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Encyclopedia > Exarchate of Ravenna

Βασιλεία Ῥωμαίων
Roman (Byzantine) Empire


(Emblem of the Palaeologus dynasty)

Motto: Βασιλεὺς Βασιλέων
Βασιλεύων Βασιλευόντων

(Greek: King of Kings Ruling Over Rulers) Byzantine Empire emblem File links The following pages link to this file: Byzantine Empire ... The Palaeologus (Gr. ... A motto is a phrase or a short list of words meant to formally describe the general motivation or intention of a social group or organization. ...

Timeline
667 BC Ancient city of Byzantium (future Constantinople) is founded.
330 Constantine makes Constantinople his capital.
395 Empire permanently split into Eastern and Western halves, following the death of Theodosius I.
527 Justinian I crowned emperor.
532537
Justinian builds the church of Hagia Sophia (Ιερός Ναός Αγίας Σοφίας)
533554 Justinian's generals reconquer North Africa and Italy from the Vandals and Ostrogoths.
568 The Lombard invasion results in the loss of most of Italy.
634641 Arab armies conquer the Levant and Egypt. In the following decades, they take most of North Africa, and later conquer Sicily as well.
730787; 813843 Iconoclasm controversies. This results in the loss of most of the Empire's remaining Italian territories, aside from some territories in the south.
8431025 Macedonian dynasty established. The empire experiences military and territorial revival. Byzantine scholars record and preserve many valuable ancient Greek and Roman texts.
10021018 Emperor Basil II campaigns anually against the Bulgarians, with the object of annihilating the Bulgar state.
1014 Battle of Kleidon. The Bulgarian army is completely defeated. Basil II becomes known as The Bulgar Slayer.
1018 Bulgaria surrenders and is annexed to the empire. The whole of the Balkans is incorporated into the Byzantine Empire, with the Danube as the new Imperial Frontier in the north.
1025 Death of Basil II. Decline of the Byzantine Empire begins.
1054 Schism. Split between Church in Rome and the Church in Constantinople.
1071 Emperor Romanus IV is defeated by the Seljuk Turks at the Battle of Manzikert. Most of Asia Minor is lost. In the same year, the last Byzantine outposts in Italy are conquered by the Normans.
1081 Comnenus dynasty is established by Alexius I. Decline is arrested. Byzantium becomes involved in Crusades. Economic prosperity generates new wealth; literature and art reach new heights; however, in Anatolia Turks become established.
1091 Imperial armies defeat Pechenegs at Levunium.
1097 Recapture of Nicaea from the Turks by Byzantine armies and First Crusaders.
1097-1176 Byzantine armies recapture the coasts of Asia Minor from the Turks, and push east towards central Anatolia; Crusader Principality of Antioch becomes Byzantine protectorate.
1176 Battle of Myriokephalon. Manuel Comnenus attempts to capture Konya, capital of Seljuk Turks; is forced to withdraw after destruction of his siege equipment. End of Byzantine attempts to recover Anatolian plateau.
1180 Death of Manuel Comnenus. Decline of the Byzantine Empire recommences.
1185 A successful rebellion is organized in Bulgaria. Lands lost in the Balkans.
1204 Constantinople conquered by Crusaders; Latin Empire formed.
1261 Constantinople reconquered by Michael Palaeologus, Byzantine emperor of Nicaea,
1453 Ottoman Turks conquer Constantinople. Death of Constantine XI last Emperor of the Eastern Roman Byzantine Empire. End of the Byzantine Empire.

The Exarchate of Ravenna was a center of Byzantine power in Italy, from the end of the 6th century to 751 A.D., when the last Exarch was put to death by the Emperor's enemies in Italy, the Lombards. Centuries: 8th century BCE - 7th century BCE - 6th century BCE Decades: 710s BCE 700s BCE 690s BCE 680s BCE 670s BCE - 660s BCE - 650s BCE 640s BCE 630s BCE 620s BCE 610s BCE Events and trends 669 BCE - Assurbanipal succeeds his father Esarhaddon as king of Assyria 668 BCE - Shamash... Map of Constantinople. ... Map of Constantinople. ... Events May 11 - Constantine I refounds Byzantium, renames it New Rome, and moves the capital of the Roman Empire there from Rome. ... Constantine. ... Map of Constantinople. ... Events After the death of emperor Theodosius I, the Roman Empire is divided in an eastern and a western half. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... On the reverse of this coin minted under Valentinian II, both Valentinian and Theodosius are depicted with halos. ... This article is about the year. ... Justinian I depicted on one of the famous mosaics of the Basilica of San Vitale. ... Events First year in which Anno Domini calendar is actually used for numbering (in Dionysius Exiguuss treatise) January 11 - Nika riots in Constantinople; the cathedral is destroyed. ... Events Pope Silverius deposed by Belisarius at the order of Justinian, who appoints as his successor Pope Vigilius. ... Hagia Sophia as it appears today A section of the original architecture of Hagia Sophia Hagia Sophia (Church of Holy Wisdom), now known as the Ayasofya Museum, is a former Eastern Orthodox church converted to a mosque, now converted into a museum, in the Turkish city of Istanbul. ... Events February 1 - John becomes Pope, succeeding Pope Boniface II, who had died in 532. ... Events The Byzantine general Narses reconquers all of Italy. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent. ... The Vandals were an East Germanic tribe that entered the late Roman Empire during the 5th century and created a state in North Africa, centered on the city of Carthage. ... This article deals with the continental Ostrogoths. ... Events April 1 - King Alboin leads the Lombards into Italy; refugees fleeing from them go on to found Venice. ... The Lombards (Latin Langobardi, from which the alternative name Longobards found in older English texts), were a Germanic people originally from Northern Europe that entered the late Roman Empire. ... Events The Arabs invade Palestine. ... Events Founding of the city of Fostat, later Cairo, in Egypt. ... The Arabs (Arabic: عرب ) are a large and heterogeneous ethnic group found throughout the Middle East and North Africa, originating in the Arabian Peninsula of southwest Asia. ... The Levant Levant is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ... Sicily (Sicilia in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,700 sq. ... Events Emperor Leo III of the Byzantine Empire orders the destruction of all icons. ... This article is about the year 787. ... Events June 22 - Byzantine Emperor Michael I is defeated in a war against the Bulgarians. ... Events Treaty of Verdun divides the Carolingian empire between the 3 sons of Louis the Pious. ... Illustration of the Beeldenstorm during the Dutch reformation Literally, iconoclasm is the destruction of religious icons and other symbols or monuments, usually for religious or political motives. ... Events Treaty of Verdun divides the Carolingian empire between the 3 sons of Louis the Pious. ... Events April 18 - Boleslaw I Chrobry is crowned as the first king of Poland. ... Basil I the Macedonian (Βασίλειος Α) (811 - 886, ruled 867 - 886) - married Michael IIIs widow; died in hunting accident Leo VI the Wise (Λέων ΣΤ ο Σοφός) (866 - 912, ruled 886 - 912) – likely either son of Basil I or Michael III; Alexander III (Αλέξανδρος Γ του Βυζαντίου) (870 - 913, ruled 912 - 913) – son of Basil I, regent for nephew... Events November 13 - English king Ethelred gives order to kill all Danes in England, leading to the St. ... Events Bulgaria becomes part of the Byzantine Empire. ... Painting of Basil II, from an 11th century manuscript. ... Events February 14 - Pope Benedict VIII recognizes Henry of Bavaria as King of Germany July 29 - Battle of Kleidion: Basil II inflicts not only a decisive defeat on the Bulgarian army, but his subsequent savage treatment of 15,000 prisoners reportedly causes Tsar Samuil of Bulgaria to die of shock... Combatants Byzantine Empire Bulgaria Commanders Basil II Nicephorus Xiphias Theophylactus Botaniates † Tsar Samuil of Bulgaria Strength Unknown 20 000 Casualties Unknown At least 14 000 The Battle of Kleidion (also Clidium, the key, or Belasitsa) took place on July 29, 1014 between Bulgaria and the Byzantine Empire. ... Painting of Basil II, from an 11th century manuscript. ... Events Bulgaria becomes part of the Byzantine Empire. ... The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe a region of south-eastern Europe. ... Events April 18 - Boleslaw I Chrobry is crowned as the first king of Poland. ... Painting of Basil II, from an 11th century manuscript. ... Events Cardinal Humbertus, a representative of Pope Leo IX, and Michael Cerularius, Patriarch of Constantinople, decree each others excommunication. ... Great Schism redirects here. ... Events Byzantine Empire loses Battle of Manzikert to Turkish army under Alp Arslan. ... Romanus IV Romanus IV (Diogenes), Byzantine emperor from 1068 to 1071, was a member of a distinguished Cappadocian family, and had risen to distinction in the army, until he was convicted of treason against the sons of Constantine X. While waiting for his execution he was summoned into the presence... The Seljuk Turks (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq; in modern Turkish Selçuklular; in Persian سلجوقيان SaljÅ«qiyān; in Arabic سلجوق SaljÅ«q, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turks and a dynasty that ruled parts of Central Asia and the Middle East from the 11th to... The Battle of Manzikert, or The Battle of Malazgirt, was fought between the Byzantine Empire and Seljuk forces led by Alp Arslan on August 26, 1071 near Manzikert, Armenia (modern Malazgirt, Turkey). ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to the Asian portion of Turkey. ... The Normans (adapted from the name Northmen or Norsemen) were a mixture of the indigenous people of France and the Viking invaders under the leadership of Hrolf Ganger, who adopted the French name Rollo and swore allegiance to the king of France (Charles the Simple). ... Events Corfu taken from Byzantine Empire by Robert Guiscard, Italy Byzantine emperor Nicephorus III is overthrown by Alexius I Comnenus, ending the Middle Byzantine period and beginning the Comnenan dynasty Alexius I helps defend Albania from the Normans (the first recorded mention of Albania), but is defeated at the Battle... Byzantine emperor Alexius I Comnenus The Comnenus or Komnenos family was an important dynasty in the history of the Byzantine Empire. ... Byzantine emperor Alexius I Comnenus Alexius I (1048–August 15, 1118), Byzantine emperor (1081–1118), was the third son of John Comnenus, the nephew of Isaac I Comnenus (emperor 1057–1059). ... Asia Minor lies east of the Bosporus, between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean. ... Events Henry, son of William I attempted a coup against his brothers but failed to seize the English throne. ... Pechenegs or Patzinaks, also known as Besenyők, were a semi-nomadic steppes people of Central Asia that spoke a Turkic language. ... Events Edgar I deposes Donald III to become king of Scotland. ... Events Edgar I deposes Donald III to become king of Scotland. ... Events May 22 - Murder attempt by the Hashshashin on Saladin near Aleppo Raynald of Chatillon released from prison in Aleppo May 29 - Frederick Barbarossa is defeated in the Battle of Legnano by the Lombard League leading to the pactum Anagninum (the Agreement of Anagni) September 17 - Seljuk Turks defeat Manuel... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to the Asian portion of Turkey. ... Asia Minor lies east of the Bosporus, between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... The Principality of Antioch, including parts of modern-day Turkey and Syria, was one of the crusader states created during the First Crusade. ... Events May 22 - Murder attempt by the Hashshashin on Saladin near Aleppo Raynald of Chatillon released from prison in Aleppo May 29 - Frederick Barbarossa is defeated in the Battle of Legnano by the Lombard League leading to the pactum Anagninum (the Agreement of Anagni) September 17 - Seljuk Turks defeat Manuel... The Battle of Myriokephalon, also known as Myriocephalum, was a battle between the Byzantine Empire and the Seljuk Turks in Phrygia on September 17, 1176. ... Fresco of Manuel I Manuel I Comnenus Megas (November 28, 1118? - September 24, 1180) was Byzantine Emperor from 1143 to 1180. ... Konya (also Koniah, Konieh, Konia, and Qunia; historically known as Iconium, Greek: Ικόνιον) is a city in Turkey, on the central plateau of Anatolia. ... The Seljuk Turks (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq; in modern Turkish Selçuklular; in Persian سلجوقيان SaljÅ«qiyān; in Arabic سلجوق SaljÅ«q, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turks and a dynasty that ruled parts of Central Asia and the Middle East from the 11th to... Asia Minor lies east of the Bosporus, between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean. ... Events April 13 - Frederick Barbarossa issues the Gelnhausen Charter November 18 - France Emperor Antoku succeds Emperor Takakura as emperor of Japan Afonso I of Portugal is taken prisoner by Ferdinand II of Leon Artois is annexed by France Prince Mochihito amasses a large army and instigates the Genpei War between... Fresco of Manuel I Manuel I Comnenus Megas (November 28, 1118? - September 24, 1180) was Byzantine Emperor from 1143 to 1180. ... Events April 25 - Genpei War - Naval battle of Dan-no-ura leads to Minamoto victory in Japan Templars settle in London and begin the building of New Temple Church End of the Heian Period and beginning of the Kamakura period in Japan. ... // Events February - Byzantine emperor Alexius IV is overthrown in a revolution, and Alexius V is proclaimed emperor. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... The Latin Empire, Empire of Nicaea, Empire of Trebizond and the Despotate of Epirus. ... Events July 25 - Constantinople re-captured by Nicaean forces under the command of Michael VIII Palaeologus, Byzantine Empire re-formed August 29 - Urban IV becomes Pope, the last man to do so without being a Cardinal first Bela IV of Hungary repels Tatar invasion Charles of Anjou given rule of... Michael VIII (1225 - December 11, 1282) was the founder of the Palaeologos dynasty that would rule the Byzantine Empire to the Fall of Constantinople in 1453. ... Iznik (formerly Nicaea) is a city in Anatolia (now part of Turkey) which is known primarily as the site of two major meetings (or Ecumenical councils) in the early history of the Christian church. ... Events May 29 - Fall of Constantinople to Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II the Conqueror, marking the end of the Byzantine Empire (Eastern Roman Empire). ... The Ottoman Turks were the ethnic subdivision of the Turkish people who dominated the ruling class of the Ottoman Empire. ... Emperor Constantine XI, the last Emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire, who reigned from 1448 to 1453. ... Byzantine Empire (Greek: ) is the term conventionally used since the 19th century to describe the Greek-speaking Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... This Buddhist stela from China, Northern Wei period, was built in the early 6th century. ... Events Pippin the Short is elected as king of the Franks by the Frankish nobility, marking the end of the Merovingian and beginning of the Carolingian dynasty. ... In the Byzantine Empire, an exarch was an essentially military viceroy who governed a part of the empire at some remove from the central (oriental) authorities, the Emperor and the Patriarch of Constantinople. ... The Lombards (Latin Langobardi, from which the alternative name Longobards found in older English texts), were a Germanic people originally from Northern Europe that entered the late Roman Empire. ...

Contents


Introduction

Ravenna became the capital of the Western Roman Empire in 404 under Honorius due to its fine harbor with access to the Adriatic and ideal defensive location. The city remained the capital of the Western Roman Empire until its dissolution in 476, when it became the capital of Odoacer, then of the Ostrogoths under King Theodoric. It remained the capital of Italia, Gallia Cisalpina, Dalmatia and Sicilia under the Ostrogoths, but in 540 at the close of the Gothic Wars, Ravenna was occupied by the great Byzantine general Belisarius. After the Roman reconquest in 539 became the seat of the provincial governor. Ravenna is a city in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. ... See: Flavius Augustus Honorius, western Roman emperor 395-423 Saint Honorius, archbishop of Canterbury 627-655 Pope Honorius I, pope 625-638 Pope Honorius II, pope 1124-1130 Pope Honorius III, pope 1216-1227 Pope Honorius IV, pope 1285-1287 Antipope Honorius II, 1061-1064 This is a disambiguation page... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Events August - The usurper Basiliscus is deposed and Zeno is restored as Eastern Roman Emperor. ... Odoacer solidus struck in name of Zeno. ... The Ostrogoths (Gleaming Goths), in distinction to the Visigoths (Noble Goths), were a Germanic tribe that influenced political events of the late Roman Empire. ... Theodoric was a first name frequently encountered in medieval European history. ... This article deals with the continental Ostrogoths. ... Events Byzantine general Belisarius conquers Milan and the Ostrogoth capital Ravenna. ... Invasion of the Goths: a late 19th century painting by O. Fritsche portrays the Goths as cavalrymen. ... Belisar as a beggar, as depicted in popular legend, in the painting by Jacques-Louis David (1781). ...


Subsequently, under the exigencies of the Lombard invasion, which began in 568, Ravenna was made the seat of an imperial exarchate. Thus the Exarchate was formed and organized during the reign of the Eastern emperor Maurice (582 - 602), when the imperial government began to recognize the necessity of providing for a new and a long struggle. In the Byzantine Empire, an exarch was an essentially military viceroy who governed a part of the empire at some remove from the central (oriental) authorities, the Emperor and the Patriarch of Constantinople. ... A solidus of Maurices reign Flavius Mauricius Tiberius Augustus or Maurice I (539 - November, 602) was the emperor of the Byzantine Empire from 582 to 602. ...


The Exarchate

The exarchate was organised into a group of duchies (i.e the Duchy of Rome, Duchy of Venetia, Duchy of Calabria, Lucania, Spoleto etc) which were mainly the coastal cities in the Italian peninsula since the Langobardos or Lombards held the advantage in the hinterland.


The civil and military head of these imperial possessions, the exarch himself, was the representative at Ravenna of the emperor in Constantinople. The surrounding territory reached from the boundary with Venice in the north to the Pentapolis at Rimini, the border of the "five cities" in the Marches along the Adriatic coast; and reached even cities not on the coast, as Forlì for instance. All this territory lies on the eastern flank of the Apennines; this was under the exarch's direct administration and formed the Exarchate in the strictest sense. Surrounding territories were governed by dukes and magistri militium more or less subject to his authority. From the perspective of Constantinople, the Exarchate consisted of the province of Italy. Map of Constantinople. ... Location within Italy Venice (Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venexia) , the city of canals, is the capital of the region of Veneto and of the province of Venice in Italy. ... Rimini is a city in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy and capital city of the Rimini Province. ... Mark or march (or various plural forms of these words) are derived from the Frankish word marka (boundary) and refer to an area along a border, e. ... The Adriatic Sea is an arm of the Mediterranean Sea separating the Apennine peninsula (Italy) from the Balkan peninsula, and the system of the Apennine Mountains from that of the Dinaric Alps and adjacent ranges. ... Forlì, 44°13′N 12°02′E, is a comune and city in Emilia-Romagna, Italy, famed as the birthplace of the great painter Melozzo da Forlì and of Fascist leader Benito Mussolini (at Predappio). ... This is about the terrestrial mountain range. ... The term duke is a title of nobility which refers to the sovereign male ruler of a Continental European duchy, to a nobleman of the highest grade of the British peerage, or to the highest rank of nobility in various other European countries, including Portugal, Spain and France (in Italy...


The Exarchate of Ravenna was not the sole Byzantine province in Italy. Byzantine Sicily formed a separate government, and Corsica and Sardinia, while they remained Byzantine, belonged to the Exarchate of Africa. Sicily (Sicilia in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,700 sq. ... Capital Ajaccio Land area¹ 8,680 km² Regional President ² Ange Santini (UMP) (since 2004) Population  - Jan. ... Sardinia [[]] (Sardegna in Italian, Sardigna, Sardinna or Sardinnia in the Sardinian language, Sardenya in Catalan), is the second largest island in the Mediterranean Sea (Sicily is the largest), between Italy, Spain and Tunisia, south of Corsica. ... // Introduction Exarch is from the Latin; Exarchus, Greek; Exarchon; Meaning Leader, from the word exarchein to lead, to begin, to rule. ...


The Lombards had their capital at Pavia and controlled the great valley of the Po. The Lombard wedge in Italy spread to the south, and established duchies at Spoleto and Beneventum; they controlled the interior, while Byzantine governors more or less controlled the coasts. Church San Michele in Pavia The Old Bridge (Ponte Vecchio) on the Ticino river is a symbol of Pavia Pavìa (the ancient Ticinum) (population 71,000) is a town and comune of south-western Lombardy, northern Italy, 35 km south of Milan on the lower Ticino river near its... PO may stand for: Pareto optimality Parole Officer Per os, Latin for by mouth or orally Perfect Orange a third wave ska based in Knoxville, TN from 2002-2005 Pilkington Optronics, now Thales Optronics Pissed off (often used as a verb or adjective, as in POed or POed) Platforma... The independent Duchy of Spoleto was a Lombard territory founded about 570 in southern Italy by the Lombard dux Faroald. ... Benevento is a town and archiepiscopal see of Campania, Italy, capital of the province of Benevento, 32 miles northeast of Naples. ...


The Piedmont, Lombardy, the interior mainland of Venetia, Tuscany and the interior of Naples belonged to the Lombards, and bit by bit the Imperial representative in Italy lost all genuine power, though in name he controlled areas like Liguria (completely lost in 640 to the Lombards), or Naples and Calabria (being overrun by the Lombard duchy of Benevento). In Rome, the pope was the real master. Piedmont (Italian: Piemonte) is a region of northwestern Italy. ... Lombardy (Italian: Lombardia) is a region in northern Italy between the Alps and the Po river valley. ... Venetia is a name used mostly in a historical context for the area of north-eastern Italy formerly under the control of the Republic of Venice and corresponding approximately to the present-day Italian administrative regions of the Veneto and Friuli-Venezia Giulia. ... A poppy field in Tuscany Tuscany (Italian Toscana) is a region in central Italy, bordering on Latium to the south, Umbria and Marche to the east, Emilia-Romagna and Liguria to the north, and the Tyrrhenian Sea to the west. ... Naples panorama Naples (Italian Napoli, Neapolitan Napule, from Greek Νέα Πόλις - Néa Pólis - meaning New City; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is the largest city in southern Italy and capital of Campania Region and the Province of Naples. ... Calabria, formerly Brutium, is a region in southern Italy which occupies the toe of the Italian peninsula south of Naples. ...


At the end, ca 740, the Exarchate consisted of Istria, Venetia (except for the lagoon of Venice itself, which was becoming an independent protected city-state, the forerunner of the future republic of Venice), Ferrara, Ravenna (the exarchate in the limited sense), with the Pentapolis, and Perugia. Coat of arms Istria (Istra, pronounced in Croatian and Slovenian; Istria, pronounced in Italian, Istrien, pronounced in German) is the biggest peninsula in the Adriatic Sea. ... Location within Italy Venice (Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venexia) , the city of canals, is the capital of the region of Veneto and of the province of Venice in Italy. ... Ferrara is a city, an archiepiscopal see in Emilia-Romagna, Italy, capital city of the province of Ferrara. ... Perugia is the capital city in the region of Umbria in central Italy, near the Tiber river, and the capital of the province of Perugia. ...


These fragments of the province of Italy, as it was when reconquered for Justinian, were almost all lost, either to the Lombards, who finally conquered Ravenna itself about 750, or by the revolt of the pope, who finally separated from the Empire on the issue of the iconoclastic reforms. Justinian I depicted on one of the famous mosaics of the Basilica of San Vitale. ... Illustration of the Beeldenstorm during the Dutch reformation Literally, iconoclasm is the destruction of religious icons and other symbols or monuments, usually for religious or political motives. ...


The relationship between the Pope in Rome and the Exarch in Ravenna was a dynamic that could hurt or help the empire. The Papacy could be a vehicle for local discontent. The old Roman senatorial aristocracy resented being governed by an Exarch who was considered by many a meddlesome foreigner. Thus the exarch faced threats from without as well as from within, hampering much real progress and development. The Pope (from Greek: pappas, father; from Latin: papa, Papa, father) is the head of the Catholic Church. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ...


In its internal history the exarchate was subject to the splintering influences which were leading to the subdivision of sovereignty and the establishment of feudalism throughout Europe. Step by step, and in spite of the efforts of the emperors at Constantinople, the great imperial officials became local landowners, the lesser owners of land were increasingly kinsmen or at least associates of these officials, and new allegiances intruded on the sphere of imperial administration. Meanwhile the necessity for providing for the defence of the imperial territories against the Lombards led to the formation of local militias, who at first were attached to the imperial regiments, but gradually became independent, as they were recruited entirely locally. These armed men formed the exercitus romanae militiae, who were the forerunners of the free armed burghers of the Italian cities of the middle ages. Other cities of the exarchate were organized on the same model. Sovereignty is the exclusive right to exercise supreme political (legislative, judicial and/or executive) authority over a geographic region, group of people or oneself. ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ...


The End of the Exarchate

During the 6th and 7th centuries the growing menace of the Lombards and the Franks, and the split between eastern and western Christendom caused by Iconoclasm and the acrimonious rivalry between the Pope and the patriarch of Constantinople, made the position of the exarch more and more untenable. For other uses, see Franks (disambiguation). ... Illustration of the Beeldenstorm during the Dutch reformation Literally, iconoclasm is the destruction of religious icons and other symbols or monuments, usually for religious or political motives. ... The Patriarch of Constantinople is the Ecumenical Patriarch, ranking as the first among equals in the Eastern Orthodox communion. ...


Ravenna remained the seat of the exarch until the revolt of 727 over Iconoclasm. The last exarch of Ravenna was killed by the Lombards in 751. The exarchate was reorganized as the catapanate of Italy headquartered in Bari which was lost to the Saracens in 858 and only recovered in 878. In 890 the Byzantines defeated the Saracens in southern Italy. ... Region Apulia Mayor Michele Emiliano Area  116 km² Population  - City (2004)  - Density 316. ... For the rugby club Saracens see Saracens (rugby club) The term Saracen comes from Greek sarakenoi. ... Events The Danes force king Alfred the Great of Wessex to retreat to a fort in Athelney, Somerset. ...


When in 756 the Franks drove the Lombards out, Pope Stephen III claimed the exarchate. His ally Pippin the Younger, King of the Franks, donated the conquered lands of the former exarchate to the Papacy in 756; this donation, which was confirmed by his son Charlemagne in 774, marked the beginning of the temporal power of the popes as the Patrimony of Saint Peter. The archbishoprics within the former exarchate, however, had developed traditions of local secular power and independence, which contributed to the fragmenting localization of powers. Three centuries later, that independence would fuel the rise of the independent communes. Events Abd-ar-rahman I conquers Iberia and establishes a new Umayyad dynasty. ... Stephen III (d. ... Pippin the Younger (714-September 24, 768) often known under the mistranslation Pippin the Short (French, Pépin le Bref; German, Pippin der Kleine, Pippin der Kurze, Pippin der Jüngere), was a King of the Franks (751-768). ... Events Abd-ar-rahman I conquers Iberia and establishes a new Umayyad dynasty. ... Charlemagne (742 or 747 – 28 January 814) (also Charles the Great; from Latin, Carolus Magnus or Karolus Magnus), son of King Pippin the Short and Bertrada of Laon, was the king of the Franks from 768 to 814 and king of the Lombards from 774 to 814. ... Events Charlemagne conquers the kingdom of the Lombards, and takes title King of the Lombards. ... The expression Patrimonium Sancti Petri, or shorter Patrimonium Petri, meaing Patrimony of (Saint) Peter, originally designated the landed possessions and revenues of various kinds that belonged to the Church of St. ...


So the Exarchate disappeared, and the small remnants of the imperial possessions on the mainland, Naples and Calabria, passed under the authority of the Catapan of Italy, and when Sicily was conquered by the Arabs in the 9th century the remnants were erected into the themes of Calabria and Langobardia. Istria at the head of the Adriatic was attached to Dalmatia. In 890 the Byzantines defeated the Saracens in southern Italy. ... As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was that century that lasted from 801 to 900. ... Map of Croatia with Dalmatia highlighted Dalmatia (Croatian: Dalmacija, Serbian Cyrillic: Далмација, Italian: Dalmazia) is a region on the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea, (mostly) in modern Croatia, spreading between the island of Rab in the northwest and the Gulf of Kotor (Boka Kotorska) in the southeast. ...


Exarchs of Ravenna


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Exarchate of Ravenna at AllExperts (1098 words)
The Exarchate of Ravenna was a center of Byzantine power in Italy, from the end of the 6th century to 751, when the last Exarch was put to death by the Emperor's enemies in Italy, the Lombards.
At the end, ca 740, the Exarchate consisted of Istria, Venetia (except for the lagoon of Venice itself, which was becoming an independent protected city-state, the forerunner of the future republic of Venice), Ferrara, Ravenna (the exarchate in the limited sense), with the Pentapolis, and Perugia.
His ally Pippin the Younger, King of the Franks, donated the conquered lands of the former exarchate to the Papacy in 756; this donation, which was confirmed by his son Charlemagne in 774, marked the beginning of the temporal power of the popes as the Patrimony of Saint Peter.
Ravenna (3742 words)
The city of Ravenna is the capital of a province in Romagna, central Italy, on the left of the Rivers Montone and Ronco, the confluence of which is at Ravenna, not far from the mouths of the Po.
Ravenna is to-day substantially as it was at the beginning of the Byzantine period: subsequent ages have done nothing except to pass by, transforming, not always happily, the work of the fifth and sixth centuries.
Dante died at Ravenna (1321) and was buried in the vestibule of the Church of San Francesco.
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