Exophthalmos (or proptosis) is a bulging of the eye anteriorly out of the orbit. Exophthalmos can be either bilateral (as is often seen in Grave's Disease) or unilateral (as is often seen in an orbital tumor). Measurement of the degree of exophthalmos is performed using an exophthalmometer. Complete or partial dislocation from the orbit is also possible from trauma or swelling of surrounding tissue resulting from trauma. In anatomy the orbit is the cavity or socket of the skull in which the eye and its appendages are situated. ... Graves-Basedow disease is a form of thyroiditis, an autoimmune disorder that stimulates the thyroid gland, being the most common cause of hyperthyroidism (overactivity of the thyroid). ...
In the case of Grave's Disease, the displacement of the eye is due to enlarged extraocular muscles which can be visualized by CT or MRI. CT apparatus in a hospital Computed axial tomography (CAT), computer-assisted tomography, computed tomography, CT, or body section roentgenography is the process of using digital processing to generate a three-dimensional image of the internals of an object from a large series of two-dimensional X-ray images taken around... For other meanings see Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). ...
If left untreated, exophthalmos can causes the eye lids to fail to close during sleep leading to corneal damage. The process that is causing the displacement of the eye may also compress the optic nerve or ophthalmic artery leading to blindness. The cornea is the curved, transparent layer that covers the front part of the eye and protects its inner structures. ... The optic nerve is the nerve that transmits visual information from the retina to the brain. ... The opthalmic artery is a branch of the internal carotid artery which supplies branches to supply the eye and other structures in the orbit: Central retinal artery Supraorbital artery Supratrochlear artery Lacrimal artery Dorsal nasal artery Short posterior ciliary arteries Long posterior ciliary arteries Posterior ethmoidal artery Anterior ethmoidal artery... Blindness can be defined physiologically as the condition of lacking sight. ...
Exophthalmos can be either bilateral (as is often seen in Grave's Disease) or unilateral (as is exophthalmos treatment cures often seen in an orbital tumor).
In graves disease exophthalmos steroid injection the case of Graves Disease, the displacement of the eye is due to abnormal connective tissue deposition in the orbit and extraocular muscles (Epstein et al, 2003) which can be visualized by CT or MRI.
Some exophthalmos sources define "exophthalmos" as a protrusion of the globe greater than 18mm and "proptosis" as a protusion equal to or less than 18mm.
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