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Encyclopedia > Exocet
Exocet
Exocet
Basic data
Function Medium-range anti-ship missile
Manufacturer MBDA's division Aérospatiale
Entered service 1979
General characteristics
Engine solid propellant engine
Launch mass 670 kg
Length 4.7 m
Diameter
Wingspan 1.1 m
Speed 315 m/s
Range 70-180 km
Flying altitude 2 m
Warhead 165 kg
Guidance Inertial and active radar
Launch platform multi-platform:
  • MM38 surface-launched
  • AM39 air-launched
  • SM39 submarine-launched
  • MM40 surface-launched

The Exocet is a French-built anti-ship missile whose various versions can be launched from surface vessels, submarines, and airplanes. Several hundred were fired in combat during the 1980s. The name comes from a French word for flying fish. Image File history File links fr: Trois variantes du missile Exocet Image by B. Harry From http://www. ... MBDA is a European arms company which manufactures missiles and is the result of the 2001 merger of Aérospatiale-Matra Missiles (of EADS), Alenia Marconi Systems missile divisions and Matra BAe Dynamics. ... The Aérospatiale Corvette first flew in 1970 and went into service in 1974. ... The Space Shuttle Columbia is initially launched using solid-fuel boosters Solid rockets are rockets with a motor that uses solid propellants (fuel/oxidizer). ... The U.S. National Prototype Kilogram, which currently serves as the primary standard for measuring mass in the U.S. It was assigned to the United States in 1889 and is periodically recertified and traceable to the primary international standard, The Kilogram, held at the Bureau International des Poids et... The metre (American English:meter) is a measure of length. ... The distance AB is the wing span of this Aer Lingus Airbus A320. ... Metre per second (U.S. spelling: meter per second) is an SI derived unit of both speed (scalar) and velocity (vector), defined by distance in metres divided by time in seconds. ... A kilometer (Commonwealth spelling: kilometre), symbol: km is a unit of length in the metric system equal to 1,000 metres (from the Greek words χίλια (khilia) = thousand and μέτρο (metro) = count/measure). ... A B61 nuclear bomb in various stages of assembly; the nuclear warhead is the bullet-shaped silver cannister in the middle-left of the photograph. ... RBS-15 missile launched from a Sisu missile carriage. ... Genera Cheilopogon Cypselurus Danichthys Exocoetus Fodiator Hirundichthys Oxyporhamphus Parexocoetus Prognichthys The Execoetidae or flyingfishes are a marine fish family comprising about 70 species grouped in 7 to 9 genera. ...

Contents

Description

The Exocet is built by MBDA, a European missile company. Development began in 1967 as a ship-launched missile named MM 38. The air-launched Exocet was developed in 1974 and entered service with the French Navy five years later. MBDA is a European arms company which manufactures missiles and is the result of the 2001 merger of Aérospatiale-Matra Missiles (of EADS), Alenia Marconi Systems missile divisions and Matra BAe Dynamics. ... The French Navy, officially called the National Navy (French: Marine Nationale) is the maritime arm of the French military. ...


The missile is designed to hit large warships. It is guided inertially in mid-flight, and turns on active radar late in its flight to find and hit its target. Its solid propellant engine gives the Exocet a maximum range of 70 km. The submarine-launched version places the missile and a Naval booster motor within a launch capsule. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... An inertial navigation system measures the position and altitude of a vehicle by measuring the accelerations and rotations applied to the systems inertial frame. ... This long range radar antenna, known as ALTAIR, is used to detect and track space objects in conjunction with ABM testing at the Ronald Reagan Test Site on the Kwajalein atoll. ... The Space Shuttle is initially launched with the help of solid-fuel boosters A Solid rocket or a solid fuel rocket is a rocket with a motor that uses solid propellants (fuel/oxidizer). ... A kilometer (Commonwealth spelling: kilometre), symbol: km is a unit of length in the metric system equal to 1,000 metres (from the Greek words χίλια (khilia) = thousand and μέτρο (metro) = count/measure). ... Navy is also:- shorthand for Navy Blue the nickname of the United States Naval Academy A navy is the branch of the armed forces of a nation that operates primarily on water. ... A launch capsule is used to carry a submarine-launched missile from the attacking submarine through the distance of water up to the ocean surface, immediately after which the capsule is jettisoned, as the missile continues its journey propelled by the booster motor. ...


The Exocet has been manufactured in a number of versions, including:

  • MM38 (surface-launched)
  • AM39 (air-launched)
  • SM39 (submarine-launched)
  • MM40 (surface-launched)

The newest MM40 version (MM40 block 3) has an improved range of 180 km, through the use of a turbojet engine.


The chief competitor to the Exocet is the U.S.-built Harpoon and the Chinese Yingji series. The AGM-84 Harpoon is a US all-weather, over-the-horizon, anti-ship missile system. ... The Yingji-82 or YJ-82 (Chinese: 鹰击-82, literally Eagle Strike; NATO reporting name: CSS-N-8 Saccade) is a Chinese anti-ship missile first unveiled in 1989 by the China Haiying Electro-Mechanical Technology Academy (CHETA), also known as the Third Academy. ...


History

An improvised Argentine Navy launcher airlifted by a C-130 at end of May to engage the British naval gunfire during the Falklands War
Exocet missile impact
Exocet missile impact
Exocet launch
Exocet launch

In 1982, during the Falklands War, Exocets became famous worldwide when Argentine Navy Super Etendard warplanes used them to destroy Royal Navy's HMS Sheffield on 4 May and sink the support ship Atlantic Conveyor on 25 May. As well, an Argentine-converted land-based truck fired an MM38 Exocet (previously dismounted from the Argentine destroyer ARA Segui [1]) that damaged the HMS Glamorgan on June 12. Ganesh the God of Knowledge the symbol of ITB File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Ganesh the God of Knowledge the symbol of ITB File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Navy of the Argentine Republic (Armada de la República Argentina, ARA) is the navy of Argentina. ... Combatants Argentina United Kingdom Commanders President Leopoldo Galtieri Vice-Admiral Juan Lombardo Brigadier-General Ernesto Crespo Brigade-General Mario Menéndez Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher Admiral Sir John Fieldhouse Rear-Admiral John “Sandy” Woodward Major-General Jeremy Moore Casualties 649 killed 1,068 wounded 11,313 taken prisoner 75 fixed... Image File history File links Exocet_imapct. ... Image File history File links Exocet_imapct. ... Image File history File links Exocet http://www. ... Image File history File links Exocet http://www. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... Combatants Argentina United Kingdom Commanders President Leopoldo Galtieri Vice-Admiral Juan Lombardo Brigadier-General Ernesto Crespo Brigade-General Mario Menéndez Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher Admiral Sir John Fieldhouse Rear-Admiral John “Sandy” Woodward Major-General Jeremy Moore Casualties 649 killed 1,068 wounded 11,313 taken prisoner 75 fixed... The Navy of the Argentine Republic (Armada de la República Argentina, ARA) is the navy of Argentina. ... The Dassault Super Etendard is a French carrier-borne strike fighter in service with the French and Argentine Navy. ... The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore the Senior Service). ... HMS Sheffield (D80) was the second Royal Navy ship to bear the name Sheffield, after the city of Sheffield in Yorkshire. ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Atlantic Conveyor was a British merchant navy ship that was requisitioned during the Falklands War and sunk by an Exocet missile. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... HMS Glamorgan (D19) was a County-class destroyer of the Royal Navy. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Argentina claims that an Exocet-armed Super Etendard attack on May 30 damaged HMS Invincible. This claim is widely regarded as entirely unfounded, not least due to the continued operation of undamaged Invincible in the campaign. It should be noted that during the conflict the Argentinian military Government claimed several times to have damaged/shot down several ships (with multiple previous claims for having damaged and/or sunk both the Invincible and the Hermes, the two most important British warships) and Sea Harriers, partially due to the natural confusion of battle and partially for propaganda purposes. Similarly, the British claimed to have destroyed more Argentine aircraft than they actually did for the same reasons.[2] The Dassault Super Etendard is a French carrier-borne strike fighter in service with the French and Argentine Navy. ... is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The sixth and current HMS Invincible (R05) is a light aircraft carrier, the lead ship of three in her class. ...


The Exocet that struck Sheffield impacted on Deck 2, 8 feet (2.4 m) above the waterline, near to the forward engine room, cracking the hull open roughly 4 feet (1.2 m) by 10 feet (3 m). There remains uncertainty as to whether or not the warhead exploded. Accounts suggest that the initial impact of the missile immediately destroyed the ship's onboard electricity generating systems and fractured the water main, preventing the anti-fire mechanisms from operating effectively, and thereby dooming the ship to be consumed by the raging fire. Although the loss of Sheffield was a major shock to the British, the missile used earned itself a curious kind of respect, and the word “Exocet” passed into British colloquial usage to denote, “a devastating attack.” It is still occasionally heard, and as of 2007, remains widely understood. There has been speculation that the Exocet that struck Sheffield did not explode, however the crew of Sheffield and members of the British Task Force strongly disagree with this. The official report from The RN Board of Inquiry now available (2007) on the Internet specifically indicates that from the evidence available the missile warhead did indeed fail to explode. This would suggest that the damage caused was as a result of the significant kinetic energy of the missile and the presence of unused missile fuel which caught fire on impact.


The Exocet that struck Glamorgan failed to explode, but the unburnt rocket fuel caused a significant fire. It is likely that Glamorgan was saved from complete destruction by the prompt action of the officers and men at the helm. In the short warning period (less than 1 minute) that a missile was incoming, they ordered maximum revolutions and maximum wheel towards the missile. As a result when the missile struck, the ship was heeled far over to port and instead of striking the side the missile hit the coaming and was deflected upwards. The dent caused by the impact was clearly visible when Glamorgan was being refitted in late 1982. Wheel of the French carrier Clémenceau. ... Port is the nautical term (used on boats and ships) that refers to the left side of a ship, as perceived by a person facing towards the bow (the front of the vessel). ... Coaming is any vertical surface on a ship designed to deflect or prevent entry of water. ...


In the years after the Falklands War it was revealed that the British government and intelligence agencies were extremely concerned by the perceived inadequacy of the British navy’s anti-missile defences against the Exocet and the missile’s potential to tip the naval war decisively in favour of the Argentine forces. In London, a nightmare scenario was being envisioned in which one or both of the UK force’s two aircraft carriers (HMS Invincible and HMS Hermes) would be destroyed or incapacitated by an Exocet attack. Under such circumstances, military analysts considered that the British would have had serious difficulty in further prosecuting an attempt to recapture the Falklands from the Argentine forces. To counter the threat posed by the Exocet, a major intelligence operation was initiated to prevent the Argentine Navy acquiring more of the missiles and British intelligence (believed to have been assisted by American intelligence) launched a global operation to disrupt Argentine attempts to procure new Exocets for the campaign. The operation included the seeding of intelligence agents whose task was to make contact with the Argentine military and falsely purport to be able to provide them with Exocets. Also, France denied deliveries of recently bought AM39 to Peru in the belief that they would be given to Argentina. The Secret Intelligence Service (SIS), commonly known as MI6 (Military Intelligence, Section 6),[1] is the United Kingdoms external intelligence agency. ... The sixth and current HMS Invincible (R05) is a light aircraft carrier, the lead ship of three in her class. ... The second HMS Hermes (R12) was a Centaur-class aircraft carrier, the last of the postwar conventional aircraft carriers commissioned into the Royal Navy. ...

USS Stark hit by two Exocets
USS Stark hit by two Exocets

Iraq fired an estimated 200 air-launched Exocets against Iranian shipping during the Iran-Iraq War with varying levels of success. Tankers and other civilian shipping were often hit, but a large percentage failed to explode.[citation needed] US and UK EOD teams recovered several warheads and even some complete missiles from target ships.[citation needed] Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Combatants  Iran Iraq Commanders Ruhollah Khomeini, Abolhassan Banisadr, Ali Shamkhani, Mostafa Chamran Saddam Hussein, Ali Hassan al-Majid Strength 305,000 soldiers 500,000 Passdaran and Basij militia 900 tanks 1,000 armored vehicles 3,000 artillery pieces 470 aircraft 750 helicopters[1] 190,000 soldiers 5,000 tanks 4...


On May 17, 1987, the pilot of an Iraqi Mirage F-1 allegedly mistook the U.S. Navy Oliver Hazard Perry class frigate USS Stark for an Iranian tanker and fired two Exocets at the warship. Both hit, but only one exploded.[citation needed] The first penetrated the port-side hull; it failed to detonate, but spewed flaming rocket fuel in its path. The second entered at almost the same point, and left a 3-by-4-metre gash then exploded in crew quarters. Thirty-seven sailors were killed and twenty-one were injured. Stark was heavily damaged but saved by the crew and sent back for repairs. The errant pilot was reportedly executed for his error, which had the dual effect of rendering him unavailable for an inquiry into the attack. is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ... The Dassault Mirage F1 is a single-seat air-superiority fighter and attack aircraft built by Dassault Aviation of France. ... USN redirects here. ... The USS McInerney (FFG 8), an Oliver Hazard Perry class frigate. ... Stark listing following 2 hits by Exocet missiles USS Stark (FFG-31), twenty-third ship of the Oliver Hazard Perry class of guided-missile frigates, was named for Admiral Harold Rainsford Stark (1880–1972). ...


Operators

Two MM38 Exocet missiles on board German Navy S78 Ozelot, Type 143A Gepard class fast attack craft
Two MM38 Exocet missiles on board German Navy S78 Ozelot, Type 143A Gepard class fast attack craft
AM39 under a Dassault Rafale
AM39 under a Dassault Rafale

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 428 pixelsFull resolution (1713 × 917 pixel, file size: 780 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Exocet ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 428 pixelsFull resolution (1713 × 917 pixel, file size: 780 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Exocet ... German frigate Karlsruhe rescuing shipwrecked people off the coast of Somalia while participating in the international anti-terror operation ENDURING FREEDOM, April 2005 The Laboe Naval Memorial for sailors who lost their lives at sea during the World Wars and while on duty at sea and U 995 Modern air... S71 Gepard The Type 143A Gepard class is Germanys last class of missile bearing Fast Attack Craft (FAC, Schnellboot in German) and the only one still in service with the Deutsche Marine (German Navy since 1990). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2560 × 1920 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2560 × 1920 pixel, file size: 1. ... The logo of the Dassault Rafale program. ...

Current operators

Image File history File links Flag_of_Argentina. ... The Navy of the Argentine Republic (Armada de la República Argentina, ARA) is the navy of Argentina. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belgium_(civil). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Brazil. ... The Brazilian Navy (Portuguese: Marinha do Brasil) is the navy of Brazil. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Chile. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Colombia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cyprus. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ecuador. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Egypt. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Indonesia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iran. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iraq. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Kuwait. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Libya. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Malaysia. ... Royal Malaysian Navy ensign Image:Royal Malaysian Navy crest. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Morocco. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Oman. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Peru. ... The Air Force of Peru (Spanish: Fuerza Aérea del Perú, abbreviated FAP) is the branch of the Peruvian Armed Forces tasked with defending the nation and its interests through the use of air power. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Qatar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Africa. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Thailand. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Arab_Emirates. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Uruguay. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Venezuela. ...

Former operators

Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore the Senior Service). ...

Etymology

The origin of the word is Greek εξω-κοιτος = “lying down outside”, “sleeping under the stars”, which was then applied to the flying fish referring to its habit of stranding itself by landing in boats. Genera Cheilopogon Cypselurus Danichthys Exocoetus Fodiator Hirundichthys Oxyporhamphus Parexocoetus Prognichthys The Execoetidae or flyingfishes are a marine fish family comprising about 70 species grouped in 7 to 9 genera. ...


References

  1. ^ (Spanish) An interview with ARA CL (R) Ing. Julio Pérez, chief designer of Exocet truck-based launcher
  2. ^ Argentine Airpower in the Falklands War

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Exocet

  Results from FactBites:
 
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EXOCET est spécialiste de la fonction commerciale externalisée, pour l’industrie de la grande consommation, sur les univers GMS, GSS et CHD.
Nous contacter EXOCET 87 bis, Rue de Paris 93 100 Montreuil Tel : 01 48 59 28 85 – Fax : 01 48 59 10 97 E mail : contact@exocet-vente.com
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Note: The AM-39 Exocet AShM may not be in active service with the Indian Air Force, however it is likely that a small number might have been purchased as a test batch.
The AM-39 is the air-to-surface variant of the Exocet family of anti-ship missiles.
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