is a very important aspect of a bullet, and is the ratio of frontal surface area (half the bullet diameter squared, times pi) to bullet mass. Since, for a given bullet shape, frontal surface increases as the square of the calibre, and mass increases as the cube of the diameter, then sectional density grows linearly with bore diameter. Since BC combines shape and sectional density, a half scale model of the G1 projectile will have a BC of 0.5, and a quarter scale model will have a BC of 0.25. The drag coefficient (Cd, Cx or Cw, depending on the country) is a dimensionless quantity that describes a characteristic amount of aerodynamic drag caused by fluid flow, used in the drag equation. ...
The word caliber (American English) or calibre (British English) comes from the Italian calibro, itself from the Arabic quâlib, meaning mould. ...
.50 BMG rounds and 20MM Vulcan round, with a golf ball and a stick of RAM posed to provide scale. ...
When a circles diameter is 1, its circumference is Ï€. Pi or Ï€ is the ratio of a circles circumference to its diameter in Euclidean geometry, approximately 3. ...
A scale model of the Tower of London. ...
Since different projectile shapes will respond differently to changes in velocity (particularly between supersonic and subsonic velocities), a BC provided by a bullet manufacturer will be an average BC that represents the common range of velocities for that bullet. For rifle bullets, this will probably be a supersonic velocity, for pistol bullets it will be probably be subsonic. For projectiles that travel through the supersonic, transonic and subsonic flight regimes BC is not well approximated by a single constant, but is considered to be a function BC(M) of the Mach number M; here M equals the projectile velocity divided by the speed of sound. During the flight of the projectile the M will decrease, and therefore (in most cases) the BC will also decrease. A United States Navy F/A18E/F Super Hornet in transonic flight. ...
Subsonic has two possible meanings: A speed lower than the speed of sound is called subsonic. ...
For other uses, see Rifle (disambiguation). ...
A United States Navy F/A18E/F Super Hornet in transonic flight. ...
Subsonic has two possible meanings: A speed lower than the speed of sound is called subsonic. ...
A United States Navy F/A18E/F Super Hornet in transonic flight. ...
Transonic is an aeronautics term referring to a range of velocities just below and above the speed of sound. ...
Subsonic has two possible meanings: A speed lower than the speed of sound is called subsonic. ...
Graph of example function, The mathematical concept of a function expresses the intuitive idea of deterministic dependence between two quantities, one of which is viewed as primary (the independent variable, argument of the function, or its input) and the other as secondary (the value of the function, or output). A...
An F/A18 Hornet breaking the sound barrier. ...
This page is about the physical speed of sound waves in a medium. ...
Most ballistic tables or software takes for granted that one specific drag function correctly describes the drag and hence the flight characteristics of a bullet related to its ballistics coefficient. Those models do not differentiate between flatbased, spitzer, boattail, verylowdrag, etc. bullet types. They assume one invariable drag function as indicated by the published BC. These resulting drag curve models are referred to as the Ingalls, G1 (by far the most popular), G2, G5, G6, G7, G8, GI and GL drag curves. Verylowdrag bullets (VLD) are primarily a small arms ballistics development of the 1980s  1990s, driven by shooters desire for bullets that will give a high degree of accuracy and kinetic efficiency, especially at extended range. ...
How different speed regimes affect .338 calibre rifle bullets can be seen in the .338 Lapua Magnum product brochure which states Doppler radar established BC data.^{[1]} The reason for publishing data like in this brochure is that the Siacci/Mayevski G1 model can not be tuned for the drag behaviour of a specific projectile. Some ballistic software designers, who based their programs on the Siacci/Mayevski G1 model, give the user the possibility to enter several different BC constants for different speed regimes to calculate ballistic predictions that closer match a bullets flight behaviour at longer ranges compared to calculations that use only one BC constant.
More advanced drag models Pejsa model Besides the traditional Siacci/Mayevski G1 drag model other more advanced drag models exist. The most prominent alternative ballistic model is probably the model presented in 1980 by Prof. Arthur J. Pejsa. Mr. Pejsa claims on his website that his method was consistently capable of predicting (supersonic) rifle bullet trajectories within 2.54 mm (0.1 in) and bullet velocities within 0.3048 m/s (1 ft/s) out to 914.4 m (1000 yd) when compared to dozens of actual measurements. The Pejsa model is an analytic closedform solution that does not use any tables or fixed drag curves generated for standardshaped projectiles. The Pejsa method uses the G1based ballistic coefficient as published, and incorporates this in a Pejsa retardation coefficient function in order to model the retardation behaviour of the specific projectile. Since it effectively uses an analytic function (drag coefficient modelled as a function of the Mach number) in order to match the drag behaviour of the specific bullet the Pesja method does not need to rely on any prefixed assumption. Besides the mathematical retardation coefficient function, Pejsa added an extra slope constant factor that accounts for the more subtle change in retardation rate downrange of different bullet shapes and sizes. It ranges from 0.1 (flatnose bullets) to 0.9 (verylowdrag bullets). If this deceleration constant factor is unknown a default value of 0.5 will predict the flight behaviour of most modern spitzertype rifle bullets quite well. With the help of test firing measurements the slope constant for a particular bullet can be determined. These test firings should preferrably be executed at 75% to 80% of the supersonic range of the projectiles of interest, staying away from erratic transonic effects. With this the Pejsa model can easily and accurately be tuned for the specific drag behaviour of a specific projectile, making significant better ballistic predictions for ranges beyond 500 m (546.7 yd) possible. Verylowdrag bullets (VLD) are primarily a small arms ballistics development of the 1980s  1990s, driven by shooters desire for bullets that will give a high degree of accuracy and kinetic efficiency, especially at extended range. ...
Some software developers offer commercial software which is based on the Pejsa drag model enhanced with refinements to account for normally minor effects (Coriolis, spin drift, etc.) that come in to play at long range. The developers of these enhanced Pejsa models designed these programs for ballistic predictions beyond 1000 m (1093.6 yd).
6 degrees of freedom (6 DOF) model There are also advanced professional ballistic models like PRODAS available. These are based on 6 Degrees Of Freedom (6 DOF) calculations. 6 DOF modelling needs such elaborate input, knowledge of the employed projectiles and long calculation time on computers that it is unpractical for nonprofessional ballisticians and field use where calculations generally have to be done on the fly on PDA's with relatively modest computing power. 6 DOF is generally used by military organizations that study the ballistic behaviour of a limited number of (intended) military issue projectiles. Calculated 6 DOF trends can be incorporated as correction tables in more conventional ballistic software applications. Look up Personal digital assistant in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...
Doppler radarmeasurements For the precise establishment of BC's or maybe scientifically better expressed drag coefficients Doppler radarmeasurements are required. The normal shooting or aerodynamics enthusiast however has no access to such expensive professional measurement devices. Weibel 1000e Doppler radars are used by governments, professional ballisticians, defence forces and a few ammunition manufacturers to obtain exact real world data of the flight behaviour of projectiles of their interest. The drag coefficient (Cd, Cx or Cw, depending on the country) is a dimensionless quantity that describes a characteristic amount of aerodynamic drag caused by fluid flow, used in the drag equation. ...
Doppler Effect Doppler radar uses the Doppler effect to measure the radial velocity of targets in the antennas directional beam. ...
Doppler Effect Doppler radar uses the Doppler effect to measure the radial velocity of targets in the antennas directional beam. ...
Doppler radar measurement results for a lathe turned monolithic solid .50 BMG verylowdrag bullet (Lost River J40 .510773 grain monolithic solid bullet / twist rate 1:15 in) look like this: Verylowdrag bullets (VLD) are primarily a small arms ballistics development of the 1980s  1990s, driven by shooters desire for bullets that will give a high degree of accuracy and kinetic efficiency, especially at extended range. ...
Range (m)  500  600  700  800  900  1000  1100  1200  1300  1400  1500  1600  1700  1800  1900  2000  Ballistic coefficient  1.040  1.051  1.057  1.063  1.064  1.067  1.068  1.068  1.068  1.066  1.064  1.060  1.056  1.050  1.042  1.032  The initial rise in the BC value is attributed to a projectiles always present yaw and precession out of the bore. The test results were obtained from many shots not just a single shot. The bullet was assigned 1.062 for its BC number by the bullet's manufacturer Lost River Ballistic Technologies.
General trends in ballistic coefficient In general, for small calibre ammunition, a pointed bullet will have a better ballistic coefficient (BC) than a round nosed bullet, and a round nosed bullet will have a better BC than a flat point bullet (the similar is true for large calibre projectiles). Large radius curves, resulting in a shallower point angle, will produce lower drags, particularly at supersonic velocities. Hollow point bullets behave much like a flat point of the same point diameter. Bullets designed for supersonic use often have a slight taper at the rear, called a boat tail, which further reduces drag. Cannelures, which are recessed rings around the bullet used to crimp the bullet securely into the case, will cause an increase in drag. The ballistic coefficient (BC) is the mass of the object divided by the diameter squared that it presents to the airflow divided by a dimensionless constant i that relates to the shape. ...
.357 Magnum rounds. ...
The transonic problem In the transonic region, an important thing that happens to most bullets, is that the centre of pressure (CP) shifts forward as the bullet decelerates. That CP shift affects the stability of the bullet. If the bullet is not well stabilized, it cannot remain pointing exactly forward through the transonic region. However, even if the bullet has sufficient stability (static and dynamic) to be able to fly through the transonic region and stays pointing exactly forward, it is still affected. The erratic and sudden CP shift can cause dispersion, even if the bullet's flight becomes well behaved again when it enters the subsonic region. This makes accurately predicting the ballistic behaviour of bullets in the transonic region very hard. Transonic is an aeronautics term referring to a range of velocities just below and above the speed of sound. ...
Subsonic has two possible meanings: A speed lower than the speed of sound is called subsonic. ...
External factors Wind Wind has a range of effects, the first being the effect of making the bullet deviate to the side. From a scientific perspective, the "wind pushing on the side of the bullet" is not what causes wind drift. What causes wind drift is drag. Drag makes the bullet turn into the wind, keeping the centre of air pressure on its nose. This causes the nose to be cocked (from your perspective) into the wind, the base is cocked (from your perspective) "downwind." So, (again from your perspective), the drag is pushing the bullet downwind making bullets follow the wind. A somewhat less obvious effect is caused by head or tailwinds. A headwind will slightly increase the relative velocity of the projectile, and increase drag and the corresponding drop. A tailwind will reduce the drag and the bullet drop. In the real world pure head or tailwinds are rare, since wind seldom is constant in force and direction and normally interacts with the terrain it is blowing over. This often makes ultra long range shooting in head or tailwind conditions hard. Wind also causes a Magnus effect, whereby the sideways component of the wind combined with the spin of the bullet creates a force acting either up or down, perpendicular to the sideways vector of the wind. Relative velocity is a measurement of velocity between two objects moving in different frames of reference. ...
An image illustrating the Magnus effect on a ball The Magnus effect is the name given to the physical phenomenon whereby an objects rotation affects its path through a fluid, in particular, air. ...
Ambient air density Air temperature, pressure, altitude and humidity variations make up the ambient air density. Decreased air density will result in a decrease in drag, and increased air density will result in a rise in drag. Humidity has a counter intuitive impact. Since water vapor has a density of 0.8 grams per litre, while dry air averages about 1.225 grams per litre, higher humidity actually decreases the air density, and therefore decreases the drag. For other uses, see Temperature (disambiguation). ...
This article is about pressure in the physical sciences. ...
Altitude is the elevation of an object from a known level or datum. ...
Humidity is the amount of water vapor in air. ...
The density of air, ρ (Greek: rho) (air density), is the mass per volume of Earths atmosphere, and is a useful value in aeronautics. ...
Water vapor or water vapour (see spelling differences), also aqueous vapor, is the gas phase of water. ...
Vertical angles The vertical angle (or elevation) of a shot will also affect the trajectory of the shot. Ballistic tables for small calibre projectiles (fired from pistols or rifles) assume that gravity is acting nearly perpendicular to the bullet path. If the angle is up or down, then the perpendicular acceleration will actually be less. The effect of the path wise acceleration component will be negligible, so shooting up or downhill will both result in a similar decrease in bullet drop. Two lines intersect to create two pairs of vertical angles. ...
In ballistics, the elevation is the angle between the horizontal plane and the direction of the barrel of a gun, mortar or heavy artillery. ...
Long range external factors The coordinate system that is used to specify the location of the point of firing and the location of the target is the system of latitudes and longitudes, which is in fact a rotating coordinate system, since the Earth is rotating. For small arms, this rotation is generally insignificant, but for ballistic projectiles with long flight times, such as extreme longrange rifle projectiles, artillery and intercontinental ballistic missiles, it is a significant factor in calculating the trajectory. During its flight, the projectile moves in a straight line (not counting gravitation and air resistance for now). Since the target is corotating with the Earth, it is in fact a moving target, relative to the projectile, so in order to hit it the gun must aim slightly ahead of the target, the gun must be aimed to a point where the bullet and the target will arrive simultaneously. In mathematics as applied to geometry, physics or engineering, a coordinate system is a system for assigning a tuple of numbers to each point in an ndimensional space. ...
Small arms captured in Fallujah, Iraq by the US Marine Corps in 2004 The term small arms generally describes any number of smaller infantry weapons, such as firearms that an individual soldier can carry. ...
For other uses, see Artillery (disambiguation). ...
A Minuteman III missile soars after a test launch. ...
When the straight path of the projectile is plotted in the rotating coordinate system that is used, then this path appear as curvilinear. The fact that the coordinate system is rotating must be taken into account, and this is achieved by adding terms for a "centrifugal force" and a "Coriolis effect" to the equations of motion. When the appropriate Coriolis term is added to the equation of motion the predicted path with respect to the rotating coordinate system is curvilinear, corresponding to the actual straight line motion of the projectile. In mathematics, the concept of a curve tries to capture our intuitive idea of a geometrical onedimensional and continuous object. ...
GaspardGustave de Coriolis (May 21, 1792 September 19, 1843), French engineer and scientist. ...
It has been suggested that SUVAT equations be merged into this article or section. ...
Maximum effective small arms range The maximum practical range^{[2]} of all small arms and especially highpowered sniper rifles depends mainly on the aerodynamic or ballistic efficiency of the spin stabilised projectiles used. Longrange shooters must also collect relevant information to calculate elevation and windage corrections to be able to achieve first shot strikes. The data to calculate these fire control corrections has a long list of variables including^{[3]}: The M40, United States Army standardissue sniper rifle. ...
 ballistic coefficient of the bullets used
 height of the sighting components above the rifle bore
 the zero range at which the sighting components and rifle combination were sighted in
 bullet weight
 actual muzzle velocity (powder temperature affects muzzle velocity, primer ignition is also temperature dependent)
 range to target
 inclination angle in case of uphill/downhill firing
 target speed and direction
 wind speed and direction (main cause for horizontal projectile deflection and generally the hardest ballistic variable to measure and judge correctly. Wind effects can also cause vertical deflection.)
 air temperature, pressure, altitude and humidity variations (these make up the ambient air density)
 earth's gravity (changes slightly with latitude and altitude)
 gyroscopic drift (horizontal and vertical plane gyroscopic effect — often know as spin drift  induced by the barrels twist direction and twist rate)
 coriolis effect drift (latitude, direction of fire and hemisphere data dictate this effect)
 lateral throwoff
 aerodynamic jump
 the inherent potential accuracy and adjustment range of the sighting components
 the inherent potential accuracy of the rifle
 the inherent potential accuracy of the ammunition
 the inherent potential accuracy of the computer program and other firing control components used to calculate the trajectory
The ambient air density is at its maximum at Arctic sea level conditions. Cold gunpowder also produces lower pressures and hence lower muzzle velocities than warm powder. This means that the maximum practical range of rifles will be at it shortest at Arctic sea level conditions. Another problem is presented by the fact that when the velocity of a rifle bullet approaches the speed of sound it enters the transonic region. In the transonic region most bullets show significant accuracy decay. Because of this marksmen normally restrict themselves to engaging targets within the supersonic range of the bullet used. The ballistic coefficient (BC) is the mass of the object divided by the diameter squared that it presents to the airflow divided by a dimensionless constant i that relates to the shape. ...
A guns muzzle velocity is the speed at which the projectile leaves the muzzle of the gun. ...
For other uses, see Wind (disambiguation). ...
For other uses, see Temperature (disambiguation). ...
This article is about pressure in the physical sciences. ...
Altitude is the elevation of an object from a known level or datum. ...
Humidity is the amount of water vapor in air. ...
The density of air, ρ (Greek: rho) (air density), is the mass per volume of Earths atmosphere, and is a useful value in aeronautics. ...
Precise values of g vary depending on the location on the Earths surface. ...
This article is about the geographical term. ...
Altitude is the elevation of an object from a known level or datum. ...
A gyroscope is a device which demonstrates the principle of conservation of angular momentum, in physics. ...
An image illustrating the Magnus effect on a ball The Magnus effect is the name given to the physical phenomenon whereby an objects rotation affects its path through a fluid, in particular, air. ...
In the inertial frame of reference (upper part of the picture), the black object moves in a straight line. ...
This article is about the geographical term. ...
The word hemisphere literally means half sphere or half ball; when used in the singular form, it refers to one of the halves of a spherical object. ...
Smokeless powder Gunpowder is a pyrotechnic composition, an explosive mixture of sulfur, charcoal and potassium nitrate that burns rapidly, producing volumes of hot gas which can be used as a propellant in firearms and fireworks. ...
Transonic is an aeronautics term referring to a range of velocities just below and above the speed of sound. ...
A United States Navy F/A18E/F Super Hornet in transonic flight. ...
The ability to hit a target at great range has a lot to do with the ability to tackle environmental and meteorological factors and a good understanding of exterior ballistics and the limitations of equipment. Without computer support and highly accurate laser rangefinders and meteorological measuring equipment as aids to calculate ballistic solutions, longrange shooting beyond 1000 m (1100 yd) becomes guesswork for even the most expert longrange marksmen.^{[4]} A laser rangefinder is a device which uses a laser beam in order to determine the distance to a reflective object. ...
Interesting further reading: Marksmanship Wikibook
Using ballistics data Here is an example of a ballistic table for a .30 calibre Speer 169 grain (11 g) pointed boat tail match bullet, with a BC of 0.480. It assumes sights 1.5 inches (38 mm) above the bore line, and sights adjusted to result in point of aim and point of impact matching ("zeroed") at 200 yards (183 m): This article might not be written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia entry. ...
Range (yd)  0  100  200  300  400  500  Range (m)  0  91  183  274  366  457  Velocity (ft/s)  2700  2512  2331  2158  1992  1834  Velocity (m/s)  823  766  710  658  607  559  Height (in)  1.5  2.0  0  8.4  24.3  49.0  Height (mm)  38  51  0  213  617  1245  Here's the height information for the same bullet, zeroed for 300 yards (274 m). Velocities will be identical: Range (yd)  0  100  200  300  400  500  Range (m)  0  91  183  274  366  457  Height (in)  1.5  4.8  5.6  0  13.1  35.0  Height (mm)  38  122  142  0  333  889  From these tables it can be seen that, even with a high velocity, very aerodynamic bullet, drop is very significant, and picking the right zero for the target distance can be quite important. An experienced shooter firing a high quality rifle can easily keep shots within a 10 inch (254 mm) circle at 500 yards (457 m), so if the range is not correctly estimated then the drop (or rise before the zero distance) of the bullet can cause result in a miss on a target that should be easy to hit.
Freeware small arms external ballistics software accurateshooter.com Ballistics section links to / hosts these 4 freeware external ballistics computer programs:  [1] 2DOF & 3DOF R.L. McCoy / Gavre exterior ballistics (zip file)  Supports the G1, G2, G5, G6, G7, G8, GS, GL, GI, GB and RA4 drag models
 [2] PointBlank Ballistics (zip file)  Siacci/Mayevski G1 drag model
 [3] JBM's realtime interactive online ballistics calculator
 [4] Pejsa Ballistics (MS Excel spreadsheet)  Pejsa model
 [5] Sharpshooter Friend (Palm PDA software)  Pejsa model
See also Internal ballistics, a subfield of ballistics, is the study of a projectiles behavior from the time its propellants igniter is initiated until it exits the gun barrel. ...
Terminal ballistics, a subfield of ballistics, is the study of the behavior of a projectile when it hits its target. ...
References  ^ .338 Lapua Magnum product brochure from Lapua
 ^ The snipershide website defines effective range as: The range in which a competent and trained individual using the firearm has the ability to hit a target sixty to eighty percent of the time. In reality, most firearms have a true range much greater than this but the likelyhood of hitting a target is poor at greater than effective range. There seems to be no good formula for the effective ranges of the various firearms.
 ^ The US Army Research Laboratory did a study in 1999 on the practical limits of several sniper weapon systems and different methods of fire control. Sniper Weapon Fire Control Error Budget Analysis  Raymond Von Wahlde, Dennis Metz, August 1999
 ^ An example of how accurate a longrange shooter has to establish sighting parameters to calculate a correct ballistic solution is explained by these test shoot results. A .338 Lapua Magnum rifle sighted in at 300 m shot 250 grain (16.2 g) Lapua Scenar bullets at a measured muzzle velocity of 905 m/s. The air density ρ during the test shoot was 1.2588 kg/m³. The test rifle needed 13.2 mils (45.38 MOA) elevation correction from a 300 m zero range at 61 degrees latitude (gravity changes slightly with latitude) to hit a human torso sized target dead centre at 1400 m. The ballistic curve plot showed that between 1392 m and 1408 m the bullets would have hit a 60 cm (2 foot) tall target. This means that if only a 0.6% ranging error was made a 60 cm tall target at 1400 m would have been completely missed. When the same target was set up at a less challenging 1000 m distance it could be hit between 987 m and 1013 m. This makes it obvious that with increasing distance apparently minor measuring and judgment errors become a major problem.
A grain is a unit of mass equal to 0. ...
The density of air, ρ (Greek: rho) (air density), is the mass per volume of Earths atmosphere, and is a useful value in aeronautics. ...
Kilogram per cubic metre is the SI measure of density and is represented as kg/m³, where kg stands for kilogram and m³ stands for cubic metre. ...
This article does not cite any references or sources. ...
This article describes the unit of angle. ...
The acceleration due to gravity denoted g (also gee, gforce or gload) is a nonSI unit of acceleration defined as exactly 9. ...
External links  Tan, A., Frick, C.H., and Castillo, O. (1987). "The fly ball trajectory: An older approach revisited". American Journal of Physics 55 (1): 37. (Simplified calculation of the motion of a projectile under a drag force proportional to the square of the velocity)
 The Perfect Basketball Shot. (PDF). Retrieved on September 26, 2005.  basketball ballistics.
 Speer Reloading Manual Number 11, Omark Industries, 1987 (no ISBN)
 How do bullets fly? by Ruprecht Nennstiel, Wiesbaden, Germany
 Exterior Ballistics.com
 A Short Course in External Ballistics
 Articles on long range shooting by Bryan Litz
 How External Ballistics Programs Work by Bryan Litz
 2DOF and 3DOF Exterior Ballistics in MS Excel by Hans Cronander, Goteburg, Sweden
 Website of Pejsa Ballistics
 Weite Schüsse  part 4, Basic explanation of the Pejsa model by Lutz Möller in German
 Patagonia Ballistics ballistics mathematical software engine
 BRITISH ARTILLERY FIRE CONTROL  BALLISTICS & DATA
