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Encyclopedia > Exodus (ship)
Exodus 1947 after British takeover (note damage to makeshift barricades). Banner says: "Haganah Ship Exodus 1947".
Exodus 1947 after British takeover (note damage to makeshift barricades). Banner says: "Haganah Ship Exodus 1947".

Exodus 1947 was a ship carrying Jewish emigrants, that left France on July 11, 1947 with the intent of taking its passengers to Palestine, then controlled by the British. Most of the emigrants were Holocaust survivor refugees, who had no legal immigration certificates to Palestine. Following wide media coverage, the British Royal Navy seized the ship, and deported all its passengers back to Europe. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1380x889, 125 KB) Exodus ship following British takeover (note dammage to makeshift barriers). ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1380x889, 125 KB) Exodus ship following British takeover (note dammage to makeshift barriers). ... Haganah Poster (1940s) The Haganah (Hebrew: The Defense, ×”×”×’× ×”) was a Jewish paramilitary organization in what was then the British Mandate for Palestine from 1920 to 1948. ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination... July 11 is the 192nd day (193rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 173 days remaining. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ... Map of the British Mandate of Palestine. ... Map of the territory under the British Mandate of Palestine. ... Concentration camp inmates during the Holocaust The Holocaust was Nazi Germanys systematic genocide (ethnic cleansing) of various ethnic, religious, national, and secular groups during World War II. Early elements include the Kristallnacht pogrom and the T-4 Euthanasia Program established by Hitler that killed some 200,000 people. ... The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore the Senior Service). ...

Contents

Early history

The ship was built in 1928 by Pussey and Jones Corp., Wilmington, Delaware, for the Baltimore Steam Packet Co.. Initially named President Warfield, it was intended to carry passengers and freight. On 12 June 1942 the ship was acquired by the War Shipping Administration, converted to transport and on 21 September transferred to the United Kingdom. After return to the US, it was commissioned by the US Navy as USS President Warfield (IX-169) on 21 May 1944. On 11 October 1945 President Warfield was removed from the Naval Vessel Register and on 14 November returned to the War Shipping Administration.[1] Nickname: Chemical Capital of the World Motto: A Place To Be Somebody Coordinates: County New Castle County incorporated 1739 Mayor James M. Baker (D) Area    - City 44. ... June 12 is the 163rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (164th in leap years), with 202 days remaining. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... The War Shipping Administration was established by the United States President with Executive Order No. ... September 21 is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years). ... May 21 is the 141st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (142nd in leap years). ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1944 calendar). ... October 11 is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ... November 14 is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 47 days remaining until the end of the year. ...


Voyage history

On 9 November 1946 the ship was purchased from the War Shipping Administration by Potomac Shipwrecking Co. of Washington, D.C., eventually ending up with Hamossad Le'aliyah Bet — the underground Jewish organization in Palestine intent on helping illegal Jewish immigrants enter Palestine. It was renamed Exodus 1947 after the biblical Jewish exodus from Egypt to Canaan. November 9 is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 52 days remaining. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... Nickname: DC, The District Motto: Justitia Omnibus (Justice for All) Location of Washington, D.C., in relation to the states Maryland and Virginia Coordinates: Federal District District of Columbia Mayor Adrian M. Fenty (D) City Council Chairperson: Vincent C. Gray (D) Ward 1: Jim Graham (D) Ward 2: Jack Evans... The Mossad Lealiyah Bet (Hebrew: המוסד לעלייה ב) was a branch of the Haganah that operated as the organizing body for the Yishuv leaderships Haapala programme: the illegal Jewish immigration into the British Mandate of Palestine. ... Aliya Beth was a term used for illegal immigration to British Mandate of Palestine. ... The Exodus, more fully The Exodus of Israel out of Egypt, was the departure of the Hebrew slaves from Egypt under the leadership of Moses and Aaron as described in the biblical Book of Exodus. ...


The ship sailed with 4,515 passengers from a small port outside Marseille on July 11, 1947 and arrived at Palestine shores on July 18. The British Royal Navy trailed the ship from very early in its voyage, and finally boarded it some 20 nautical miles (40 kilometers) from shore. The boarding was challenged by the passengers (the ship was in international waters where the Royal Navy had no juristriction), and so the British soldiers used force. Three shipmates, including 1st mate William Bernstein, a U.S sailor from San Francisco, died as a result of bludgeoning and several dozen others were injured before the ship was overtaken. The British then sailed the ship into Haifa port, where its passengers were forcefully removed to three deportation ships. City flag Coat of arms Motto: By her great deeds, Marseille shines in the world Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country France Region Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur Department Bouches-du-Rhône (13) Subdivisions 16 arrondissements (in 8 secteurs) Intercommunality Urban Community of Marseille Provence... July 11 is the 192nd day (193rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 173 days remaining. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ... July 18 is the 199th day (200th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 166 days remaining. ... A nautical mile or sea mile is a unit of length. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Due to the high profile of the Exodus 1947 emigration ship, it was decided by the British government that the emigrants were to be deported back to France. Foreign Secretary Bevin suggested this, and the request was relayed to General Sir Alan Cunningham, High Commissioner for Palestine,[2] who agreed with the plan after consulting the Navy.[3] . Before then, captured illegal immigrants were placed in fenced and guarded detention centers in Cyprus. This new policy was meant to be a signal to both the Jewish community and the European countries which assisted illegal immigration that whatever they sent to Palestine would be sent back to them.

Not only should it clearly establish the principle of REFOULEMENT as applies to a complete shipload of immigrants, but it will be most discouraging to the organisers of this traffic if the immigrants... end up by returning whence they came.[4]

Upon the ship's arrival in Haifa on July 18 the passengers were transferred to three more seaworthy ships. These ships, and the President Warfield, left Haifa harbour on July 19th for Port-de-Bouc. Foreign Secretary Bevin insisted that the French get their ship back as well as its passengers.[5]


When the deportation ships arrived at Port-de-Bouc near Marseilles on August 2, the emigrants refused to disembark, and the French refused to cooperate with British attempts at forced disembarkation. Realizing that they were not bound for Cyprus, the emigrants conducted a 24-hour hunger strike, refusing to cooperate with the British authorities. Marseilles redirects here. ... August 2 is the 214th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (215th in leap years), with 151 days remaining. ...

In protest, DPs from Exodus aboard Runnymede Park prison ship bound to Germany painted a swastika on a Union Jack flag. This photo by Ruth Gruber became the Life magazine photo of the week
In protest, DPs from Exodus aboard Runnymede Park prison ship bound to Germany painted a swastika on a Union Jack flag. This photo by Ruth Gruber became the Life magazine photo of the week

During this time, media coverage of the human ordeal intensified and the British became pressed to find a solution. The matter also got the attention of the UNSCOP members who had been deliberating in Geneva. After three weeks, the ships were sailed to Hamburg, Germany which was then in the British occupation zone and where the emigrants could be forced off the ships and back to DP camps. Although most of the women and children disembarked voluntarily, the men had to be carried off by force. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (800x725, 163 KB)1947. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (800x725, 163 KB)1947. ... Flag Ratio: 1:2 Union Jack is the commonly used name for the Union Flag of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. ... Ruth Gruber (born in 1911) is an American journalist, photographer, United States government official and humanitarian. ... A cover of Life Magazine from 1911 Life has been the name of two notable magazines published in the United States. ... UNSCOP stands for the United Nations Special Committee on Palestine. ... Geneva (pronunciation //; French: Genève //, German:   //, Italian: Ginevra) is the second most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich), and is the most populous city of Romandy (the French-speaking part of Switzerland). ... Hamburgs motto: May the posterity endeavour with dignity to conserve the freedom, which the forefathers acquired. ... The C-Pennant Occupation zones in Germany (1945) Capital Berlin (de jure) Organizational structure Military occupation Governors (1945)  - US zone G.A. Eisenhower  - UK zone F.M. Montgomery  - French zone Gen. ... A displaced persons camp is in principle any temporary facility for displaced persons but in common usage refers to camps for individuals displaced as a result of World War II, particularly refugees from Eastern Europe. ...


Within a year, over half of the original Exodus 1947 passengers had made another attempt at emigrating to Palestine and were detained in camps in Cyprus. When the State of Israel was established in May 1948, all surviving passengers made aliyah. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Aliyah (Hebrew: עלייה, ascent or going up) is a term widely used to mean Jewish immigration to the Land of Israel (and since its establishment in 1948, the State of Israel). ...


Then Lt. John Donaldson ([1]), who served in the British 6th Airborne Division that sent a detachment to escort the deported immigrants, is quoted (Maariv, October 17, 2005) as saying that the escorting soldiers never returned to their units in Palestine. Apparently, the ordeal had such an emotional impact on them that a near mutiny erupted among them. The British army decided not to file any charges and closed the matter quietly, in order to prevent a political uproar in the UK. The 6th Airborne Division was an airborne unit of the British Army during World War II. // The division was formed in the United Kingdom on 3 May 1943, during the Second World War. ... Maariv (Hebrew evening) is a daily newspaper in Israel. ...


Historical importance

The ship's ordeals were widely covered by international media, and caused the British government much public embarrassment, especially after the refugees were forced to disembark in Germany. It is said that the events convinced the US government that the British mandate of Palestine was incapable of handling the Jewish refugees problem, and that a United Nations-brokered solution needs to be found. The US government then intensified its pressures on the British government to return its mandate to the UN, and the British in turn were more than willing to accept this. Map of the territory under the British Mandate of Palestine. ... The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, and social equity. ...


The United Nations Special Committee on Palestine (UNSCOP) also covered the events. Some of its members were even present at Haifa port when the emigrants were forcefully removed from their ship onto the deportation ships, and later commented that this strong image helped them press for an immediate solution for Jewish immigration and the question of Palestine. UNSCOP stands for the United Nations Special Committee on Palestine. ...


Cultural impact

  • In 1958, the book Exodus by Leon Uris, based partly on the story of the ship, was published.
  • In 1960, the film Exodus directed by Otto Preminger and starring Paul Newman, based on the above novel, was screened. It was filmed mostly in Israel and increased Israel's popularity worldwide.

In 1997, the documentary film, Exodus 1947, directed by Elizabeth Rodgers and Robby Henson and narrated by Morley Safer, was broadcast nationally on PBS. For more information, go to info@exodus1947.com Year 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Exodus is a novel written in 1958 by American novelist Leon Uris about the founding of the state of Israel, based on the name of the 1947 immigration ship Exodus. ... Leon Uris (August 3, 1924 - June 21, 2003) was an American novelist, known for his historical fiction and the deep research that went into his novels. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1960 calendar). ... Exodus Exodus is a 1960 film starring Paul Newman. ... Otto Ludwig Preminger (December 5, 1906 – April 23, 1986) was a film director. ... Paul Leonard Newman (born January 26, 1925) is an Academy Award-winning American actor and film director. ... Robby Henson is an American director and screenwriter. ...


See also

the Patria sinking The Patria was a ship which sank in Haifa harbor on November 25, 1940, with the loss of approximately 267 lives (over 200 Jews and 50 crew and British soldiers). ... Struma was a ship chartered to carry Jewish refugees from Romania to British-controlled Palestine. ...

References

  1. ^ President Warfield at US Naval Historical Center website.
  2. ^ "Secretary of State to High Commissioner for Palestine 14.7.47" in Alan Cunningham Collection, box 2 folder 1, Middle East Centre Archives, St. Antony's College, Oxford.
  3. ^ "High Commissioner for Palestine to Secretary of State 15.7.47" in Alan Cunningham Collection, box 2 folder 1, Middle East Centre Archives, St. Antony's College, Oxford.
  4. ^ "Secretary of State to High Commissioner for Palestine 14.7.47" in Alan Cunningham Collection, box 2 folder 1, Middle East Centre Archives, St. Antony's College, Oxford.
  5. ^ "Secretary of State to High Commissioner for Palestine 14.7.47" in Alan Cunningham Collection, box 2 folder 1, Middle East Centre Archives, St. Antony's College, Oxford.

Further reading

  • Ruth Gruber - Exodus 1947: The Ship that Launched a Nation (1999) ISBN 0-8129-3154-8
  • David C. Holly - Exodus, 1947 (1995) ISBN 1-55750-367-2
  • Jan H. Fahlbusch u.a. - Pöppendorf statt Palästina. Zwangsaufenthalt der Passagiere der 'Exodus 1947' in Lübeck. (1999) ISBN 3-933374-29-4

Ruth Gruber (born in 1911) is an American journalist, photographer, United States government official and humanitarian. ...

External links

  • exodus1947.org Hebrew website dedicated to the ship. Includes images and recordings.
  • Ships of the World: An Historical Encyclopedia - Exodus 1947
  • Pöppendorf instead of Palestine - Online Exhibition in German with a English translation on internment of the Exodus 1947 passengers in North Germany

  Results from FactBites:
 
The Exodus (307 words)
The ship Exodus 1947 became a symbol of Aliya Bet — illegal immigration.
The ship was towed to Haifa, where the immigrants were forced onto deportation ships bound for France.
At Port-de-Bouc, in southern France, the would-be immigrants remained in the ships' holds for 24 days during a heat wave, refusing to disembark despite the shortage of food, the crowding and the abominable sanitary conditions.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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