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Encyclopedia > Exarch of Ravenna

The Exarchate of Ravenna was a center of Byzantine power in Italy, from the end of the 6th century to 751 A.D., when the last Exarch was put to death by the Emperor's enemies in Italy, the Lombards. The Western emperors had abandoned Rome first for Milan and then, with Honorius for Ravenna in 402 (404?). The city remained the capital of the Western Roman Empire until its dissolution in 476, when it became the capital of Odoacer, then of the Ostrogoths, but in 540 at the close of the Gothic Wars, Ravenna was occupied by the great Byzantine general Belisarius. Subsequently, under the exigencies of the Lombard invasion, which began in 568, Ravenna was made the seat of an imperial exarchate. Thus the Exarchate was formed and organized during the reign of the Eastern emperor Maurice (582 - 602), when the imperial government began to recognize the necessity of providing for a new and a long struggle. The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... (5th century — 6th century — 7th century — other centuries) Events The first academy of the east the Academy of Gundeshapur founded in Persia by the Persian Shah Khosrau I. Irish colonists and invaders, the Scots, began migrating to Caledonia (later known as Scotland) Glendalough monastery, Wicklow Ireland founded by St. ... Events Pippin the Short is elected as king of the Franks by the Frankish nobility, marking the end of the Merovingian and beginning of the Carolingian dynasty. ... In the Byzantine Empire, an exarch was a proconsul or viceroy who governed a province at some remove from the central authorities, the Emperor and the Patriarch of Constantinople. ... The Lombards (Latin Langobardi, from which the alternative name Longobards found in older English texts), were a Germanic people originally from Scandinavia that entered the late Roman Empire. ... Bronze coin bearing the profile of Honorius Flavius Augustus Honorius (September 9, 384–August 15, 423) was Emperor of the Western Roman Empire from 395 until his death. ... For other places named Ravenna, see Ravenna (disambiguation). ... Events Stilicho recalls troops from the frontiers of the Roman Empire to defend Italy against the Visigoths. ... Events January 1 - Last gladiator competition in Rome. ... Events August - The usurper Basiliscus is deposed and Zeno is restored as Eastern Roman Emperor. ... Odoacer, also known as Odovacar (435 – 493) was the half Hunnish, half Scirian chieftain of the Germanic Heruli. ... This article deals with the continental Ostrogoths. ... Events Byzantine general Belisarius conquers Milan and the Ostrogoth capital Ravenna. ... Invasion of the Goths: a late 19th century painting by O. Fritsche portrays the Goths as cavalrymen. ... Belisarius, by Jacques-Louis David (1781); the depiction is now believed to be fictionalized. ... In the Byzantine Empire, an exarch was a proconsul or viceroy who governed a province at some remove from the central authorities, the Emperor and the Patriarch of Constantinople. ... A solidus of Maurices reign Flavius Mauricius Tiberius Augustus or Maurice I (539 - November, 602) was the emperor of the Byzantine Empire from 582 to 602. ...


The civil and military head of these imperial possessions, the exarch himself, was the representative at Ravenna of the emperor in Constantinople. The surrounding territory reached from the boundary with Venice in the north to the Pentapolis at Rimini, the border of the "five cities" in the Marches along the Adriatic coast. All this territory lies on the eastern flank of the Apennines; this was under the exarch's direct administration and formed the Exarchate in the strictest sense. Surrounding territories were governed by dukes and magistri militium more or less subject to his authority. From the perspective of Constantinople, the Exarchate consisted of the province of Italy. Location within Italy Venice (Italian Venezia), the city of canals, is the capital of the region of Veneto, population 271,663 (census estimate 2004-01-01). ... Mark or march (or various plural forms of these words) are derived from the Germanic word marko (boundary) and refer to an area along a border, e. ...


The Exarchate of Ravenna was not the sole Byzantine province in Italy. Byzantine Sicily formed a separate government, and Corsica and Sardinia, while they remained Byzantine, belonged to the Exarchate of Africa. Sicily (Sicilia in Italian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,700 sq. ... Capital Ajaccio Area 8,680 km² Regional President Camille de Rocca-Serra Population  - 2004 estimate  - 1999 census  - Density 272,000 260,196 30/km² Arrondissements 5 Cantons 52 Communes 360 Départements Corse-du-Sud Haute-Corse Corsica (Corsican: Corsica; French: Corse) is the fourth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea... Sardinia (Sardigna, Sardinna or Sardinnia in the Sardinian language, Sardegna in Italian, Sardenya in Catalan), is the second largest island in the Mediterranean Sea (Sicily is the largest), between Italy, Spain and Tunisia, south of Corsica. ... Introduction Exarch is from the Latin; Exarchus, Greek; Exarchon; Meaning Leader, from the word exarchein to lead, to begin, to rule. ...


The Lombards had their capital at Pavia and controlled the great valley of the Po. The Lombard wedge in Italy spread to the south, and established duchies at Spoleto and Beneventum; they controlled the interior, while Byzantine governors more or less controlled the coasts. Church San Michele in Pavia Pavia (the ancient Ticinum) (population 71,000) is a town and comune of south-western Lombardy, northern Italy, 35 km south of Milan on the lower Ticino river near its confluence with the Po. ... The independent Duchy of Spoleto in southern Italy was a Lombard territory founded about 570 by a Lombard dux Faroald. ... Benevento is a town and archiepiscopal see of Campania, Italy, capital of the province of Benevento, 32 miles northeast of Naples. ...


The Piedmont, Lombardy, the interior mainland of Venetia, Tuscany and the interior of Naples belonged to the Lombards, and bit by bit the Imperial representative in Italy lost all genuine power, though in name he controlled areas like Liguria (completely lost in 640 to the Lombards), or Naples and Calabria (being overrun by the Lombard duchy of Benevento). In Rome, the pope was the real master.


At the end, ca 740, the Exarchate consisted of Istria, Venetia (except for the lagoon of Venice itself, which was becoming an independent protected city-state, the forerunner of the future republic of Venice), Ferrara, Ravenna (the exarchate in the limited sense), with the Pentapolis, and Perugia. Location within Italy Venice (Italian Venezia), the city of canals, is the capital of the region of Veneto, population 271,663 (census estimate 2004-01-01). ... Ferrara, a town, an archiepiscopal see and a province in Emilia-Romagna, Italy. ... Perugia (population 150,000) is a city in the region of Umbria in central Italy, near the Tiber river, and the capital of the province of Perugia. ...


These fragments of the province of Italy, as it was when reconquered for Justinian, were almost all lost, either to the Lombards, who finally conquered Ravenna itself about 750, or by the revolt of the pope, who finally separated from the Empire on the issue of the iconoclastic reforms. When in 756 the Franks drove the Lombards out, Pope Stephen II claimed the exarchate. His ally Pepin III, King of the Franks, donated the conquered lands of the former exarchate to the Papacy in 756; this donation, which was confirmed by his son Charlemagne in 774, marked the beginning of the temporal power of the popes as the Patrimony of Saint Peter. The archbishoprics within the former exarchate, however, had developed traditions of local secular power and independence, which contributed to the fragmenting localization of powers. Three centuries later, that independence would fuel the rise of the independent communes. Justinian may refer to: Justinian I, a Roman Emperor; Justinian, a storeship sent to the convict settlement at New South Wales in 1790. ... Literally, iconoclasm is the destruction of religious icons and other sacred images or monuments, usually for religious or political motives. ... Events Abd-ar-rahman I conquers Iberia and establishes a new Umayyad dynasty. ... Stephen II was elected pope in March of 752. ... Pepin III (714 - September 24, 768) more often known as Pepin the Short (French, Pépin le Bref; German, Pippin der Kleine), was a King of the Franks (751 - 768). ... Events Abd-ar-rahman I conquers Iberia and establishes a new Umayyad dynasty. ... A Frankish king, like Charlemagne, (center) depicted in the Sacramentary of Charles the Bald (about 870) Charlemagne (c. ... Events Charlemagne conquers the kingdom of the Lombards, and takes title King of the Lombards. ...


So the Exarchate disappeared, and the small remnants of the imperial possessions on the mainland, Naples and Calabria, passed under the authority of the Catapan of Italy, and when Sicily was conquered by the Arabs in the 10th century the remnants were erected into the themes of Calabria and Langobardia. Istria at the head of the Adriatic was attached to Dalmatia. In 890 the Byzantines defeated the Saracens in southern Italy. ... ( 9th century - 10th century - 11th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ...


In its internal history the exarchate was subject to the splintering influences which were leading to the subdivision of sovereignty and the establishment of feudalism throughout Europe. Step by step, and in spite of the efforts of the emperors at Constantinople, the great imperial officials became local landowners, the lesser owners of land were increasingly kinsmen or at least associates of these officials, and new allegiances intruded on the sphere of imperial administration. Meanwhile the necessity for providing for the defence of the imperial territories against the Lombards led to the formation of local militias, who at first were attached to the imperial regiments, but gradually became independent, as they were recruited entirely locally. These armed men formed the exercitus romanae militiae, who were the forerunners of the free armed burghers of the Italian cities of the middle ages. Other cities of the exarchate were organized on the same model.


 
 

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