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Encyclopedia > Expressionism
The Scream by Edvard Munch (1893) which inspired 20th century Expressionists
The Scream by Edvard Munch (1893) which inspired 20th century Expressionists
Portrait of Eduard Kosmack by Egon Schiele
Portrait of Eduard Kosmack by Egon Schiele
Rehe im Walde by Franz Marc
Rehe im Walde by Franz Marc
"Elbe Bridge I" by Rolf Nesch
"Elbe Bridge I" by Rolf Nesch
"On White II" by Wassily Kandinsky, 1923.
"On White II" by Wassily Kandinsky, 1923.
"View of Toledo" by El Greco, 1595/1610 has been pointed out to bear a particularly striking resemblance to 20th century expressionism. Historically speaking it is however part of the Mannerism movement.
"View of Toledo" by El Greco, 1595/1610 has been pointed out to bear a particularly striking resemblance to 20th century expressionism. Historically speaking it is however part of the Mannerism movement.

Expressionism is the tendency of an artist to distort reality for an emotional effect; it is a subjective art form. Expressionism is exhibited in many art forms, including painting, literature, theatre, film, architecture and music. Additionally, the term often implies emotional angst – the number of cheerful expressionist works is relatively small. Download high resolution version (500x637, 135 KB)Subject: Painting The Scream (1893) by Edvard Munch. ... Download high resolution version (500x637, 135 KB)Subject: Painting The Scream (1893) by Edvard Munch. ... For other uses, see The Scream (disambiguation). ... The Scream. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x2007, 229 KB) Description:  Title: de: Porträt des Eduard Kosmack Technique: de: Öl auf Leinwand Dimensions: de: 100 × 100 cm Country of origin: de: Österreich Current location (city): de: Wien Current location (gallery): de: Österreichische Galerie Other notes: Source: The... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x2007, 229 KB) Description:  Title: de: Porträt des Eduard Kosmack Technique: de: Öl auf Leinwand Dimensions: de: 100 × 100 cm Country of origin: de: Österreich Current location (city): de: Wien Current location (gallery): de: Österreichische Galerie Other notes: Source: The... Photograph by Anton Josef Trčka Egon Schiele (June 12, 1890 – October 31, 1918) (pronounced approximately SHEE-luh) was an Austrian painter, a protege of Gustav Klimt, and a major figurative painter of the early 20th century. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x2199, 406 KB) Description:  Title: de: Rehe im Walde (II) Technique: de: Leinwand Dimensions: de: 110,5 × 100 cm Country of origin: de: Deutschland Current location (city): de: Karlsruhe Current location (gallery): de: Kunsthalle Other notes: de: Künstlergruppe Â»Der Blaue... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x2199, 406 KB) Description:  Title: de: Rehe im Walde (II) Technique: de: Leinwand Dimensions: de: 110,5 × 100 cm Country of origin: de: Deutschland Current location (city): de: Karlsruhe Current location (gallery): de: Kunsthalle Other notes: de: Künstlergruppe Â»Der Blaue... Franz Marc (February 8, 1880 – March 4, 1916) was one of the principal painters and printmakers of the German Expressionist movement. ... Image File history File links Rolf-Nesch-Bro-Over-Elben. ... Image File history File links Rolf-Nesch-Bro-Over-Elben. ... Rolf (Emil Rudolf) Nesch (born 1893 in Esslingen, Germany - died 1975 in Norway) was a German-Norwegian artist. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Wassily Kandinsky (Russian: Василий Кандинский, first name pronounced as [vassi:li]) (December 16 [O.S. December 4] 1866 – December 13, 1944) was a Russian painter, printmaker and art theorist. ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x1145, 235 KB) Summary View of Toledo by El Greco a famous painting in Mannierism style. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x1145, 235 KB) Summary View of Toledo by El Greco a famous painting in Mannierism style. ... El Greco (The Greek, 1541 – April 7, 1614) was a painter, sculptor, and architect of the Spanish Renaissance. ... Events January 30 - William Shakespeares Romeo and Juliet is performed for the first time. ... // Events January 7 - Galileo Galilei discovers the Galilean moons of Jupiter. ... In Parmigianinos Madonna with the Long Neck (1534-40), Mannerism makes itself known by elongated proportions, affected poses, and unclear perspective. ... Look up Emotion in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ... For other uses , see Painting (disambiguation). ... Old book bindings at the Merton College library. ... Serge Sudeikins poster for the Bat Theatre (1922). ... This article is about motion pictures. ... Expressionist architecture occurs in architecture when an architect distorts a building or design for an emotional effect. ... For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Angst (disambiguation). ...


In this general sense, painters such as Matthias Grünewald and El Greco can be called expressionist, though in practice, the term is applied mainly to 20th century works. The Crucifixion, central panel of the Isenheim Altarpiece Matthias Grünewald (1470-1528) is a highly regarded figure from the German Renaissance. ... El Greco (The Greek, 1541 – April 7, 1614) was a painter, sculptor, and architect of the Spanish Renaissance. ...

Contents

Origin of the term

Although it is used as term of reference, there has never been a distinct movement that called itself "expressionism", apart from the use of the term by Herwald Walden in his polymic magazine Der Sturm in 1912. The term is usually linked to paintings and graphic work in Germany at the turn of the century which challenged the academic traditions, particularly through the Die Brücke and Der Blaue Reiter groups. Philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche played a key role in originating modern expressionism by clarifying and serving as a conduit for previously neglected currents in ancient art. An art movement is a tendency or style in art with a specific common philosophy or goal, followed by a group of artists during a restricted period of time, or, at least, with the heyday of the movement more or less strictly so restricted (usually a few months, years or... Der Sturm (German: The Storm) was a magazine of expressionism founded in Berlin in 1910 by Herwarth Walden. ... Die Brücke (The Bridge) was a group of German expressionist artists formed in Dresden in 1905. ... Cover of Der Blaue Reiter almanac. ... Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15, 1844 – August 25, 1900) (IPA: ) was a nineteenth-century German philosopher. ...


In The Birth of Tragedy Nietzsche presented his theory of the ancient dualism between two types of aesthetic experience, namely the Apollonian and the Dionysian; a dualism between the plastic "art of sculpture", of lyrical dream-inspiration, identity (the principium individuationis), order, regularity, and calm repose, and, on the other hand, the non-plastic "art of music", of intoxication, forgetfulness, chaos, and the ecstatic dissolution of identity in the collective. The analogy with the world of the Greek gods typifies the relationship between these extremes: two godsons, incompatible and yet inseparable. According to Nietzsche, both elements are present in any work of art. The basic characteristics of expressionism are Dionysian: bold colors, distorted forms-in-dissolution, two-dimensional, without perspective.[1] The Birth of Tragedy (Die Geburt der Tragödie aus dem Geiste der Musik, 1872) is a 19th Century work of philosophy by Friedrich Nietzsche. ... The Birth of Tragedy (Die Geburt der Tragödie aus dem Geiste der Musik, 1872) is a 19th Century work of philosophy by Friedrich Nietzsche. ... The Birth of Tragedy (Die Geburt der Tragödie aus dem Geiste der Musik, 1872) is a 19th Century work of philosophy by Friedrich Nietzsche. ... // Lyric poetry refers to either poetry that has the form and musical quality of a song, or a usually short poem that expresses personal feelings, which may or may not be set to music. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


More generally the term refers to art that expresses intense emotion. It is arguable that all artists are expressive but there is a long line of art production in which heavy emphasis is placed on communication through emotion. Such art often occurs during time of social upheaval, and through the tradition of graphic art there is a powerful and moving record of chaos in Europe from the 15th century on the Protestant Reformation, Peasants' War, Spanish Occupation of Netherlands, the rape, pillage and disaster associated with countless periods of chaos and oppression are presented in the documents of the printmaker. Often the work is unimpressive aesthetically, but almost without exception has the capacity to move the viewer to strong emotions with the drama and often horror of the scenes depicted. “Reformation” redirects here. ... Peasants War map. ... Combatants Dutch rebels Spanish Empire The Eighty Years War, or Dutch Revolt (1568[1]–1648), was the revolt of the Seventeen Provinces in the Netherlands against the Spanish (Habsburg) Empire. ... Looting (which derives via the Hindi lut from Sanskrit lunt, to rob), sacking, plundering, or pillaging is the indiscriminate taking of goods by force as part of a military or political victory, or during a catastrophe or riot, such as during war [1], natural disaster [2], or rioting [3]. The... “Horror story” redirects here. ...


The term was also coined by Czech art historian Antonín Matějček in 1910 as the opposite of impressionism: "An Expressionist wishes, above all, to express himself....[An Expressionist rejects] immediate perception and builds on more complex psychic structures....Impressions and mental images that pass through mental peoples soul as through a filter which rids them of all substantial accretions to produce their clear essence [...and] are assimilated and condense into more general forms, into types, which he transcribes through simple short-hand formulae and symbols." (Gordon, 1987) This article is about the art movement. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ...


Visual artists

Some of the movement's leading visual artists in the early 20th century were:

Heinrich Campendonk (3 November 1889 - 9 May 1957) was a German expressionist painter and printmaker. ... Maskenstilleben (Masks Still Life), watercolor on paper, 1911. ... Rolf (Emil Rudolf) Nesch (born 1893 in Esslingen, Germany - died 1975 in Norway) was a German-Norwegian artist. ... Franz Marc (February 8, 1880 – March 4, 1916) was one of the principal painters and printmakers of the German Expressionist movement. ... The young Ernst Barlach Ernst Barlach, (born January 2, 1870 in Wedel, Pinneberg, Germany; died October 24, 1938 in Rostock, Germany) was a famous German expressionist sculptor. ... Die Kniende (kneeing woman), 1911 Wilhelm Lehmbruck (* January 4, 1881 in Duisburg, † March 25, 1919 in Berlin) was a German sculptor. ... Erich Heckel (July 31, 1883 - January 27, 1970) was a German painter and printmaker, and a founding member of the Die Brücke group (The Bridge) which existed 1905-1913. ... Otto Dix (December 2, 1891 - July 25, 1969) was a German painter and printmaker. ... Karl Schmidt-Rottluff (* December 1 1884 in Rottluff - August 10 1976 in Berlin) was a German painter of the expressionism. ... Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (May 6, 1880 – June 15, 1938) was a German expressionist painter and one of the founders of the artists group Die Brücke or The Bridge. ... Fritz Bleyl (1880, Zwickau - 1966) was a German painter of the Expressionist school. ... Max Beckmann (February 12, 1884 – December 28, 1950) was a German painter, draftsman, printmaker, sculptor, and writer. ... Conrad Felixmüller (Dresden, 21 May 1897- Berlin-Zehlendorf, 24 March 1977) was a German painter. ... Carl Hofer (Karlsruhe, 11 October 1878 - West Berlin, West Germany, 3 April 1955) was a German expressionist painter. ... August Macke. ... Biography of the important Dresden painter of the classic modern age and the expressionism Elfriede Lohse Wächtler Born in 1899 on December 4th, 1899 in Dresden Löbtau 1915 studies at the royal art trade school Dresden with Margarete Jung (subject class mode) 1916/18 studies with Oskar Georg... Ludwig Meidner (1884-1966) was a German expressionist painter. ... The painter Paula Modersohn-Becker (* February 8, 1876 in Dresden; † November 21, 1907 in Worpswede) is one of the most important representatives of early expressionism. ... Gabrielle Münter (1877 - 1962) was a German expressionist painter who was at the forefront of the Munich avant-garde in the early 20th century. ... Max Hermann Pechstein (1881-1955) was a German expressionist painter and graphic artist, born in Zwickau. ... Käthe Schmidt Kollwitz (July 8, 1867 - 22 April 1945) was a German artist. ... Photograph by Anton Josef Trčka Egon Schiele (June 12, 1890 – October 31, 1918) (pronounced approximately SHEE-luh) was an Austrian painter, a protege of Gustav Klimt, and a major figurative painter of the early 20th century. ... Oskar Kokoschka (March 1, 1886-February 22, 1980) was an Austrian artist and poet of Czech origin, best known for his intense expressionistic portraits and landscapes. ... Wassily Kandinsky (Russian: Василий Кандинский, first name pronounced as [vassi:li]) (December 16 [O.S. December 4] 1866 – December 13, 1944) was a Russian painter, printmaker and art theorist. ... Marc Chagall as photographed in 1941 by Carl Van Vechten. ... Artists in Munich 1914: (from left) Alexej von Jawlensky, Clotilde von Derp, Marianne von Werefkin, Alexander Sacharoff Alexej Georgewitsch von Jawlensky (?March 13, 1864 – March 15, 1941) was a Russian expressionist painter active in Germany. ... Self Portrait with Yellow Lilies. ... The Mystery that is Woman Willem Hofhuizen (° 27 July 1915 – † 23 December 1986) was a Dutch painter and Expressionist. ... Jan Sluyters (1881 – 1957) was a Dutch painter. ... van Gogh redirects here. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Constant Permeke (1886 — 1952) is a Belgian painter who is considered the leading figure of Flemish expressionism. ... Frits Van den Berghe (1883-1939) was a Belgian expressionist painter. ... James Frederic Ensor, bust, Artist: Edmond de Valériola, Location: Ostende, Belgien James Ensor (April 13, 1860 - November 19, 1949) was a Belgian painter and printmaker, an important precursor to expressionism and surrealism who lived in Ostend for almost his entire life. ... Floris Jespers (1889–1965) was a Belgian Avant-garde painter. ... Georges Henri Rouault (27 May 1871 – 13 February 1958) was a French Fauvist and Expressionist painter. ... Gen Paul, born Eugène Paul on July 2, 1898 in Montmartre, France - died on April 30, 1975 in Paris, France, was a painter and engraver. ... Chaim Soutine (1893 – August 9, 1943) was an expressionist painter. ... The Scream. ... Adorning The Bride, 1952 Kai Breder Fjell (IPA: , March 2, 1907–January 10, 1989) was a Norwegian painter, printmaker and scenographer. ... Mário Eloy (1900 - 1951) was a Portuguese expressionist painter. ... Henryk Gotlib (b Kraków, 1890; d Godstone, Surrey, 30 Dec 1966) was a Polish-born painter, draughtsman, printmaker, and writer, who settled in England and made a significant contribution to modern British art. ... Ivan Le Lorraine Albright (February 20, 1897-1983) was a magic realist painter and artist, most renowned for his self-portraits, character studies, and still lifes. ... Milton Avery (March 7, 1885 – January 3, 1965) was an American modern painter. ... Thomas Hart Benton is a name shared by the following American men: Thomas Hart Benton (senator) (1782-1858) Thomas Hart Benton (painter) (1889-1975) Thomas H. Benton (higher education columnist) (1968-) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Hyman Bloom (b. ... Categories: Possible copyright violations ... Charles Ephraim Burchfield (1893-1967) was one of the preeminent American painters of the 20th century. ... Paul Cadmus photo taken by Carl Van Vechten, 1937 Paul Cadmus (December 17, 1904 - December 12, 1999) was an artist born in New York City. ... Detail of Currys controversial mural in Kansas Statehouse, illustrating John Brown and the clash of forces in Bleeding Kansas John Steuart Curry (November 14, 1897 - August 29, 1946) was an American painter noted for his pictures depicting life in his home state, Kansas. ... Photograph of Stuart Davis, 1940 Stuart Davis (December 7, 1894 - June 24, 1964), American painter, was born in Philadelphia to Edward Wyatt Davies and Helen Stuart Davies. ... Elaine Marie de Kooning (12 March 1918 - 1 February 1989), was an abstract expressionist and semi-realistic painter. ... Willem de Koonings Woman V (1952-53), National Gallery of Australia Willem de Kooning (April 24, 1904 – March 19, 1997) was an abstract expressionist painter, born in Rotterdam, Netherlands. ... Beauford Delaney (December 30, 1901 – March 25, 1979) African-American artist / modernist painter. ... Joseph Henry Delaney is an author of science fiction and fantasy books. ... Edwin Dickinson (October 11, 1891-December 1, 1978) was an American painter and draftsman known for his psychologically charged self-portraits and landscapes. ... Arthur Garfield Dove (August 2, 1880 – November 23, 1946) was an American artist. ... // 1921 - 1981 Norris Embry was an american artist born on January 14, 1921 in Louisville, Kentucky. ... Example Of early Philip Evergood self portrait sketch, Circa 1930s, Private Collection Of L.S. Morgan, St. ... Hugo Gellert, born May 3, 1892 in Budapest, Hungary, died December 6, 1985 in Freehold, New Jersey, was an American illustrator and satirist. ... John D. Graham (1886 – 1961) was a Russian-born American Modernist painter. ... William Gropper (born 1897 in New York; died 1977) was a U.S. cartoonist, painter, lithographer, and muralist. ... George Grosz (July 26, 1893 – July 6, 1959) was a prominent member of the Berlin Dada and New Objectivity group, known especially for his savagely caricatural drawings of Berlin life in the 1920s. ... Painting, Smoking Eating 1972 Oil on Canvas Philip Guston (July 27, 1913 – June 7, 1980) was a notable painter and printmaker in the New York School, which included many of the Abstract Expressionists, such as Jackson Pollock and Willem De Kooning. ... Marsden Hartley (January 4, 1877 - September 2, 1943) was an American painter and poet in the early 20th century. ... Charles Webster Hawthorne (1872–1930) was an American portrait and genre painter and a noted teacher who founded the Cape Cod School of Art in 1899. ... Albert Kotin (1907 – 1980) belonged to the early generation of New York School Abstract Expressionist artists whose artistic innovation by the 1950s had been recognized across the Atlantic, including Paris. ... Walt Kuhn (27 October 1877 - 13 July 1949) was an American painter born in Brooklyn, New York City. ... Yasuo Kuniyoshi (1st September 1893 - 14th May 1953) was an American painter born in Okayama, Japan. ... Jack Levine (b. ... An Arrangement, oil on cardboard Alfred Henry Maurer (1868 – August 4, 1932) was an American painter born in New York City. ... Dana Gordon by Alice Neel, 1972 Alice Neel (January 28, 1900 – October 13, 1984) was an American portrait painter. ... David Park (1911-1960) was part of the post-WWII alumnae of the San Francisco Art Institute (then the California Art School). ... The Race Track (Death on a Pale Horse) (1895 - 1910), Cleveland Museum of Art Albert Pinkham Ryder (March 19, 1847 - March 28, 1917) was an American painter best known for his poetic and moody allegorical works and seascapes, as well as his eccentric personality. ... Sacco & Vanzetti mosaic by Ben Shahn, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY Ben Shahn (September 12, 1898 - March 14, 1969) was a Lithuanian-born American artist and teacher. ... Harry Shoulberg(1903 - 1995). ... Raphael Soyer (1899, Borisoglebsk, Tambov - 1987, New York) was Russian-born US painter. ... Brooklyn Bridge by Joseph Stella. ... Harry Sternberg was a painter. ... Sand Dunes at Sunset, Atlantic City by Henry Tanner Henry Ossawa Tanner (June 21, 1859–May 25, 1937) was one of the first important African American painters. ... Tannings Etched Murmurs (etching) 1984 Dorothea Tanning (born 25 August 1910) is an American painter, printmaker, sculptor and writer. ... For the politician, see Max Weber (politician). ... Hale A. Woodruff (August 26, 1900 - September, 1980) was an African American artist known for his mural, paintings, and prints. ... Karl Zerbe (b. ...

Expressionist groups in painting

There was never a group of artists that called themselves "The expressionists". This movement primarily originated in Germany and Austria, though following World War II it began to influence young American artists. Norris Embry (1921-1981) studied with Oskar Kokoschka in 1947 and over the next 43 years produced a large body of work grounded in the Expressionist tradition. Norris Embry has been called "the first American German Expressionist". Other American artists of the late 20th and early 21st century have developed distinct movements that are generally considered part of Expressionism. Another prominent artist who came from the German Expressionist "school" was Bremen born Wolfgang Degenhardt. After working as a commercial artist in Bremen he migrated to Australia in 1954 and became quite prominent and sought after in the Hunter Valley region. His paintings captured the spirit of Australian and world issues but presented them in a way which was true to his German Expressionist roots. // 1921 - 1981 Norris Embry was an american artist born on January 14, 1921 in Louisville, Kentucky. ... Oskar Kokoschka (March 1, 1886-February 22, 1980) was an Austrian artist and poet of Czech origin, best known for his intense expressionistic portraits and landscapes. ... Wolfgang Degenhardt (19 May 1924 - 8 November 1993) Australian Artist, prominent Hunter Valley artist. ...


There were a number of Expressionist groups in painting, including the Blaue Reiter and Die Brücke. Der Blaue Reiter (The Blue Rider) was a group of expressionist artists that was established in Munich in 1911. ... Die Brücke (The Bridge) was a group of German expressionist artists formed in Dresden in 1905. ...


Boston figurative expressionism[2] was an integral part of American modernism around the Second World War. Major figurative Boston expressionists included: Karl Zerbe, Hyman Bloom, Jack Levine, David Aronson, Philip Guston. The Boston figurative expressionists post World War II were increasingly marginalized by the development of abstract expressionism centered in New York City. Nickname: City on the Hill, Beantown, The Hub (of the Universe)1, Athens of America, The Cradle of Revolution, Puritan City, Americas Walking City Location in Massachusetts, USA Counties Suffolk County Mayor Thomas M. Menino(D) Area    - City 232. ... American Modernism is an artistic and cultural movement in the USA starting at the turn of the 20th Century with its core period between World War I and World War II. Characteristically, Modernist art has a tendency to abstraction, is innovative, aesthetic, futuristic and self-referential. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... Karl Zerbe (b. ... Hyman Bloom (b. ... Jack Levine (b. ... Painting, Smoking Eating 1972 Oil on Canvas Philip Guston (July 27, 1913 – June 7, 1980) was a notable painter and printmaker in the New York School, which included many of the Abstract Expressionists, such as Jackson Pollock and Willem De Kooning. ... Jackson Pollock, No. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ...


Later in the 20th century, Expressionism influenced and related to a large number of artists and movements. The abstract expressionists, consisting primarily of American artists, Tachisme of the 1940s and 1950s in Europe and in the United States and Canada Lyrical Abstraction beginning in the late 1960s and the 1970s were all expressionist movements. The neo-expressionists were a revival movement in Germany beginning in the late 1970s and centered around artists Anselm Kiefer and Georg Baselitz. American post-World War II art movement. ... Tachisme (alternative spelling: Tachism, derived from the French word tache - stain) was a French style of abstract painting in the 1940s and 1950s. ... Lyrical Abstraction is an important American abstract art movement that emerged in New York City, Los Angeles, Washington DC and then Toronto and London during the 1960s - 1970s. ... Neo-expressionism was a style of modern painting that emerged in the late 1970s and dominated the art market until the mid-1980s. ... This article should be translated from material at de:Anselm Kiefer. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The Der Blaue Reiter group was based in Munich and Die Brücke was based originally in Dresden (although some later moved to Berlin). Die Brücke was active for a longer period than Der Blaue Reiter which was only truly together for a year (1912). The Expressionists had many influences, among them Munch, Vincent van Gogh, and African art. They also came to know the work being done by the Fauves in Paris. Cover of Der Blaue Reiter almanac. ... Die Brücke (The Bridge) was a group of German expressionist artists formed in Dresden in 1905. ... For other uses, see Dresden (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... The Scream. ... van Gogh redirects here. ... Yoruba bronze head sculpture, Ife, Nigeria c. ... Henri Matisse, Portrait of Madame Matisse (The green line), 1905, Statens Museum for Kunst, Copenhagen, Denmark [[Image:Matissedance. ...


Influenced by the Fauves, Expressionism worked with arbitrary colors as well as jarring compositions. In reaction and opposition to French Impressionism which focused on rendering the sheer visual appearance of objects, Expressionist artists sought to capture emotions and subjective interpretations: It was not important to reproduce an aesthetically pleasing impression of the artistic subject matter; the Expressonists focused on capturing vivid emotional reactions through powerful colors and dynamic compositions instead.


The leader of Der Blaue Reiter, Kandinsky, would take this a step further. He believed that with simple colors and shapes the spectator could perceive the moods and feelings in the paintings, therefore he made the move to abstraction. Cover of Der Blaue Reiter almanac. ... On White II (Kandinsky 1923) Wassily Kandinsky (Russian: Василий Кандинский, first name sometimes spelled as Vasily, Vassily or Vasilii) (December 16, 1866 - December 13, 1944) was a Russian-born painter and art theorist. ...


In other media

Expressionism is also used to describe other art forms.

Sculpture

Some sculptors also adopted this style, as for example Ernst Barlach. Sculptor redirects here. ... The young Ernst Barlach Ernst Barlach, (born January 2, 1870 in Wedel, Pinneberg, Germany; died October 24, 1938 in Rostock, Germany) was a famous German expressionist sculptor. ...

Film

There was also an expressionist movement in film, often referred to as German Expressionism. The most important examples are Robert Wiene's The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari (1920), The Golem: How He Came Into the World (1920), Fritz Lang's Metropolis (1927) and F. W. Murnau's Nosferatu, a Symphony of Horror (1922). Expressionism in filmmaking developed in Germany (especially Berlin) during the 1920s. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Robert Wiene (born April 27, 1873 in Breslau; died 17 July 1938 in Paris) was a German film director. ... Dr. Caligari, Caligari, and Doctor Caligari all redirect here. ... Friedrich Christian Anton Fritz Lang (December 5, 1890 – August 2, 1976) was an Austrian-German-American film director, screenwriter and occasional film producer, one of the best known émigrés from Germanys school of expressionism. ... For other uses, see Metropolis (disambiguation). ... F W Murnau Friedrich Wilhelm Murnau (December 28, 1888 - March 11, 1931) was one of the most influential directors of the silent film era. ... Nosferatu, eine Symphonie des Grauens (Nosferatu, a Symphony of Horror) is a German Expressionist film by Friedrich Wilhelm Murnau, starring Max Schreck as the vampire Count Orlok. ...

Literature

In literature the novels of Franz Kafka are often described as expressionist. Expressionist poetry also flourished mainly in the German-speaking countries. The most influential expressionist poets were Gottfried Benn, Ernst Barlach or Alfred Döblin. Another example is Carl Einstein. “Kafka” redirects here. ... Gottfried Benn (May 2, 1886 – July 7, 1956) was a German essayist, novelist and expressionist poet. ... The young Ernst Barlach Ernst Barlach, (born January 2, 1870 in Wedel, Pinneberg, Germany; died October 24, 1938 in Rostock, Germany) was a famous German expressionist sculptor. ... Alfred Döblin (August 10, 1878 – June 26, 1957) was a German expressionist novelist, best known for Berlin Alexanderplatz. ... Carl Einstein (aka Karl Einstein) was born on April 26, 1885, in Neuwied/Rhein, Germany and died July 3 or July 5, 1940. ...

Theatre

In the theatre, there was a concentrated Expressionist movement in early 20th century German theatre of which Georg Kaiser and Ernst Toller were the most famous playwrights. Other notable expressionist dramatists included Reinhard Sorge, Walter Hasenclever, Hans Henny Jahnn, and Arnolt Bronnen. They looked back to Swedish playwright August Strindberg and German actor and dramatist Frank Wedekind as precursors of their dramaturgical experiments. Georg Kaiser (1878-1945) was a highly prolific German dramatist who wrote in a variety of styles, but is best known as an expressionist, most notably for The Citizens of Calais (1914), From Morn to Midnight (1916), and a trilogy, comprised of The Coral (1917), Gas (1918), Gas II(1920). ... Ernst Toller (December 1, 1893 - May 22, 1939) was a German Communist playwright. ... Walter Hasenclever, b. ... Hans Henny Jahnn (17 December, 1894 in Stellingen - 29 November, 1959 in Hamburg) was a German playwright, novelist and organ-builder. ... Arnolt Bronnen (1895 - 1959) was an Austrian playwright and director. ... August Strindberg Portrait of August Strindberg by Richard Bergh   (January 22, 1849 – May 14, 1912) was a Swedish writer, playwright, and painter. ... Benjamin Franklin Wedekind (July 24, 1864 - March 9, 1918) was a German playwright. ... Dramaturgy is the art of dramatic composition and the representation of the main elements of drama on the stage. ...


Oskar Kokoschka's 1909 playlet, Murderer, The Hope of Women is often called the first expressionist drama. In it, an unnamed man and woman struggle for dominance. The Man brands the woman; she stabs and imprisons him. He frees himself and she falls dead at his touch. As the play ends, he slaughters all around him (in the words of the text) "like mosquitoes." The extreme simplification of characters to mythic types, choral effects, declamatory dialogue and heightened intensity all would become characteristic of later expressionist plays. Oskar Kokoschka (March 1, 1886-February 22, 1980) was an Austrian artist and poet of Czech origin, best known for his intense expressionistic portraits and landscapes. ...


Expressionist plays often dramatize the spiritual awakening and sufferings of their protagonists, and are referred to as Stationendramen (station plays), modeled on the episodic presentation of the suffering and death of Jesus in the Stations of the Cross. August Strindberg had pioneered this form with his autobiographical trilogy To Damascus. This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... The 12th Station of the Cross - Jesus dies on the Cross. ... August Strindberg Portrait of August Strindberg by Richard Bergh   (January 22, 1849 – May 14, 1912) was a Swedish writer, playwright, and painter. ...


The plays often dramatize the struggle against bourgeois values and established authority, often personified in the figure of the Father. In Sorge's The Beggar, (Der Bettler), the young hero's mentally ill father raves about the prospect of mining the riches of Mars; he is finally poisoned by his son. In Bronnen's Parricide (Vatermord), the son stabs his tyranncial father to death, only to have to fend off the frenzied sexual overtures of his mother. The Beggar is a 1965 novella by Naguib Mahfouz about the failure to find meaning in existence. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Patricide. ...


In expressionist drama, the speech is heightened, whether expansive and rhapsodic, or clipped and telegraphic. Director Leopold Jessner became famous for his expressionistic productions, often unfolding on the stark, steeply raked flights of stairs that quickly became his trademark. In the 1920s, expressionism enjoyed a brief period of popularity in the American theatre, including plays by Eugene O'Neill (The Hairy Ape, The Emperor Jones and The Great God Brown), Sophie Treadwell (Machinal) and Elmer Rice (The Adding Machine). Leopold Jessner (March 3, 1878–October 30, 1945) was a noted producer and director of German Expressionist theater. ... Eugene Gladstone ONeill (October 16, 1888 – November 27, 1953) was a Nobel- and four-time Pulitzer Prize-winning American playwright. ... The Hairy Ape is an expressionist play by Eugene ONeill (1922). ... Poster for a 1937 Federal Theater Project production of The Emperor Jones. ... Sophie Treadwell (October 3, 1885 – February 20, 1970), was a leading female playwright and American journalist of the first half of the 20th century. ... Machinal (1928) was a play written by early 20th Century playwright and journalist Sophie Treadwell. ... Elmer Rice photo taken by Carl Van Vechten, 1934 Elmer Rice (b. ... The Adding Machine was a 1923 play by Elmer Rice, and is generally considered to be the first American Expressionist play. ...

Music
Main article: Expressionism (music)

In music, Arnold Schoenberg, Anton Webern and Alban Berg, the members of the Second Viennese School, wrote pieces described as expressionist (Schoenberg also made expressionist paintings). Other composers who followed them, such as Ernst Krenek, are often considered as a part of the expressionist movement in music. What distinguished these composers from their contemporaries such as Maurice Ravel, George Gershwin and Igor Stravinsky is that expressionist composers self-consciously used atonality to free their artform from the traditional tonality. They also sought to express the subconscious, the 'inner necessity' and suffering through their highly dissonant musical language. Erwartung and Die Glückliche Hand, by Schoenberg, and Wozzeck, an opera by Alban Berg (based on the play Woyzeck by Georg Büchner), are example of expressionist works. Expressionism as a musical genre is notoriously difficult to exactly define. ... Arnold Schoenberg, Los Angeles, 1948 Arnold Schoenberg (the anglicized form of Schönberg — Schoenberg changed the spelling officially when he left Germany and re-converted to Judaism in 1933; September 13, 1874 – July 13, 1951) was an Austrian and later American composer. ... Anton Webern (December 3, 1883 – September 15, 1945) was an Austrian composer and conductor. ... Bust of Alban Berg at Schiefling, Carinthia, Austria Alban Maria Johannes Berg (February 9, 1885 – December 24, 1935) was an Austrian composer. ... The Second Viennese School was a group of composers made up of Arnold Schoenberg and those who studied under him in early 20th century Vienna. ... Expressionism as a musical genre is notoriously difficult to exactly define. ... Ernst Krenek Ernst Krenek (August 23, 1900 – December 22, 1991) was an Austrian-born composer of Czech ancestry; throughout his life he insisted that his name be written Krenek rather than KÅ™enek, and that it should be pronounced as a German word. ... Maurice Ravel. ... “Gershwin” redirects here. ... Igor Stravinsky. ... In music, a consonance (Latin consonare, sounding together) is a harmony, chord, or interval considered stable, as opposed to a dissonance, which is considered unstable. ... Erwartung (translation: Expectation) is an opera, composed in 1909 by the Viennese composer Arnold Schoenberg. ... Wozzeck is the first opera by the Austrian composer Alban Berg (1885-1935). ... Bust of Alban Berg at Schiefling, Carinthia, Austria Alban Maria Johannes Berg (February 9, 1885 – December 24, 1935) was an Austrian composer. ... Klaus Kinski in Werner Herzogs Woyzeck Woyzeck is a stage play written by Georg Büchner. ... Karl Georg Büchner (October 17, 1813 – February 19, 1837) was a German dramatist and writer of prose. ...

Architecture
Einsteinturm in Potsdam
Einsteinturm in Potsdam

In architecture, two specific buildings are identified as expressionist: Bruno Taut's Glass Pavilion at the Cologne Werkbund Exhibition (1914), and Erich Mendelsohn's Einstein Tower in Potsdam, Germany completed in 1921. Hans Poelzig's Berlin theatre (Grosse Schauspielhaus) interior for Max Reinhardt is also sometimes cited. The influential architectural critic and historian, Sigfried Giedion in his book Space, Time and Architecture (1941) dismissed Expressionist architecture as a side show in the development of functionalism. It was only in the 1970s that expressionism in architecture came to be re-evaluated in a more positive light. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (750x1000, 131 KB) de:image:Babelsberg_Einsteinturm. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (750x1000, 131 KB) de:image:Babelsberg_Einsteinturm. ... Expressionist architecture occurs in architecture when an architect distorts a building or design for an emotional effect. ... Bruno Julius Florian Taut (May 4, 1880, Konigsberg, Germany - December 24, 1938, Istanbul), was a prolific German architect, urban planner and author active in the Weimar period. ... For other uses, see Cologne (disambiguation). ... The Werkbund Exhibition of 1914 was held in Cologne, Germany. ... Translation in progress Erich Mendelsohn (21 March 1887 – 15 September 1953) was a German Jewish architect, known for his expressionist buildings in the 1920s, the first in their style. ... The Einsteinturm or Einstein Tower in Potsdam, Germany The Einstein Tower is an astrophysical observatory in the Albert Einstein Science Park in Potsdam, Germany designed by architect Erich Mendelsohn. ... Potsdam is the capital city of the federal state of Brandenburg in Germany. ... Hans Poelzig (30 April 1869 Berlin – June 14, 1936 Berlin) was a German architect, painter and set designer active in the Weimar years. ... Interior of the theatre The Grosses Schauspielhaus (Great Theater) was a theatre in Berlin, Germany designed by the expressionist architect Hans Poelzig for theatre impresario Max Reinhardt. ... Max Reinhardt Max Reinhardt (born September 9, 1873 in Baden bei Wien; died October 31, 1943 in New York City) was an influential Austrian director and actor. ... Author of SPACE, TIME & ARCHITECTURE, 1941 ... Functionalism is a term with several senses: For functionalism in sociology, see Functionalism (sociology). ...


References

  1. ^ See Nietzsche (1872, sections 1-6).
  2. ^ Boston modern: figurative expressionism as alternative modernism
  • Antonín Matějček cited in Gordon, Donald E. (1987). Expressionism: Art and Ideas, p.175. New Haven: Yale University Press.
  • Jonah F. Mitchell (Berlin, 2003). Doctoral thesis Expressionism between Western modernism and Teutonic Sonderweg. Courtesy of the author.
  • Friedrich Nietzsche (1872). The Birth of Tragedy Out of The Spirit of Music. Trans. Clifton P. Fadiman. New York: Dover, 1995. ISBN 0486285154.
  • Judith Bookbinder, Boston modern : figurative expressionism as alternative modernism, (Durham, N.H. : University of New Hampshire Press ; Hanover : University Press of New England, ©2005.) ISBN 1584654880 9781584654889
  • Bram Dijkstra, American expressionism : art and social change, 1920-1950, (New York : H.N. Abrams, in association with the Columbus Museum of Art, 2003.) ISBN 0810942313 9780810942318

Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15, 1844 – August 25, 1900) (IPA: ) was a nineteenth-century German philosopher. ...

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  Results from FactBites:
 
WebMuseum: Expressionism (586 words)
In a broader sense Expressionism is one of the main currents of art in the later 19th and the 20th centuries, and its qualities of highly subjective, personal, spontaneous self-expression are typical of a wide range of modern artists and art movements.
Expressionism can also be seen as a permanent tendency in Germanic and Nordic art from at least the European Middle Ages, particularly in times of social change or spiritual crisis, and in this sense it forms the converse of the rationalist and classicizing tendencies of Italy and later of France.
Expressionism assessed itself mostly in Germany, in 1910, (München, Dresde, Berlin), as heir of a national trend related to Grünewald: the Wallraf-Richartz museum, in Köln, has the richest collection of this era.
Expressionism - MSN Encarta (1103 words)
This phase of expressionism in Germany was marked by the conscious exposition of emotions and a heightened sense of the possibilities for expressive content.
Expressionism meanwhile had become an international movement, and the influence of the Germans is seen in the works of such artists as the Austrian painter Oskar Kokoschka, the French artist Georges Rouault, the Lithuanian-born French painter Chaïm Soutine, the Bulgarian-born French painter Jules Pascin, and the American painter Max Weber (see Painting).
Expressionism in music, which crested between the two world wars, gave voice to the anxieties, inner terrors, and cynicism of human life in the 20th century through emotionally intense, musically complex, and carefully structured works.
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