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Encyclopedia > Executive (government)

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In political science and constitutional law, the executive is the branch of government responsible for the day-to-day management of the state. In many countries, it is referred to simply as the government, but this usage can be confusing in an international context. The executive branch contains the head of government, who is the head of this branch. Under the doctrine of the separation of powers, the executive is not supposed to make laws (role of the legislature), nor to interpret them (role of the judiciary), their purpose is to enforce them: in practice, this separation is rarely absolute. The executive is identified by the Head of Government. In a presidential system, this person (the President) may also be the Head of State, where as in a parliamentary system he or she is usually the leader of the largest party in the legislature and is most commonly termed the Prime Minister (Taoiseach in the Republic of Ireland, (Federal) Chancellor in Germany and Austria). In France, executive power is shared between the President and the Prime Minister and this system has been reproduced in a number of former French colonies, while Switzerland and Bosnia and Herzegovina likewise have collegiate systems for the role of Head of State and Government. The Head of Government is assisted by a number of ministers, who usually have responsibilities for particular areas (e.g. health, education, foreign affairs), and by a large number of government employees or civil servants. For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ... A dictator is an authoritarian, often totalitarian ruler (e. ... For other uses, see Monarch (disambiguation). ... President is a title held by many leaders of organizations, companies, trade unions, universities, and countries. ... The head of government is the chief officer of the executive branch of a government, often presiding over a cabinet. ... For other uses, see Chancellor (disambiguation). ... A premier is an executive official of government. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... This article is about the governmental body. ... A ministry is a department of a government, led by a minister. ... A minister or a secretary is a politician who holds significant public office in a national or regional government. ... A presidential system, also called a congressional system, is a system of government where an executive branch exists and presides (hence the term) separately from the legislature, to which it is not accountable and which cannot in normal circumstances dismiss it. ... States with semi-presidential systems are shown in yellow The semi-presidential system is a system of government in which a prime minister and a president are both active participants in the day-to-day functioning of the administration of a country. ... States currently utilizing parliamentary systems are denoted in red and orange—the former being constitutional monarchies where authority is vested in a parliament, the the latter being parliamentary republics whose parliaments are effectively supreme over a separate head of state. ... Cohabitation in government occurs in semi-presidential systems, such as Frances system, when the President and the Prime Minister come from different political parties. ... The Houses of Parliament, also known as the Palace of Westminster, in London. ... This is a list of state leaders, showing heads of state and heads of government where different, mainly in parliamentary systems; it should be noted that often a leader is both in presidential systems or dictatorships. ... This is a list of the offices of heads of state and heads of government, and cabinets, by country. ... For other uses, see Governor (disambiguation). ... A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning larger, greater) is the modern title of the highest ranking municipal officer. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political Science is the field concerning the theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political systems and political behaviour. ... The French Declaration of the Rights of the Man and of the Citizen, whose principles still have constitutional value Constitutional law is the study of foundational or basic laws of nation states and other political organizations. ... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... The head of government is the chief officer of the executive branch of a government, often presiding over a cabinet. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Separation of powers is a term coined by French political Enlightenment thinker Baron de Montesquieu[1][2], is a model for the governance of democratic states. ... A legislatureis a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to ratify laws. ... In the law, the judiciary or judicial system is the system of courts which administer justice in the name of the sovereign or state, a mechanism for the resolution of disputes. ... The head of government is the chief officer of the executive branch of a government, often presiding over a cabinet. ... A presidential system, also called a congressional system, is a system of government where an executive branch exists and presides (hence the term) separately from the legislature, to which it is not accountable and which cannot in normal circumstances dismiss it. ... President is a title held by many leaders of organizations, companies, trade unions, universities, and countries. ... For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ... States currently utilizing parliamentary systems are denoted in red and orange—the former being constitutional monarchies where authority is vested in a parliament, the the latter being parliamentary republics whose parliaments are effectively supreme over a separate head of state. ... A political party is a political organization that seeks to attain political power within a government, usually by participating in electoral campaigns. ... A legislatureis a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to ratify laws. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... The Taoiseach (IPA: , phonetic: TEE-shock — plural: Taoisigh ( or ), also referred to as An Taoiseach [1], is the head of government or prime minister of the Republic of Ireland . ... For other uses, see Chancellor (disambiguation). ... The President of France, known officially as the President of the Republic (Président de la République in French), is Frances elected Head of State. ... The Prime Minister of France (Premier ministre de la France) is the functional head of the Cabinet of France. ... French Colonies is the name used by philatelists to refer to the postage stamps issued by France for use in the parts of the French colonial empire that did not have stamps of their own. ... A minister or a secretary is a politician who holds significant public office in a national or regional government. ... The Roman civil service in action. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...

Contents

Head of government

In parliamentary systems, the head of government is generally the Prime Minister, who usually heads a cabinet which must rely on the direct or indirect support of Government. In essence, the Prime Minister is the leader of the largest elected party in a parliament. In Westminster Systems, like the United Kingdom, Canada or Australia, executive authority is nominally and theoretically vested in the Sovereign. However the Sovereign does not always actively exercise executive powers, since this is performed by a Prime Minister and a Cabinet on his or her behalf. A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... This article is about the governmental body. ... The Houses of Parliament, also known as the Palace of Westminster, in London. ...


Other countries have presidential systems, such in the United States of America. In Article II, Section 1, of the United States Constitution it is stated that, "The executive power shall be vested in a president of the United States of America." This makes the president the head of the executive branch of the federal government. To become president, a person must be at least thirty-five years old, a natural born American citizen, and a resident of the United States for at least fourteen years. Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Article Two of the United States Constitution Article Two of the United States Constitution creates the executive branch of the government, comprising the President and other executive officers. ...


Semi-presidential systems may exist in some countries, and often have both a President and a Prime Minister. Such systems can be seen in countries such as France and Russia. However, the balance of power between the two heads of government may vary, and it is dependent on the country in question. Sri Lanka has witnessed a bitter power struggle between its President and Prime Minister, particularly due to a difference in political parties. The semi-presidential system is a system of government that features both a prime minister and a president who are active participants in the day to day functioning of government. ...


Role of the executive

The exact role of the executive depends on the constitution of the country. Not all of the following functions need be exercised by the central executive, particularly in federal countries: they may instead be exercised by local government (see below). Federalism can refer to either: The form of government, or constitutional structure, found in a federation. ... Local governments are administrative offices that are smaller than a state or province. ...


A good analogy is the owner - architect - contractor relationship. The Legislative branch acts as the architect to draw up the plans and specifications according to the wishes of the people who elected them (the owners), and exercises oversight to make sure the Executive Branch acts by its authority with its advice and consent. The Executive branch executes the instructions given it by the Legislature, but has no power to act on its own without instructions, because that would put it in the position of acting legislatively.


The Laws issued by the Legislature must be complied with exactly. It is the Presidents job to Preserve, protect and defend them while executing them faithfully and it's the Judiciary's job to act as competent administrators to see that all parties are in compliance with the Constitution.


The main function of the Executive Branch is to do what it is instructed to do by Legislation produced by the Legislative Branch: the Executive Branch collects taxes and customs duties as instructed by the Legislative Branch and uses the money appropriated by the Legislative Branch to pay the salaries of government employees and for other government expenditure. As instructed by the Legislative Branch, it assures the internal and external security of the state by maintaining a police force and armed forces when instructed to do so by the Legislative Branch according to its rules. “Taxes” redirects here. ... Customs is the plural of custom, a common practice among a group of people. ... Government spending consists of government purchases, including transfer payments, which can be financed by seigniorage (the creation of money for government funding), taxes, or government borrowing. ... For other uses, see Police (disambiguation). ... Alternate cover US 1979 and 2002 reissue cover, also known as paint spatter cover For the military meaning, see Armed forces. ...


The Executive Branch acting by and with the advice and consent of the Legislative Branch is also responsible for executing the regulating legislation drafted by the Legislative Branch to guide the many sectors of the economy, notably

  • the Military
  • the labor force (e.g. by enforcing labor laws)
  • agriculture
  • transportation
  • energy provision
  • housing and construction (e.g. by issuing building permits)
  • culture
  • education
  • environment protection
  • health
  • promotion of research and science
  • operation of nationalized industries
  • commerce in general (e.g. by enforcing minimum standards, and notably by issuing a currency)
  • and others

This article is in need of attention. ... Cranes are essential in large construction projects, such as this skyscraper In project architecture and civil engineering, construction is the building or assembly of any infrastructure. ... Public ownership (also called government ownership or state ownership) is government ownership of any asset, industry, or corporation at any level, national, regional or local (municipal). ...

Relation to the legislature

While the legislature is responsible for approving the laws of a state, it does not usually, on its own, have the capacity to enforce them, notably in terms of employees and other infrastructure. The necessity to enforce a law if it is to be effective imposes a degree of cooperation between the legislature and the executive: the legislature may vote "free beer for all", but the executive would be in its role to ask "who pays the brewer?" In many countries the executive has the power to veto some or all types of legislation, or at least to delay their approval by insisting on a longer debate of the consequences. A legislatureis a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to ratify laws. ... The word veto comes from Latin and literally means I forbid. ...


Under the Westminster system, the Prime Minister and other ministers are members of the legislature, and in other parliamentary systems the executive is usually headed by the party or parties which control a majority in the legislature. This gives the executive some control over the legislation which is passed, but this control is rarely absolute in a democracy. In presidential systems, the executive and the legislature may be controlled by different political parties, a situation known as cohabitation: both sides must arrive at a compromise to allow the government to continue to function, although complete blockage is rare. The Houses of Parliament, also known as the Palace of Westminster, in London. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... A minister or a secretary is a politician who holds significant public office in a national or regional government. ... States currently utilizing parliamentary systems are denoted in red and orange—the former being constitutional monarchies where authority is vested in a parliament, the the latter being parliamentary republics whose parliaments are effectively supreme over a separate head of state. ... A political party is a political organization that seeks to attain political power within a government, usually by participating in electoral campaigns. ... A presidential system, also called a congressional system, is a system of government where an executive branch exists and presides (hence the term) separately from the legislature, to which it is not accountable and which cannot in normal circumstances dismiss it. ... Cohabitation in government occurs in semi-presidential systems, such as Frances system, when the President and the Prime Minister come from different political parties. ...


In general, the legislature has a supervisory role over the actions of the executive, and may replace the Head of Government and/or individual ministers by a vote of (no) confidence or a procedure of impeachment. On the other hand, a legislature which refuses to cooperate with the executive, for example by refusing to vote a budget or otherwise starving the executive of funds, may be dissolved by the Head of State, leading to new elections. The head of government is the chief officer of the executive branch of a government, often presiding over a cabinet. ... A Motion of Confidence is a motion of support proposed by a government in a parliament to give members of parliament a chance to register their confidence for a government by means of a parliamentary vote. ... Depiction of the impeachment trial of Andrew Johnson, then President of the United States, in 1868. ... For the rental car company, see Budget Rent a Car. ... In parliamentary systems, a dissolution of parliament is the dispersal of a legislature at the call of an election. ... For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ... This article is about the political process. ...


The legislature usually delegates some legislative power to the executive, notably to issue regulations or executive orders which complete a piece of legislation with technical details or points which might change frequently (e.g. fees for government services). The executive may also have powers to issue legislation during a state of emergency. An executive order is an edict issued by a member of the executive branch of a government, usually the head of that branch. ... For other uses, see State of emergency (disambiguation). ...


Relation to the Judicial Branch

The Executive Branch acts by and with the advice and consent of the Legislation made by the Legislature and thus is subject to the Legislative Branch. The judiciary acts as a competent administrator to ensure compliance with the laws crafted by the Legislative Branch. In the law, the judiciary or judicial system is the system of courts which administer justice in the name of the sovereign or state, a mechanism for the resolution of disputes. ...


The laws which apply specifically to the executive are known as administrative law, although this should not be taken to imply that the executive is exempt from other laws such as human rights or the rules of war. The Executive Branch may be challenged in court for failure to comply with the decisions of the Legislative Branch. The idea of judicial review is that the competent administrators in the judiciary have the responsibility to review compliance with Legislation wherever there is a party claiming injury. The Legislature Branch has the responsibility to supervise the execution of its laws and the compliance of the judiciary and the Executive branch with them. Administrative law in the United States often relates to, or arises from, so-called independent agencies- such as the Federal Trade Commission (FTC). Here is FTCs headquarters in Washington D.C. Administrative law (or regulatory law) is the body of law that arises from the activities of administrative agencies... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... The laws of war (Jus in bello) define the conduct and responsibilities of belligerent nations, neutral nations and individuals engaged in warfare, in relation to each other and to protected persons, usually meaning civilians. ... Judicial review is the power of a court to review the actions of public sector bodies in terms of their legality or constitutionality. ...


The Legislature makes decisions and the Judiciary and the Executive Branch enforce its decisions with the help of the forces funded by the Legislature to enforce its laws (e.g. police force, prison service). The Legislative Branch is responsible for providing funding for courthouses, establishing and paying the salaries of judges: The Executive Branch is responsible for getting them built and staffed as instructed. The competent administration of the judicial system is the responsibility of the justice minister, also referred to as the attorney general. A justice minister is a ministerial position in the governments of some countries, with general responsibility for policing and the maintenance of public order. ... In most common law jurisdictions, the Attorney General is the main legal adviser to the government, and in some jurisdictions may in addition have executive responsibility for law enforcement or responsibility for public prosecutions. ...


The Legislative Branch makes laws and the Executive branch executes them as instructed. In the Department of Justice the Attorney General oversees the staff responsible for taking legal action in the public interest, for example enforcing Civil Rights, Public Safety, policing corporations, prosecuting them as any other criminal and protecting the interests of those who cannot defend themselves (e.g. children or the mentally handicapped). The authority to perform these functions is delegated by the legislature to be both the executive Branch and the judiciary as required. The executive is responsible for the day-to-day management after the Legislature decides to provide the necessary infrastructure and pay the necessary salaries. Public interest is a term used to denote political movements and organizations that are in the public interest—supporting general public and civic causes, in opposition of private and corporate ones (particularistic goals). ... Criminal law (also known as penal law) is the body of law that regulates governmental sanctions (such as imprisonment and/or fines) as retaliation for crimes against the social order. ...


Most countries have safeguards to protect the independence of the judiciary from the executive, such as the impossibility of the executive to dismiss a judge. Similar safeguards may apply to other categories of government employees, in order to allow them to conduct their functions without undue political pressure. In return, judges and government employees may be expected not to take part in active politics themselves. In the United States the Congress has all the power and the sole responsibility of removal by means of impeachment. The Roman civil service in action. ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political...


Local government

Individual states or provinces in a federal system have their own executives, legislatures and judiciaries in addition to the corresponding bodies at federal level. Even in non-federal systems, all but the smallest of countries have some form of local government, although legislative and (especially) judicial powers are often very limited. The distribution of executive powers between central and local government varies widely between different countries: for example, policing and education are local responsibilities in the United Kingdom but central responsibilities in France. An extreme example is Switzerland, where nationality, a central government responsibility in almost all other countries, is a matter for individual municipalities (albeit with federal minimum standards). Federalism can refer to either: The form of government, or constitutional structure, found in a federation. ... Local governments are administrative offices that are smaller than a state or province. ... In English usage, nationality is the legal relationship between a person and a country. ... A municipality is an administrative entity composed of a clearly defined territory and its population and commonly referring to a city, town, or village, or a small grouping of them. ...


Local government may be funded through local taxes (often property taxes), through a grant from the central government or through a combination of the two. The head of the local executive of a municipality is usually known as the mayor; various terms exist for the head of the executive at other levels of local government. The local executive is usually supervised by an elected council, which is responsible for setting the rates of local taxes (where these exist, and often only to a limited extent) and for approving the budget of the local executive. The central government may also have a supervisory role, which may go as far as the power to dissolve the local government completely in exceptional cases. Property tax, millage tax is an ad valorem tax that an owner of real estate or other property pays on the value of the property being taxed. ... A municipality is an administrative entity composed of a clearly defined territory and its population and commonly referring to a city, town, or village, or a small grouping of them. ... A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning larger, greater) is the modern title of the highest ranking municipal officer. ...


As mentioned above, it is essential to consider the different roles of local (or State) government when comparing the roles of the executives in different countries: the provision of public education is an executive function whether it is provided by the central government (France), state governments (Germany), local education authorities (England and Wales) or school boards (United States). A Local Education Authority (LEA) is the part of a council in England or Wales that is responsible for education within that councils jurisdiction. ... This article or section should be merged with board of education A school board (or school committee) is an elected council that helps determine educational policy in a small regional area, such as a city, state, or province. ...

For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... Administrative law in the United States often relates to, or arises from, so-called independent agencies- such as the Federal Trade Commission (FTC). Here is FTCs headquarters in Washington D.C. Administrative law (or regulatory law) is the body of law that arises from the activities of administrative agencies... The term criminal law, sometimes called penal law, refers to any of various bodies of rules in different jurisdictions whose common characteristic is the potential for unique and often severe impositions as punishment for failure to comply. ... A contract is a legally binding exchange of promises or agreement between parties that the law will enforce. ... Not to be confused with torte, an iced cake. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This law-related article does not cite its references or sources. ... The Court of Chancery, London, early 19th century This article is about the concept of equity in the jurisprudence of common law countries. ... International law deals with the relationships between states, or between persons or entities in different states. ... Conflict of laws, or private international law, or international private law is that branch of international law and interstate law that regulates all lawsuits involving a foreign law element, where a difference in result will occur depending on which laws are applied as the lex causae. ... Supranational law is a form of international law, based on the limitation of the rights of sovereign nations between one another. ... Image File history File links Scale_of_justice_2. ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... Labour law (American English: labor) or employment law is the body of laws, administrative rulings, and precedents which addresses the legal rights of, and restrictions on, working people and their organizations. ... Human rights law is a system of laws, both domestic and international which is intended to promote human rights. ... Legal procedure is the body of law and rules used in the administration of justice in the court system, including such areas as civil procedure, criminal procedure, appellate procedure, administrative procedure, labour procedure, and probate. ... The law of evidence governs the use of testimony (e. ... Immigration law refers to national government policies which control the phenomenon of immigration to their country. ... Family Law was a television drama starring Kathleen Quinlan as a divorced lawyer who attempted to start her own law firm after her lawyer husband took all their old clients. ... In the common law, a will or testament is a document by which a person (the testator) regulates the rights of others over his property or family after death. ... Commercial law (sometimes known as business law) is the body of law which governs business and commerce. ... Corporate law (also corporations law or company law) refers to the law establishing separate legal entities known as the company or corporation and governs the most prevalent legal models for firms, for instance limited companies (Ltd or Pty Ltd), publicly limited companies (plc) or incorporated businesses (Inc. ... Notice of closure stuck on the door of a computer store the day after its parent company, Granville Technology Group Ltd, declared bankruptcy (strictly, put into administration—see text) in the United Kingdom. ... For the 2006 film, see Intellectual Property (film). ... The following analysis is based on English law. ... Restitution is the name given to a form of legal relief in which the plaintiff recovers something from the defendant that belongs, or should belong, to the plaintiff. ... Tax law is the codified system of laws that describes government levies on economic transactions, commonly called taxes. ... Bank regulations are a form of government regulation which subject banks to certain requirements, restrictions and guidelines, aiming to uphold the soundness and integrity of the financial system. ... Antitrust redirects here. ... Consumer protection is a form of government regulation which protects the interests of consumers. ... Environmental law is a body of law, which is a system of complex and interlocking statutes, common law, treaties, conventions, regulations and policies which seeks to protect the natural environment which may be affected, impacted or endangered by human activities. ... International law deals with the relationships between states, or between persons or entities in different states. ... Admiralty law (also referred to as maritime law) is a distinct body of law which governs maritime questions and offenses. ... Military law is a distinct legal system to which members of armed forces are subject. ... Products liability is the area of law in which manufacturers, distributors, suppliers, retailers, and others who make products available to the public are held responsible for the injuries those products cause. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Aviation law is the branch of law that concerns flight, air travel, and associated legal and business concerns. ... World distribution of major legal traditions The three major legal systems of the world today consist of civil law, common law and religious law. ... This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... For other uses of civil law, see civil law. ... In the religious sense, law can be thought of as the ordering principle of reality; knowledge as revealed by God defining and governing all human affairs. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Socialist Legality. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Using the term Roman law in a broader sense, one may say that Roman law is not only the legal system of ancient Rome but the law that was applied throughout most of Europe until the end of the 18th century. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Canon law is the term used for... Sharia (Arabic: transliteration: ) is the body of Islamic religious law. ... This article is about law in society. ... Legal history is a term that has at least two meanings. ... For the jurisprudence of courts, see Case law. ... Law and economics, or economic analysis of law is an approach to legal theory that applies methods of economics to law. ... Sociology of law refers to both a sub-discipline of sociology and an approach within the field of legal studies. ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... In the law, the judiciary or judicial system is the system of courts which administer justice in the name of the sovereign or state, a mechanism for the resolution of disputes. ... A legislatureis a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to ratify laws. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This article is about the sociological concept. ... A lawyer is a person licensed by the state to advise clients in legal matters and represent them in courts of law and in other forms of dispute resolution. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Civil society is composed of the totality of voluntary civic and social organizations and institutions that form the basis of a functioning society as opposed to the force-backed structures of a state (regardless of that states political system) and commercial institutions. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Key Terms: Executive Government (551 words)
The Executive Government is the arm of government theoretically responsible for the implementation of the laws passed by the Parliament.
In Australia, the Executive Government is the ministry led by the Prime Minister.
Because the Executive is drawn from the Parliament and is able to dominate it because of party discipline, in practice the Executive determines policy and the Parliament debates the legislation proposed by the Executive.
Executive (government) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (554 words)
The Executive is the branch of a government charged with implementing, or executing, the law and running the day-to-day affairs of the government or state.
Along with the Prime Minister or executive President, the executive branch consists of the cabinet and the executive departments or ministries of the government.
Executive authority within a presidential system is exercised by a president who is also head of state.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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