FACTOID # 18: Alaska spends more money per capita on elementary and secondary education than any other state.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Expressways of Beijing
The Jingcheng Expressway near Gaoliying (July 2004 image)
The Jingcheng Expressway near Gaoliying (July 2004 image)
The Jingha Expressway (July 2004 image)
The Jingha Expressway (July 2004 image)
The Jingshi Expressway (July 2004 image)
The Jingshi Expressway (July 2004 image)
The Airport Expressway near the toll gate (July 2004 image)
The Airport Expressway near the toll gate (July 2004 image)
The Jingkai Expressway near the Southern 4th Ring Road (October 2004 image)
The Jingkai Expressway near the Southern 4th Ring Road (October 2004 image)

Beijing was first linked to outside areas by the Jingshi Expressway in the late 1980s and early 1990s. Now, nine expressways link Beijing, and more are to come. Jingcheng Expressway near Gaoliying. ... Jingcheng Expressway near Gaoliying. ... The Jingcheng Expressway is an expressway in China which links Beijing to Chengde in Hebei province. ... Jingha Expressway. ... Jingha Expressway. ... Jingha Expressway (Taken in July of 2004) The Jingha Expressway (京哈高速公路, Hanyu Pinyin: Jīnghā Gāosù Gōnglù) is an expressway in China which links Beijing to Harbin. ... Jingshi Expressway. ... Jingshi Expressway. ... The Jingshi Expressway (Chinese: 京石高速公路; pinyin: ; or Jingshi Freeway, as it was formerly known) is an expressway in China which links Beijing to the Shijiazhuang. ... Airport Expressway near toll gate. ... Airport Expressway near toll gate. ... Airport Expressway (heading towards the airport, July 2004 image) The old and the new: The Airport Expressway Toll Gate at Xiaotianzhu (August 2004 image) Old Airport Road (August 2004 image) The Airport Expressway (机场高速公路, Hanyu Pinyin: JÄ«chÇŽng Gāosù Gōnglù) is an expressway in Beijing, China, which links... Jingkai Expressway near S 4th Ring Rd (Oct 2004). ... Jingkai Expressway near S 4th Ring Rd (Oct 2004). ... The Jingkai Expressway (京开高速公路, Hanyu Pinyin: Jīngkāi Gāosù Gōnglù) is an expressway in China which links Beijing to Kaifeng. ... Beijings 4th Ring Road (April 2003 image) Eastern 4th Ring Road (August 2004 image) The 4th Ring Road (Hanyu Pinyin: Si Huan Lu) is an express route ring road in Beijing, China which runs around the city approximately 8 kilometres from the centre of the city. ... Beijing [English Pronunciation] (Chinese: 北京 [Chinese Pronunciation]; Pinyin: BÄ›ijÄ«ng; IPA: ), a metropolis in northern China, is the capital of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... The Jingshi Expressway (Chinese: 京石高速公路; pinyin: ; or Jingshi Freeway, as it was formerly known) is an expressway in China which links Beijing to the Shijiazhuang. ... The 1980s refers to the years of 1980 to 1989. ... Germans dancing on the Berlin Wall in late 1989, the symbol of the cold war divide falls down as the world unites in the 1990s. ...

Contents

History

When the Airport Expressway and the Jingjintang Expressway opened, Beijing was already been griped by "expressway fever". Out in the far eastern part of town lay a nearly universally neglected Jingha Expressway; only with the construction of the Jingtong Expressway in the mid 1990s did the Jingha Expressway get more recognition. It still is too far out of central Beijing to be recognised as an important express roadway. Airport Expressway (heading towards the airport, July 2004 image) The old and the new: The Airport Expressway Toll Gate at Xiaotianzhu (August 2004 image) Old Airport Road (August 2004 image) The Airport Expressway (机场高速公路, Hanyu Pinyin: JÄ«chÇŽng Gāosù Gōnglù) is an expressway in Beijing, China, which links... Jingjintang Expressway (Beijing segment, taken in July of 2004) Opened in September of 1993, the Jingjintang expressway, also known simply as the Jingtang expressway, links Beijing via central Tianjin to the Tanggu District in eastern Tianjin. ... Jingha Expressway (Taken in July of 2004) The Jingha Expressway (京哈高速公路, Hanyu Pinyin: Jīnghā Gāosù Gōnglù) is an expressway in China which links Beijing to Harbin. ... Jingtong Expressway between the 4th and 5th Ring Roads (taken in March of 2003) Jingtong Expressway near Shuangqiao (August 2004 image) The Jingtong Expressway (Hanyu Pinyin: Jingtong Kuaisu Gonglu) is an expressway with express road characteristics in Beijing, China which links central Beijing to Tongzhou District. ...


By the People's Republic of China's 50th anniversary, however, expressways were closing on into Beijing. One by one, the Badaling Expressway, Jingshen Expressway and (in 2000) the Jingkai Expressway locked in onto central Beijing as a target. Beijing was now encompassed with eight expressways. The Badaling Expressway (Simplified Chinese: 八达岭高速公路, Traditional Chinese: 八達嶺高速公路, Hanyu Pinyin: Bādálíng Gāosù Gōnglù) is an expressway in China which links Beijing to the Badaling stretch of the Great Wall of China. ... Jingshen Expressway (Beijing segment, taken in July of 2004) Jingshen Expressway (Tianjin segment, taken in July of 2004) The Jingshen Expressway (Hanyu Pinyin: Jingshen Gaosu Gonglu) is an expressway in China which links Beijing to Shenyang. ... This article is about the year 2000. ... The Jingkai Expressway (京开高速公路, Hanyu Pinyin: Jīngkāi Gāosù Gōnglù) is an expressway in China which links Beijing to Kaifeng. ...


In 2001, a new northern gate burst open, forming the Jingcheng Expressway. The northeastern and southeastern parts are ready to accommodate two more expressways (the Jingping/Jingji and Northern Jingji Expressways, respectively). This article is about the year 2001. ... The Jingcheng Expressway is an expressway in China which links Beijing to Chengde in Hebei province. ...


Development

Being the host city for the 2008 Summer Olympics, Beijing has ambitious plans to develop everything -- and expressways are no exception. The 2008 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXIX Olympiad, will be held in Beijing, China from August 8, 2008 through August 24, 2008, with the opening ceremony to take place at 08:08pm and 08 seconds. ...


Four years before 2008, the municipal government came out with a plan to complete up to 890 km of expressways (277 km alone in 2006). By 2006, the massive 6th Ring Road would be completed. Also in that year, a major batch of expressways would be completed. 2008 (MMVIII) will be a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The 6th Ring Road (Simplified Chinese: 六环路, Hanyu Pinyin: Liu Huan Lu) is an expressway ring road in Beijing, China which runs around the city approximately 15-20 kilometres from the centre of the city. ...


The web of expressways around Beijing would amount to as many as 15 expressways (Jingping/Jingji, Northern Jingjin, Southern Jingjin, 2nd Airport Expressway, Northern Airport Expressway and Litian Expressway, plus the nine expressways of today). Of these, 11 would radiate from central Beijing.


Grander plans

In early January 2005, mainland authorities revealed an even grander plan for seven national expressways originating from Beijing. Amongst those included an expressway bound straight for Taiwan. 2005 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December- → Deaths in January • 29 Ephraim Kishon • 25 Philip Johnson • 23 Johnny Carson • 22 Parveen Babi • 20 Jan Nowak-Jeziorański • 17 Virginia Mayo • 17 Zhao Ziyang • 15...


The expressways include:

After the "Three Links" come into effect, the projected 85,000 km of mainland expressways will have a link, possibly by tunnel, to Taiwan and all expressways on the island. Beijing [English Pronunciation] (Chinese: 北京 [Chinese Pronunciation]; Pinyin: BÄ›ijÄ«ng; IPA: ), a metropolis in northern China, is the capital of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... Shanghai (Chinese: ; pinyin:  ; Wu (Long-short): ZÃ¥nhae; Shanghainese (IPA): ), situated on the banks of the Yangtze River Delta in East China, is the largest city of the Peoples Republic of China and the eighth largest in the world. ... Over 1000 kilometres in length, the Jinghu Expressway was opened in the early 2000s, and connects Beijing to Shanghai. ... Beijing [English Pronunciation] (Chinese: 北京 [Chinese Pronunciation]; Pinyin: BÄ›ijÄ«ng; IPA: ), a metropolis in northern China, is the capital of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... Nickname: the City of Azaleas Government Official Website City of Taipei Mayor Ma Ying-jeou Capital District Xinyi Geographical characteristics Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 16 of 25 271. ... Beijing [English Pronunciation] (Chinese: 北京 [Chinese Pronunciation]; Pinyin: BÄ›ijÄ«ng; IPA: ), a metropolis in northern China, is the capital of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... Lake Dianchi Kunming (Chinese: 昆明; Pinyin: KÅ«nmíng; Wade-Giles: Kun-ming) is the capital of Yunnan province, China with a population estimated on 7,055,000 in urban area in 2006 and 15,423,500 in Metropolitan area. ... Beijing [English Pronunciation] (Chinese: 北京 [Chinese Pronunciation]; Pinyin: BÄ›ijÄ«ng; IPA: ), a metropolis in northern China, is the capital of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... Beijing [English Pronunciation] (Chinese: 北京 [Chinese Pronunciation]; Pinyin: BÄ›ijÄ«ng; IPA: ), a metropolis in northern China, is the capital of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... Lhasa prefecture-level city in Tibet Autonomous Region Lhasa (Tibetan: ལྷ་ས་; Wylie: lha-sa; Simplified Chinese: 拉萨; Traditional Chinese: 拉薩; pinyin: Lāsà), sometimes spelled Llasa, is the traditional capital of Tibet and the capital of the Tibetan Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Beijing [English Pronunciation] (Chinese: 北京 [Chinese Pronunciation]; Pinyin: BÄ›ijÄ«ng; IPA: ), a metropolis in northern China, is the capital of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... Ürümqi (Uyghur: ئۈرۈمچى; Uyghur Latin script: Ürümqi; Chinese: 烏魯木齊; Pinyin: Wūlǔmùqí; population about 1. ... Beijing [English Pronunciation] (Chinese: 北京 [Chinese Pronunciation]; Pinyin: BÄ›ijÄ«ng; IPA: ), a metropolis in northern China, is the capital of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... Harbin on a map of China For other meanings of Harbin, see Harbin (disambiguation). ... The Three Links or Three Linkages (Chinese: 三通; pinyin: sān tōng) are direct postal (通郵 tōng yóu), transportation (especially airline) (通航 tōng háng), and trade (通商 tōng shāng) links between Mainland China and Taiwan. ...


The nine expressways

Nine toll expressways link Beijing to its suburbs, outlying regions, and other cities.


Badaling Expressway

Main article: Badaling Expressway

The Badaling Expressway connects Beijing to the Badaling section of the Great Wall of China. It runs from Madian to Badaling and Yanqing for a total of nearly 70 kilometres. Parts of the expressway run through hilly terrain. The Badaling Expressway (Simplified Chinese: 八达岭高速公路, Traditional Chinese: 八達嶺高速公路, Hanyu Pinyin: Bādálíng Gāosù Gōnglù) is an expressway in China which links Beijing to the Badaling stretch of the Great Wall of China. ... The Badaling Expressway (Simplified Chinese: 八达岭高速公路, Traditional Chinese: 八達嶺高速公路, Hanyu Pinyin: Bādálíng Gāosù Gōnglù) is an expressway in China which links Beijing to the Badaling stretch of the Great Wall of China. ... Badaling (s. ... The Great Wall in the winter The Great Wall of China (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally The long wall of 10,000 Li (里)¹) is a Chinese fortification built from the 5th century BC until the beginning of the 17th century, in order to protect the various dynasties from raids...


Route: Madian (N. 3rd Ring Road) - Jianxiang (N. 4th Ring Road) - Shangqing (N. 5th Ring Road) - Huilongguan - Beianhe - Shahe - Baige (N. 6th Ring Road) - Changping District - Nankou - Badaling - Yanqing - Jingzhang Expressway
Speed Limit: 100 km/h, hilly portion 60 km/h
Tolls: As of 5th Ring Road, heading northwest Madian node and bridge Madian is a transportation node in Beijing. ... 3rd Ring Road (Southeastern segment, taken in July of 2004) The 3rd Ring Road pinyin: San Huan Lu) is a 48-kilometer city ring road that encircles the centre of the city of Beijing. ... Beijings 4th Ring Road (April 2003 image) Eastern 4th Ring Road (August 2004 image) The 4th Ring Road (Hanyu Pinyin: Si Huan Lu) is an express route ring road in Beijing, China which runs around the city approximately 8 kilometres from the centre of the city. ... The 5th Ring Road at Shangqing Bridge (July 2004 image) Shangqing Bridges Problem: Jammed Traffic (as can be seen on the bridge) (July 2004 image) Shangqing Bridge (Hanyu Pinyin: Shangqing Qiao) is an overpass in Beijing. ... Beijings 5th Ring Road (taken in March of 2003) The 5th Ring Road at Shangqing Bridge (July 2004 image) The Western 5th Ring Road nears the Western Hills in Beijing (July 2004 image) Beijings 5th Ring Road (Simplified Chinese: 五环路, Traditional Chinese: 五環路, Hanyu... Shahe (沙河) is a city in Xingtai Prefecture (邢台市) in southern Hebei province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The 6th Ring Road (Simplified Chinese: 六环路, Hanyu Pinyin: Liu Huan Lu) is an expressway ring road in Beijing, China which runs around the city approximately 15-20 kilometres from the centre of the city. ... Changping District (Simplified Chinese: 昌平区; Traditional Chinese: 昌平區; Hanyu Pinyin: Chāngpíng QÅ«) is situated at the suburb of northwest Beijing. ... Badaling (s. ... The Jingzhang Expressway (京张高速公路, Hanyu Pinyin: Jīngzhāng Gāosù Gōnglù) is an expressway in China which links Beijing to Zhangjiakou. ... Beijings 5th Ring Road (taken in March of 2003) The 5th Ring Road at Shangqing Bridge (July 2004 image) The Western 5th Ring Road nears the Western Hills in Beijing (July 2004 image) Beijings 5th Ring Road (Simplified Chinese: 五环路, Traditional Chinese: 五環路, Hanyu...


Jingcheng Expressway

Main article: Jingcheng Expressway

The Jingcheng Expressway runs to Chengde and is currently completed from the northeastern 3rd Ring Road through to Gaoliying for 23 kilometres. It is one of Beijing's newest expressways. The entire expressway is slated for a 2006 completion. The Jingcheng Expressway is an expressway in China which links Beijing to Chengde in Hebei province. ... The Jingcheng Expressway is an expressway in China which links Beijing to Chengde in Hebei province. ... The Putuo Zongcheng ticket to the summer resort (1984) Chengde (Chinese: ; pinyin: Chéngdé; Manchu: Erdemu be aliha fu) is a city approximately one hundred miles northeast of Beijing in northeastern Hebei province, situated near the Luan River. ... 3rd Ring Road (Southeastern segment, taken in July of 2004) The 3rd Ring Road pinyin: San Huan Lu) is a 48-kilometer city ring road that encircles the centre of the city of Beijing. ... Gaoliying -- also home to the northernmost extremity of the Jingcheng Expressway (July 2004 image) Gaoliying in Beijing is a small town just north of the Northern 6th Ring Road. ... 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Route: Taiyanggong Bridge (N. 3rd Ring Road) - Wanghe Bridge (N. 4th Ring Road) - Laiguangying (N. 5th Ring Road) - Huanggang - Yandan - Gaoliying (N. 6th Ring Road)
Speed Limit: 100 km/h throughout
Tolls: As of Jingcheng Rd. Toll Gate, heading north
3rd Ring Road (Southeastern segment, taken in July of 2004) The 3rd Ring Road pinyin: San Huan Lu) is a 48-kilometer city ring road that encircles the centre of the city of Beijing. ... Wanghe Bridge as seen from the 4th Ring Road Wanghe Bridge is an overpass and a nodal point in Beijing. ... Beijings 4th Ring Road (April 2003 image) Eastern 4th Ring Road (August 2004 image) The 4th Ring Road (Hanyu Pinyin: Si Huan Lu) is an express route ring road in Beijing, China which runs around the city approximately 8 kilometres from the centre of the city. ... Beijings 5th Ring Road (taken in March of 2003) The 5th Ring Road at Shangqing Bridge (July 2004 image) The Western 5th Ring Road nears the Western Hills in Beijing (July 2004 image) Beijings 5th Ring Road (Simplified Chinese: 五环路, Traditional Chinese: 五環路, Hanyu... Gaoliying -- also home to the northernmost extremity of the Jingcheng Expressway (July 2004 image) Gaoliying in Beijing is a small town just north of the Northern 6th Ring Road. ... The 6th Ring Road (Simplified Chinese: 六环路, Hanyu Pinyin: Liu Huan Lu) is an expressway ring road in Beijing, China which runs around the city approximately 15-20 kilometres from the centre of the city. ...


Airport Expressway

Main article: Airport Expressway (Beijing)

The Airport Expressway to Beijing Capital International Airport runs for under 20 kilometres and is one of the most heavily-used expressways in Beijing. Despite this, traffic jams seem to be incredibly rare. However, Beijing authorities are planning two more expressways to link to the airport. Airport Expressway (heading towards the airport, July 2004 image) The old and the new: The Airport Expressway Toll Gate at Xiaotianzhu (August 2004 image) Old Airport Road (August 2004 image) The Airport Expressway (机场高速公路, Hanyu Pinyin: JÄ«chÇŽng Gāosù Gōnglù) is an expressway in Beijing, China, which links... Airport Expressway (heading towards the airport, July 2004 image) The old and the new: The Airport Expressway Toll Gate at Xiaotianzhu (August 2004 image) Old Airport Road (August 2004 image) The Airport Expressway (机场高速公路, Hanyu Pinyin: JÄ«chÇŽng Gāosù Gōnglù) is an expressway in Beijing, China, which links... Beijing Capital International Airport (Simplified Chinese: 北京首都国际机场; Traditional Chinese: 北京首都國際機場; pinyin: BÄ›ijÄ«ng ShÇ’udÅ« Guójì JÄ«cháng) (IATA: PEK, ICAO: ZBAA) is the main international airport that serves the capital city of Beijing, Peoples Republic of China. ...


Route: Sanyuanqiao (N. 3rd Ring Road) - Siyuan Bridge (N. 4th Ring Road) - Dashanzi - N. 5th Ring Road - Beigao - Yanglin Road - Xiaotianzu Road - Beijing Capital International Airport
Speed Limit: Maximum 120 km/h throughout (left lane only, others 100 km/h)
Tolls: As of Beigao, heading northeast Sanyuanqiao node Sanyuanqiao (or Sanyuan Overpass) is a major overpass on Beijings northeastern stretch of the 3rd Ring Road. ... 3rd Ring Road (Southeastern segment, taken in July of 2004) The 3rd Ring Road pinyin: San Huan Lu) is a 48-kilometer city ring road that encircles the centre of the city of Beijing. ... Siyuan Bridge as seen from the Airport Expressway. ... Beijings 4th Ring Road (April 2003 image) Eastern 4th Ring Road (August 2004 image) The 4th Ring Road (Hanyu Pinyin: Si Huan Lu) is an express route ring road in Beijing, China which runs around the city approximately 8 kilometres from the centre of the city. ... Dashanzi (大山子, Hanyu Pinyin: Dàshānzi) is a 1 square kilometer area in the Chaoyang district of Beijing, northeast of the city center. ... Beijings 5th Ring Road (taken in March of 2003) The 5th Ring Road at Shangqing Bridge (July 2004 image) The Western 5th Ring Road nears the Western Hills in Beijing (July 2004 image) Beijings 5th Ring Road (Simplified Chinese: 五环路, Traditional Chinese: 五環路, Hanyu... Beijing Capital International Airport (Simplified Chinese: 北京首都国际机场; Traditional Chinese: 北京首都國際機場; pinyin: BÄ›ijÄ«ng ShÇ’udÅ« Guójì JÄ«cháng) (IATA: PEK, ICAO: ZBAA) is the main international airport that serves the capital city of Beijing, Peoples Republic of China. ...


Jingtong Expressway

Main article: Jingtong Expressway

The Jingtong Expressway runs through to Tongzhou district for approximately 15 kilometres. It has no numbered expressway exits (except for one at the very beginning in central Beijing) and functions mainly as a city express route. Jingtong Expressway between the 4th and 5th Ring Roads (taken in March of 2003) Jingtong Expressway near Shuangqiao (August 2004 image) The Jingtong Expressway (Hanyu Pinyin: Jingtong Kuaisu Gonglu) is an expressway with express road characteristics in Beijing, China which links central Beijing to Tongzhou District. ... Jingtong Expressway between the 4th and 5th Ring Roads (taken in March of 2003) Jingtong Expressway near Shuangqiao (August 2004 image) The Jingtong Expressway (Hanyu Pinyin: Jingtong Kuaisu Gonglu) is an expressway with express road characteristics in Beijing, China which links central Beijing to Tongzhou District. ...


Route: Dawang Bridge - E. 4th Ring Road - Gaobeidian - E. 5th Ring Road - Shuangqiao - Huicun - Tongzhou or Ximazhuang and Jingha Expressway
Speed Limit: 100 km/h throughout as of Gaobeidian until Huicun, otherwise 80 km/h
Tolls: As of Shuangqiao, heading east Beijings 4th Ring Road (April 2003 image) Eastern 4th Ring Road (August 2004 image) The 4th Ring Road (Hanyu Pinyin: Si Huan Lu) is an express route ring road in Beijing, China which runs around the city approximately 8 kilometres from the centre of the city. ... Beijings 5th Ring Road (taken in March of 2003) The 5th Ring Road at Shangqing Bridge (July 2004 image) The Western 5th Ring Road nears the Western Hills in Beijing (July 2004 image) Beijings 5th Ring Road (Simplified Chinese: 五环路, Traditional Chinese: 五環路, Hanyu... // Overview Tongzhou District (Simplified Chinese: 通州区; Traditional Chinese: 通州區; Hanyu Pinyin: Tōngzhōu QÅ«), located in southeast Beijing, is considered as the capitals eastern gate. ... Jingha Expressway (Taken in July of 2004) The Jingha Expressway (京哈高速公路, Hanyu Pinyin: Jīnghā Gāosù Gōnglù) is an expressway in China which links Beijing to Harbin. ...


Jingha Expressway

Main article: Jingha Expressway

The Jingha Expressway was planned to run to Harbin, but has apparently been abandoned as of Yanjiao, Hebei. It is a short and rather old expressway. Jingha Expressway (Taken in July of 2004) The Jingha Expressway (京哈高速公路, Hanyu Pinyin: Jīnghā Gāosù Gōnglù) is an expressway in China which links Beijing to Harbin. ... Jingha Expressway (Taken in July of 2004) The Jingha Expressway (京哈高速公路, Hanyu Pinyin: Jīnghā Gāosù Gōnglù) is an expressway in China which links Beijing to Harbin. ... Harbin on a map of China For other meanings of Harbin, see Harbin (disambiguation). ... Hebei (Chinese: 河北; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ho-pei; Postal System Pinyin: Hopeh) is a northern province of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


Route: Beiguan Roundabout - E. 6th Ring Road - Baimiao - Yanjiao - China National Highway 102
Speed Limit: 90 km/h throughout
Tolls: As of E. 6th Ring Road, heading east The 6th Ring Road (Simplified Chinese: 六环路, Hanyu Pinyin: Liu Huan Lu) is an expressway ring road in Beijing, China which runs around the city approximately 15-20 kilometres from the centre of the city. ... China National Highway 102 is a major trunk route in China, which connects Beijing to Harbin in Heilongjiang province. ...


Jingshen Expressway

Main article: Jingshen Expressway

The Jingshen Expressway to Shenyang runs for 658 kilometres and is one of the longest expressways to leave Beijing. Jingshen Expressway (Beijing segment, taken in July of 2004) Jingshen Expressway (Tianjin segment, taken in July of 2004) The Jingshen Expressway (Hanyu Pinyin: Jingshen Gaosu Gonglu) is an expressway in China which links Beijing to Shenyang. ... Jingshen Expressway (Beijing segment, taken in July of 2004) Jingshen Expressway (Tianjin segment, taken in July of 2004) The Jingshen Expressway (Hanyu Pinyin: Jingshen Gaosu Gonglu) is an expressway in China which links Beijing to Shenyang. ... Shenyang (Simplified Chinese: , Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Shěnyáng, Manchu: Mukden) is the capital city of Liaoning province in Northeast China. ...


Route: Sifang Bridge (E. 4th Ring Road) - Wufang Bridge (E. 5th Ring Road) - Bailu Toll Gate - E. 6th Ring Road - Xianghe (Hebei) - Baodi (Tianjin) - Yutian - Lulong - Beidaihe Area - Shanhaiguan - Shenyang
Speed Limit: 110 km/h throughout (Tianjin section: 120 km/h)
Tolls: As of Bailu Toll Gate, heading east Beijings 4th Ring Road (April 2003 image) Eastern 4th Ring Road (August 2004 image) The 4th Ring Road (Hanyu Pinyin: Si Huan Lu) is an express route ring road in Beijing, China which runs around the city approximately 8 kilometres from the centre of the city. ... Beijings 5th Ring Road (taken in March of 2003) The 5th Ring Road at Shangqing Bridge (July 2004 image) The Western 5th Ring Road nears the Western Hills in Beijing (July 2004 image) Beijings 5th Ring Road (Simplified Chinese: 五环路, Traditional Chinese: 五環路, Hanyu... The 6th Ring Road (Simplified Chinese: 六环路, Hanyu Pinyin: Liu Huan Lu) is an expressway ring road in Beijing, China which runs around the city approximately 15-20 kilometres from the centre of the city. ... Hebei (Chinese: 河北; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ho-pei; Postal System Pinyin: Hopeh) is a northern province of the Peoples Republic of China. ...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: TiānjÄ«n; Postal map spelling: Tientsin) is one of the four municipalities of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Beidaihe (Chinese: 北戴河; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Pei Tai Ho) is a seaside resort in Qinhuangdao municipality, Hebei province, China. ... First Gate Under Heaven, under repairs in 2003. ... Shenyang (Simplified Chinese: , Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ShÄ›nyáng, Manchu: Mukden) is the capital city of Liaoning province in Northeast China. ...


Jingjintang Expressway

Main article: Jingjintang Expressway

The Jingjintang Expressway (or Jingtang Expressway) heads for Tianjin and Tanggu. However, due to the heavy onslaught of lorry traffic, it can get jammed up at times. Jingjintang Expressway (Beijing segment, taken in July of 2004) Opened in September of 1993, the Jingjintang expressway, also known simply as the Jingtang expressway, links Beijing via central Tianjin to the Tanggu District in eastern Tianjin. ... Jingjintang Expressway (Beijing segment, taken in July of 2004) Opened in September of 1993, the Jingjintang expressway, also known simply as the Jingtang expressway, links Beijing via central Tianjin to the Tanggu District in eastern Tianjin. ...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: TiānjÄ«n; Postal map spelling: Tientsin) is one of the four municipalities of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Tanggu is a city in the Tianjin municipality in the innermost gulf of the Yellow Sea on the coast of northeastern China. ...


Route: Fenzhongsi (E. 3rd Ring Road) - Shibalidian (E. 4th Ring Road) - Dayangfang (E. 5th Ring Road) - Toll Gate - Majuqiao (E. 6th Ring Road) - Caiyu - Langfang - Yangcun - Yixingbu - Central Tianjin - Tianjin Airport - Tanggu
Speed Limit: 110 km/h throughout (except for the start in Beijing - 70 km/h or 80 km/h)
Tolls: As of Dayangfang Toll Gate, heading south-east Fenzhongsi Fenzhongsi is a transportational node in Beijing. ... 3rd Ring Road (Southeastern segment, taken in July of 2004) The 3rd Ring Road pinyin: San Huan Lu) is a 48-kilometer city ring road that encircles the centre of the city of Beijing. ... The Shibalidian transportational node. ... Beijings 4th Ring Road (April 2003 image) Eastern 4th Ring Road (August 2004 image) The 4th Ring Road (Hanyu Pinyin: Si Huan Lu) is an express route ring road in Beijing, China which runs around the city approximately 8 kilometres from the centre of the city. ... Beijings 5th Ring Road (taken in March of 2003) The 5th Ring Road at Shangqing Bridge (July 2004 image) The Western 5th Ring Road nears the Western Hills in Beijing (July 2004 image) Beijings 5th Ring Road (Simplified Chinese: 五环路, Traditional Chinese: 五環路, Hanyu... The 6th Ring Road (Simplified Chinese: 六环路, Hanyu Pinyin: Liu Huan Lu) is an expressway ring road in Beijing, China which runs around the city approximately 15-20 kilometres from the centre of the city. ... Langfang (廊坊), Hebei province, China, is a prefecture-level city located approximately midway between Beijing and Tianjin with a population of 3. ...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: TiānjÄ«n; Postal map spelling: Tientsin) is one of the four municipalities of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Tanggu is a city in the Tianjin municipality in the innermost gulf of the Yellow Sea on the coast of northeastern China. ...


Jingkai Expressway

Main article: Jingkai Expressway

The Jingkai Expressway heads for Kaifeng, but is interrupted as of Yufa, Beijing, where the Beijing section ends. It continues as China National Highway 106. The Jingkai Expressway (京开高速公路, Hanyu Pinyin: Jīngkāi Gāosù Gōnglù) is an expressway in China which links Beijing to Kaifeng. ... The Jingkai Expressway (京开高速公路, Hanyu Pinyin: Jīngkāi Gāosù Gōnglù) is an expressway in China which links Beijing to Kaifeng. ... Kaifeng (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: KāifÄ“ng; Wade-Giles: Kai-feng), formerly known as Bianliang (汴梁; Wade-Giles: Pien-liang), is a prefecture-level city in eastern Henan province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Related: Transportation of Beijing Part of the WikiProject Transportation in China Categories: Stub | Peoples Republic of China roads and expressways ...


Route (Beijing section): Yuquanying (E. 3rd Ring Road) - Xinfadi - Majialou (E. 4th Ring Road) - Toll Gate - 5th Ring Road - Daxing - Huangcun (E. 6th Ring Road) - Panggezhuang - Yufa - China National Highway 106
Speed Limit: 80 km/h before the toll gate at Xihongmen, 110 km/h afterwards
Tolls: As of Xihongmen Toll Gate, heading south Yuquanying Yuquanying is a major traffic intersection in Beijing, linking the Jingkai Expressway with the southern part of the 3rd Ring Road. ... 3rd Ring Road (Southeastern segment, taken in July of 2004) The 3rd Ring Road pinyin: San Huan Lu) is a 48-kilometer city ring road that encircles the centre of the city of Beijing. ... Beijings 4th Ring Road (April 2003 image) Eastern 4th Ring Road (August 2004 image) The 4th Ring Road (Hanyu Pinyin: Si Huan Lu) is an express route ring road in Beijing, China which runs around the city approximately 8 kilometres from the centre of the city. ... Beijings 5th Ring Road (taken in March of 2003) The 5th Ring Road at Shangqing Bridge (July 2004 image) The Western 5th Ring Road nears the Western Hills in Beijing (July 2004 image) Beijings 5th Ring Road (Simplified Chinese: 五环路, Traditional Chinese: 五環路, Hanyu... The 6th Ring Road (Simplified Chinese: 六环路, Hanyu Pinyin: Liu Huan Lu) is an expressway ring road in Beijing, China which runs around the city approximately 15-20 kilometres from the centre of the city. ... Related: Transportation of Beijing Part of the WikiProject Transportation in China Categories: Stub | Peoples Republic of China roads and expressways ...


Jingshi Expressway

Main article: Jingshi Expressway

The Jingshi Expressway to Shijiazhuang is one of the oldest expressways in Beijing. In fact, it was China's first completed expressway. The Jingshi Expressway (Chinese: 京石高速公路; pinyin: ; or Jingshi Freeway, as it was formerly known) is an expressway in China which links Beijing to the Shijiazhuang. ... The Jingshi Expressway (Chinese: 京石高速公路; pinyin: ; or Jingshi Freeway, as it was formerly known) is an expressway in China which links Beijing to the Shijiazhuang. ... Shijiazhuang (Simplified Chinese: , Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Shíjiāzhuāng, literally, The Shi Family Village or Stone Family Village) is a prefecture-level city about 320 kilometers south of Beijing and the capital of Hebei province. ...


Route: Liuliqiao (W. 3rd Ring Road) - Yuegezhuang (W. 4th Ring Road) - Xidaokou - W. 5th Ring Road - Dujiakan Toll Gate - Zhaoxindian - Daxing - Liangxing (Fangshan) - 6th Ring Road - Doudian - Liulihe - Hebei Toll Gate - Zhuozhou - Dingxing - Baojin Expressway - Baoding - Shijiazhuang
Speed Limit: 110 km/h throughout Beijing section, 120 km/h thereafter
Tolls: As of Dujiakan Toll Gate, heading southwest
Note: Tolls are not networked, and you need to pay again at the toll gate in South Beijing. However, tolls are networked with the 6th Ring Road. Liuliqiao on the 3rd Ring Road (July 2004 image) Liuliqiao is situated on the southwestern stretch of Beijings 3rd Ring Road. ... 3rd Ring Road (Southeastern segment, taken in July of 2004) The 3rd Ring Road pinyin: San Huan Lu) is a 48-kilometer city ring road that encircles the centre of the city of Beijing. ... Yuegezhuang is a part of the city of Beijing to the southwest. ... Beijings 4th Ring Road (April 2003 image) Eastern 4th Ring Road (August 2004 image) The 4th Ring Road (Hanyu Pinyin: Si Huan Lu) is an express route ring road in Beijing, China which runs around the city approximately 8 kilometres from the centre of the city. ... Beijings 5th Ring Road (taken in March of 2003) The 5th Ring Road at Shangqing Bridge (July 2004 image) The Western 5th Ring Road nears the Western Hills in Beijing (July 2004 image) Beijings 5th Ring Road (Simplified Chinese: 五环路, Traditional Chinese: 五環路, Hanyu... Fangshan District (Simplified Chinese: 房山区; Traditional Chinese: 房山區; Hanyu Pinyin: Fángshān QÅ«) is situated in the southwest of Beijing and 38km away from downtown Beijing. ... The 6th Ring Road (Simplified Chinese: 六环路, Hanyu Pinyin: Liu Huan Lu) is an expressway ring road in Beijing, China which runs around the city approximately 15-20 kilometres from the centre of the city. ... Baojin Expressway (July 2004 image) The Baojin Expressway (pinyin: Baojin Gaosu Gonglu) is so named because it connects Baoding in Hebei province with Tianjin. ... Categories: China geography stubs | Cities in China ... Shijiazhuang (Simplified Chinese: , Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Shíjiāzhuāng, literally, The Shi Family Village or Stone Family Village) is a prefecture-level city about 320 kilometers south of Beijing and the capital of Hebei province. ...


Extended expressways

The nine expressways also indirectly become portions of other expressways.


The Badaling Expressway connects after Yanqing to Zhangjiakou as the Jingzhang Expressway. Already as of Madian, it forms part of the Jingda Expressway. Zhangjiakou (Simplified Chinese: 张家口; Traditional Chinese: 張家口; pinyin: ; Mongolian: Чуулалт Хаалга [Čūlalt Hālga]) is a city in Hebei Province, China. ... The Jingzhang Expressway (京张高速公路, Hanyu Pinyin: Jīngzhāng Gāosù Gōnglù) is an expressway in China which links Beijing to Zhangjiakou. ... Madian node and bridge Madian is a transportation node in Beijing. ... The Jingda Expressway is an expressway in the Peoples Republic of China, starting from Beijing and ending in Datong, in Shanxi province. ...


The Jinghu Expressway becomes an independent expressway after Tianjin. Over 1000 kilometres in length, the Jinghu Expressway was opened in the early 2000s, and connects Beijing to Shanghai. ...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: TiānjÄ«n; Postal map spelling: Tientsin) is one of the four municipalities of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


The Jingshi Expressway forms part of the very long Jingzhu Expressway. The Jingshi Expressway (Chinese: 京石高速公路; pinyin: ; or Jingshi Freeway, as it was formerly known) is an expressway in China which links Beijing to the Shijiazhuang. ... The Jingzhu Expressway is the first completed north-south expressway in the Peoples Republic of China, starting from Beijing and ending in Zhuhai, on the border with the Macao SAR. The Jingzhu Expressway is formed mainly by the main trunk route from Beijing to Shijiazhuang (Jingshi Expressway), and by...


Alternate names

The Badaling Expressway is sometimes referred to as the Jingchang Expressway, as the first stage of the expressway runs through Changping District. Changping District (Simplified Chinese: 昌平区; Traditional Chinese: 昌平區; Hanyu Pinyin: Chāngpíng Qū) is situated at the suburb of northwest Beijing. ...


Projected expressways

Jingping Expressway

Current Status: Not yet constructed; in planning


Beijing's Pinggu District so far is the only district without an expressway link. However, Beijing will soon build the Jingping Expressway to link to Pinggu. Beijings Pinggu District lies at the extreme eastern end of Beijing municipality, and borders Tianjin municipality near Jixian County. ...


This expressway is will also link to Jixian County in Tianjin, which would also link to the Jinji Expressway, ultimately connecting Tianjin City. Thus, this road is also known as the projected Jingji Expressway.   (Chinese: ; pinyin: TiānjÄ«n; Postal map spelling: Tientsin) is one of the four municipalities of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Opened in late September 2003, just days before October 1 - Chinas National Day holiday - the Jinji Expressway runs entirely within Tianjin, and links Tianjin city in the south with Ji County in the north. ...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: TiānjÄ«n; Postal map spelling: Tientsin) is one of the four municipalities of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


The expressway would start at Yaojiayuan Bridge on Beijing's 5th Ring Road and stretch for 69 kilometres. It would ultimately be connected to the eastern 4th Ring Road. Beijings 5th Ring Road (taken in March of 2003) The 5th Ring Road at Shangqing Bridge (July 2004 image) The Western 5th Ring Road nears the Western Hills in Beijing (July 2004 image) Beijings 5th Ring Road (Simplified Chinese: 五环路, Traditional Chinese: 五環路, Hanyu... Beijings 4th Ring Road (April 2003 image) Eastern 4th Ring Road (August 2004 image) The 4th Ring Road (Hanyu Pinyin: Si Huan Lu) is an express route ring road in Beijing, China which runs around the city approximately 8 kilometres from the centre of the city. ...


A tunnel is planned. The expressway would presumably be constructed in 2005, with a section opening in early 2006, and completion scheduled by early 2007. 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Jingkai Expressway

Current Status: Jingkai Expressway from Yuquanying to Yufa open to traffic The Jingkai Expressway (京开高速公路, Hanyu Pinyin: Jīngkāi Gāosù Gōnglù) is an expressway in China which links Beijing to Kaifeng. ... Yuquanying Yuquanying is a major traffic intersection in Beijing, linking the Jingkai Expressway with the southern part of the 3rd Ring Road. ...


In 2004, an additional 7 kilometres of the Jingkai Expressway was announced. Although specific details aren't clear right now, it may be the extension from Yufa into Gu'an in Hebei province, which currently is part of China National Highway 106, but which many maps claim now to be already expressway. Hebei (Chinese: 河北; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ho-pei; Postal System Pinyin: Hopeh) is a northern province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Related: Transportation of Beijing Part of the WikiProject Transportation in China Categories: Stub | Peoples Republic of China roads and expressways ...


Jingcheng Expressway

Current Status: Portion from N. 3rd Ring Road through N. 6th Ring Road open to traffic 3rd Ring Road (Southeastern segment, taken in July of 2004) The 3rd Ring Road pinyin: San Huan Lu) is a 48-kilometer city ring road that encircles the centre of the city of Beijing. ... The 6th Ring Road (Simplified Chinese: 六环路, Hanyu Pinyin: Liu Huan Lu) is an expressway ring road in Beijing, China which runs around the city approximately 15-20 kilometres from the centre of the city. ...


A stretch to Miyun has been trumpeted to be completed by the end of this year. These form Stage 2 of the Jingcheng Expressway. However, the construction work on the stretch to Miyun is rather slow, and a completion this year may be doubted. Miyun is a city in the northeast of Beijing. ... The Jingcheng Expressway is an expressway in China which links Beijing to Chengde in Hebei province. ...


Stage 3 will stretch to the outer confines of Beijing municipality.


Work on the Hebei stretch connecting it to Chengde is also getting underway. The Putuo Zongcheng ticket to the summer resort (1984) Chengde (Chinese: ; pinyin: Chéngdé; Manchu: Erdemu be aliha fu) is a city approximately one hundred miles northeast of Beijing in northeastern Hebei province, situated near the Luan River. ...


The remaining Beijing sections are 108.6 km in length (in total).


Airport Expressway

Current Status: Airport Expressway open to traffic Airport Expressway (heading towards the airport, July 2004 image) The old and the new: The Airport Expressway Toll Gate at Xiaotianzhu (August 2004 image) Old Airport Road (August 2004 image) The Airport Expressway (机场高速公路, Hanyu Pinyin: Jīchǎng Gāosù Gōnglù) is an expressway in Beijing, China, which links...


Two further routes, both of them being expressways, will link Beijing Capital International Airport. Beijing Capital International Airport (Simplified Chinese: 北京首都国际机场; Traditional Chinese: 北京首都國際機場; pinyin: BÄ›ijÄ«ng ShÇ’udÅ« Guójì JÄ«cháng) (IATA: PEK, ICAO: ZBAA) is the main international airport that serves the capital city of Beijing, Peoples Republic of China. ...


The Airport Northern Route from the Jingcheng Expressway will stretch 10.8 km to the airport. The Jingcheng Expressway is an expressway in China which links Beijing to Chengde in Hebei province. ...


A second airport expressway will stretch 23 kilometres. This second airport expressway would run between the eastern 5th Ring Road and the eastern 6th Ring Road, starting up north from the airport all the way through to the second Jingjin Expressway (bound for Tianjin). Beijings 5th Ring Road (taken in March of 2003) The 5th Ring Road at Shangqing Bridge (July 2004 image) The Western 5th Ring Road nears the Western Hills in Beijing (July 2004 image) Beijings 5th Ring Road (Simplified Chinese: 五环路, Traditional Chinese: 五環路, Hanyu... The 6th Ring Road (Simplified Chinese: 六环路, Hanyu Pinyin: Liu Huan Lu) is an expressway ring road in Beijing, China which runs around the city approximately 15-20 kilometres from the centre of the city. ...


Jingjintang Expressway

Current Status: Jingjintang Expressway open to traffic Jingjintang Expressway (Beijing segment, taken in July of 2004) Opened in September of 1993, the Jingjintang expressway, also known simply as the Jingtang expressway, links Beijing via central Tianjin to the Tanggu District in eastern Tianjin. ...


The current Jingjintang Expressway is not only open to traffic, but also home to a huge load of traffic everyday. Should a traffic accident occur (and they do occur), rescue efforts would take quite a while.


Thus, both Beijing and Tianjin have approved the construction of two more expressways to Tianjin.   (Chinese: ; pinyin: TiānjÄ«n; Postal map spelling: Tientsin) is one of the four municipalities of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


The northern route shall leave Beijing at Tongzhou District and pass through Yangcun in Tianjin. A southern route shall also exist. // Overview Tongzhou District (Simplified Chinese: 通州区; Traditional Chinese: 通州區; Hanyu Pinyin: Tōngzhōu Qū), located in southeast Beijing, is considered as the capitals eastern gate. ...


Both routes will stretch 35 kilometres each (at least in the Beijing sections).


Jingbao Expressway

Announced only in 2004, the Jingbao Expressway go for 25.9 kilometres in length in the Beijing area, reducing traffic load on the Badaling Expressway. The project, however, is difficult to tackle; its route must not disturb the Ming Tombs. The Badaling Expressway (Simplified Chinese: 八达岭高速公路, Traditional Chinese: 八達嶺高速公路, Hanyu Pinyin: Bādálíng Gāosù Gōnglù) is an expressway in China which links Beijing to the Badaling stretch of the Great Wall of China. ... Standing in the Spirit Way at the Ming Tombs looking back towards the entry gate. ...


Litian Expressway

Announced in September 2004 (but reaching already just one map in the summer), this expressway would serve as an eastern link from the Capital Airport to the northeastern 6th Ring Road. It would run along Litian Road, which currently is in existence. Litian Road would also get an improvement. September 2004 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December See also: September 2004 in sports Events Deaths in September • 27 Tsai Wan-lin • 24 Françoise Sagan • 20 Brian Clough • 18 Russ Meyer • 15 Johnny Ramone • 12 Fred Ebb • 11 Peter VII of Alexandria • 8... The 6th Ring Road (Simplified Chinese: 六环路, Hanyu Pinyin: Liu Huan Lu) is an expressway ring road in Beijing, China which runs around the city approximately 15-20 kilometres from the centre of the city. ...


See also


The China National Highways are a series of trunk roads throughout all of China. ... Chinese expressway, complete with signage. ...

Roads and Expressways of Beijing Expressway Overpass
Main Roads: Chang'an Avenue (East, West) | Ping'an Avenue | Zhongzhou Road (North, South)
Ring Roads: Open: 2nd Ring Road | 3rd Ring Road | 4th Ring Road | 5th Ring Road | 6th Ring Road
Projected: 7th Ring Road |
Expressways: Open: Badaling Expressway (Jingda Expressway) | Jingcheng Expressway | Airport Expressway | Jingtong Expressway | Jingha Expressway | Jingshen Expressway | Jingjintang Expressway (Jinghu Expressway) | Jingkai Expressway | Jingshi Expressway (Jingzhu Expressway)
Partially under construction: Jingcheng Expressway | Jingkai Expressway | Northern Airport Line | Jingping Expressway | Jingbao Expressway | Litian Expressway
Projected: 2nd Airport Expressway | Jingjin Expressway (North, South)
7 National Expressways: Jingtai Expressway (projected) | Jinghu Expressway | Jinggang'ao Expressway (partially complete) | Jingkun Expressway | Jingla Expressway (projected) | Jingwu Expressway (projected) | Jingha Expressway (alternate route)
National Highways G101 | G102 | G103 | G104 | G105 | G106 | G107 | G108 | G109 | G110 | G111

  Results from FactBites:
 
Beijing: Weather and Much More from Answers.com (5461 words)
Beijing Municipality borders Hebei Province to the north, west, south, and for a small section in the east, and Tianjin Municipality to the southeast.
Beijing is situated at the northern tip of the roughly triangular North China Plain which opens to the south and east of the city.
Beijing's 18 districts and counties are further subdivided into 273 lower (third)-level administrative units at the township level: 119 towns, 24 townships, 5 ethnic townships and 125 subdistricts.
BIGpedia - Beijing - Encyclopedia and Dictionary Online (3872 words)
Beijing is one of the 4 municipalities of the People's Republic of China, which have a provincial-level status, and is under the direct control of the central government.
Beijing is one of the largest cities in China, second only to Shanghai as the nation's biggest in terms of population.
Beijing borders Hebei province to the north, west, south, and for a tiny fraction to the east.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m