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Encyclopedia > Exclusive Economic Zone
Sea areas in international rights
Sea areas in international rights

Under the law of the sea, an Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) is a seazone over which a state has special rights over the exploration and use of marine resources. Image File history File links Zonmar-en. ... Image File history File links Zonmar-en. ... United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea Opened for signature December 10, 1982 in Montego Bay (Jamaica) Entered into force November 16, 1994[1] Conditions for entry into force 60 ratifications Parties 149[2] For maritime law in general see Admiralty law. ... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... Marine is an umbrella term for things relating to the ocean, as with marine biology, marine geology, and as a term for a navy, etc. ... Rainforest on Fatu-Hiva, Marquesas Islands Natural resources are naturally occurring substances that are considered valuable in their relatively unmodified (natural) form. ...

Contents

Definition

Generally a state's EEZ extends to a distance of 200 nautical miles (370 km) out from its coast. The exception to this rule occurs when EEZs overlap; that is, state coastal baselines are less than 400 nautical miles apart. When an overlap occurs, it is up to the states to delineate the actual boundary.[1] Otherwise, any point within an overlapping area defaults to the most proximate state.[2] A nautical mile or sea mile is a unit of length. ...


The Exclusive Economic Zone starts at the coastal baseline and extends 200 nautical miles out into the sea, perpendicular to the baseline. Thus, the EEZ overlaps both the contiguous zone and territorial waters.[3] Map of Sealand and the United Kingdom, with territorial water claims of 3nm and 12nm shown. ...


Origin of EEZ

This concept of allotting nations EEZs to give better control of maritime affairs outside territorial limits gained acceptance in the late 20th century and was given binding international recognition by the Third United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea in 1982. (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea Opened for signature December 10, 1982 in Montego Bay (Jamaica) Entered into force November 16, 1994[1] Conditions for entry into force 60 ratifications Parties 149[2] For maritime law in general see Admiralty law. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ...


Part V, Article 55 of the Convention states:

Specific legal regime of the Exclusive Economic Zone
The Exclusive Economic Zone is an area beyond and adjacent to the territorial sea, subject to the specific legal regime established in this Part, under which the rights and jurisdiction of the coastal State and the rights and freedoms of other States are governed by the relevant provisions of this Convention.

Fisheries management is a significant aspect of the resulting control. Fisheries management is today often referred to as a governmental system of management rules based on defined objectives and a mix of management means to implement the rules, which is put in place by a system of monitoring, control, and surveillance (MCS). ...


EEZ disputes

Disputes over the exact extent of Exclusive Economic Zones are a common source of conflict between states over marine waters.

Regions where a permanent ice shelf extends beyond the coastline are also sources of potential dispute.[4] The Cod Wars (also called the Iceland Cod Wars) were a series of confrontations between the United Kingdom and Iceland over Icelands claims of authority over tracts of ocean off their coastline as being their exclusive fishery zone. ... Filipino name Tagalog: Luzon Sea Portuguese name Portuguese: Mar da China Meridional Vietnamese name Vietnamese: The South China Sea is a marginal sea south of China. ... Ross Ice Shelf An ice shelf is a thick, floating platform of ice that forms where a glacier or ice sheet flows down to a coastline and onto the ocean surface. ...


Rankings by area

List of countries' EEZ by area
Country EEZ +
Terr. Waters
EEZ only
United States 11,351,000 km²
France 11,035,000 km²
Australia 8 148 250 km²
Russia 7,566,673 km²
Canada 5,599,077 km² 2,755,564 km²
Japan 4,479,358 km²
New Zealand 4,083,744 km²
United Kingdom 3,973,760 km²
Brazil 3,660,955 km²
Chile 2,017,717 km²
Portugal 1,727,408 km²
India 1,641,514 km²
Madagascar 1,225,259 km²
Argentina 1,159,063 km²
China 877,019 km²
List of countries' EEZ
plus territorial waters
plus territories onshore area
Russia 24,641,873 km²
United States 20,982,418 km²
Australia 15,835,100 km²
Canada 15,583,747 km²
Brazil 12,175,831 km²
France 11,709,843 km²
China 10,476,979 km²
India 5,559,733 km²
Japan 4,857,193 km²
New Zealand 4,352,424 km²
Argentina 3,925,953 km²
Chile 2,773,813 km²
Portugal 1,819,799 km²
Madagascar 1,812,299 km²

By country

Argentina

1,159,063 km²


Australia

  • Seas and Submerged Lands Act 1973

Australia has the third largest Exclusive Economic Zone, behind the United States and France, but ahead of Russia, with the total area actually exceeding that of its land territory. As per UN convention, Australia's EEZ generally extends 200 nautical miles (370 km) from the coastline of Australia and its external territories, except where a maritime delimitation agreement exists with another state.[5] Australia has also claimed, in its submission to the UN Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf, an EEZ of 200 nautical miles (370 km) from its Antarctic Territory but has requested it not be considered, in accordance with the Antarctic Treaty.[6] Nevertheless, Australia maintains the right to explore and exploit the seabed and water column within its EEZ. The states and territories of Australia make up the Commonwealth of Australia under a federal system of government. ... The Australian Antarctic Territory (AAT) is the part of Antarctica claimed by Australia. ... For the Antarctic Treaty from the Gundam anime, see Antarctic Treaty (Gundam) The Antarctic Treaty and related agreements, collectively called the Antarctic Treaty System or ATS, regulate the international relations with respect to Antarctica, Earths only uninhabited continent. ...

EEZ Area (km²) [7]
Heard & McDonald Islands 410,722
Christmas Island 463,371
Cocos Islands 325,021
Norfolk Island 428,618
Macquarie Island 471,837
Australia 6,048,681
TOTAL 8,148,250

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Macquarie Island lies in the southwest corner of the Pacific Ocean, about half-way between Australia and Antarctica. ...

Brazil

  • Continental shelf: 3,191,827 km²
  • Trindade and Martim Vaz Island: 469,128 km²
  • total: 3,660,955 km²

Source


Canada

Canada is unusual in that its Exclusive Economic Zone, covering 2,755,564 km², is slightly smaller than its territorial waters.[8] The latter generally extend only 12 nautical miles from the shore, but also include inland marine waters such as Hudson Bay (about 300 nautical miles across), the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and the internal waters of the Arctic archipelago. Hudson Bay, Canada. ... Bathymetry of the Gulf, with the Laurentian Channel visible Gulf of Saint Lawrence (French: golfe du Saint-Laurent), the worlds largest estuary, is the outlet of North Americas Great Lakes via the Saint Lawrence River into the Atlantic Ocean. ... Reference map of Canadian arctic islands. ...


European Union

European Union Member states EEZ's, does not include overseas territories of members
European Union Member states EEZ's, does not include overseas territories of members

The EEZ of the European Union is shared, so vessels or a national from one country can fish in another country's EEZ.[9] The combined zone amounts to 25 million km², making it larger than the United States' zone, the largest of any single country.[10] '"See: Common Fisheries Policy. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) is the fisheries policy of the European Union. ...


France

Due to its numerous overseas départements and territories scattered on all oceans of the planet, France possesses the second-largest EEZ in the world, covering 11,035,000 km² (4,260,000 mi²), just behind the EEZ of the United States (11,351,000 km² / 4,383,000 mi²), but ahead of the EEZ of Australia (8,232,000 km² / 3,178,000 mi²). According to a different calculation cited by the Pew Research Center, the EEZ of France would be 10,084,201 km² (3,893,532 mi²), behind the United States (12,174,629 km² / 4,700,651 mi²), but ahead of Australia (8,980,568 km² / 3,467,416 mi²) and Russia (7,566,673 km² / 2,921,508 mi²). Under the 1946 Constitution of the Fourth Republic, the French colonies of Guadeloupe, Martinique and French Guiana in the Caribbean and Réunion in the Indian Ocean became départements doutre-mer (Overseas departments) or DOMs. ... To help compare sizes of different areas, here is a list of areas between 10 million km² and 100 million km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... To help compare sizes of different areas, here is a list of areas between 10 million km² and 100 million km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ...


The EEZ of France covers approximately 8% of the total surface of all the EEZs of the world, whereas the land area of the French Republic is only 0.45% of the total land area of the Earth.


Greece

Greece has not yet claimed an exclusive economic zone, although it is entitled to do so, as per UNCLOS 1982 as well as customary international law. The reason for its inaction is the direct Turkish threat of casus belli.[citation needed] Casus belli is a modern Latin language expression meaning the justification for acts of war. ...


Portugal

Portugal Exclusive Economic Zone
Portugal Exclusive Economic Zone

Portugal has the 3rd largest Exclusive Economic Zone of the EU and the 11th in the world. See a Portugal EEZ map. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Anthem A Portuguesa Capital (and largest city) Lisbon Official languages Portuguese1 Government Parliamentary democracy  -  President Aníbal Cavaco Silva  -  Prime Minister José Sócrates Formation June 24, 1128   -  Founding of the first County of Portugal 868   -  Battle of São Mamede June 24, 1128   -  Kingdom 25 July 1139   -  Recognized 5... Motto (Portuguese for Rather die free than in peace subjugated) Anthem  (national)  (local) Capital Ponta Delgada1 Angra do Heroísmo2 Horta3 Largest city Ponta Delgada Official languages Portuguese Government Autonomous region  -  President Carlos César Establishment  -  Settled 1439   -  Autonomy 1976  Area  -  Total 2,333 km² (n/a) 911 sq mi... For other uses, see Madeira (disambiguation). ... Portugal has the 3rd largest Exclusive Economic Zone of the EU and the 11th in the world. ...


United Kingdom

764,071 km²

Anthem: God Save the Queen Capital Georgetown Largest city Georgetown Official languages English Government Dependency of St. ... This article is about the British dependencies. ... Motto Our faith is our strength Anthem God Save the Queen Capital (and largest city) Edinburgh of the Seven Seas Official languages English Government Dependency of St. ...

India

Andaman Islands The Andaman Islands are a group of islands in the Bay of Bengal, and are part of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands Union Territory of India. ...

Japan

Japan has disputes over its EEZ boundaries with all its Asian neighbours (Russia, South Korea, PRC and ROC). The above and relevant maps at the Sea Around Us Project[11][12] both indicates Japan's claimed boundaries, and does not take into account neighbouring power's claims. Minami Torishima (南鳥島) or Marcus Island is a very small isolated island in the northwestern Pacific Ocean, located at latitude 24°18′ N and longitude 153°58′ E. It is only 1 sq km in size. ... A map of the Ogasawara Islands south of Japan The Ogasawara Islands (小笠原諸島) are an archipelago of over 30 subtropical islands some 1,000 km directly south of central Tokyo, Japan. ... Location of Ryukyu Islands The Ryukyu Islands, in Japanese called the Nansei Islands ) are a chain of Japanese islands in the western Pacific Ocean at the eastern limit of the East China Sea. ... The Sea of Japan, known as the East Sea in South Korea, the East Sea of Korea in North Korea, and the Japan Sea in China, is a marginal sea of the western Pacific Ocean, bound by the Japanese islands of Hokkaido, Honshu and Kyushu and Sakhalin island to the... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ...


New Zealand

New Zealand's EEZ covers 4,083,744 km², according to the Sea Around Us Project,[13][14] which is approximately fifteen times the land area of the country. Sources vary significantly on the size of New Zealand's EEZ; for example, a recent government publication gave the area as roughly 4,300,000 km².[15] These figures are for the EEZ of New Zealand proper, and do not include the EEZs of other territories in the Realm of New Zealand. The Realm of New Zealand is the territory in which the Queen in right of New Zealand is head of state. ...


Pakistan

Russia

  • Asia: 6,382,530
  • Baltic: 24,549
  • Barents Sea: 1,159,594
  • total 7,566,673 km²

Source


United States

information needed


Largest EEZ in the world: 11,351,000 km² / 4,383,000 mi²

  • Magnuson-Stevens Fisheries Conservation and Management Act of 1976

The Magnuson-Stevens Fisheries Conservation and Management Act of 1976, also known as the big fat boner, established regional fishery management councils comprised of federal and state officials, including the Fish and Wildlife Service. ...

References

  1. ^ William R. Slomanson, 2006. Fundamental Perspectives on International Law, 5th edn. Belmont, CA: Thomson-Wadsworth, 294.
  2. ^ UN Convention on the Law of The Sea.
  3. ^ William R. Slomanson, 2006. Fundamental Perspectives on International Law, 5th edn. Belmont, CA: Thomson-Wadsworth, 294.
  4. ^ The Legal Status of Ice in the Antarctic Region
  5. ^ Geoscience Australia. 2005. Maritime Boundary Definitions.
  6. ^ Division for Ocean Affairs and the Law of the Sea. Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf, Submission by Australia
  7. ^ Geoscience Australia, Australian Maritime Boundaries Information System 2001. Area of the Australian Exclusive Economic Zone
  8. ^ Wildlife Habitat Canada. Canada's Marine Waters: Integrating the Boundaries of Politics and Nature.
  9. ^ About the Common Fisheries Policy
  10. ^ EU Glossary europa.eu
  11. ^ Japan (main islands) The Sea Around Us Project
  12. ^ Japan (outer islands) The Sea Around Us Project
  13. ^ New Zealand Sea Around Us Project
  14. ^ Kermadec Islands (New Zealand) The Sea Around Us Project
  15. ^ New Zealand Ministry for the Environment (2005). Offshore Options. Accessed 21 may 2006.
  16. ^ Coastal and Marine Ecosystems — Marine Jurisdictions Accessed 1 November 2006

See also

A baseline is the line from which the seaward limits of a States territorial sea and certain other maritime zones of jurisdiction are measured. ... Map of Sealand and the United Kingdom, with territorial water claims of 3nm and 12nm shown. ...  Sediment  Rock  Mantle  The global continental shelf, highlighted in cyan The continental shelf is the extended perimeter of each continent, which is covered during interglacial periods such as the current epoch by relatively shallow seas (known as shelf seas) and gulfs. ... The terms international waters or trans-boundary waters apply where any of the following types of bodies of water (or their drainage basins) transcend international boundaries: oceans, large marine ecosystems, enclosed or semi-enclosed regional seas and estuaries, rivers, lakes, groundwater systems (aquifers), and wetlands [1]. Oceans and seas, waters... North America is surrounded by an area called the Air Defense Identification Zone (ADIZ), which is jointly administered by the United States and Canada. ...

External links

  • United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea - Part V
  • Sea Around Us Project - View the EEZ of all nations (Note that this site does not distinguish between territorial waters and the EEZ, and so tends to overstate EEZ areas.)
  • The USA zone since 1977
  • GIS data : http://www.vliz.be/vmdcdata/marbound/

  Results from FactBites:
 
Exclusive Economic Zone - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (865 words)
This concept of allotting nations EEZs to give better control of maritime affairs outside territorial limits gained acceptance in the late 20th century and was given binding international recognition by the Third United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea in 1982.
The Exclusive Economic Zone is an area beyond and adjacent to the territorial sea, subject to the specific legal regime established in this Part, under which the rights and jurisdiction of the coastal State and the rights and freedoms of other States are governed by the relevant provisions of this Convention.
The EEZ of France covers approximately 8% of the total surface of all the EEZs of the world, whereas the land area of the French Republic is only 0.45% of the total land area of the Earth.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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