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Encyclopedia > Export

In economics, an export is any good or commodity, transported from one country to another country in a legitimate fashion, typically for use in trade. Export is an important part of international trade. Its counterpart is import.
Export goods or services are provided to foreign consumers by domestic producers. Export of commercial quantities of goods normally requires involvement of the Customs authorities in both the country of export and the country of import.
The advent of small trades over the internet such as through Amazon, e-Bay and the like, have largely by-passed the involvement of Customs in many countries due to the low individual values of these trades. Nonetheless these small exports are still subject to legal restrictions applied by the country of export, particularly in respect of strategic export limitations. Image File history File links Gnome-globe. ... Look up export in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ... A good or commodity in economics is any object or service that increases utility, directly or indirectly, not be confused with good in a moral or ethical sense (see Utilitarianism and consequentialist ethical theory). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Legitimacy is the popular acceptance of a governing regime or law. ... It has been suggested that Commerce be merged into this article or section. ... International trade is the exchange of goods and services across international boundaries or territories. ... Consumers refers to individuals or households that purchase and use goods and services generated within the economy. ... In microeconomics, Production is simply the conversion of inputs into outputs. ...

Contents

History

For more details on this topic, see History of international trade.

The theory of international trade and commercial policy is one of the oldest branches of economic thought starting with the ancient Greeks up to the present era. Exporting is a major component of international trade, and thus is argued constantly and consistently throughout the ages. Two dual views concerning trade present themselves. The first, recognizes the benefits of international exchange. The other concerns itself with the possibly that certain domestic industries (or laborers, or culture) could be harmed by foreign competition. The history of international trade chronicles the way that the flow of trade over long distances has shaped, and been shaped by history. ...


Process

Methods of transfer include a product or good or information being mailed, hand-delivered, up-loaded to an internet site, or downloaded from an internet site. It can be sent in the form of an email or during a telephone conversation.


United States

The Bureau of Industry and Security (BIS) is responsible for implementing and enforcing the Export Administration Regulations (EAR), which regulate the export and reexport of most commercial items. Some commodities require certification in order to export. There are different qualifications for what need to be done in order to export a good.

Dependent on the category,[1] the 'item' falls under, the company may need to attain a license as a requisite to exportation. Some restrictions vary from country to country. The most restricted destinations are the embargoed countries and those countries designated as supporting terrorist activities, including Cuba, Libya, North Korea, Sudan, Syria and Iran (see: Sanctions against Iran). Some products obtained worldwide restrictions. Image File history File links Mergefrom. ... Export. ... This article outlines economic, trade, scientific and military Sanctions against Iran, which has been put forward by the U.S. government, or under U.S. pressure. ...


An item is considered an export whether or not it is leaving the United States temporarily, if it is leaving the United State but is not for sale (a gift), or if it is going to a wholly owned U.S. subsidiary in a foreign country. A foreign-origin item exported from the United States, transmitted or transhipped through the United States, or being returned from the United States to its foreign country of origin is considered an export.[2] Transshipment is the shipment of goods to an intermediate destination, and then from there to yet another destination. ...


How an item is transported outside of the United States does not matter in determining export license requirements.


Refer to http://www.census.gov/foreign-trade/Press-Release/2006pr/aip/related_party for data on exports by industry for the year 2006.


United Kingdom

Export controls are largely the concern of the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI). The Department of Trade and Industry is a United Kingdom government department. ...


Canada

Canadian Export and Import Controls Bureau (EICB)


Australia

Australian Defence Trade Control and Compliance (DTCC)


Isle of Man

Isle of Man Customs and Excise Division


Barriers

Trade barriers are generally defined as government laws, regulations, policy, or practices that either protect domestic products from foreign competition or artificially stimulate exports of particular domestic products. While restrictive business practices sometimes have a similar effect, they are not usually regarded as trade barriers. The most common foreign trade barriers are government-imposed measures and policies that restrict, prevent, or impede the international exchange of goods and services. [3] A trade barrier is general term that describes any government policy or regulation that restricts international trade, the barriers can take many forms, including: Import duties Import licenses Export licenses Quotas Tariffs Subsidies Non-tariff barriers to trade Most trade barriers work on the same principle: the imposition of some... A policy is a plan of action for tackling political issues. ... Look up artificial in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Stimulation is the action of various agents (stimuli) on muscles, nerves, or a sensory end organ, by which activity is evoked; especially, the nervous impulse produced by various agents on nerves, or a sensory end organ, by which the part connected with the nerve is thrown into a state of...


Strategic

International agreements limit trade in, and the transfer of, certain types of goods and information e.g. goods associated with weapons of mass destruction, arms and torture. Examples are Nuclear Suppliers Group - limiting trade in nuclear weapons and associated goods (currently only 45 countries), The Australia Group - limiting trade in chemical & biological weapons and associated goods (currently only 39 countries), Missile Technology Control Regime - limiting trade in the means of delivering weapons of mass destruction (currently only 34 countries) and The Wassenaar Arrangement - limiting trade in conventional arms and technological developments (currently only 40 countries) The Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) is a multinational body concerned with reducing nuclear proliferation by controlling the export and re-transfer of materials that may be applicable to nuclear weapon development and by improving safeguards and protection on existing materials. ... The Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) is an informal and voluntary partnership between 34 countries to prevent the proliferation of missile technology. ...


Tariffs

A tariff is a tax placed on a specific good or set of goods exported from or imported to a country, creating an economic barrier to trade.
Usually the tactic is used when a country's domestic output of the good is falling and imports from foreign competitors are rising, particularly if there exist strategic reasons for retaining a domestic production capability.
Some failing industries receive a protection with an effect similar to a subsidies in that by placing the tariff on the industry, the industry is less enticed to produce goods in a quicker, cheaper, and more productive fashion. The third reason for a tariff involves skirting of what is called dumping. Dumping curtails a country producing highly excessive amounts of goods and dumping the goods on another foreign country, producing the effect of prices that are "too low". Too low can refer to either the price of the good on from the foreign market being lower than the domestic market. The other reference refers to the producer selling the product at a price in which there is no profit or a loss. [4] The purpose (and expected outcome) of the tariff is to encourage spending on domestic goods and services. Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Economic policy Monetary policy Central bank   Money supply Fiscal policy Spending   Deficit   Debt Trade policy Tariff   Trade agreement Finance Financial market Financial market participants Corporate   Personal Public   Banking   Regulation        For other uses of this word, see tariff (disambiguation). ... A subsidy is generally a monetary grant given by government in support of an activity regarded as being in the public interest. ... In economics, dumping can refer to any kind of predatory pricing, and is by most definitions a form of price discrimination. ...


Protective tariffs protect what are known as infant industries that are in the phase of expansive growth. A tariff is used temporarily to allow the industry to freely grow without the level of competition usually garnered. However, this line of debate is only valid if the resources are more productive in their new use than they would be if the industry had not been started. Also, the industry eventually must incorporate itself into a market without the protection of government subsidies. [5]


Tariffs create tension between countries. Examples include the United States steel tariff of 2002 and when China placed a 14% tariff on imported autoparts. Such tariffs usually lead to filing a complaint with the World Trade Organization (WTO) [6] and, if that fails, could eventually head toward the country placing a tariff against the other nation in spite, to impress pressure to remove the tariff. The steel tariff is a political issue in the United States regarding a tariff that President George W. Bush placed on imported steel on March 5, 2002 (took effect March 20). ... “WTO” redirects here. ...


Subsidies

To subsidize an industry or company refers to, in this instance, a governmental providing supplemental financial support to manipulate the price below market value. Subsidies are generally used for failing industries that need a boost in domestic spending. Subsidizing encourages greater demand for a good or service because of the slashed price.


The effect of subsidies deters other countries that are able to produce a specific product or service at a faster, cheaper, and more productive rate. With the lowered price, these efficient producers cannot compete. The life of a subsidy is generally short-lived, but sometimes can be implemented on a more permanent basis.


The agricultural industry is commonly subsidized, both in the United States, and in other countries including Japan and nations located in the European Union (EU).


Critics argue such subsidies cost developing nations $24 billion annually in lost income according to a study by the International Food Policy Research Institute, a D.C. group funded partly by the World Bank. [7] However, other nations are not the only economic 'losers'. Subsidies in the U.S. heavily depend upon taxpayer dollars. In 2000, the U.S. spent an all-time record $32.3 billion for the agricultural industry. The EU spends about $50 billion annually, nearly half its annual budget on its common agricultural policy and rural development. [7]


Exports and free trade

Pros

The theory of comparative advantage materialized during the first quarter of the 19th century in the writings of 'classical economists'. While David Ricardo is most credited with the development of the theory (in Chapter 7[8] of his Principles of Political Economy, 1817)[9], James Mills and Robert Torrens produced similar ideas. The idea stems from a country that is able to produce a commodity at the lowest of all countries, should be encouraged by removing competition. The single commodity with the greatest difference in terms of low prices is encouraged to increase production, while the second and subsequent commodities should either be decreased in levels of production, or removed altogether. In economics, David Ricardo is credited for the principle of comparative advantage to explain how it can be beneficial for two parties (countries, regions, individuals and so on) to trade if one has a lower relative cost of producing some good. ... David Ricardo (18th April, 1772–11th September, 1823), a political economist, is often credited with systematizing economics, and was one of the most influential of the classical economists, along with Thomas Malthus and Adam Smith. ... James Thomas Mills (born June 22, 1914 in Winnipeg, Manitoba; died February 15, 1997) was a politician in Manitoba, Canada. ... Sir Robert Richard Torrens (1814 – 1884) was an Australian politician and one of the earliest Premiers of South Australia. ...


Cons

Mercantilism, the first systematic body of thought devoted to international trade, emerged during the 17th and 18th centuries in Europe. While most views surfacing from this school of thought differed, a commonly argued key objective of trade was to promote a "favorable" balance of trade, referring to a time when the value of domestic goods exported exceeds the value of foreign goods imported. The "favorable" balance in turn created a balance of trade surplus. Mercantile redirects here. ... For meanings of the word balance, see: Look up balance in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Surplus means the quantity left over, after conducting an activity; the quantity which has not been used up, and can refer to: budget surplus, the opposite of a budget deficit economic surplus Surplus product or surplus value in Marxian economics physical surplus in the economic theory of Piero Sraffa Operating...


Mercantilists advocated that government policy directly arrange the flow of commerce to conform to their beliefs. They sought a highly interventionist agenda, using taxes on trade to manipulate the balance of trade or commodity composition of trade in favor of the home country. [9] A planned economy is an economic system in which economic decisions are made by centralized planners, who determine what sorts of goods and services to produce, and how they are to be priced and allocated. ... Anatomy In the context of joints, manipulation is the forceful, passive movement of a joint beyond its active range of motion. ...


Notes

  1. ^ http://www.access.gpo.gov/bis/ear/ear_data.html#ccl
  2. ^ [http://www.bis.doc.gov/licensing/exportingbasics.htm Introduction to Commerce Department Export Controls]. Bureau of Industry and Security (Last accessed 05-21-06).
  3. ^ Targeted Trade Barriers (Last accessed 05-21-06).
  4. ^ Mike Mofatt (Last accessed 05-21-06). The Economic Effect of Tariffs.
  5. ^ The Protective Tariff (Last accessed 05-21-06).
  6. ^ Darren Gersh. "US/China Trade Tensions Thicken Over Auto Parts", PBS transcript, Last accessed 05-21-06. 
  7. ^ a b Jeffrey Sparshott. "Agricultural subsidies targeted", The Washington Times, Last accessed 05-21-06. 
  8. ^ full chapter 7
  9. ^ a b

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Export - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1334 words)
In economics, an export is any good or commodity, shipped or otherwise transported out of a country, province, town to another part of the world in a legitimate fashion, typically for use in trade or sale.
Exporting is a major component of international trade, and thus is argued constantly and consistenly throughout the ages.
Pressure from the exporting tax usually causes public outcry as with what happened when Bush imposed the steel tariff on the EU in 2002, or when China placed a 14% tariff on imported autoparts into their country.
CLHS: Function EXPORT (385 words)
When multiple changes are to be made, for example when export is given a list of symbols, it is permissible for the implementation to process each change separately, so that aborting from a name conflict caused by any but the first symbol in the list does not unexport the first symbol in the list.
However, aborting from a name-conflict error caused by export of one of symbols does not leave that symbol accessible to some packages and inaccessible to others; with respect to each of symbols processed, export behaves as if it were as an atomic operation.
A name conflict in export between one of symbols being exported and a symbol already present in a package that would inherit the newly-exported symbol may be resolved in favor of the exported symbol by uninterning the other one, or in favor of the already-present symbol by making it a shadowing symbol.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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