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Encyclopedia > Evolutionary biology
Part of the Biology series on
Evolution
Mechanisms and processes

Adaptation
Genetic drift
Gene flow
Mutation
Natural selection
Speciation For the song by Girls Aloud see Biology (song) Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: Βιολογία - βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, speech lit. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... Image File history File links Tree_of_life. ... For other uses, see Adaptation (disambiguation). ... In population genetics, genetic drift is the statistical effect that results from the influence that chance has on the success of alleles (variants of a gene). ... In population genetics, gene flow (also known as gene migration) is the transfer of alleles of genes from one population to another. ... For linguistic mutation, see Apophony. ... For other uses, see Natural selection (disambiguation). ... Charles Darwins first sketch of an evolutionary tree from his First Notebook on Transmutation of Species (1837) Speciation is the evolutionary process by which new biological species arise. ...

Research and history

Evidence
Evolutionary history of life
History
Modern synthesis
Social effect / Objections While on board HMS Beagle, Charles Darwin collected numerous specimens, many new to science, which supported his later theory of evolution by natural selection. ... The evolutionary history of life and the origin of life are fields of ongoing geological and biological research. ... Evolutionary thought has roots in antiquity as philosophical ideas conceived during the Ancient Greek and Roman eras, but until the 18th century, biological thought was dominated by essentialism, the idea that living forms are static and unchanging in time. ... The modern evolutionary synthesis refers to a set of ideas from several biological specialities that were brought together to form a unified theory of evolution accepted by the great majority of working biologists. ... The theory of transmutation had early origins in the speculations and hypotheses of Erasmus Darwin, and Jean-Baptiste Lamarck. ... There have been numerous objections to evolution since alternative evolutionary ideas came to be hotly debated around the start of the nineteenth century. ...

Evolutionary biology fields

Cladistics
Ecological genetics
Evolutionary development
Human evolution
Molecular evolution
Phylogenetics
Population genetics
It has been suggested that Clade be merged into this article or section. ... Ecological genetics is the study of genetics (itself a field of biology) from an ecological perspective. ... Evolutionary developmental biology (evolution of development or informally, evo-devo) is a field of biology that compares the developmental processes of different animals in an attempt to determine the ancestral relationship between organisms and how developmental processes evolved. ... For the history of humans on Earth, see History of the world. ... Molecular evolution is the process of the genetic material in populations of organisms changing over time. ... Phylogenetic groups, or taxa, can be monophyletic, paraphyletic, or polyphyletic. ... Population genetics is the study of the distribution of and change in allele frequencies under the influence of the four evolutionary forces: natural selection, genetic drift, mutation, and migration. ...

Biology Portal · v  d  e 

Evolutionary biology is a sub-field of biology concerned with the origin of species from a common descent, and descent of species; as well as their change, multiplication, and diversity over time. Someone who studies evolutionary biology is known as an evolutionary biologist. This article is about evolution in biology. ... For the song by Girls Aloud see Biology (song) Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: Βιολογία - βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, speech lit. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... A group of organisms is said to have common descent if they have a common ancestor. ... Descent may refer to: Media Descent (computer game), a computer game released by Parallax Software in the mid-1990s Descent: Freespace, a computer game series released by Volition Inc. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ...

Contents

Description

Evolutionary biology is an interdisciplinary field because it includes scientists from a wide range of both field and lab oriented disciplines. For example, it generally includes scientists who may have a specialist training in particular organisms such as mammalogy, ornithology, or herpetology, but use those organisms as case studies to answer general questions in evolution. It also generally includes paleontologists and geologists who use fossils to answer questions about the tempo and mode of evolution, as well as theoreticians in areas such as population genetics and evolutionary psychology. Experimentalists have used selection in Drosophila to develop an understanding of the evolution of ageing, and experimental evolution is a very active subdiscipline. Interdisciplinary work is that which integrates concepts across different disciplines. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Domains and Kingdoms Nanobes Acytota Cytota Bacteria Neomura Archaea Eukaryota Bikonta Apusozoa Rhizaria Excavata Archaeplastida Rhodophyta Glaucophyta Plantae Heterokontophyta Haptophyta Cryptophyta Alveolata Unikonta Amoebozoa Opisthokonta Choanozoa Fungi Animalia An ericoid mycorrhizal fungus Life on Earth redirects here. ... In zoology, mammalogy is the study of mammals – a class of vertebrates with characteristics such as homeothermic metabolism, fur, four-chambered hearts, and complex nervous systems. ... This article is about the field of zoology. ... Herpetology (from greek: ἑρπετόν, creeping animal and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the branch of zoology concerned with the study of reptiles and amphibians. ... Case studies involve a particular method of research. ... Paleontology, palaeontology or palæontology (from Greek: paleo, ancient; ontos, being; and logos, knowledge) is the study of prehistoric life forms on Earth through the examination of plant and animal fossils. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... A fossil Ammonite Fossils are the mineralized remains of animals or plants or other traces such as footprints. ... Population genetics is the study of the distribution of and change in allele frequencies under the influence of the four evolutionary forces: natural selection, genetic drift, mutation, and migration. ... Evolutionary psychology (EP) attempts to explain mental and psychological traits—such as memory, perception, or language—as adaptations, that is, as the functional products of natural selection or sexual selection. ... Type species Drosophila funebris (Fabricius, 1787) Drosophila is a genus of small flies, belonging to the family Drosophilidae, whose members are often called fruit flies, or more appropriately vinegar flies, wine flies, pomace flies, grape flies, and picked fruit-flies, a reference to the characteristic of many species to linger... Enquiry into the evolution of ageing aims to explain why almost all living things weaken and die with age. ... In evolutionary biology, the field of experimental evolution is concerned with testing the theory of evolution in controlled experiments. ...


In the 1990s developmental biology made a re-entry into evolutionary biology from its initial exclusion from the modern synthesis through the study of evolutionary developmental biology. Views of a Foetus in the Womb, Leonardo da Vinci, ca. ... Evolutionary developmental biology (evolution of development or informally, evo-devo) is a field of biology that compares the developmental processes of different animals in an attempt to determine the ancestral relationship between organisms and how developmental processes evolved. ...


Its findings feed strongly into new disciplines that study mankind's sociocultural evolution and evolutionary behavior. Evolutionary biology's frameworks of ideas and conceptual tools are now finding application in the study of a range of subjects from computing to nanotechnology. In the unilineal evolution model at left, all cultures progress through set stages, while in the multilineal evolution model at right, distinctive culture histories are emphasized. ... Evolutionary psychology (EP) attempts to explain mental and psychological traits—such as memory, perception, or language—as adaptations, that is, as the functional products of natural selection or sexual selection. ... For the formal concept of computation, see computation. ... Nanotechnology refers to a field of applied science and technology whose theme is the control of matter on the atomic and molecular scale, generally 100 nanometers or smaller, and the fabrication of devices that lie within that size range. ...


Artificial life is a sub-field of bioinformatics that attempts to model, or even recreate, the evolution of organisms as described by evolutionary biology. Usually this is done through mathematics and computer models. This article is about a field of research. ... Map of the human X chromosome (from the NCBI website). ...


History

Main article: History of evolutionary thought

Evolutionary biology as an academic discipline in its own right emerged as a result of the modern evolutionary synthesis in the 1930s and 1940s. It was not until the 1970s and 1980s, however, that a significant number of universities had departments that specifically included the term evolutionary biology in their titles. In the United States, as a result of the rapid growth of molecular and cell biology, many universities have split (or aggregated) their biology departments into molecular and cell biology-style departments and ecology and evolutionary biology-style departments (which often have subsumed older departments in paleontology, zoology and the like). Evolutionary thought has roots in antiquity as philosophical ideas conceived during the Ancient Greek and Roman eras, but until the 18th century, biological thought was dominated by essentialism, the idea that living forms are static and unchanging in time. ... This is a list of academic disciplines (and academic fields). ... The modern evolutionary synthesis refers to a set of ideas from several biological specialities that were brought together to form a unified theory of evolution accepted by the great majority of working biologists. ... Molecular biology is the study of biology at a molecular level. ... Cell biology (also called cellular biology or formerly cytology, from the Greek kytos, container) is an academic discipline that studies cells. ... Paleontology, palaeontology or palæontology (from Greek: paleo, ancient; ontos, being; and logos, knowledge) is the study of prehistoric life forms on Earth through the examination of plant and animal fossils. ... Zoology (from Greek: ζῴον, zoion, animal; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the biological discipline which involves the study of animals. ...


Microbiology has recently developed into an evolutionary discipline. It was originally ignored due to the paucity of morphological traits and the lack of a species concept in microbiology. Now, evolutionary researchers are taking advantage of our extensive understanding of microbial physiology, the ease of microbial genomics, and the quick generation time of some microbes to answer evolutionary questions. Similar features have led to progress in viral evolution, particularly for bacteriophage. An agar plate streaked with microorganisms Microbiology is the study of microorganisms, which are unicellular or cell-cluster microscopic organisms. ... Genomics is the study of an organisms entire genome; Rathore et al, . Investigation of single genes, their functions and roles is something very common in todays medical and biological research, and cannot be said to be genomics but rather the most typical feature of molecular biology. ... This article is about biological infectious particles. ... An artists rendering of an Enterobacteria phage T4. ...


Notable evolutionary biologists

Main article: :Category:Evolutionary biologists

Notable contributors to evolutionary biology include:

Evolutionary biologists known primarily for their science popularization: For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... Richard D. Alexander is an Emeritus Professor and Emeritus Curator of Insects at the Museum of Zoology of the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA. Prof. ... Dr.William H. Cade (Bill Cade) is a biologist specializing in mating systems (especially of the cricket (insect)). His research areas include studying the evolution of mating behavior in crickets and the cricket/fly acoustical research, as well as studying the crickets and grasshoppers of Africa. ... Professor Bryan Campbell Clarke FRS, born in 1932, is a British geneticist. ... Jerry Coyne is a Professor in the Department of Ecology and Evolution at the University of Chicago. ... Jim Crow can refer to several subjects: James F. Crow, Professor Emeritus of Genetics at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. ... Jared Mason Diamond (b. ... Theodosius Dobzhansky, ca. ... Dr. Niles Eldredge (born August 25, 1943) is an American paleontologist, who, along with Stephen Jay Gould, proposed the theory of punctuated equilibrium in 1972. ... Sir Ronald Aylmer Fisher, FRS (17 February 1890 – 29 July 1962) was an English statistician, evolutionary biologist, and geneticist. ... This article is about the British ecological geneticist E.B. Henry Ford. ... John Burdon Sanderson Haldane (November 5, 1892 - December 1, 1964), who normally used J.B.S. as a first name, was a geneticist born in Scotland and educated at Eton and Oxford University. ... Ernst Haeckel. ... W. D. Hamilton William Donald Bill Hamilton, F.R.S. (1 August 1936 — 7 March 2000) was a British evolutionary biologist, considered one of the greatest evolutionary theorists of the 20th century. ... Sir Julian Sorell Huxley, FRS (June 22, 1887 – February 14, 1975) was a English biologist, author, Humanist and internationalist, known for his popularisations of science in books and lectures. ... Dan Janzen and Winnie Hallwachs, at the American Museum of Natural History, 1998 Daniel Hunt Janzen (b. ... Motoo Kimura (木村資生, born on November 13, 1924 in Okazaki, Aichi Prefecture - November 13, 1994) was a highly influential Japanese mathematical biologist, working in the field of theoretical population genetics. ... Portrait of Jean-Baptiste Lamarck Jean-Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet, Chevalier de Lamarck (August 1, 1744 – December 18, 1829) was a French soldier, naturalist, academic and an early proponent of the idea that evolution occurred and proceeded in accordance with natural laws. ... Richard (Dick) Levins: Mathematical ecologist, tropical farmer, and political activist. ... Richard Lewontin Richard Charles Dick Lewontin (born March 29, 1929) is an American evolutionary biologist, geneticist and social commentator. ... Gustave Malécot (December 28, 1911 — November 1998) was a French population geneticist. ... Pierre Louis Maupertuis, here wearing lapmudes or a fur coat from his Lapland expedition. ... Ernst Mayr Ernst Walter Mayr (July 5, 1904, Kempten, Germany – February 3, 2005, Bedford, Massachusetts U.S.), was one of the 20th centurys leading evolutionary biologists. ... Professor John Maynard Smith[1], F.R.S. (6 January 1920 – 19 April 2004) was a British evolutionary biologist and geneticist. ... George W. and Elizabeth G. Peckham were early American arachnologists, specializing in the study of jumping spiders (Salticidae). ... Robert L. Trivers, (born 19 February 1943) is an American evolutionary biologist and sociobiologist, most noted for proposing the theories of reciprocal altruism (1971), parental investment (1972), and parent-offspring conflict (1974). ... For the Cornish painter, see Alfred Wallis. ... August Weismann Friedrich Leopold August Weismann (b. ... George Williams Professor George Christopher Williams (b. ... Allan Wilson. ... E.O. Wilson with Dynastes hercules E. O. Wilson, or Edward Osborne Wilson, (born June 10, 1929) is an entomologist and biologist known for his work on ecology, evolution, and sociobiology. ... Sewall Green Wright ForMemRS (December 21, 1889 – March 3, 1988) was an American geneticist known for his influential work on evolutionary theory. ... Carl Richard Woese (born July 15, 1928, Syracuse, New York) is an American microbiologist famous for defining the Archaea (a new domain or kingdom of life) in 1977 by phylogenetic taxonomy of 16S ribosomal RNA, a technique pioneered by Woese and which is now standard practice. ...

Notable popularizers of evolution whose research isn't primarily concerned with evolutionary biology include: Clinton Richard Dawkins, FRS (born March 26, 1941) is a British ethologist, evolutionary biologist and popular science writer who holds the Charles Simonyi Chair for the Public Understanding of Science at the University of Oxford. ... Stephen Jay Gould (September 10, 1941 – May 20, 2002) was an American paleontologist, evolutionary biologist, and historian of science. ... Steve Jones This article is about the evolutionary biologist. ... Ken Miller Kenneth R. Miller (born 1948) is a biology professor at Brown University. ...

Daniel Clement Dennett (born March 28, 1942 in Boston, Massachusetts) is a prominent American philosopher whose research centers on philosophy of mind, philosophy of science and philosophy of biology, particularly as those fields relate to evolutionary biology and cognitive science. ... Gregory Walter Graffin, Ph. ... Steven Pinker Steven Arthur Pinker (born September 18, 1954) is a prominent Canadian-born American experimental psychologist, cognitive scientist, and popular science writer known for his spirited and wide-ranging advocacy of evolutionary psychology and the computational theory of mind. ... Matthew (Matt) Ridley (born February 7, 1958 at Newcastle upon Tyne) (not to be confused with Mark Ridley) is an English science writer. ... Insert non-formatted text here Carl Edward Sagan (November 9, 1934 – December 20, 1996) was an American astronomer and astrobiologist and a highly successful popularizer of astronomy, astrophysics, and other natural sciences. ... Peter William Atkins (b. ... Robert Ardrey (b. ...

Bibliography

Textbooks

  • Douglas J. Futuyma, Evolutionary Biology (3rd Edition), Sinauer Associates (1998) ISBN 0-87893-189-9
  • Douglas J. Futuyma, Evolution, Sinauer Associates (2005) ISBN 0-87893-187-2
  • Mark Ridley, Evolution (3rd edition), Blackwell (2003) ISBN 1-4051-0345-0
  • Scott R. Freeman and Jon C. Herron, Evolutionary Analysis, Prentice Hall (2003) ISBN 0-13-101859-0
  • Michael R. Rose and Laurence D. Mueller, Evolution and Ecology of the Organism, Prentice Hall (2005) ISBN 0-13-010404-3
  • Monroe W. Strickberger, Evolution (3rd Edition), Jones & Bartlett Publishers (2000) ISBN 0-7637-1066-0

Douglas Joel Futuyma (born 1942 in New York) is an American biologist. ... Mark Ridley (born 1956) is a United Kingdom zoologist and writer on evolution. ... Michael R. Rose is a Professor in the Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology at the University of California, Irvine. ...

Notable monographs and other works

Main article: :Category:Notable publications in evolutionary biology

To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Portrait of Jean-Baptiste Lamarck Jean-Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet, Chevalier de Lamarck (August 1, 1744 – December 18, 1829) was a French soldier, naturalist, academic and an early proponent of the idea that evolution occurred and proceeded in accordance with natural laws. ... Jean-Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet, Chevalier de Lamarck (August 1, 1744 - December 28, 1829) was a major 19th century naturalist, who was one of the first to use the term biology in its modern sense. ... For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... Charles Darwins Origin of Species (publ. ... For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex by British naturalist Charles Darwin was first published in 1871. ... Sir Ronald Aylmer Fisher, FRS (17 February 1890 – 29 July 1962) was an English statistician, evolutionary biologist, and geneticist. ... The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection is a book by Ronald Fisher. ... John Burdon Sanderson Haldane (November 5, 1892 – December 1, 1964), who normally used J.B.S. as a first name, was a British geneticist and evolutionary biologist. ... Cover of the 1990 Princeton University reprint The Causes of Evolution is a 1932 book on evolutionary biology by J.B.S. Haldane, and one of the important books of the modern evolutionary synthesis. ... Ernst Mayr Ernst Walter Mayr (July 5, 1904, Kempten, Germany – February 3, 2005, Bedford, Massachusetts U.S.), was one of the 20th centurys leading evolutionary biologists. ... Systematics and the Origin of Species is a book written by zoologist and evolutionary biologist Ernst Mayr that was first published in 1942. ... Susumu Ohno (February 1, 1928 – January 13, 2000), was an Asian American geneticist and evolutionary biologist, and seminal researcher in the field of molecular evolution. ... Clinton Richard Dawkins, FRS (born March 26, 1941) is a British ethologist, evolutionary biologist and popular science writer who holds the Charles Simonyi Chair for the Public Understanding of Science at the University of Oxford. ... The Selfish Gene is a book on evolution by Richard Dawkins, published in 1976. ... Motoo Kimura (木村資生, born on November 13, 1924 in Okazaki, Aichi Prefecture - November 13, 1994) was a highly influential Japanese mathematical biologist, working in the field of theoretical population genetics. ... The Neutral Theory of Molecular Evolution is an influential monograph written in 1983 by Japanese evolutionary biologist Motoo Kimura. ...

Topics in evolutionary biology

Evolutionary biology Portal

Fosters rule (also known as the island rule) is a principle in evolutionary biology stating that members of a species will get smaller or bigger depending on the resources available in the environment. ... In evolutionary genetics, Mullers ratchet (named after Hermann Joseph Muller and a mechanical device) is the name given to the process by which the genomes of an asexual population accumulate deleterious mutations in an irreversible manner. ... Mutational meltdown refers to the process by which a small population accumulates deleterious mutations, which leads to loss of fitness and decline of the population size, which leads to further accumulation of deleterious mutations. ... In evolutionary biology, fitness landscapes or adaptive landscapes are used to visualize the relationship between genotypes (or phenotypes) and replicatory success. ... This is a list of topics in evolutionary biology and evolution. ... Image File history File links Charles_Darwin_aged_51_crop. ...

See also

This Chihuahua mix and Great Dane show the wide range of dog breed sizes created using artificial selection. ... Computational phylogenetics is the study of computational algorithms, methods and computer programs for use in phylogenetic analyses. ... Evolutionary ecology lies at the intersection ecology and evolutionary biology. ... // As the name implies, evolutionary physiology represents the hybridization of two scientific disciplines that had previously witnessed relatively little interchange. ... The evolutionary tree of living things is currently supposed to run something along the lines of that listed below. ... This article is about the general scientific term. ... // When applied to comparative data, conventional statistical methods assume, in effect, that all species are completely unrelated, as if they descended from a big bang of special creation. ... Phylogenetic groups, or taxa, can be monophyletic, paraphyletic, or polyphyletic. ... Quantitative genetics is the study of continuous traits (such as height or weight) and its underlying mechanisms. ... Selective breeding in domesticated animals is the process of developing a cultivated breed over time. ... Illustration from The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex by Charles Darwin showing the Tufted Coquette Lophornis ornatus, female on left, ornamented male on right. ... Biological systematics is the study of the diversity of life on the planet earth, both past and present, and the relationships among living things through time. ... For the song by Girls Aloud see Biology (song) Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: Βιολογία - βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, speech lit. ... Human heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... The DNA structure might not be the only nucleic acid in the universe capable of supporting life[1] Astrobiology (from Greek: ἀστρο, astro, constellation; βίος, bios, life; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the interdisciplinary study of life in space, combining aspects of astronomy, biology and geology. ... Wöhler observes the synthesis of urea. ... Map of the human X chromosome (from the NCBI website). ... Biostatistics or biometry is the application of statistics to a wide range of topics in biology. ... Pinguicula grandiflora commonly known as a Butterwort Example of a cross section of a stem [1] Botany is the scientific study of plant life. ... Cell biology (also called cellular biology or formerly cytology, from the Greek kytos, container) is an academic discipline that studies cells. ... Chronobiology is a field of science that examines periodic (cyclic) phenomena in living organisms. ... Views of a Foetus in the Womb, Leonardo da Vinci, ca. ... For the journal, see Ecology (journal). ... Epidemiology is the study of factors affecting the health and illness of populations, and serves as the foundation and logic of interventions made in the interest of public health and preventive medicine. ... This article is about the general scientific term. ... Genomics is the study of an organisms entire genome; Rathore et al, . Investigation of single genes, their functions and roles is something very common in todays medical and biological research, and cannot be said to be genomics but rather the most typical feature of molecular biology. ... Human biology is an interdisciplinary academic field of biology, biological anthropology, and medicine which focuses on humans; it is closely related to primate biology, and a number of other fields. ... Immunology is a broad branch of biomedical science that covers the study of all aspects of the immune system in all organisms. ... Various species of reef fish in the Hawaiian Islands. ... An agar plate streaked with microorganisms Microbiology is the study of microorganisms, which are unicellular or cell-cluster microscopic organisms. ... Molecular biology is the study of biology at a molecular level. ... Drawing of the cells in the chicken cerebellum by S. Ramón y Cajal Neuroscience is a field that is devoted to the scientific study of the nervous system. ... The Nutrition Facts table indicates the amounts of nutrients which experts recommend you limit or consume in adequate amounts. ... For the definition, see Life. ... Paleontology, palaeontology or palæontology (from Greek: paleo, ancient; ontos, being; and logos, knowledge) is the study of prehistoric life forms on Earth through the examination of plant and animal fossils. ... Adult black fly (Simulium yahense) with (Onchocerca volvulus) emerging from the insects antenna. ... A renal cell carcinoma (chromophobe type) viewed on a hematoxylin & eosin stained slide Pathologist redirects here. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Systems biology is a term used very widely in the biosciences, particularly from the year 2000 onwards, and in a variety of contexts. ... Taxonomy, sometimes alpha taxonomy, is the science of finding, describing and naming organisms, thus giving rise to taxa. ... Zoology (from Greek: ζῴον, zoion, animal; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the biological discipline which involves the study of animals. ... While on board HMS Beagle, Charles Darwin collected numerous specimens, many new to science, which supported his later theory of evolution by natural selection. ... For other uses, see Adaptation (disambiguation). ... Macroevolution refers to evolution that occurs at or above the level of species, in contrast with microevolution, which refers to smaller evolutionary changes (typically described as changes in allele frequencies) within a species or population. ... Microevolution is the occurrence of small-scale changes in allele frequencies in a population, over a few generations, also known as change at or below the species level. ... Charles Darwins first sketch of an evolutionary tree from his First Notebook on Transmutation of Species (1837) Speciation is the evolutionary process by which new biological species arise. ... Population genetics is the study of the distribution of and change in allele frequencies under the influence of the four evolutionary forces: natural selection, genetic drift, mutation, and migration. ... For other uses, see Natural selection (disambiguation). ... In population genetics, genetic drift is the statistical effect that results from the influence that chance has on the success of alleles (variants of a gene). ... In population genetics, gene flow (also known as gene migration) is the transfer of alleles of genes from one population to another. ... For linguistic mutation, see Apophony. ... Evolutionary developmental biology (evolution of development or informally, evo-devo) is a field of biology that compares the developmental processes of different animals in an attempt to determine the ancestral relationship between organisms and how developmental processes evolved. ... We dont have an article called Phenotypic plasticity Start this article Search for Phenotypic plasticity in. ... Norms of reaction for two genotypes. ... Many organisms consist of modules, both anatomically and in their metabolism. ... A number of different Markov models of DNA sequence evolution have been proposed. ... The evolution of sex is a major puzzle in modern evolutionary biology. ... Enquiry into the evolution of ageing aims to explain why almost all living things weaken and die with age. ... The nature and origins of hominid intelligence is a much-studied and much-debated topic, of natural interest to humans as the most successful and intelligent hominid species. ... Diagram of major stages in the eyes evolution. ... Plant evolution is an aspect of the study of biological evolution, involving predominantly the evolution of plants suited to live on land, the greening of the various land masses by the filling of their niches with land plants, and the diversification of the groups of land plants. ... The evolutionary history of life and the origin of life are fields of ongoing geological and biological research. ... For the history of humans on Earth, see History of the world. ... Anagenesis is the progressive evolution of species involving a change in gene frequency in an entire population rather than a cladogenetic branching event. ... Catagenesis is an archaic term from evolutionary biology referring to evolutionary directions that were considered retrogressive. ... Cladogenesis is an evolutionary splitting event in which each branch and its smaller branches is a clade; an evolutionary mechanism and a process of adaptive evolution that leads to the development of a greater variety of animals or plants. ... Evolutionary thought has roots in antiquity as philosophical ideas conceived during the Ancient Greek and Roman eras, but until the 18th century, biological thought was dominated by essentialism, the idea that living forms are static and unchanging in time. ... For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... The 1859 edition of On the Origin of Species First published in 1859, The Origin of Species (full title On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life) by British naturalist Charles Darwin is one of the pivotal... The modern evolutionary synthesis refers to a set of ideas from several biological specialities that were brought together to form a unified theory of evolution accepted by the great majority of working biologists. ... The gene-centered view of evolution, gene selection theory or selfish gene theory holds that natural selection acts through differential survival of competing genes, increasing the frequency of those alleles whose phenotypic effects successfully promote their own propagation. ... This article is about life in general. ... Ecological genetics is the study of genetics (itself a field of biology) from an ecological perspective. ... Molecular evolution is the process of the genetic material in populations of organisms changing over time. ... Phylogenetic groups, or taxa, can be monophyletic, paraphyletic, or polyphyletic. ... Biological systematics is the study of the diversity of life on the planet earth, both past and present, and the relationships among living things through time. ... This is a list of topics in evolutionary biology and evolution. ... Life on Earth  â€¢  â€¢  | Axis scale: millions of years ago. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Evolutionary biology - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (656 words)
Evolutionary biology is a subfield of population biology concerned with the origin and descent of species, as well as their change over time, i.e.
Evolutionary biology's frameworks of ideas and conceptual tools are now finding application in the study of a range of subjects from computing to nanotechnology.
Evolutionary biology as an academic discipline in its own right emerged as a result of the modern evolutionary synthesis in the 1930s and 1940s.
revised white paper 3/97 (8412 words)
Evolutionary biology is the study of the history of life and the processes that lead to its diversity.
The science of evolutionary biology is the study of the history of life and of the processes that lead to its unity and diversity.
Evolutionary biology sheds light on phenomena studied in the fields of molecular biology, developmental biology, physiology, behavior, paleontology, ecology, and biogeography, complementing these disciplines' study of biological mechanisms with explanations based on history and adaptation.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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