FACTOID # 18: Alaska spends more money per capita on elementary and secondary education than any other state.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Exploration of the Moon
Apollo 12 lunar module prepares to descend towards the surface of the Moon. NASA photo.
Enlarge
Apollo 12 lunar module prepares to descend towards the surface of the Moon. NASA photo.

The first leap in Lunar observation was caused by the invention of the telescope. Especially Galileo Galilei made good use of this new instrument and observed mountains and craters on the Moon's surface. Download high resolution version (950x955, 120 KB) The Apollo 12 lunar module Intrepid prior to descent, on November 19, 1969. ... Download high resolution version (950x955, 120 KB) The Apollo 12 lunar module Intrepid prior to descent, on November 19, 1969. ... Apollo 12 was the sixth manned mission in the Apollo program and the second to land on the Moon. ... Description Role: Lunar landing Crew: 2; CDR, LM pilot Dimensions Height: 20. ... NASA Insignia Listen to this article · (info) This audio file was created from an article revision dated 2005-09-01, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. ... Lunar may refer to: an adjective that means having to do with or pertaining to the Moon, or to moons in general. ... Galileo Galilei (15 February 1564 – 8 January 1642) was an Italian physicist, astronomer, and philosopher who is closely associated with the scientific revolution. ... Bulk silicate composition (estimated wt%) SiO2 44. ...

Contents

The space race

Main article: space race
Lunokhod
Lunokhod

The Cold War-inspired space race between the Soviet Union and the United States of America led to an acceleration. What was the next big step depends on the political viewpoint: In the US (and the West in general) the landing of the first humans on the moon in 1969 is seen as a culmination, indeed of the space race in general. On the other hand, many scientifically important steps, such as the first photographs of the until then unseen far side of the moon in 1959, were first achieved by the Soviet Union. Titan II rockets launched 12 U.S. Gemini spacecraft in the 1960s. ... Image File history File links Lunokhod_1. ... Image File history File links Lunokhod_1. ... For other uses, please see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Titan II rockets launched 12 U.S. Gemini spacecraft in the 1960s. ... 1969 (MCMLXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1969 calendar). ... Far side of the Moon. ... 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Landing map of Apollo, Surveyor and Luna missions
Landing map of Apollo, Surveyor and Luna missions
Apollo 17 astronaut Harrison Schmitt standing next to boulder at Taurus-Littrow during third EVA (extravehicular activity). NASA photo.
Enlarge
Apollo 17 astronaut Harrison Schmitt standing next to boulder at Taurus-Littrow during third EVA (extravehicular activity). NASA photo.

The first man-made object to reach the Moon was the unmanned Soviet probe Luna 2, which made a hard landing on September 14, 1959, at 21:02:24 Z. The far side of the Moon was first photographed on October 7, 1959 by the Soviet probe Luna 3. Luna 9 was the first probe to soft land on the Moon and transmit pictures from the Lunar surface on February 3, 1966. It was proven that a lunar lander would not sink into a thick layer of dust, as had been feared. The first artificial satellite of the Moon was the Soviet probe Luna 10 (launched March 31, 1966). The first robot lunar rover to land on the Moon was the Soviet vessel Lunokhod 1 on November 17, 1970 as part of the Lunokhod program. One of the main impediments to human exploration of the Moon was development of adequate heat shield technology to permit atmospheric re-entry without completely burning up a manned spacecraft. The USA gained early supremacy in this field through NASA research in thermogravimetric experiments in hypersonic wind tunnels. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1100x1070, 287 KB) Map shows landing sites of Surveyor, Apollo and Luna missions source: http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1100x1070, 287 KB) Map shows landing sites of Surveyor, Apollo and Luna missions source: http://www. ... Project Apollo was a series of human spaceflight missions undertaken by the United States of America (NASA) using the Apollo spacecraft and Saturn launch vehicle, conducted during the years 1961–1975. ... Photograph of Surveyor(3) lunar landing spacecraft taken by Apollo 12 astronauts (descriptions added). ... The Luna programme (occasionally called Lunik) was a series of unmanned space missions sent to the Moon by the Soviet Union between 1959 and 1976. ... Download high resolution version (900x932, 183 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (900x932, 183 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Apollo 17 was the eleventh manned space mission in the NASA Apollo program and was the sixth and last manned mission to date to land on the Moon. ... Dr. Harrison Hagan Jack Schmitt (born July 3, 1935) is a geologist, astronaut and former U.S. senator. ... NASA Insignia Listen to this article · (info) This audio file was created from an article revision dated 2005-09-01, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. ... Motto: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Russian: Workers of the world, unite!) Anthem: The Internationale (1922-1944) Hymn of the Soviet Union (1944-1991) Capital (and largest city) Moscow None; Russian de facto Government Federation of Soviet Republics  - Last President Mikhail Gorbachev  - Last Premier Ivan Silayev Establishment October Revolution   - Declared... Luna 2 (E-1A series) was the second of the Soviet Unions Luna program spacecraft launched in the direction of the Moon. ... September 14 is the 257th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (258th in leap years). ... 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 7 is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Motto: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Russian: Workers of the world, unite!) Anthem: The Internationale (1922-1944) Hymn of the Soviet Union (1944-1991) Capital (and largest city) Moscow None; Russian de facto Government Federation of Soviet Republics  - Last President Mikhail Gorbachev  - Last Premier Ivan Silayev Establishment October Revolution   - Declared... Luna 3, an automatic interplanetary station of the Luna program, was the third spacecraft successfully launched to the Moon and the first to return images of the lunar far side. ... Luna 9 was an unmanned space mission of the Soviet Unions Luna program. ... February 3 is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1966 calendar). ... Motto: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Russian: Workers of the world, unite!) Anthem: The Internationale (1922-1944) Hymn of the Soviet Union (1944-1991) Capital (and largest city) Moscow None; Russian de facto Government Federation of Soviet Republics  - Last President Mikhail Gorbachev  - Last Premier Ivan Silayev Establishment October Revolution   - Declared... Luna 10 was an unmanned space mission of the Luna program, also called Lunik 10. ... March 31 is the 90th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (91st in Leap years), with 275 days remaining. ... 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1966 calendar). ... Lunar Rover-Manned land vehicle (NASA) The Lunar Roving Vehicle or Lunar rover or LRV is a land vehicle for use on the Moon. ... Motto: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Russian: Workers of the world, unite!) Anthem: The Internationale (1922-1944) Hymn of the Soviet Union (1944-1991) Capital (and largest city) Moscow None; Russian de facto Government Federation of Soviet Republics  - Last President Mikhail Gorbachev  - Last Premier Ivan Silayev Establishment October Revolution   - Declared... Lunokhod series Soviet Moon exploration robot vehicle A panorama shot from Lunokhod 1 A photo from Lunokhod 1 showing the Luna 17 lander The tracks of Lunokhod showing the little wheel in the center that was used for odometry. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1970 calendar). ... Lunokhod (Russian for Moon walker) 1 and 2 were a pair of unmanned lunar rovers landed on the Moon by the Soviet Union. ... In aeronautics, a heat shield is a protective layer on a spacecraft or ballistic missile that is designed to protect it from high temperatures, usually those that result from aerobraking during entry into a planets atmosphere. ... Atmospheric entry is the transition from the vacuum of space to the atmosphere of any planet or other celestial body. ... NASA Insignia Listen to this article · (info) This audio file was created from an article revision dated 2005-09-01, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. ... In aerodynamics, hypersonic speeds are speeds that are highly supersonic. ... A wind tunnel is a research tool developed to assist with studying the effects of air moving over or around solid objects. ...


On December 24, 1968, the crew of Apollo 8, Frank Borman, James Lovell, and William Anders became the first human beings to see the far side of the Moon with their own eyes (as opposed to seeing it on a photograph). Humans first landed on the Moon on July 20, 1969. The first man to walk on the lunar surface was Neil Armstrong, commander of the American mission Apollo 11. The last man to stand on the Moon was Eugene Cernan, who as part of the mission Apollo 17 walked on the Moon in December 1972. See also: A full list of lunar Apollo astronauts. December 24 is the 358th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (359th in leap years). ... 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1968 calendar). ... Apollo 8 was the second manned mission of the Apollo space program, in which Commander Frank Borman, Command Module Pilot James Lovell and Lunar Module Pilot William Anders became the first humans to orbit around the Moon. ... Frank Borman (right) poses with Jim Lovell (left) and Bill Anders (center) for an Apollo 8 publicity photo Frank Borman (born March 14, 1928) was a NASA astronaut, best remembered as one of the three crewmembers of Apollo 8, the first mission to fly around the Moon. ... James Arthur Lovell, Jr. ... William A. Anders (born October 17, 1933) former National Aeronautics and Space Administration astronaut. ... July 20 is the 201st day (202nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 164 days remaining. ... 1969 (MCMLXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1969 calendar). ... Neil Alden Armstrong (born August 5, 1930) is a former American astronaut, test pilot, and Naval Aviator, and was the first human to set foot on the Moon. ... Apollo 11 was the first manned mission to land on the Moon. ... Eugene Cernan Gene in LM after EVA-3 Eugene Andrew Cernan (born March 14, 1934, in Chicago, Illinois) is a former United States astronaut. ... Apollo 17 was the eleventh manned space mission in the NASA Apollo program and was the sixth and last manned mission to date to land on the Moon. ... 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Twenty-four astronauts have been on or near the Moon. ...


Moon rock samples were brought back to Earth by three Luna missions (Luna 16, 20, and 24) and the Apollo missions 11 through 17 (excepting Apollo 13, which aborted its planned lunar landing). Lunar Ferroan Anorthosite #60025 (Plagioclase Feldspar). ... Luna 16 was an unmanned space mission of the Luna program, also called Lunik 16. ... Luna 20 was an unmanned space mission of the Luna program, also called Lunik 20. ... Luna 24 was an unmanned space mission of the Luna program, also called Lunik 24. ... Apollo 13 was the third American-manned lunar-landing mission, part of the Apollo program. ...


From the mid-1960's to the mid-1970's there were 65 moon landings (with 10 in 1971 alone), but after Luna 24 in 1976 they suddenly stopped. The Soviet Union started focusing on Venus and space stations and the US on Mars and beyond. Luna 24 was an unmanned space mission of the Luna program, also called Lunik 24. ... Adjective Venusian or (rarely) Cytherean (*min temperature refers to cloud tops only) Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure 9. ... The International Space Station in 2006 Computer-generated image of the completed International Space Station A space station is an artificial structure designed for humans to live in outer space. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ...


Recent exploration

In 1990 Japan visited the moon with the Hiten spacecraft, becoming the third country to orbit the moon. The spacecraft released the Hagormo probe into lunar orbit, but the transmitter failed, thereby preventing further scientific use of the mission. This article is about the year. ... Hiten spacecraft The Hiten spacecraft (known before launch as Muses-A), built by the Institute of Space and Aeronautical Science of Japan, was launched on January 24, 1990. ...


NASA launched the Clementine mission in 1994, and Lunar Prospector in 1998. Clementine was a joint space project between the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO, previously the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization, or SDIO) and NASA. The objective of the mission was to test sensors and spacecraft components under extended exposure to the space environment and to make scientific observations of the Moon... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by United Nations. ... NASAs Lunar Prospector The Lunar Prospector mission was the third selected by NASA for full development and construction as part of the Discovery Program. ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ...


The European Space Agency launched a small, low-cost lunar orbital probe called SMART 1 on September 27, 2003. SMART 1's primary goal was to take three-dimensional X-ray and infrared imagery of the lunar surface. SMART 1 entered lunar orbit on November 15, 2004 and continued to make observations until September 3, 2006, when it was intentionally crashed into the lunar surface in order to study the impact plume.[1] The European Space Agency (ESA), established in 1975, is an inter-governmental organization dedicated to the exploration of space, currently with 17 member states. ... SMART-1 was a Swedish-designed European Space Agency satellite that orbited around the Moon. ... September 27 is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... In the NATO phonetic alphabet, X-ray represents the letter X. An X-ray picture (radiograph) taken by Röntgen An X-ray is a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength approximately in the range of 5 pm to 10 nanometers (corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 PHz... Image of a small dog taken in mid-infrared (thermal) light (false color) Infrared (IR) radiation is electromagnetic radiation of a wavelength longer than that of visible light, but shorter than that of radio waves. ... In physics, an orbit is the path that an object makes, around another object, whilst under the influence of a source of centripetal force, such as gravity. ... November 15 is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 46 days remaining. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 3 is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Future plans

On January 14, 2004, US President George W. Bush announced the Vision for Space Exploration, a plan leading to new manned lunar missions by 2020. NASA's plan to accomplish that goal was announced on March 19, 2005,[2] and was promptly dubbed "Apollo 2.0" by critics. A preliminary unmanned mission, the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, is scheduled for launch in 2008. LRO will take high resolution imagery of the moon's surface and will carry the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS), which will investigate the possible existence of water in Shackleton crater. January 14 is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Abraham Lincoln, 16th President of the United States (1861-1865) The majority of this article is about heads of states. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... Image from NASA site Two planned configurations for a return to the moon, heavy lift (left) and crew (right) The Vision for Space Exploration is the United States space policy announced on January 14, 2004 by President George W. Bush. ... 2020 (MMXX) will be a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... NASA Insignia Listen to this article · (info) This audio file was created from an article revision dated 2005-09-01, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. ... March 19 is the 78th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (79th in leap years). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Project Apollo was a series of human spaceflight missions undertaken by the United States of America (NASA) using the Apollo spacecraft and Saturn launch vehicle, conducted during the years 1961–1975. ... Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) is an unmanned orbiter planned for launch to the Moon in October 2008. ... 2008 (MMVIII) will be a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) is an unmanned orbiter planned for launch to the Moon in October 2008 aboard either a Atlas 5 or Delta IV. It is an early element of the implementation of the United States Vision for Space Exploration and its objectives are primarily... Shackleton is a crater that lies at the south pole of the Moon. ...

Artist's conception of NASA's future crew exploration vehichle in lunar orbit.
Artist's conception of NASA's future crew exploration vehichle in lunar orbit.

The People's Republic of China has expressed ambitious plans for exploring the Moon and is investigating the prospect of lunar mining, specifically looking for the isotope helium-3 for use as an energy source on Earth.[3] China has planned an unmanned orbiter in 2010 and has entered into an agreement to work with Russia to eventually land astronauts on the moon before 2020.[4] Image File history File links 123121main_docked_full. ... Image File history File links 123121main_docked_full. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Isotopes are any of the several different forms of an element each having different atomic mass. ... Helium-3 is a non-radioactive and light isotope of helium. ...


Japan has several planned lunar missions, with unmanned Selene in 2007 and LUNAR-A in 2010. Japanese Space Agency (JAXA) plans a manned lunar landing around 2020 that would lead to a manned lunar base by 2030; however, there is no budget yet for this project[5]. SELENE SELENE is a Japanese lunar orbiter spacecraft currently in integration. ... LUNAR-A LUNAR-A is a Japanese spacecraft that was scheduled to be launched in August 2004. ... The Japan Aerospace eXploration Agency (JAXA) is Japans aerospace agency. ...


India expects to launch Chandrayaan, an unmanned lunar orbiter, by 2008. ISRO also plans to undertake a totally indigenous manned space exploration in the next decade by planning to send a person to space by 2014 and to have a person walk on the moon by 2020. [1] Chandrayaan I (Present Configuration) Chandrayaan I (Sanskrit चंद्रयान-1) which literally means Moon Craft is an unmanned lunar mission by the Indian Space Research Organization The mission includes a lunar orbiter as well as an impactor. ... 2008 (MMVIII) will be a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


See also

Project Apollo was a series of human spaceflight missions undertaken by the United States of America (NASA) using the Apollo spacecraft and Saturn launch vehicle, conducted during the years 1961–1975. ... This list includes all individual planetary probes that have studied/were to/will study solar system objects: See also: unmanned space missions, satellites (this list is still incomplete) // Solar probes This list excludes Earth-orbiting observatories Pioneer 5 (USA, 1960) - success Pioneer 6 (USA, 1965) - success Pioneer 7 (USA, 1966... Moon Luna 9 - February 3, 1966 Surveyor 1 - June 2, 1966 Luna 13 - December 24, 1966 Surveyor 3 - April 20, 1967 Surveyor 5 - September 11, 1967 Surveyor 6 - November 10, 1967 Surveyor 7 - January 10, 1968 Apollo 11 - manned mission, July 20, 1969 Apollo 12 - manned mission, November 18, 1969... Map of the moon showing some landing sites. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Computer generated image of one of the two Mars Exploration Rovers which touched down on Mars in 2004. ...

References

  1. ^ ESA's Moon mission ends successfully. ESA (4 September 2006). Retrieved on 2006-09-03.
  2. ^ How We'll Get Back to the Moon. NASA. Retrieved on 2006-03-20.
  3. ^ David, Leonard (04 March 2003). China Outlines its Lunar Ambitions. Space.com. Retrieved on 2006-03-20.
  4. ^ AP (11 September 2006). Russia-China plan for moon mission. CNN.com. Retrieved on 2006-09-16.
  5. ^ Staff Writers (August 3, 2006). Japan Plans Moon Base By 2030. Moon Daily. SpaceDaily. Retrieved on 2006-11-17.

2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 3 is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... March 20 is the 79th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (80th in Leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... March 20 is the 79th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (80th in Leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 16 is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Moon K-12 Experiments & Background Information (5968 words)
The gravitational attraction that the Moon exerts on Earth is the cause of tides in the sea.
The tidal bulges on Earth, caused by the Moon's gravity, are carried ahead of the apparent position of the Moon by the Earth's rotation, in part because of the friction of the water as it slides over the ocean bottom and into or out of bays and estuaries.
The points where the Moon's orbit crosses the ecliptic are called the "lunar nodes": the North (or ascending) node is where the Moon crosses to the North of the ecliptic; the South (or descending) node where it crosses to the South.
The Moon (2472 words)
The Moon was heavily bombarded early in its history, which caused many of the original rocks of the ancient crust to be thoroughly mixed, melted, buried, or obliterated.
This false-color photograph of the Moon was taken by the Galileo spacecraft on December 8, 1992.
The footprints of the astronauts are clearly visible in the soil of the Moon.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m