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Encyclopedia > Evolutionism

Evolutionism, from the accusative of the Latin evolutio, "unrolling" + the Greek ιςμος, "suffix of action or state", is generally used by creationists as a pejorative label for the scientific theory of evolution. Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... Creationism is generally the belief that the universe was created by a deity, or alternatively by one or more powerful and intelligent beings. ... Scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena and acquiring new knowledge, as well as for correcting and integrating previous knowledge. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ...


In the creation-evolution "controversy", those who accept the scientific theory of biological evolution by natural selection or genetic drift are often called "evolutionists", and the theory of evolution itself is referred to as "evolutionism" by creationists. This label is used by creationists to suggest that evolution is similar to other "isms", such as creationism, evangelism, Judaism, socialism, communism, Catholicism and fascism. In this way, creationists bolster their claim that the scientific theory of evolution is a belief, dogma, ideology or even a religion, rather than a scientific theory. The terms "evolutionism" and "evolutionist" are rarely used in the scientific community as self-descriptive terms. The creation-evolution controversy (also termed the creation vs. ... In mathematics, theory is used informally to refer to a body of knowledge about mathematics. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... Darwins illustrations of beak variation in the finches of the Galápagos Islands, which hold 13 closely related species that differ most markedly in the shape of their beaks. ... In population genetics, genetic drift is the statistical effect that results from the influence that chance has on the success of alleles (variants of a gene). ... Creationism is generally the belief that the universe was created by a deity, or alternatively by one or more powerful and intelligent beings. ... Creationism is the belief that humanity, life, the Earth, and the universe were created in their entirety by a supernatural deity or deities (typically God), whose existence is presupposed. ... The English suffix -ism was first used to form a noun of action from a verb, as in baptism, from baptein, a Greek word meaning to dip. Its usage was later extended to signify systems of belief. ... Creationism is the belief that humanity, life, the Earth, and the universe were created in their entirety by a supernatural deity or deities (typically God), whose existence is presupposed. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community. ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      As a Christian ecclesiastical... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Creationism is generally the belief that the universe was created by a deity, or alternatively by one or more powerful and intelligent beings. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


"Evolutionism", is defined by the OED as "[t]he theory of evolution, evolutionary assumptions or principles". Creationists tend to use the term evolutionism in a misleading sense in order to suggest that evolution and creationism are equal in a philosophical debate. The Oxford English Dictionary print set The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is a dictionary published by the Oxford University Press (OUP), and is generally regarded as the most comprehensive and scholarly dictionary of the English language. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... Creationism is the belief that humanity, life, the Earth, and the universe were created in their entirety by a supernatural deity or deities (typically God), whose existence is presupposed. ...

Contents

Development of usage

Anthropologists and biologists will refer to "evolutionists" in the 19th century as those who believe that the cultures or life forms being studied are evolving to a particular form. (see Platonic form). Very few scientists today, if any, believe that evolution in culture or biology works that way, and serious discussions generally take caution to distance themselves from that perspective. According to Platonic realism, universals exist in a realm (often so called) that is separate from space and time; one might say that universals have a sort of ghostly or heavenly mode of existence, but, at least in more modern versions of Platonism, such a description is probably more misleading...


Evolutionary biology explains biotic changes in terms of internal processes and gradual development as a natural progressin of previously existing lifeforms. Evolution neither denies nor requires a role for divine intervention. Before the 19th century there were a number of hypotheses regarding the evolution of all material phenomena: suns, moons, planets, earth, life, civilization, and society. The number of hypotheses being propounded increased dramatically in the middle of the 19th century. Divine intervention is another term for a miracle. ...


In modern times, the term evolution is widely used, but the terms evolutionism and evolutionist are rarely used in scientific circles to refer to the biological discipline. The term evolution was popularised during the 19th century by Herbert Spencer to mean cultural evolution; i.e. the improvement of cultures (see History of the theory of cultural evolution) — it was only later that it acquired its biological meaning. Advocacy of such theory was called evolutionism. This article is about evolution in biology. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Herbert Spencer (27 April 1820 – 8 December 1903) was an English philosopher and prominent classic-liberal political theorist. ... Cultural evolution is the structural change of a society and its values over time. ... Cultural evolution is the structural change of a society and its values over time. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ...


Scientists object to the terms evolutionism and evolutionist because the -ism and -ist suffixes accentuate belief rather than scientific study. Conversely, creationists use those same two terms partly because the terms accentuate belief, and partly perhaps because they provide a way to package their opposition into one group, seemingly atheist and materialist, designations which are irrelevant to science. The English suffix -ism was first used to form a noun of action from a verb. ... For other uses, see Belief (disambiguation). ... Creationism is generally the belief that the universe was created by a deity, or alternatively by one or more powerful and intelligent beings. ...


Ancient Evolutionary Thought

Anaximander is generally agreed to have been the first Greek thinker to propound evolutionary ideas. Empedocles, quoted by Aristotle, went further and gave a hypothetical description of evolution that is startlingly similar to natural selection ('Why should not nature work... of necessity? ....(some) things survived, being organized spontaneously in a fitting way; whereas those which grew otherwise perished and continue to perish.'). By 400 BC, Greek atomists were teaching that the sun, earth, life, humans, civilization, and society emerged over eons from the eternal atoms colliding and vibrating in the void. In the epic poem On the Nature of Things, the Roman atomist Lucretius in about 60 BC described the stages of the living earth coming to be what it is. "The earth and sun formed from swirls of dust congregated from atoms colliding and vibrating in the void; early plants and animals sprang from the early earth's own substance because of the insistence of the atoms that formed the earth; the aging earth gave birth to a succession of animals including a series of progressively less brutish humans that made a succession of improved tools, laws, and civilizations with increasing complexity finally arriving at the current earth and lifeforms as they are."[1] These ideas were more or less forgotten about in the West for the next 1400 years although they continued to be discussed in the Islamic world. Anaximander Possibly what Anaximanders map looked like Anaximander (Greek: Αναξίμανδρος)(c. ... For the volcano, see Empedocles (volcano). ... Aristotle (Greek: Aristotélēs) (384 BC – 322 BC) was a Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. ... Darwins illustrations of beak variation in the finches of the Galápagos Islands, which hold 13 closely related species that differ most markedly in the shape of their beaks. ... Atomism is the theory that all the objects in the universe are composed of very small particles that were not created and that will have no end. ... Properties For alternative meanings see atom (disambiguation). ... Look up Vacuum in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Not to be confused with The Nature of Things, a Canadian Broadcasting Corporation television show about natural science. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent. ... Lucretius Titus Lucretius Carus (c. ... Nations with a Muslim majority appear in green, while nations that are approximately 50% Muslim appear yellow. ...


Circa the 4th Century BCE, there were proto-evolutionist and evolutionist concepts being expressed in Indian and Chinese philosophy. In the Vedas of Hinduism, there are passages that indicate that more complex phenomena rose out of simpler phenomena. An evolutionary approach is also evident in ancient Indian texts, in both the writings of Patañjali and the Vedas. In the Vedas the incarnations of Vishnu reflect the theory of evolution,[1]. Buddhist metaphysics (which tended to emphasise the extent to which peoples and creatures rose and fell, frequently over vast periods of time) also contained much that is of an evolutionary nature. In China, according to Joseph Needham, "“the Taoists elaborated what comes very near to a statement of a theory of evolution. At least they firmly denied the fixity of biological species."[citation needed] (5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - other centuries) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events Invasion of the Celts into Ireland Kingdom of Macedon conquers Persian empire Romans build first aqueduct Chinese use bellows The Scythians are beginning to be absorbed into the Sarmatian... The Vedas (Sanskrit: वेद) are a large corpus of texts originating in Ancient India. ... Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages[1]) is a religion that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... The term Indian philosophy may refer to any of several traditions of philosophical thought, including: Hindu philosophy Buddhist philosophy Jain philosophy Sikh philosophy Carvaka atheist philosophy Lokayata materialist philosophy Tantric religious philosophy Bhakti religious philosophy Sufi religious philosophy Ahmadi religious philosophy Political and military philosophy such as that of Chanakya... Patañjali as an incarnation of Adi Sesha Patañjali (DevanāgarÄ« पतञ्जलि) is the compiler of the Yoga Sutra, a major work containing aphorisms on the philosophical aspects of mind and consciousness, and also the author of a major commentary on Paninis Ashtadhyayi, although many scholars do not consider... The Vedas (Sanskrit: वेद) are a large corpus of texts originating in Ancient India. ... Vishnu (IAST , Devanagari ), (honorific: Sri Vishnu) also known as Narayana is the Supreme Being or Ultimate Reality for Vaishnavas and a manifestation of Brahman in the Advaita or Smarta traditions. ... Buddhist philosophy is the branch of Eastern philosophy based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, a. ... Plato and Aristotle (right), by Raphael (Stanza della Segnatura, Rome). ... Many religions have perspectives on the theory of evolution, including the degree of compatibility that evolution can have with their respective faith. ... Joseph Terence Montgomery Needham (December 9, 1900 – March 24, 1995) was a British biochemist and pre-eminent authority on the history of Chinese science. ... This article is about the Chinese character and the philosophy it represents. ...


Medieval Evolutionary Thought

In the Middle Ages, evolutionary ideas continued to be propounded in the Islamic world. In the 9th century, Al-Jahiz considered the effects of the environment on the likelihood of an animal to survive, and first described the struggle for existence, an important precursor to natural selection.[2][3] Ibn al-Haitham went even further, writing a book in which he argued explicitly for evolution (though not natural selection), and numerous other Islamic scholars and scientists, such as Ibn Miskawayh, and the great polymaths al-Biruni, Nasir al-Din Tusi, and Ibn Khaldun, discussed and developed these ideas. Translated into Latin, these works began to appear in the West after the Renaissance. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Nations with a Muslim majority appear in green, while nations that are approximately 50% Muslim appear yellow. ... Al-Jahiz (in Arabic الجاحظ) (real name Abu Uthman Amr Ibn Bahr al-Kinani al-Fuqaimi al-Basri) (born in Basra, 776 - 869) was a famous Arab scholar probably of Abyssinian descent. ... Charles Darwins Origin of Species (publ. ... Darwins illustrations of beak variation in the finches of the Galápagos Islands, which hold 13 closely related species that differ most markedly in the shape of their beaks. ... Ibn al-Haytham depicted in an Iraqi 10,000-dinar note. ... Ahmad Ibn Muhammad Miskawayh, (ابن مسكوويه) also known as Ibn Miskawayh (932-1030) was a prominent Persian philosopher, scientist, poet and historian from Ray, Iran. ... A statue of Biruni adorns the southwest entrance of Laleh Park in Tehran. ... Nasir Tusi Abu Jafar Muhammad Ibn Muhammad Ibn al-Hasan Nasir al-Din al-Tusi (1201–1274) was a Persian scientist, of Shia Islamic belief, born in Tus, Khorasan, Iran. ... Ibn Khaldūn or Ibn Khaldoun (full name Arabic: , ) (May 27, 1332/732AH – March 19, 1406/808AH), was a famous Arab Muslim historian, historiographer, demographer, economist, philosopher and sociologist born in present-day Tunisia. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... The Renaissance (French for rebirth, or Rinascimento in Italian), was a cultural movement in Italy (and in Europe in general) that began in the late Middle Ages, and spanned roughly the 14th through the 17th century. ...


Evolutionary Thought in the Modern West before Darwin

Robert Carneiro[4], describes the progression of evolutionary thought at two levels: First, explanations that did not require a causative agent; second, the use of the word evolution itself. [5]


In giving an example of an early form of evolutionism theory, Carneiro notes that Gottfried Leibniz in 1714 explained the motion of objects by describing "monads" that operated solely by internal forces. Historian Arthur Lovejoy points to the "monad" or "germ" idea as a characteristic of typical evolutionary thought from 1700 to 1850; as such, it maintained that "the 'germs' of all things have always existed . . . [such that they] contain within themselves an internal principle of development which drives them on through a vast series of metamorphoses" through which they become the geological formations, lifeforms, psychologies, and civilizations of the present (Lovejoy 1936:274). It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ... Look up Monad in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Arthur Onken Lovejoy (Berlin, October 10, 1873 - Baltimore, December 30, 1962) was an influential intellectual historian, and the founder of the history of ideas. ...


An early application of evolutionary thinking to biology was Charles Bonnet's 1762 assertion that each feature of the embryo was preformed in the parts; some of the parts came from the egg and some came from the sperm. Bonnet hypothesized that when the embryo grew, those preformed parts merely expanded, shifted, and rearranged themselves to grow into the adult. Hence, Bonnet was called a "preformationist." This idea long preceded modern embryology. Bonnet Charles Bonnet (March 13, 1720 – May 20, 1793), Swiss naturalist and philosophical writer, was born at Geneva, of a French family driven into Switzerland by the religious persecution in the 16th century. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


In 1780, Erasmus Darwin, wrote his observations on the processes of geological developmentalism, biological evolutionism, developmental psychophysiology, cosmological developmentalism, and scientific and political progressivism, many of these observations were in verse. He made the most complete statement in a poem titled "Temple of Nature", wherein he described biogenesis, the formation of diverse life forms, star formation and collapse, and planetary formation, in a process remeniscent of a cycle of Big Bangs and Big Crunches. In addition, Darwin described how the animals compete with each other, driven by "three great objects of desire," namely sex, hunger, and fear. Through the competition, "the strongest and most active . . . [will] propagate the species, which should thence become improved." Stone-cast bust of Erasmus Darwin, by W. J. Coffee, c 1795 Erasmus Darwin (12 December 1731 – 18 April 1802), was an English physician, natural philosopher, physiologist, inventor and poet. ... Biogenesis is the process of lifeforms producing other lifeforms, e. ... According to the Big Bang model, the universe emerged from an extremely dense and hot state. ... This article is about the cosmological theory. ...


Charles Darwin and after

Tiger and Cubs; Oil on canvas by Jean-Léon Gérôme, 1884
Tiger and Cubs; Oil on canvas by Jean-Léon Gérôme, 1884

Charles Darwin 1859 First Edition of Origin of Species did not contain the word evolution, [2], though he used evolved at the end of the last sentence in the book. The word evolution in popular use in 1859 applied to a speculative explanation of how the world and life could be created from chance, probabilities, and the mere physical properties of atoms. Image File history File links TigerLarge_Gérome. ... Image File history File links TigerLarge_Gérome. ... For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... The 1859 edition of On the Origin of Species First published in 1859, The Origin of Species (full title On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life) by British naturalist Charles Darwin is one of the pivotal... The word random is used to express lack of order, purpose, cause, or predictability in non-scientific parlance. ... Probability is the chance that something is likely to happen or be the case. ... The periodic table of the chemical elements A chemical element, or element for short, is a type of atom that is defined by its atomic number; that is, by the number of protons in its nucleus. ...


Darwin's contemporaries, notably Herbert Spencer argued publicly that the theory of evolution explained how the universe, the world, animals, plants, civilization, ethics, laws, and art would result from the probabilities inherent in atoms that found themselves in favorable circumstances. Like Spencer, Thomas Huxley concerned himself with explaining how a world of sunlight, seas, rocks, gases, and trace minerals could generate the full span of life, intelligence, and civilization. According to Huxley, he could not believe the creationists, because they had no convincing evidence. "And, by way of being perfectly fair, I had exactly the same answer to give to the evolutionists of 1851-8." [3] Herbert Spencer (27 April 1820 – 8 December 1903) was an English philosopher and prominent classic-liberal political theorist. ... Thomas Henry Huxley, FRS (4 May 1825 – 29 June 1895) [1] was an English biologist, known as Darwins Bulldog for his advocacy of Charles Darwins theory of evolution. ...


But according to Huxley, Darwin's 1859 Origin of Species provided the first explanation that was better than creation. "That which we were looking for and could not find, was a hypothesis respecting the origin of known organic forms, which assumed the operation of no causes but such as could be proved to be actually at work. We wanted, not to pin our faith to that or any other speculation, but to get hold of clear and definite conceptions which could be brought face to face with facts and have their validity tested. The 'Origin' provided us with the working hypothesis we sought." [4]

The juxtaposition of slightly different anatomical forms, such as this illustration of ape and human skeletons from Huxley's Evidence as to Man's Place in Nature, has been a common rhetorical device to illustration evolution used from the 19th century to the present.
The juxtaposition of slightly different anatomical forms, such as this illustration of ape and human skeletons from Huxley's Evidence as to Man's Place in Nature, has been a common rhetorical device to illustration evolution used from the 19th century to the present.

In 1869, Thomas Huxley used the term evolutionism to refer to gradual geological processes when he wrote of the "three schools of geological speculation which I have termed Catastrophism, Uniformitarianism, and Evolutionism." (Scientific Opinion, Apr. 28, 1869, p. 487/1) Download high resolution version (1103x660, 307 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1103x660, 307 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Thomas Henry Huxley, FRS (4 May 1825 – 29 June 1895) [1] was an English biologist, known as Darwins Bulldog for his advocacy of Charles Darwins theory of evolution. ... Geology (from Greek γη- (ge-, the earth) and λογος (logos, word, reason)) is the science and study of the Earth, its composition, structure, physical properties, history, and the processes that shape it. ... Catastrophism is the theory that Earth has been affected by sudden, short-lived, violent events that were sometimes worldwide in scope. ... Uniformitarianism has had two separate meanings, both more prevalent in 19th-century discourse: Within religious philosophy, Uniformitarianism (with a capital U) is the belief that the Universe has existed as it is now for an infinite time and will continue to exist for ever. ...


By 1872, in some scientific circles, the term evolutionism was used only to refer to life-form processes such as natural selection. Under this emerging usage, the term evolutionism specifically did not apply to either geological processes or to the origin of life as in abiogenesis. Thus, one reviewer wrote, "Evolutionism does not propose to explain the unfolding of life out of dead matter." (E. Fry, Spectator, Sep. 21, 1872, p. 1201) Darwins illustrations of beak variation in the finches of the Galápagos Islands, which hold 13 closely related species that differ most markedly in the shape of their beaks. ... This article focuses on the history of thought regarding abiogenesis (the spontaneous generation of life from non-living sources). ...


Though Darwin had excluded the words evolution and evolutionist from the first five editions of Origin of Species, he imported both of the terms evolution and evolutionist into his Sixth Edition in 1872, as illustrated in the following examples.

  • "If numerous species, belonging to the same genera or families, have really started into life at once, the fact would be fatal to the theory of evolution through natural selection."
  • "It is admitted by most evolutionists that mammals are descended from a marsupial form; and if so, the mammary glands will have been at first developed within the marsupial sack." [5]

In 1872, The Times published a review of Darwin's book The Expression of the Emotions. Darwin attributed much of the human emotional capability to an inheritance from the common ancestors of today's animals: "A fierce sneer, in which the upper lip is retracted and the canine tooth exposed on one side alone, Mr. Darwin ventures to say, 'reveals man's animal descent.'" The reviewer finds fault with the mechanical determinism in Darwin's analysis that attributes too much to "our early progenitors" and not enough to the person's consciousness. Then the reviewer says: "His [Darwin's] thorough-going 'evolutionism' tends to eliminate from the developed human form any relations beyond those of the bare mechanism of animal existence." (The Times, Dec. 13, 1872; pg. 4, col A) The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom since 1785, and under its current name since 1788. ...


During this period, evolutionism was used to label scientific theories that explained the presence of humans on this earth without assistance from divine intervention. For example, one opponent of Darwin's theory of evolution said, "Evolutionism . . . excluded creation and theism." (Sir John W. Dawson, The Story of the Earth and Man (1873), p. 348) Human beings are defined variously in biological, spiritual, and cultural terms, or in combinations thereof. ... Divine intervention is another term for a miracle. ...


Modern controversies

Today, the scientific community rarely uses either of the words evolutionist or evolutionism. However in America, the National Center for Science Education does use the related term "anti-evolutionism" to label the organized political and religious movement that opposes the teaching of evolution in public schools. For example, the National Center for Science Education website is dedicated to "defending the teaching of evolution in public schools," and that website offers the "resource" of a page about "Dealing with Anti-Evolutionism." [6] The creation-evolution controversy (also termed the creation vs. ... The NCSEs logo The National Center for Science Education (NCSE) is a non-profit organization affiliated with the American Association for the Advancement of Science. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ...


In contrast, the words evolutionist and evolutionism are widely used by creationists and others in the United States who are opposed to the theory of evolution; they use those two words to imply that the scientific community's attachment to the theory of evolution is a matter of religious faith and is just another -ism, not a matter of scientific proof. Creationism is generally the belief that the universe was created by a deity, or alternatively by one or more powerful and intelligent beings. ... This article is about biological evolution. ... This article discusses faith in a religious context. ... The English suffix -ism was first used to form a noun of action from a verb. ...


Furthermore, Young Earth creationists sometimes use the term evolutionism to attack the empirical methods of science generally, such as attacking geology and astronomy which have concluded that the Earth and the universe are roughly a million times older than the young-earth creationists believe. Adam and Eve, the first human beings according to Genesis. ... Scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena and acquiring new knowledge, as well as for correcting and integrating previous knowledge. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... A giant Hubble mosaic of the Crab Nebula, a supernova remnant Astronomy is the science of celestial objects (such as stars, planets, comets, and galaxies) and phenomena that originate outside the Earths atmosphere (such as auroras and cosmic background radiation). ... A color image of Earth as seen from Apollo 17. ... The age of the universe, according to the Big Bang theory, is the time elapsed between the Big Bang and the present day. ...


Opponents of evolutionary theory may also use the words evolutionist and evolutionism to characterize the philosophical systems that they attack, such as atheism, agnosticism, secular humanism, rationalism, and materialism. Also the opponents of evolution argue that the evolutionist faith in evolutionism entices people into political ideologies such as fascism, communism, and Marxism. Additionally, the opponents argue that the evolutionist's belief in "survival of the fittest" leads to disregard for the value of life, which disregard creationists perceive to be manifested in eugenics, euthanasia, and abortion. “Atheist” redirects here. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Secular humanism is a humanist philosophy that upholds reason, ethics, and justice, and specifically rejects the supernatural and the spiritual as warrants of moral reflection and decision-making. ... In epistemology and in its broadest sense, rationalism is any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification (Lacey 286). ... In philosophy, materialism is that form of physicalism which holds that the only thing that can truly be said to exist is matter; that fundamentally, all things are composed of material and all phenomena are the result of material interactions. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ... Marxism takes its name from the praxis (the synthesis of philosophy and political action) of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ... Eugenics is the self-direction of human evolution: Logo from the Second International Congress of Eugenics, 1921, depicting it as a tree which unites a variety of different fields. ... Euthanasia (from Greek: ευθανασία -ευ, eu, good, θάνατος, thanatos, death) is the practice of terminating the life of a person or animal with an incurable disease, intolerable suffering, or a possibly undignified death in a painless or minimally painful way, for the purpose of limiting suffering. ...


In 1994, John Peloza, a high school biology teacher in California, U.S.A., sued his school board in federal court, claiming that he was being forced to teach the "religion" of "evolutionism". The federal court dismissed the case, holding that Peloza's suit was "frivolous" and requiring Peloza to pay the school board's attorneys' fees and court costs. When Peloza appealed, the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals overruled the claim of frivolity and the assignment of fees, but otherwise upheld the lower court's dismissal. Notably, the Court of Appeals held that evolution said nothing about "how the universe was created" or "whether or not there is a divine Creator"; and moreover that "evolution" and "evolutionism" are not religions, so the state can teach them in public schools as long as it does not teach a "belief that the universe came into existence without a Creator." [7] Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar). ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... The term federal court, when used by itself, can refer to: Any court of the national government in a country that has a federal system such as that of the United States (United States federal courts) or Mexico In some countries, a particular court, for example, the Federal Court of... The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit is a federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the district courts in the following districts: District of Alaska District of Arizona Central District of California Eastern District of California Northern District of California Southern District of California District of Hawaii...


See also

Charles Darwin Darwinism is a term for the underlying theory in those ideas of Charles Darwin concerning evolution and natural selection. ... While on board HMS Beagle, Charles Darwin collected numerous specimens, many new to science, which supported his later theory of evolution by natural selection. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Social Evolutionism is a athropological and sociological social theory that holds that societies progress through stages of increasing development, i. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Hinduism and evolution
  2. ^ Conway Zirkle (1941). Natural Selection before the "Origin of Species", Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 84 (1), p. 71-123.
  3. ^ Mehmet Bayrakdar (Third Quarter, 1983). "Al-Jahiz And the Rise of Biological Evolutionism", The Islamic Quarterly. London.
  4. ^ bio and CV
  5. ^ "In the seventeenth century, 'evolution' began to be used in English to refer to an orderly sequence of events, particularly one in which the outcome was somehow contained within it from the start." Carneiro, Robert, Evolutionism in Cultural Anthropology: A Critical History, 2003, ISBN 0-8133-3766-6

This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...

References

  • Carneiro, Robert, Evolutionism in Cultural Anthropology: A Critical History ISBN 0-8133-3766-6
  • Review of Buckland's Bridgewater Treatise, The Times Tuesday, Nov 15, 1836; pg. 3; Issue 16261; col E. ("annihilates the doctrine of spontaneous and progressive evolution of life, and its impious corollary, chance")
  • Review of Charles Darwin's The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals The Times Friday, Dec. 13, 1872; pg. 4; Issue 27559; col A. ("His [Darwin's] thorough-going 'evolutionism' tends to eliminate . . . .")
  • Ruse, Michael. 2003. "Is Evolution a Secular Religion?" Science 299:1523-1524 [8] (concluding that evolutionary biology is not a religion in any sense but noting that several evolutionary biologists, such as Edward O. Wilson, in their roles as citizens concerned about getting the public to deal with reality, have made statements like "evolution is a myth that is now ready to take over Christianity").

William Buckland (12 March 1784 - 24 August 1856) was a prominent English geologist and palaeontologist who wrote the first full account of a fossil dinosaur, a proponent of Old Earth creationism and Flood geology who later became convinced by the glaciation theory of Louis Agassiz. ... Natural theology is the attempt to find evidence of a God or intelligent designer without recourse to any special or supposedly supernatural revelation. ... For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... E.O. Wilson with Dynastes hercules E. O. Wilson, or Edward Osborne Wilson, (born June 10, 1929) is an entomologist and biologist known for his work on ecology, evolution, and sociobiology. ... The word mythology (from the Greek μυολογία mythología, from μυολογείν mythologein to relate myths, from μύος mythos, meaning a narrative, and λόγος logos, meaning speech or argument) literally means the (oral) retelling of myths – stories that a particular culture believes to be true and that use the supernatural to interpret natural events and... Christianity percentage by country, purple is highest, orange is lowest Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch...

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Evolutionism - CreationWiki, the encyclopedia of creation science (914 words)
Evolutionism, from the Latin evolutio, unrolling, refers to the belief in theories that certain things develop or change as natural outgrowths of those that existed before.
Idealist evolutionism is the position that all things have the natural tendency within them to develop toward their ideal form.
Naturalistic evolutionism is the position that things do not have any natural tendency to develop toward a particular "form," but that they simply assume various forms as a result of impersonal natural laws such as random variation and natural selection.
Evolutionism - definition of Evolutionism in Encyclopedia (2749 words)
Evolutionism is any one of a number of theories that the forms of things that exist today are restructurings and redevelopments of the forms that existed in the past.
An early application of an evolutionism theory to biology was Charles Bonnet's 1762 assertion that each feature of the embryo was preformed in the parts; some of the parts came from the egg and some came from the sperm.
During this period, evolutionism was used to label scientific theories that explained the presence of humans on this earth without assistance from divine intervention.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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