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Encyclopedia > Exonym and endonym

An exonym is a name for a place that is not used within that place by the local inhabitants (neither in the official language of the state nor in local languages[1]), or a name for a people or language that is not used by the people or language to which it refers. The name used by the people or locals themselves is called endonym , autonym, or self-appellation. For example, Deutschland is an endonym; Germany is an English exonym for the same place; and Allemagne is a French exonym. Similarly, Spanish is an exonym for the name of the language; speakers of Spanish use español or castellano. In the Spanish language, inglés is an exonym for either an English male person or the English language. Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... An ethnonym (Gk. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...

Exonyms may derive from distinct roots as in the case of Deutschland, Germany and Allemagne mentioned above, they may be cognate words which have diverged in pronunciation or orthography, or they may be fully or partially translated from the native language. For example, London is known as Londres in French, Spanish and Portuguese; Londen in Dutch, Londra in Italian, Romanian and Turkish; Londýn in Czech and Slovak; Londyn in Polish; Lundúnir in Icelandic; and Lontoo in Finnish. Some languages use the same spelling as the endonym but change the pronunciation, thus making it an exonym. The English and German pronunciations of Paris, for example, are different from the French one (where the s is silent), though it is spelled the same in all three languages. An example of a translated exonym is the Soviet Union. [1] Look up cognate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up pronunciation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The orthography of a language specifies the correct way of using a specific writing system to write the language. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... This article is about the capital of France. ...

Exonyms can also be divided into native and borrowed (i.e., from a third language). For example, Slovenian uses the native exonyms Dunaj (Vienna) and Benetke (Venice), but the exonyms Kijev (Kyiv) and Vilna (Vilnius), borrowed from Russian and German, respectively.


Tendencies in the development of exonyms

Exonyms develop for places of special significance for speakers of the language of the exonym. Consequently, most European capitals have English exonyms, e.g. Athens (Αθήνα/Athína), Belgrade (Београд/Beograd), Bucharest (Bucureşti), Brussels (Bruxelles, Brussel), Copenhagen (København), Moscow (Москва/Moskva), Nicosia (Λευκωσία/Lefkosía), Prague (Praha), Rome (Roma), Tirana (Tiranë), Vienna (Wien) or Warsaw (Warszawa). For places considered to be of lesser significance, attempts to reproduce local names have been made in English since the time of the Crusades. Livorno, to take an instance, was Leghorn because it was an Italian port essential to English merchants and, by the 18th century, to the British navy. Not far away, a minor port on the same sea like Rapallo never received an exonym. This article is about the capital of Greece. ... For other uses, see Belgrade (disambiguation). ... Nickname: Motto: Patria si Dreptul Meu (My Country and My Right) Location of Bucharest within Romania (in red) Coordinates: , Country County Founded 1459 (first official record) Government  - Mayor Adriean Videanu Area  - City 228 km²  (88 sq mi)  - Metro 238 km² (91. ... For other places with the same name, see Brussels (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Copenhagen (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... District Nicosia District Government  - Mayor Eleni Mavrou Population (2004)  - City 270,000 (Greek part) 85,000 (Turkish part) 355,000 (Total) Time zone EET (UTC+2) Website: www. ... For other uses, see Prague (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Nickname: Coordinates: , Country Albania Founded 1614 Elevation 295 ft (90 m) Population (2005 est)[1]  - City 585,756  - Metro 700,000 Tirana (Albanian: Tiranë or Tirana) is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Albania. ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Warsaw (disambiguation) and Warszawa (disambiguation). ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... Livorno (archaic English: ) is a port city on the Tyrrhenian Sea on the western edge of Tuscany, Italy. ... This is about a Ligurian commune, see Rapallo for a resort on the Adriatic coast. ...

In earlier times, the name of the first tribe or village encountered became the exonym for the whole people beyond. Thus, the Romans used the tribal name of Graecus (Greek), the Russians used the village name of Chechen, medieval Europeans took the tribal name Tatar as emblematic for the whole Mongolic confederation (and then confused it with Tartarus, a word for Hell, to produce Tartar), and the Magyar invaders were equated to the 500 years earlier Hunnish invaders in the same territory, and were appellated Hungarians. // Geography The Chechen people are mainly inhabitants of Chechnya, which is internationally recognized as part of Russia. ... Historically, the term Tatar (or Tartar) has been ambiguously used by Europeans to refer to many different peoples of Inner Asia and Northern Asia. ... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... Tartar may refer to: Look up Tartar in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the Hungarian ethnic group. ... Many historians consider the Huns (meaning person in Mongolian language) the first Mongolian and Turkic people mentioned in European history. ...

The Germanic invaders of the Roman Empire applied the word "Walha" to foreigners they encountered and this evolved in West Germanic languages as a generic name for all non-Germanic speakers; thence, the names Wallachia, Vlachs, Wallonia, Walloons, Wales, Wallasey, and even the Polish name for Italy, Włochy. Standard folk etymology has it that the Slavic peoples erroneously referred to the Germanic Europeans as "mute", as their languages were incompatible, and the Russian word for Germans even today is still that, nemtsy. The Serbian word is homophonous to the Russian but is spelled "Nemci", while the Croatian and Romanian languages have adopted the forms "Nijemci" and "Nemţi" respectively. This etymology is unreliable at best and it is more likely that the Slavic exonym derives from the Nemetes, an ancient German tribe mentioned by Tacitus and Julius Caesar. For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... brass replica of the Tjurkö Bracteate showing the attestation of the name Walha Walha () is an ancient Germanic word, meaning foreigner or stranger (welsh) or roman. It is attested in the Roman Iron Age Tjurkö Bracteate inscription as walhakurne, probably welsh crown for Roman coin, i. ... Map of Romania with Wallachia in yellow. ... Vlachs (also called Vallachians, Wallachians, Wlachs, Wallachs, Olahs or Ulahs, Macedonian: Власи Vlasi, Greek: , Albanian: Vllehë, Turkish: , Ukrainian: , Polish: ) is a blanket term covering several modern Latin peoples (linguistic) descending from the Latinised population in Central, Eastern and Southeastern Europe. ... Wallonia (French: Wallonie, German: Wallonien, Walloon: Walonreye, Dutch: Wallonië) or the Walloon Region (French: Région Wallonne, Dutch: Waals Gewest) is the predominantly French-speaking region that constitutes one of the three federal regions of Belgium, with its capital at Namur. ... The term Walloons (French: Wallons, Walloon: Walons) refers, in daily speech, to French-speaking Belgians from Wallonia. ... This article is about the country. ... Wallasey is a large town on the mouth of the River Mersey, at the north-eastern corner of the Wirral. ... Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe, where they constitute roughly a third of the population. ... Serbian (; ) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs in the Serbian diaspora. ... A map of Gaul showing the position of the Nemetes The Nemetes or Nemeti (German: ) were a Western Germanic tribe living at the Rhine between the Palatinate and Lake Bodensee where Ariovistus had lead them, the Suebi and other allied Germanic peoples in the second quarter of the 1st century... For other uses, see Tacitus (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ...

White settlers in South Africa thought the Khoi-San natives gabbled nonsense syllables, so they called them Hottentots. Two millennia earlier, the Greeks thought all non-Greek speakers spoke gibberish like bar-bar-bar, so they called them all barbarians, which eventually gave rise to the exonym Berber. This article is about the Khoisan ethnic group. ... An 18th century drawing of Khoikhoi worshipping the moon The Khoikhoi (men of men) or Khoi are a historical division of the Khoisan ethnic group of south-western Africa, closely related to the Bushmen (or San, as the Khoikhoi called them). ... For other uses, see Barbarian (disambiguation). ... Berbers are the indigenous peoples of North Africa west of the Nile Valley. ...

In the late 20th century the use of exonyms often became controversial. Groups often prefer that outsiders avoid exonyms where they have come to be used in a pejorative way; for example, Roma people prefer that term over exonyms like Gypsy (from Egypt), or the French term bohème (from Bohemia), or the Spanish term flamenco (from Flanders). People may also seek to avoid exonyms due to historical sensitivities, as in the case of German names for Polish and Czech places which used to be ethnically or politically German (e.g. Danzig/Gdansk), much like Russian placenames being used for locations once under its control (e.g. Kiev/Kyiv). It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with pejoration. ... Languages Romani, languages of native region Religions Christianity, Islam Related ethnic groups South Asians (Desi) The Roma (singular Rom; sometimes Rroma, Rrom) or Romanies are an ethnic group living in many communities all over the world. ... Flag of Bohemia Bohemia (Czech: ; German: ) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic. ... For other uses, see Flanders (disambiguation). ...

In recent years, geographers have sought to reduce the use of exonyms to avoid these kind of problems. For example, it is now common for Spanish speakers to refer to the Turkish capital as Ankara rather than use the Spanish exonym Angora, still in use for types of cat, goat and rabbit. Geography - (from the Greek words Geo (γη) or Gaea (γαία), both meaning Earth, and graphein (γράφειν) meaning to describe or to writeor to map) is the study of the earth and its features, inhabitants, and phenomena. ... Ankara is the capital of Turkey and the countrys second largest city after İstanbul. ...

But according to the United Nations Statistics Division: "Time has, however, shown that initial ambitious attempts to rapidly decrease the number of exonyms were over-optimistic and not possible to realise in the intended way. The reason would appear to be that many exonyms have become common words in a language and can be seen as part of the language’s cultural heritage." UN and U.N. redirect here. ...

In English, attempts to skirt a familiar exonym in order to accurately reproduce an endonym often appear pretentious, a device used to comic effect in E.F. Benson's novels concerning Miss Mapp and Lucia. Edward Frederick Benson (July 24, 1867 - February 29, 1940) was an English novelist, biographer, memoirist and short story writer, known professionally as E.F. Benson. ...

Other difficulties with endonyms have to do with pronunciation, spelling and word category. The endonym may include sounds which are highly unfamiliar to speakers of other languages, making appropriate usage difficult if not impossible for an outsider. Over the years, phonetic changes may happen to the endonym either in the original language or the borrowing language, thus changing an endonym into an exonym. In many cases no standardized spelling is available either because the language itself is unwritten (even unanalyzed) or because there are competing non-standard spellings. Use of a misspelled endonym is perhaps more problematic than the respectful use of an existing exonym. Finally, an endonym may be simply a plural noun and does not extend itself to adjectival usage in another language like English which has a propensity to use the adjectives for describing culture and language. The attempt to use the endonym thus has a bizarre-sounding result.

The name for a language and a people are often different terms, of course, which is a complication for an outsider.

Sometimes the government of a country tries to endorse the use of an endonym instead of traditional exonyms outside the country:

  • In 1985 the government of Côte d'Ivoire requested that the country's French name be used in all languages instead of exonyms such as Ivory Coast, so that Côte d'Ivoire is now the official English name of that country in the United Nations and the International Olympic Committee (see Name of Côte d'Ivoire).
  • The Ukrainian government maintains that the capital of Ukraine should be called Kyiv in English because the traditional English exonym Kiev was derived from the Russian name Kiyev (Киев) (see Kiev: City name evolution).
  • The Belarusian government argues that the endonym Belarus should be used in all languages and has been rather successful in English, where the former exonym Byelorussia, still used with reference to the Soviet Republic, has virtually died out, whereas in other languages exonyms like German Weißrußland, Danish Hviderusland, Swedish Vitryssland, Dutch Wit-Rusland, Icelandic Hvíta-Rússland (all literally 'White Russia') or French Biélorussie are still much more common than Belarus (see History of the name Belarus).
  • In 1989 the military regime of Burma requested that the English name of the country be Myanmar, with Myanma as the adjective of the country and Bamar as the name of the inhabitants (see Explanation of the names of Burma/Myanmar).

UN and U.N. redirect here. ... Stamp The International Olympic Committee (French: Comité International Olympique) is an organization based in Lausanne, Switzerland, created by Pierre de Coubertin and Demetrios Vikelas on June 23, 1894. ... Motto Unity, Discipline and Labour(translation) Anthem LAbidjanaise Capital Yamoussoukro (de jure) Abidjan (de facto) Largest city Abidjan Official languages French Demonym Ivorian Government Republic  -  President Laurent Gbagbo[1]  -  Prime Minister Guillaume Soro[1] Independence from France   -  Date August 7, 1960  Area  -  Total 322,460 km² (68th) 124,502... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2006)  - City 4,450,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2006)  - City 4,450,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ... State motto: Belarusian: Пралетарыі ўсіх краін, яднайцеся! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Minsk Official language Belarusian, Russian Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until January 1, 1919 December 30, 1922 August 25, 1991 Area  - Total  - Water (%) Ranked 6th in the USSR 207,600 km² negligible Population  - Total   - Density Ranked 5th in the USSR... For other uses, see Belarus (disambiguation). ... The renaming of Burma into Myanmar in the English language, decided by the Burmese military regime in 1989, has led to controversy. ...

Confusion with renaming

Exonyms and endonyms must not be confused with the results of geographical renaming as in the case of Saint Petersburg, which became Petrograd in 1914, Leningrad in 1924, and Saint Petersburg again in 1991. In this case, although St Petersburg has a German etymology, this was never a German exonym for the city between 1914 and 1991, just as Nieuw Amsterdam, the Dutch name of New York City until 1664, is not its Dutch exonym. Geographical renaming is the act of changing the name of a geographical feature or area. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... This article is about the settlement in present-day New York City. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ...

The old place names outdated after renaming are afterwards often used as historicisms. Consequently, even today one would talk about the Siege of Leningrad, not the Siege of St. Petersburg, because at that time (1941-1944) the city was called Leningrad. Likewise, one would say that Immanuel Kant was born in Königsberg in 1724, not in Kaliningrad, as it has been called since 1946. Sometimes, however, historical names are deliberately not used because of nationalist tendencies to linguistically lay claim to a city's past. As a case in point, the Slovakian article on the 1805 Peace of Pressburg does not use either of the city's names then in use (the Slovakian Prešporok or the official, that is German, Pressburg) but today's name Bratislava that became the city's name only in 1919. It's interesting that for 2 months only (in 1918) the name of Bratislava was Wilson city (the Slovakian Wilsonovo mesto) in memory of Woodrow Wilson, the twenty-eighth President of the United States. Combatants Germany Spanish Blue Division Soviet Union Commanders Wilhelm von Leeb Georg von Küchler Agustín Muñoz Grandes Kliment Voroshilov Georgiy Zhukov Strength 725,000 930,000 Casualties Unknown Red Army: 332,059 KIA 24,324 non-combat dead 111,142 missing 16,470 civilians 1 million civilians... Kant redirects here. ... Kaliningrad (Russian: ; Lithuanian: Karaliaučius; German  , Polish: Królewiec; briefly Russified as Kyonigsberg), is a seaport and the administrative center of Kaliningrad Oblast, the Russian exclave between Poland and Lithuania on the Baltic Sea. ... The Peace of Pressburg (also called Peace of Bratislava) is the name of 4 peace agreements concluded in the present-day town of Bratislava. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856–February 3, 1924), was the twenty-eighth President of the United States. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ...

The name Madras, now Chennai, may be a special case. When the city was first settled by Englishmen, in the early 1600s, both names were in use. Possibly they referred to different villages which were fused into the new settlement. In any case, Madras became the exonym, while more recently, Chennai became the endonym. Madras refers to: the Indian city of Chennai, formerly known as Madras, the former Indian state, now known as Tamil Nadu (Plural of Madra): Ancient people of Iranian affinites, who lived in northwest Panjab in the Uttarapatha division of ancient India. ... , “Madras” redirects here. ...

Likewise, Istanbul is still called Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολη) in Greek, despite the name having been changed in Turkish (and other languages) between 1923 and 1930. Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ...

Orthographic exonymy in languages with phonetic spelling

There are at least three known languages in Europe in which the use of seeming exonyms (in terms of spelling but not necessarily pronunciation) for places and people is actually the norm and not an exception: Latvian, Lithuanian and Serbian, all having Latin-based script, transcribe foreign proper names whenever necessary, including those originally written in Latin script. The reasons are the respective nations' preference for their own consistent phonetic spelling and the need to add native inflectional endings to most nouns. The resulting advantage is that reading and spelling in these languages remain easy (knowledge of how to spell any unadapted foreign words is not required); a disadvantage is that foreigners may erroneously complain that their names have been "misspelled". In reality, the phonetic transcription is often more correct: e.g., Varšava, Varšuvas, Varšava (in Latvian, Lithuanian and Serbian, respectively), with [v] and [ʃ], is phonetically closer to the original Polish Warszawa than the English Warsaw [wɔːrsɔː]. Variants of the Latin alphabet are used by the writing systems of many languages throughout the world. ... A pronunciation spelling of a word is a spelling intentionally different from the standard spelling, used to emphasis a particular pronunciation of the word. ... Inflection of the Spanish lexeme for cat, with blue representing the masculine gender, pink representing the feminine gender, grey representing the form used for mixed-gender, and green representing the plural number. ...

List of English endonyms for peoples

Exonym Endonym
Albanian Shqiptarë ("Eagles")
Arabs al-`Arab (in Arabic, العرب)
Argentinian(s) or Argentines Argentinos
Armenians Hayer (Հայեր)
Berbers Amazigh (singular), Imazighen (plural), spelt as Amaziγ (Imaziγen)
Basque Euskaldunak
Brazilian(s) Brasileiro(s)
Byzantine(s) (Eastern Roman Empire) Rhomaioi (Greek: Ρωμαιοι) ("Romans")
Catalan(s), Català (singular), Catalans (plural).
Cherokee(s) Tsalagi
Cheyenne(s) Tsistsista ("People")
Chilean(s) Chileno (masc.)/Chilena (fem.)
Chinese Zhōngguó rén (中国人 (simpl.) 中國人 (trad.), "People of the Middle Kingdom") or Huá rén (華人)
Cornish Kernowek, Kernewek, Curnoack
Croats Hrvati
Czechs Češi
Danes Danskere
Dutch Nederlanders ("Lowlanders")
Ecuadorians Ecuatorianos ("Equatorians")
Ancient Egyptians rmţ km·t ("People of the Black Land")
Modern Egyptians Maṣreyyīn (Egyptian Vernacular) (مصريين)
Eskimo (west Alaska and Russian Far East) Yup'ik (meaning "People")
Eskimo (east Alaska, Canada, and Greenland) Inuit (meaning "People")
Estonians eestlased
Etruscans Rasenna
Filipino Pilipino, Pinoy (informal, the suffix -oy denoting a diminutive or term of endearment)
Finns suomalaiset (root: suomalais-, singular suomalainen "a Finn")
French Français ("Francish")
Georgians Kartveli Eri (ქართველი ერი) or Kartvelebi (ქართველები)
Germans Deutsche
Greeks Έλληνες (Ellines, Hellènes)
Greenlanders Kalaallit in Greenlandic
Gypsies Roma, Sinti
Hawaiians Kānaka maoli
Hittite, Hittites, Hittish Neshumanash (Ne·esh·umana·ash: "This-many twinsom-one", where umun in Emesal: "fellow"), Neshumnesh (Ne·esh·umin·esh: "This-many twinsoms-many") for its kinsfolk; Hattic: Neshili (Ne·esh·ili: "This-many-ish") for its speech and speakers[2][3]
Hungarians Magyarok
Icelanders Íslendingar
The Iroquois Haudenosaunee ("The League of Peace and Power")
Israelis Yiśrā'elīm (ישראלים)
Japanese Nihonjin (日本人, E. "Sunspringfolk", L. "Solorigopuo")
Jews Yehūdīm (יהודים)
South Koreans Hanguksaram (한국사람) or Hangugin (한국인/韓國人)
North Koreans Chosŏnsaram (조선사람)
Lapps sámit or sápmelaččat
Lithuanians Lietuviai
Mohawk(s) Kanienkeha ("Flint people")
Mordvins Erzya and Moksha (Two closely related peoples with two separate literary languages,)
Moroccan Maghrabi (مغربي) ("Westerners")
Nicaraguan Nicaragüense, Nicoya, Nica
Norwegians Nordmenn ("North men")
Persians Īrānīān (in Persian, ايرانيان)
Poles Polacy ("Plainsmen")
Portuguese Portugueses
Puerto Ricans puertorriqueños, riqueños, puertorros (informal), boricua (Lokono "The one of the Altive Lord's land")
Russians Русские, Russcjè
Romanians Români
Quechua Runa ("People")
Serbs Срби/Srbi
Seri people Comcaac (phonetically [koŋˈkɑːk]); singular: Cmiique (phonetically [ˈkw̃ĩːkːɛ])
Sioux Dakota or Lakota ("Allies")
Slovaks Slováci
Slovenes, Slovenians Slovenci
Spanish, Spaniards Españoles
Sumerians Un[ga] Sangi[ga] (Un[·ga] Sang·ngi[·ga]: "Folk [such of the] Head-black [such]")[2]
Swedes Svenskar
Swiss Schweizer (German) / Suisses (French) / Svizzeri (Italian) / Schwiizer, Schwyzer (Swiss German); all derived from the name of the canton of Schwyz
Turks Türkler
Venezuelans Venezolanos
Vlachs Român/Rumân Romanian; Armân/Rumân Aromanian; Rumân/Rumâr Istro-Romanians ("Romans")
Welsh Cymry

List of English exonyms for German toponyms Languages Arabic other minority languages Religions Predominantly Sunni Islam, as well as Shia Islam, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholicism, Roman Catholicism, Alawite Islam, Druzism, Ibadi Islam, and Judaism Footnotes a Mainly in Antakya. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... For other uses, see Argentina (disambiguation). ... Berbers are the indigenous peoples of North Africa west of the Nile Valley. ... Languages Basque - few monoglots Spanish - 1,525,000 monoglots French - 150,000 monoglots Basque-Spanish - 600,000 speakers Basque-French - 76,000 speakers [4] other native languages Religions Traditionally Roman Catholic The Basques (Basque: ) are an indigenous people[5] who inhabit parts of northeastern Spain and southwestern France. ... The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... The Catalans are an ethnic group or nationality whose homeland is Catalonia, or the Principality of Catalonia (Catalan: Catalunya, or Principat de Catalunya), which is a historical region in southern Europe, embracing a territory situated in the north-east of Spain and an adjoining portion of southern France. ... For other uses, see Cherokee (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cheyenne (disambiguation). ... Simplified Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: or ; traditional Chinese: or ; pinyin: or ) is one of two standard sets of Chinese characters of the contemporary Chinese written language. ... Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... The Cornish people are a British ethnic group originating in Cornwall. ... Languages Croatian Religions Predominantly Roman Catholic Related ethnic groups Slavs South Slavs Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a South Slavic people mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries. ... Khafres Pyramid and the Great Sphinx of Giza, built about 2550 BC during the Fourth Dynasty of the Old Kingdom,[1] are enduring symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization in Northeastern Africa concentrated along the middle to lower reaches of the Nile River... Egyptian Arabic (MarÄ« مصري) is part of the Arabic macrolanguage of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family. ... For other uses, see Eskimo (disambiguation). ... This article is about Yupik peoples in general. ... For other uses, see Eskimo (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Inuit (disambiguation). ... The area covered by the Etruscan civilzation. ... Rasenna (or rasna) is the word in the Etruscan language that is used to describe the Northern Italian people commonly known as the Etruscans. ... This article is about the Frankish people and society. ... Note: Hellen was not the same person as Helen of Troy or Helenus, son of King Priam of Troy. ... Languages Romani, languages of native region Religions Christianity, Islam Related ethnic groups South Asians (Desi) The Roma (singular Rom; sometimes Rroma, Rrom) or Romanies are an ethnic group living in many communities all over the world. ... Sinti or Sinte (Singular masc. ... Native Hawaiians (in Hawaiian, kānaka ōiwi or kānaka maoli) are member[s] or descendant[s] of the indigenous Polynesian people of the Hawaiian Islands.[2] Native Hawaiians trace their ancestry back to the first Marquesan and Tahitian settlers of Hawaii (possibly as early as AD 400), before the... Relief of Suppiluliuma II, last known king of the Hittite Empire The Hittites were an ancient people from KaneÅ¡ who spoke an Indo-European language, and established a kingdom centered at Hattusa (Hittite URU) in north-central Anatolia from the 18th century BC. In the 14th century BC, the Hittite... Sumerian ( native tongue) was the language of ancient Sumer, spoken in Southern Mesopotamia from at least the 4th millennium BCE. It was gradually replaced by Akkadian as a spoken language in the beginning of the 2nd millenium BCE, but continued to be used as a sacred, ceremonial, literary and scientific... The word Hattic may refer to: An ancient people of Anatolia, the Hattians. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Iroquois (disambiguation). ... The Japanese (日本人, Nihon-jin) are the Yamato, Ainu, Ryukyuans, Uilta and Nivkhs of the Japanese Archipelago. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Sami people (also Sámi, Saami, Lapps, sometimes also Laplanders) are the indigenous people of Sápmi, which today encompasses parts of northern Sweden, Norway, Finland and the Kola Peninsula of Russia. ... This article is about the people known as Mohawk. For other uses, see Mohawk. ... The Mordvins (Mordva) are a people who speak languages of the Finno-Permic branch of the Finno-Ugric language family. ... Erzya language (Эрзянь Кель (Erzjanj Kelj)) is spoken by about 500,000 people in the northern and eastern and north-western parts of the Republic of Mordovia and adjacent regions of Nizhniy Novgorod, Chuvashia, Penza, Samara, Saratov, Orenburg, Ulyanovsk, Tatarstan and Bashkortostan in Russia. ... For other uses, see Moksha (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Persian people, an ethnic group found mainly in Iran. ... Farsi redirects here. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Quechuan languages. ... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below (* many Serbs opted for Yugoslav ethnicity) [27] Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in... The Seris are an indigenous group of the Mexican state of Sonora. ... The Sioux (IPA ) are a Native American and First Nations people. ... Look up Dakota in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Eddie Plenty Holes, a Sioux Indian photographed about 1899. ... Slovenians or Slovenes (Slovenian Slovenci, singular Slovenec, feminine Slovenka) are a South Slavic people primarily associated with Slovenia and the Slovenian language. ... Sumeria may refer to: A back-formation from the adjective Sumerian, often used to mean the ancient civilisation more properly known as Sumer Sumeria, a disco artist best known for the 1978 hit Golden Tears 1970 Sumeria, an asteroid discovered in 1954 by Miguel Itzigsohn Donna Sumeria, a song on... Swiss German (Schweizerdeutsch, Schwyzerdütsch, Schwiizertüütsch, Schwizertitsch) is any of the Alemannic dialects spoken in Switzerland. ... The town of   (French: , Italian: ) is the capital of the canton of Schwyz in Switzerland. ... Vlachs (also called Wlachs, Wallachs, Olahs) are the Romanized population in Central and Eastern Europe, including Romanians, Aromanians, Istro-Romanians and Megleno-Romanians, but since the creation of the Romanian state, this term was mostly used for the Vlachs living south of the Danube river. ... Aromanians (also called: Macedo-Romanians or Aroumans; in Aromanian they call themselves Armãnji, Rrãmãnji) are a people living throughout the southern Balkans, especially in northern Greece, Albania, the Republic of Macedonia and Bulgaria, and as an emigrant community in Romania (Dobruja). ... Map of Istro-Romanian-speaking villages, made by PuÅŸcariu in 1926. ... The Welsh are, according to Hastings (1997), an ethnic group and nation associated with Wales and the Welsh language, which is a Celtic language. ... This list is a compilation of German toponyms (i. ...

List of creators of exonyms

Exonym Creator
Byzantine Empire Hieronymus Wolf, popularized by Montesquieu
Sumer Akkadians

Byzantine redirects here. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Montesquieu can refer to: Charles de Secondat, Baron de Montesquieu Several communes of France: Montesquieu, in the Hérault département Montesquieu, in the Lot-et-Garonne département Montesquieu, in the Tarn-et-Garonne département This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages... Sumer (or Å umer; Sumerian: KI-EN-GIR [1]) was the earliest known civilization of the ancient Near East, located in lower Mesopotamia (modern Iraq), from the time of the earliest records in the mid 4th millennium BC until the rise of Babylonia in the late 3rd millennium BC. The term... Akkad (or Agade) was a city and its region of northern Iraq) between Assyria to the northwest and Sumer to the south. ...

List of country endonyms

Exonym Endonym
Albania Shqipëria
Algeria al-Jazā’ir (الجزائر) ("The Islands")
Armenia Hayastan (Հայաստան: "the land of Haik"); see Armenia: Origin of the name
Aztec Empire Mexìcâ (Mexihcah) or Tenochca
Bhutan Druk Yul ("Dragon Land" in Dzongkha)
The Byzantine Empire Romania (Pωμανια). Derived from the "Roman Empire".
Cambodia Prâteh Kâmpŭchea (ប្រទេសកម្ពុជា) (but "Kingdom of Cambodia" is the current official name in English)
China Zhōngguó (中国 (simpl.), 中國 (trad.)) ("Central Kingdom"); see Names of China
Croatia Hrvatska
Czech Republic Česká republika
Ancient Egypt km·t ("The Black Land")
Modern Egypt Miṣr (مصر) in Arabic, Maṣr in Egyptian dialect; means "a country" or "a state"
Estonia Eesti in Estonian
Finland Suomi in Finnish
Georgia Sakartvelo (საქართველო); see Georgia (country): Origin of the name
Germany Deutschland; see Names for Germany
Greece Elás (Ελλάς) or Eládha (Ελλάδα)
Greenland Kalaallit Nunaat in Greenlandic ("Land of the Greenlanders")
Holland Nederland ("low land") "The Netherlands" is the formal English name, but Holland, the name of a region of the Netherlands, is used colloquially in English to refer to the whole country.
Hungary Magyarország ("Magyar Land")
Inca Empire Tawantinsuyu ("Four Corners")
India Bhārat (भारत) in Hindi, but India is officially recognized too; see Origin of India's name; also Hindustan [Indian endonym]
Israel Yiśrā'el (ישראל)
Italy Italia
Japan Nippon / Nihon (日本, E. "Sunspring, L. "Solorigo"; see Names of Japan)
Jordan al-Urdunn (الأردنّ)
Korea Chosŏn (Joseon) (조선 / 朝鮮) in North Korea and Hanguk (한국 / 韓國) in South Korea, but Goryeo (고려 / 高麗), the source of Korea, is used as neutral name for Korea; see Names of Korea
Lithuania Lietuva in Lithuanian
Maldives Dhivehi raajj'e ("The Islands of Dhivehi People" in Dhivehi language; see History of the Maldives)
Montenegro Crna Gora / Црна Гора ("black mountain" in Serbian; see History of Montenegro: Etymology)
Morocco al-Maghrib (المغرب)("The West" in Arabic; see also Maghrib and Maghreb)
Namibia Namibië in Afrikaans
Norway Norge in Bokmål Norwegian and Noreg in Nynorsk Norwegian
Persia Īrān (in Persian, ايران) (The Land of Aryans)
Poland Polska
Philippines Pilipinas (in Tagalog) ([King] "Philip's" [Islands])
Romania România
Serbia Србија/Srbija
Slovakia Slovensko
Slovenia Slovenija
South Africa Suid-Afrika in Afrikaans
Spain España in Spanish and Galician; Espanya in Catalan and Valencian; Espainia in Basque; Espanha in Aranese
Sumer Kengi (Ki·en·gi: "Land [of the] lord-cultu[r]al/couthly"), Kengir (Ki·en·gir(>kiri): "Land [of the] lord-kithly(>nosely)"); ennen: lords[2]
Sweden Sverige
Switzerland Schweiz German, Suisse French, Svizzera Italian, and Svizra Romansh, represent the endonym in the four official languages of Switzerland; Helvetia, the Latin name, used in some cases (on coins, for instance) to avoid favouring one of the four languages.
Syria Suria (سوريا)
Thailand ประเทศไทย (Prathet Thai)
Tibet བོད་ (Böd)
Turkey Türkiye

Statue of Haik in Yerevan Haik (Also spelled Hayk or Haig) is the legendary patriarch and establisher of the first Armenian nation. ... For other uses, see Armenia (disambiguation). ... Aztec is a term used to refer to certain ethnic groups of central Mexico, particularly those groups who spoke the Nahuatl language and who achieved political and military dominance over large parts of Mesoamerica in the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries, a period referred to as the Late post-Classic... Dzongkha is the national language of the Kingdom of Bhutan. ... Byzantine redirects here. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Simplified Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: or ; traditional Chinese: or ; pinyin: or ) is one of two standard sets of Chinese characters of the contemporary Chinese written language. ... Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... The different usages and names of China in world languages are generally consistent with how knowledge of Chinas existence first reached each culture. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Egyptian Arabic (MarÄ« مصري) is part of the Arabic macrolanguage of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family. ... Motto ძალა ერთობაშია(Georgian) Strength is in Unity Anthem Tavisupleba Freedom Capital (and largest city) Tbilisi Official languages Georgian1 Demonym Georgian Government Semi-presidential unitary republic  -  President Mikheil Saakashvili  -  Prime Minister Zurab Noghaideli Consolidation  -  Georgian kingdoms of Colchis and Iberia c. ... Because of Germanys geographic position in the centre of Europe and its long history as a disunited region of distinct tribes and states, there are many widely-varying names for Germany in different languages, perhaps more than for any other European nation: for example, in German the country is... // Holland can refer to: Holland is a region within the Netherlands, now divided into two provinces: North Holland and South Holland In English, Holland is often used as a name for the whole of The Netherlands (rather as America is sometimes used to mean The United States). (see also Netherlands... Capital Cusco 1197-1533 Vilcabamba 1533-1572 Language(s) Quechua, Aymara, Jaqi family, Mochic and scores of smaller languages. ... Hindi ( , Devanagari: or , IAST: , IPA: ), an Indo-European language spoken all over India in varying degrees and extensively in northern and central India, is one of the 22 official languages of India and is also used for central government administrative purposes , along with English. ... India is a historic country with three main names. ... The English word Japan is not the name used for their country by the Japanese themselves: it is an exonym. ... This article is about the Korean peninsula and civilization. ... Joseon or Chosun (Korean: ì¡°ì„ ; Hanja: 朝鮮; Revised: Joseon; McCune-Reischauer: Chosŏn; Chinese: CháoxiÇŽn; Japanese: Chōsen) is a name for Korea, as used in the following cases: As part of the name of several ancient kingdoms (including Gojoseon, Gija Joseon, and Wiman Joseon); During most of the Joseon... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Dhivehi or Divehi is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by about 300,000 people in the Republic of Maldives where it is the official language of the country and in the island of Minicoy (Maliku) in neighbouring India where it is known as Mahl. ... // Historical setting Maldives is a nation consisting of 26 natural atolls comprising of 1192 islands. ... This article is about the country in Europe. ... Serbian (; ) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs in the Serbian diaspora. ... The history of Montenegro begins in the early Middle Ages, after the arrival of the Slavs into that part of the former Roman province of Dalmatia that forms present-day Montenegro. ... Maghrib is an Arabic term for of the setting (sun); from the root ghuroob (to set; to be hidden). It is also used in a manner similar to the metaphorical use of to be eclipsed, which is used in the English language. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Look up Wiktionary:Swadesh lists for Afrikaans and Dutch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Norwegian is a Germanic language spoken in Norway. ... Nynorsk (literally New Norwegian) is one of the two officially sanctioned orthographic standards of the Norwegian language, the other being BokmÃ¥l. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Farsi redirects here. ... This article is about the term Aryan. For Arian, a follower of the ancient Christian sect, See Arianism. ... Tagalog (pronunciation: ) is one of the major languages of the Republic of the Philippines. ... Motto: (none) Motto of the Kingdom (1866-1947): Nihil Sine Deo Anthem: DeÅŸteaptă-te, române! Capital {{{capital}}} Largest city Bucharest Official language(s) Romanian Government President Prime Minister republic Traian Băsescu Călin Popescu-Tăriceanu Independence - Declared - Recognised Romanian War of Independence 10 May 1877 13... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... Look up Wiktionary:Swadesh lists for Afrikaans and Dutch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Spain is a constitutional monarchy, with a hereditary monarch and a bicameral parliament, the Cortes Generales or National Assembly. ... Galician (Galician: galego, IPA: ) is a language of the Western Ibero-Romance branch, spoken in Galicia, an autonomous community with the constitutional status of historic nationality, located in northwestern Spain and small bordering zones in neighbouring autonomous communities of Asturias and Castilla y León. ... Catalan IPA: (català IPA: or []) is a Romance language, the national language of Andorra, and a co-official language in the Spanish autonomous communities of Balearic Islands, Catalonia and Valencia, and in the city of LAlguer in the Italian island of Sardinia. ... This page deals with language. ... Basque (native name: euskara) is the language spoken by the Basque people who inhabit the Pyrenees in North-Central Spain and the adjoining region of South-Western France. ... Aranese (aranés in Occitan/Gascon/Aranese) is a variety of Pyrenean Gascon (a dialect of the Occitan language), spoken in Val dAran, in northwestern Catalonia (Spain), where it is one of the three official languages besides Catalan and Spanish. ... Sumer (or Å umer; Sumerian: KI-EN-GIR [1]) was the earliest known civilization of the ancient Near East, located in lower Mesopotamia (modern Iraq), from the time of the earliest records in the mid 4th millennium BC until the rise of Babylonia in the late 3rd millennium BC. The term... Romansh (also spelled Rumantsch, Romansch or Romanche) is one of the four national languages of Switzerland, along with German, Italian and French. ... Helvetia on a 25 centime Swiss postage stamp, 1881 Helvetia is the Roman name for an ancient region of central Europe occupying a plateau between the Alps and the Jura Mountains. ... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ...

List of geographical region exonyms

Exonym Endonym
Amoy 厦门: Ē-mn̂g (Amoy vernacular POJ), Xiàmén (Mandarin pinyin)
Andalusia Andalucía (from Arabic al-Andalus, derived from Latin vandalus after the Germanic Vandals who settled in Hispania Baetica with the collapse of Roman rule. The Arabic term was given by the Arabs to their Spanish possessions after Islamic conquest—not really an exonym, just the old Spanish pronunciation, in fact still pronounced that way by many Andalusians)
Bangkok Krung Thep (กรุงเทพ)
Basque Country Euskadi (Basque), País Vasco (Spanish), Vascongadas (Spanish, before the 1970s, not in use today; also as adjective: "Provincias Vascongadas";)
Bavaria Bayern
Bohemia (derived from Boiohaemum, Germanic for "the home of the Boii," a Celtic people) Čechy
Canton 廣州 = “extensive prefecture”: Gwong2 Jau1 (Cantonese Yale), Guǎngzhōu (Mandarin pinyin)
Carinthia Kärnten
Castile Castilla: same word with different pronunciation, English uses French name—not an exonym
Catalonia Catalunya (Catalan), Cataluña (Spanish): not really an exonym, just the formal "Latinized" version, created by Catalans themselves when writing in Latin
Judæa Yehūdāh (יהודה)
Lusatia Lausitz (German) / Łužica (Upper Sorbian) / Łužyca (Lower Sorbian) / Łużyce (Polish) / Lužice (Czech)
Macau / Macao 澳門: Ou3 Mun4 (Cantonese Jyutping), Àomén (Mandarin pinyin); Maa3 Gaau1 (Cantonese Jyutping) is commonly used.
See also: Names of Macau
Moldavia Moldova
Moravia Morava
Navarre Nafarroa (Basque), Navarra (Spanish); Basque Nafarroa → Spanish Navarra → French Navarre → English Navarre—just adapted pronunciation, not different roots
Samogitia Žemaitija in Lithuanian, Žemaitėjė in Samogitian
Silesia Ślonsk (Silesian) / Śląsk (Polish) / Slezsko (Czech) / Schlesien (German)
Transylvania Ardeal/Transilvania (Romanian) / Siebenbürgen (German) / Erdély (Hungarian) / Siedmiogród (Polish)
Wales Cymru
Wallachia Ţara Românească / Muntenia / Valahia (Romanian)

A view of the Xiamen University campus Xiamen (Simplified Chinese: 厦门; Traditional Chinese: 廈門; Hanyu Pinyin: ) is a coastal sub-provincial city in southeastern Fujian province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Technical note: Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... For other uses, see Andalusia (disambiguation). ... Arabic redirects here. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... The Vandals were an East Germanic tribe that entered the late Roman Empire during the 5th century and created a state in North Africa, centered on the city of Carthage. ... Roman province of Hispania Baetica, 120 CE In Hispania, which in Greek is called Iberia, there were three Imperial Roman provinces, Hispania Baetica in the south, Lusitania, corresponding to modern Portugal, in the west, and Hispania Tarraconensis in the north and northeast. ... Location within in Thailand Coordinates: , Country Settled Ayutthaya Period Founded as capital 21 April 1782 Government  - Type Special administrative area  - Governer Apirak Kosayothin Area  - City 1,568. ... Pays Basque) see Northern Basque Country. ... For other uses, see Bavaria (disambiguation). ... Flag of Bohemia Bohemia (Czech: ; German: ) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic. ... Guangzhou is the capital and the sub-provincial city of Guangdong Province in the southern part of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Yale romanizations are four systems created during World War II for use by United States military personnel. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Carinthia (German: Kärnten, Slovenian: KoroÅ¡ka) is the southernmost Austrian state or Land; it is chiefly famous for its mountains and lakes. ... A former kingdom in modern-day Spain, Castile (Spanish: Castilla; usually pronounced Cast-EEL in English) now compromises the regions of Old Castile in the north-west, and New Castile in the center of the country. ... This article is about the Spanish autonomous community. ... Map of the southern Levant, c. ... Lusatia (German Lausitz, Upper Sorbian Łužica, Lower Sorbian Łužyca, Polish Łużyce, Czech Lužice) is a historical region between the Bóbr and Kwisa rivers and the Elbe river in the eastern German states of Saxony and Brandenburg, south-western Poland (Lower Silesian Voivodeship) and the northern... Upper Sorbian (hornjoserbsce) is a minority language of Germany spoken in the historical province of Upper Lusatia, today part of Saxony. ... Lower Sorbian (dolnoserbšćina) is a Slavic minority language spoken in eastern Germany in the historical province of Lower Lusatia, today part of Brandenburg. ... Jyutping (sometimes spelled Jyutpin) is a romanization system for Standard Cantonese developed by the Linguistic Society of Hong Kong (LSHK) in 1993. ... The name Macau (Portuguese pronunciation IPA: //) is thought to be derived from the Templo de A-Má (Temple of A-Ma or Ma Kok Temple) (媽閣廟, Cantonese Jyutping: Maa1 Gok3 Miu6, local pronunciation: Maa5 Gok3 Miu6 or Maa5 Gok3 Miu5), a still-existing landmark built in 1448 dedicated to the goddess... For other uses of Moldavia or Moldova, see Moldova (disambiguation). ... Flag of Moravia Moravia (Czech and Slovak: Morava; German: ; Hungarian: ; Polish: ) is a historical region in the east of the Czech RepublicCzechia. ... “Navarra” redirects here. ... Etnographic regions of Lithuania. ... Samogitian (Samogitian: Žemaitiu ruoda, Lithuanian: , or Lithuanian: ) is a dialect (or independent Baltic language) of the Lithuanian language spoken mostly in Samogitia (in the west part of Lithuania). ... Silesia (English pronunciation [], Czech: ; German: ; Latin: ; Polish: ; Silesian: Åšlůnsk) is a historical region in central Europe, located along the upper and middle Oder River, upper Vistula River, and along the Sudetes, Carpathian (Silesian Beskids) mountain range. ... This article is about the Polish dialect. ... This article is about the region in Romania. ... This article is about the country. ... Map of Romania with Wallachia in yellow. ...

See also

Look up exonym, endonym in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... . ... // Below is list of German language exonyms for former German places and places in non-German-speaking areas of the world : Belgium List of German exonyms for places in Belgium Czech Republic List of German exonyms for places in the Czech Republic Croatia List of German exonyms for places in... The following is a list of Icelandic exonyms, that is to say names for places that do not speak Icelandic that have been adapted to Icelandic spelling rules, or are simply native names from Viking times. ... This article deals with the German language names of towns and cities in Central Europe. ... This list is a compilation of German toponyms (i. ... Words in English with the suffix -onym (from the Greek onoma which means name) refer to words with a particular property. ... The following is a partial list of Queer forms of place names in English and their demonymic equivalents, which denote the people or the inhabitants of the places. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Below is a list with links to further Wikipedia-pages containing lists of Exonyms of various European languages for villages, towns and cities in Europe. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... The following chart lists the countries of the world (as defined here), along with their capital cities, in English as well as in the countrys native language (when different). ... Most countries of the world have alternative names. ... Most countries of the world have different names in different languages. ... This list includes continental European countries and regions that were part of the Roman Empire, or that were given Latin place names in historical references. ... Most regions and provinces of Europe have alternative names in different languages. ... Many rivers in Europe have alternative names in different languages. ... This is a list of traditional Greek place names. ... Many place names in Ireland in the English language are either anglicisations of those in the Irish language, or completely different, such as the name for the capital of the Republic of Ireland, which in English is Dublin, but in Irish is Baile Átha Cliath. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


  1. ^ a b UN document discussing exonyms (PDF)
  2. ^ a b c Sumerian Lexicon v.3. John A. Halloran. sumerian.org. (2006, 2007)
  3. ^ HittLang.pdf. Oriental Institute at University of Chicago. 352pp. (1998, 2007)

External links

  • 2006 UN document discussing exonyms (PDF)
  • Jacek Wesołowski's Place Names in Europe, featuring endonyms and exonyms for many cities
  • "Does Juliet's Rose, by Any Other Name, Smell as Sweet?" by Verónica Albin.
  • Looking up in exonym database



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