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Encyclopedia > Execution (legal)
Death Penalty World Map Color Key: Blue: Abolished for all crimes Green: Abolished for crimes not committed in exceptional circumstances (such as crimes committed in time of war) Orange: Abolished in Practice Red: Legal Form of Punishment
Death Penalty World Map
Color Key:
  • Blue: Abolished for all crimes
  • Green: Abolished for crimes not committed in exceptional circumstances (such as crimes committed in time of war)
  • Orange: Abolished in Practice
  • Red: Legal Form of Punishment
Execution of a soldier of the 8th Infantry at Prescott, Arizona, 1877
Execution of a soldier of the 8th Infantry at Prescott, Arizona, 1877

Execution is a term used to refer to the termination of life pursuant to a judgment at law (see Capital punishment), and more broadly to killings with legal or quasi-legal justifications given, and to extrajudicial killings. Once used in referring to the execution of any legal sentence ("execute" meaning "to carry out fully : put completely into effect"), and applied as such to the execution of a death sentence (by an executioner), it has come to be used to refer to the act of killing itself. Download high resolution version (1357x628, 29 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1357x628, 29 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Capital punishment, also referred to as the death penalty, is the judicially ordered execution of a prisoner as a punishment for a serious crime, often called a capital offense or a capital crime. ... Physical world map (2004) with country borders and capitals--click for large, 2 MB version A world map is a map of the surface of the Earth, which may be made using any of a number of different map projections. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1235x1242, 260 KB)Execution of a soldier of the 8th Infantry at Prescott, Arizona, 1877. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1235x1242, 260 KB)Execution of a soldier of the 8th Infantry at Prescott, Arizona, 1877. ... Capital punishment, also referred to as the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted felon as a punishment for a crime (often called a capital offence or a capital crime). ... Extrajudicial execution and extrajudicial punishment are terms to describe death sentences and other types of punishment, respectively, executed without prior proper judicial procedure. ... In law, a sentence forms the final act of a judge-ruled process, and also the symbolic principal act connected to his function. ... A judicial executioner is a person who carries out a death sentence ordered by the state or other legal authority (known in feudal terminology as high justice), usually when presented with a warrant authorizing or ordering him to execute the sentence. ...


Formal military executions are typically by firing squad (for violations of orders in wartime or the laws of war) or by hanging (typically for cowardice, or commission of atrocities or other crimes). It has been suggested that Execution by firing squad in the United Kingdom be merged into this article or section. ... The laws of war (Jus in bello) define the conduct and responsibilities of belligerent nations, neutral nations and individuals engaged in warfare, in relation to each other and to protected persons, usually meaning civilians. ... Hanging is a form of execution or a method for suicide. ... An atrocity (from the Latin atrox, atrocious, from Latin ater = matte black (as distinct from niger = shiny black)) is a term used to describe crimes ranging from an act committed against a single person to one committed against a population or ethnic group. ...


Methods of execution which involve, or have the potential to involve, a great deal of pain or mutilation are considered to be torture and unacceptable to many who support capital punishment. The term is also used to refer to illegal killings, such as the killing of prisoners of war (see Summary execution) and hostages, political assassinations and gang murders. The Iron Maiden of Nuremberg was an infamous torture device. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... A hostage is a person (sometimes another entity) which is held by a captor in order to compel another party to act, or refrain from acting, in a particular way. ... Jack Ruby murdered Lee Harvey Oswald, the alleged assassin of U.S. President John F. Kennedy, in a very public manner In its most common use, assassination has come to mean the killing of an important person. ... A gang is a group of individuals who share a common identity and, in current usage, engage in illegal activities. ...

Contents


Execution through history

  • Crushing by elephant was a common sentence for those condemned to death throughout south and southeast Asia, particularly India, for over 4,000 years.
  • From 600 BC through the 20th Century crucifixion has been used as a method of execution.
  • The execution of criminals was a form of entertainment in ancient Rome. Usual forms of execution included burning at the stake, crucifixion, or ad bestias (when the prisoner is left alone in the ring with one or more wild animals).
  • Between 1283 and 1871, men convicted of treason in England were hanged, drawn and quartered, while women found guilty of treason were burnt at the stake.
  • The headman's axe was used in Germany and England in the 16th and 17th Centuries.
  • The French Revolution is famous for its pioneering of the guillotine.

Elephants occasionally dismembered the condemned as in this 1681 drawing from An Historical Relation of the Island Ceylon by Robert Knox. ... Crucifixion is an ancient method of execution, where the victim was tied or nailed to a large wooden cross (Latin: crux) and left to hang there until dead. ... The Roman Empire reached its greatest extent during the reign of Hadrian, ca. ... Burning of two sodomites at the stake outside Zürich, 1482 (Spiezer Schilling) Execution by burning is a particularly painful and unpleasant way to die, with a long history as a method of punishment for crimes such as treason and for other unpopular acts such as heresy and the practice... For broader historical context, see 1280s and 13th century. ... 1871 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... In law, treason is the crime of disloyalty to ones nation. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: England Travel guide to England from Wikitravel English language English law English (people) List of monarchs of England – Kings of England family tree List of English people Angeln (region in northern Germany, presumably the origin of the Angles for whom England is named) UK... To be hanged, drawn and quartered was the penalty once ordained in England for treason. ... During the French Revolution (1789-1799) democracy and republicanism replaced the absolute monarchy in France, and the French sector of the Roman Catholic Church was forced to undergo radical restructuring. ... Public guillotining in Lons-le-Saunier, 1897 Guillotine from Baden (reconstruction) The Maiden, an older Scottish design Portrait of Dr. Guillotin The guillotine is a machine used for the mechanized application of capital punishment by decapitation. ...

See also

The article on torture lists the many means of execution which have torturous potential. An execution warrant is a warrant which authorizes the execution or capital punishment of an individual. ... Capital punishment, also referred to as the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted felon as a punishment for a crime (often called a capital offence or a capital crime). ... At one time the death penalty was used in almost every part of the globe; but over the last few decades many countries have abolished it. ... This is a list of people who were executed: // Murder Stephen Wayne Anderson (d. ... This is a list of people who have acted as official executioners. ... The first electric chair, which was used to execute William Kemmler in 1890 The electric chair is a device used in some states in the United States for execution of criminals convicted of capital crimes, usually capital murder. ... Michelangelos Last Judgment - Saint Bartholomew holding the knife of his martyrdom and his flayed skin Flaying is the removal of skin from the body. ... A Garrote (a Spanish word; alternative spellings include garotte and garrotte as in French) is a handheld weapon, most often referring to a ligature of chain, rope, or wire used to strangle someone to death. ... The gas chamber once used at San Quentin State Prison in California for the purpose of capital punishment. ... Lethal injection is used as a method of capital punishment that involves injecting the condemned with fatal doses of drugs to cause death. ... The laws of war (Jus in bello) define the conduct and responsibilities of belligerent nations, neutral nations and individuals engaged in warfare, in relation to each other and to protected persons, usually meaning civilians. ... Posthumous execution is the ritual execution of an already dead body. ... Human sacrifice was practiced in many ancient cultures. ... The last meal is a traditional part of a condemned prisoners last day. ... The Iron Maiden of Nuremberg was an infamous torture device. ...


Books

  • Geoffrey Abbott - Execution: A Guide to Ultimate Penalty (2004)

External links

Civil law

In the context of civil law, execution is the process of enforcing a judgment for money damages. Processes available for execution include garnishment, attachment, and levy. A judgment or judgement, in a legal context, is synonymous with the formal decision made by a court following legal proceedings. ... A garnishment is a means of collecting a judgment for money in which some third person (the garnishee) is ordered to pay money to the plaintiff which the garnishee owes to the defendant. ...


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