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Encyclopedia > Exploitation

Exploitation means many different things. one meaning of the word is: cutting down grown up natural areas such as tropical rainforests,to farm on the land, mine and many other things. this allows people to cut down the vegetation of an area to make profit. Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests, also known as tropical rain forests, are a tropical and subtropical biome. ... Vegetation is a general term for the plant life of a region; it refers to the ground cover provided by plants, and is, by far, the most abundant biotic element of the biosphere. ...

The term "exploitation" may carry two distinct meanings: Cheating, also known as exploitation, between organisms is a form of parasitism or specialized predation in which an organism engages in what appears to be a mutualistic relationship with another organism, but does not in fact provide any benefit to the other organism. ... Timber Exploitation of natural resources is an essential condition of the human existence. ... Grindhouse redirects here. ...

  1. The act of utilizing something for any purpose. In this case, exploit is a synonym for use.
  2. The act of utilizing something in an unjust, cruel or selfish manner for one's own advantage. It is this meaning of exploitation which is discussed below.

In political economy, economics, and sociology, exploitation involves a persistent social relationship in which certain persons are being mistreated or unfairly used for the benefit of others. This corresponds to one ethical conception of exploitation, that is, the treatment of human beings as mere means to an end — or as mere "objects". In different terms, "exploitation" refers to the use of people as a resource, with little or no consideration of their well-being. This can take the following basic forms: USE is an initialism meaning: The United States of Europe The United States of Earth the world government in the TV series Futurama. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political economy was the original term for the study of production, the acts of buying and selling, and their relationships to laws, customs and government. ... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ... Sociology (from Latin: socius, companion; and the suffix -ology, the study of, from Greek λόγος, lógos, knowledge) is an academic and applied discipline that studies society and human social interaction. ... For other uses, see Ethics (disambiguation). ... Classical economics distinguishes between three factors of production which are used in the production of goods: Land or natural resources - naturally-occurring goods such as soil and minerals. ...

  • taking something off a person or group that rightfully belongs to them
  • short-changing people in trade
  • directly or indirectly forcing somebody to work
  • using somebody against his will, or without his consent or knowledge
  • imposing an arbitrary differential treatment of people to the advantage of some and the disadvantage of others (as in ascriptive discrimination)

Most often, the word exploitation is used to refer to economic exploitation; that is, the act of using another person's labor without offering them an adequate compensation. There are two major perspectives on economic exploitation:

  • organizational or "micro-level" exploitation: in the broad tradition of liberal economic thinking, most theories of exploitation center on the market power of economic organizations within a market setting. Some neoclassical theory points to exploitation not based on market power.
  • structural or "macro-level" exploitation: "new liberal" theories focus on exploitation by large sections of society even (or especially) in the context of free markets. Marxist theory points to the entire capitalist class as an exploitative entity, and to capitalism as a system based on exploitation.

Contents

Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... In economics, market power is the ability of a firm to alter the market price of a good or service. ... The term exploitation may carry two distinct meanings: The act of utilizing something for any purpose. ... The term exploitation may carry two distinct meanings: The act of utilizing something for any purpose. ... A free market is an idealized market, where all economic decisions and actions by individuals regarding transfer of money, goods, and services are voluntary, and are therefore devoid of coercion and theft (some definitions of coercion are inclusive of theft). Colloquially and loosely, a free market economy is an economy... The term exploitation may carry two distinct meanings: The act of utilizing something for any purpose. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ...

Theories of exploitation

Under explitation, a sentient being is treated as if they were an object. That is the case of animals, due to the existence of speciesism. The focus of most assertions about the existence of exploitation towards human beings is the socio-economic phenomenon where people trade their labor or allegiance to a powerful entity, such as the state, a corporation or any other private company. Some theories of exploitation (Marxist, new liberal) are structural, while others are organizational (neoclassical). In ontology, a being is anything that can be said to be, either transcendantly or immanently. ... The word Animals when used alone has several possible meanings in the English language. ... The relevance of particular information in (or previously in) this article or section is disputed. ... Socioeconomics is the study of the social and economic impacts of any product or service offering, market intervention or other activity on an economy as a whole and on the companies, organization and individuals who are its main economic actors. ... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Corporation (disambiguation). ... A private company is a company that is independently owned. ...


Marxist theory

See also: Rate of exploitation

In Marxism, the kinds of exploitation described by other theories (see further below) are usually called "super-exploitation" — exploitation that goes beyond the normal standards of exploitation prevalent in capitalist society. While other theories emphasize the exploitation of one individual by an organization (or vice versa), the Marxist theory is primarily concerned with the exploitation of an entire segment or class of society by another. This kind of exploitation is seen as being an inherent feature and key element of capitalism and free markets. In fact, in Das Kapital, Karl Marx typically assumed the existence of purely competitive markets. In general, it is argued that the greater the "freedom" of the market, the greater the power of capital, and the greater the scale of exploitation. The perceived problem is with the structural context in which free markets operate (detailed below). The proposed solution is the abolition of capitalism and its replacement by a better, non-exploitative, system of production and distribution (first socialism, and then, after a certain period of time, communism). The rate of exploitation is a concept in Marxian political economy. ... Marxism is both the theory and the political practice (that is, the praxis) derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ... In economics, a capitalist is someone who owns capital, presumably within the economic system of capitalism. ... Social class refers to the hierarchical distinctions between individuals or groups in societies or cultures. ... Das Kapital (Capital, in the English translation) is an extensive treatise on political economy written by Karl Marx in German. ... Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818 – March 14, 1883) was a 19th century philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. ... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subjfuck grapesect to control by the community[1] for the purposes of increasing social and economic equality and cooperation. ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ...


In the Marxist view, "normal" exploitation is based in three structural characteristics of capitalist society:

  1. the ownership of the means of production by a small minority in society, the capitalists;
  2. the inability of non-property-owners (the workers, proletarians) to survive without selling their labor-power to the capitalists (in other words, without being employed as wage laborers);
  3. the state, which uses its strength to protect the unequal distribution of power and property in society.

Because of these human-made institutions, workers have little or no choice but to pay the capitalists surplus-value (profits, interest, and rent) in exchange for their survival. They enter the realm of production, where they produce commodities, which allow their employers to realize that surplus-value as profit. They are always threatened by the "reserve army of the unemployed". In brief, the profit gained by the capitalist is the difference between the value of the product made by the worker and the actual wage that the worker receives; in other words, capitalism functions on the basis of paying workers less than the full value product of their labor. For more on this view, see the discussion of the labor theory of value. Means of production (abbreviated MoP; German: Produktionsmittel), also called means of labour are the materials, tools and other instruments used by workers to make products. ... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... The production of surplus value, from Karl Marxs Capital in Lithographs, by Hugo Gellert, 1934 Surplus value is a concept created by Karl Marx in his critique of political economy, where its ultimate source is claimed to be unpaid surplus labour performed by the worker for the capitalist, serving... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The labor theory of value (LTV) is a theory in classical economics concerning the value of an exchangeable good or service. ...


Some Marxian theories of imperialism extend this kind of structural theory of exploitation further, positing exploitation of poor countries by rich capitalist ones (or by transnational corporations). Some Marxist-feminists use a Marxian-style theory to understand relations of exploitation under patriarchy, while others see a kind of exploitation analogous to the Marxian sort as existing under institutional racism. Cecil Rhodes: Cape-Cairo railway project. ... Marxist feminism is a sub-type of feminist theory which focuses on the dismantling of capitalism as a way to liberate women. ... Look up patriarchy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Institutional racism (or structural racism or systemic racism) is a theoretical form of racism that is supposed to occur in institutions such as public bodies and corporations, including universities. ...


Neoclassical theories

In neoclassical economics, exploitation is organizational, explained using microeconomic theory. It is a kind of market failure, a deviation from the abstraction of perfect competition. The most common scenario is a monopsony or a monopoly. These exploiters have bargaining power. This kind of exploitation is supposed to be abolished by the spread of competition and markets. Neoclassical economics refers to a general approach (a metatheory) to economics based on supply and demand which depends on individuals (or any economic agent) operating rationally, each seeking to maximize their individual utility or profit by making choices based on available information. ... Neoclassical economics refers to a general approach (a metatheory) to economics based on supply and demand which depends on individuals (or any economic agent) operating rationally, each seeking to maximize their individual utility or profit by making choices based on available information. ... Microeconomics (or price theory) is a branch of economics that studies how individuals, households, and firms make decisions to allocate limited resources,[1] typically in markets where goods or services are being bought and sold. ... Market failure is a term used by economists to describe the condition where the allocation of goods and services by a market is not efficient. ... Perfect competition is an economic model that describes a hypothetical market form in which no producer or consumer has the market power to influence prices. ... In economics, a monopsony (from Ancient Greek μόνος (monos) single + ὀψωνία (opsōnia) purchase) is a market form with only one buyer, called monopsonist, facing many sellers. ... This article is about the economics of markets dominated by a single seller. ...


Other neoclassical theories go beyond simple organizational exploitation. First, another type of exploiter is the hired "agent" (employee) who takes advantage of the "principal" (employer) who hires him or her, under conditions of asymmetric information (see the principal-agent problem). For example, an individualistic clerk may be able to "shirk" on the job, secretly violating the labor contract. Similarly, a greedy top executive may embezzle or pad his or her "perks" contrary to the interests of the stockholders. This kind of exploitation is beyond the scope of markets, within corporate or governmental bureaucratic organizations. It is often extremely hard to solve using competition and markets but is instead addressed using monitoring of employees and management, risk-sharing agreements, bonding, and the like. In economics, the principal-agent problem treats the difficulties that arise under conditions of incomplete and asymmetric information when a principal hires an agent. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This article is about the sociological concept. ... Lets talk about risk control strategies, anyone with more information and willing to share, please do so. ... The word bond refers to anything that binds, fastens, or restrains. ...


A final type of neoclassical exploiter is the free rider who unfairly uses a public good or resource. Since taxes are typically used to pay for the maintenance of public lands or resources, a person who benefits from the public good but does not pay taxes for it might be considered a free rider. Such exploitation of public goods or resources is known as the Tragedy of the Commons. Many neoclassical economists believe that where possible the introduction of private property rights would allieviate the overconsumption, i.e., exploitation. [1][2][3] In economics and political science, free riders are actors who consume more than their fair share of a resource, or shoulder less than a fair share of the costs of its production. ... The Tragedy of the Commons is a type of social trap, often economic, that involves a conflict over resources between individual interests and the common good. ...


New liberal theories

For others, i.e., a number of "new liberals", exploitation naturally coexists with free markets. As in the Marxist theory, the problem is structural rather than organizational: given its special position in society (controlling an important asset), an interest group can shift the distribution of income in its direction, impoverishing the rest, even though their role serves no reasonable purpose. While Henry George pointed to land-owners, John Maynard Keynes saw rentiers (non-working owners of financial wealth) as fitting this picture. The first receive land-rent while the second receive interest, even though, according to the proponents of this theory, they contribute nothing to society. They merely own a certain asset and have the ability to make money from that asset without actually doing any work themselves. While George argued for a "single tax" on land-rent to solve this problem, Keynes hoped that interest rates could be driven to zero. New liberalism (also called modern liberalism or American liberalism) is a political philosophy that argues for the idea that society has the responsibility of guaranteeing equal opportunities for each of its citizens. ... Perfect competition is an economic model that describes a hypothetical market form in which no producer or consumer has the market power to influence prices. ... Advocacy is an umbrella term for organized activism related to a particular set of issues. ... Henry George Henry George (September 2, 1839 – October 29, 1897) was an American political economist and the most influential proponent of the Single Tax on land. ... John Maynard Keynes, 1st Baron Keynes, CB (pronounced cains, IPA ) (5 June 1883 – 21 April 1946) was a British economist whose ideas, called Keynesian economics, had a major impact on modern economic and political theory as well as on many governments fiscal policies. ... Georgism, named for Henry George (1839-1897), is a philosophy and economic theory that follows from the belief that although everyone owns what they create; land, and everything else supplied by nature, belongs equally to all humanity. ...


In some ways, these theories are similar to the Marxist one discussed above. However, they deal with the power and influence of special interests in society (and within the capitalist class) rather than dealing with a structural difference in class position of the Marxian sort. Further, while Marx saw exploitation as raising the total amount of production in capitalist society, in these theories exploitation represents a form of waste or inefficiency, hurting growth under capitalism. Therefore, according to this view, abolishing rent or interest would make capitalism operate better. Marxism is the political practice and social theory based on the works of Karl Marx, a 19th century philosopher, economist, journalist, and revolutionary, along with Friedrich Engels. ... Advocacy is an umbrella term for organized activism related to a particular set of issues. ... The term inefficiency has several meanings depending on the context in which its used: Economic inefficiency refers to a situation where we could be doing a better job, i. ...


Exploitation in developing nations

Developing nations (commonly called "third world countries" or "poor countries") are the focus of much debate over the issue of exploitation, particularly in the context of the global economy. A developing country is a country with low average income compared to the world average. ... from http://www. ... Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... For the Jamaican reggae band, see Third World (band). ...


The main kind of exploitation which is seen as prevailing in the third world is corporate exploitation. For instance, Nike and Gap Inc., are alleged to use child labor and sweatshops in order to manufacture their products cheaply in developing nations, paying their workers wages far lower than those that prevail in developed nations (where the products are sold). This, it is argued, is insufficient to allow workers to attain the local subsistence standard of living if working hours common in the first world are observed, so that working hours much longer than in the first world are necessary. It is also argued that work conditions in these developing-world factories are much less safe and much more unhealthy than in the first world. For example, observers point to cases where employees were unable to escape factories burning down — and thus dying — because of locked doors, a common signal that sweatshop conditions exist. The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire of 1911 was another example, but it occurred in the US, so the first world of then is the equivalent of the third world of today. Nike, Inc. ... Gap, Incorporated (NYSE: GPS) is an American clothing and accessories retailer based in San Francisco, California and founded in 1969 by Donald Fisher and Doris Fisher. ... Child laborers coming out of a dye factory, Dhaka, Bangladesh Child labor is the employment of children under an age determined by law or custom. ... Sweatshop is a pejorative term used to describe a manufacturing facility where working conditions fall short of contemporary human-rights standards. ... A developing country is a country with low average income compared to the world average. ... A developed country is a country that has achieved (currently or historically) a high degree of industrialization, and which enjoys the higher standards of living which wealth and technology make possible. ... The terms First World, Second World, and Third World were used to divide the nations of Earth into three broad categories. ... The terms First World, Second World, and Third World were used to divide the nations of Earth into three broad categories. ... For the Jamaican reggae band, see Third World (band). ...


Corporate spokespeople argue that, in the absence of compulsion, the only way that corporations are able to secure adequate supplies of labor is to offer wages and benefits superior to preexisting options, and that the presence of workers in corporate factories indicates that the factories present options which are seen as better — by the workers themselves — than the other options available to them (see principle of revealed preference). If the "exploitation" were to be stopped, the "victims" would be much worse off. Pioneered by American economist Paul Samuelson (1915- ), revealed preference theory is a method by which it is possible to discern the best possible option on the basis of consumer behaviour. ...


A common response is that this is disingenuous, as the companies are in fact exploiting people by the terms of unequal human standards (applying lower standards to their third world workers than to their first world ones). Furthermore, the argument goes, if people choose to work for low wages and in unsafe conditions because it is their only alternative to starvation or scavenging from garbage dumps (the "preexisting options"), this cannot be seen as any kind of "free choice" on their part. This viewpoint also argues that if a company intends to sell its products in the first world, it should pay its workers by first world standards.


Following such a view, some in the United States propose that the U.S. government should mandate that businesses in foreign countries adhere to the same labor, environmental, health, and safety standards as the U.S. before they are allowed to trade with businesses in the U.S. (this has been advocated by Howard Dean, for example). They believe that such standards would improve the quality of life in less developed nations. According to others, however, this would harm the economies of less developed nations by discouraging the U.S. from trading with them. Milton Friedman is an economist who thinks that such a policy would have that effect. [4] Howard Brush Dean III (born November 17, 1948) is an American politician and physician from the U.S. state of Vermont, and currently the chairman of the Democratic National Committee, the central organ of the Democratic Party at the national level. ... Milton Friedman (July 31, 1912 – November 16, 2006) was an American Nobel Laureate economist and public intellectual. ...


However, the common response to the argument that corporations exploit poor laborers by lowering working standards, wages, etc. is that the corporation only has an incentive to do business in these nations if there is this alleged "exploitation." If activists were to achieve their goal of raising work standards, it is likely that the corporation would no longer have a profit incentive to invest in that nation. The result would probably the corporation pulling back to its developed nation, leaving their former workers out of the job.


Groups who see themselves as fighting against global exploitation also point to secondary effects such as the dumping of government-subsidized corn on developing world markets which forces subsistence farmers off of their lands, sending them into the cities or across borders in order to survive. More generally, some sort of international regulation of transnational corporations is called for, such as the enforcement of the International Labour Organization's labor standards. A multinational corporation (MNC) or transnational corporation (TNC) is one that spans multiple nations; these corporations are often very large. ... The International Labour Organization (ILO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that deals with labour issues. ...


External links

Look up Exploitation in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ...

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Exploitation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1668 words)
This corresponds to one ethical conception of exploitation, that is, the treatment of human beings as mere means to an end — or as mere "objects".
The focus of most assertions about the existence of exploitation is the socio-economic phenomenon where people trade their labor or allegiance to a powerful entity, such as the state, a corporation or any other private company.
While other theories emphasize the exploitation of one individual by an organization (or vice versa), the Marxist theory is primarily concerned with the exploitation of an entire segment or class of society by another.
Exploitation film - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1399 words)
Exploitation films, exploitative films or trash cinema is the name given to a genre of films, extant since the earliest days of moviemaking, but popularized in the 1970s.
A particularly important type of exploitation film of this era was the "sex hygiene" exploitation film, a remnant from the social or mental hygiene movement of the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Sex exploitation, "sexploitation", or chick exploitation "chixploitation" films, are similar to softcore pornography, in that the film serves largely as a vehicle for showing scenes involving nude or semi-nude women.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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