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Encyclopedia > Evolutionary Creationism
Part of the series on
Creationism

History of creationism
Creation in Genesis This article is about the Abrahamic belief; creationism can also refer to origin beliefs in general or, centuries earlier, to an alternative to traducianism. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The history of creationism is tied to the history of religions. ... Creation according to Genesis refers to the description of the creation of the heavens and the earth by God, as described in Genesis, the first book of the Bible. ...

Types of creationism:
Young Earth creationism
- Creation science
Old Earth creationism
Omphalos creationism
Evolutionary creationism
Neo-Creationism
Intelligent design
- Intelligent design movement
Modern geocentrism
Created in Gods image, complete with navel. ... Creation science is a part of the creationist movement that claims to offer scientific evidence compatible with creation according to Genesis. ... Old Earth creationism is a variant of the creationist view of the origin of the universe and life on Earth. ... The omphalos hypothesis was named after the title of an 1857 book by Philip Henry Gosse in which he argued that in order for the world to be functional, God must have created the Earth with mountains, canyons, trees with growth rings, Adam and Eve with hair, fingernails, and navels... Neo-Creationism is a movement whose goal is to restate creationism in terms more likely to be well-received by the public, policy makers and the scientific community. ... Intelligent Design (ID) is the controversial assertion that certain features of the universe and of living things exhibit the characteristics of a product resulting from an intelligent cause or agent, as opposed to an unguided process such as natural selection. ... The Intelligent Design movement began in the early 1990s aiming for broad social, academic and political changes centering around intelligent design in the public sphere, primarily in the United States. ... The term modern geocentrism refers to a belief currently held by certain groups that the Earth is the center of the universe and does not move. ...

Controversy:
Creation vs. evolution
... in public education
Associated articles
Teach the Controversy
Flying Spaghetti Monsterism
The creation-evolution controversy (also termed the creation vs. ... The legal status of creation and evolution in public education is the subject of a great deal of debate in legal, scientific and religious circles, mainly in the United States. ... The following is a clearinghouse of articles which refer to terms often used in the context of the creation-evolution controversy: // Origins Main article: Origin beliefs The creation-evolution controversy often is cast as a controversy surrounding the origin beliefs. ... Teach the Controversy is a controversial political-action campaign originating from the Discovery Institute that seeks to advance an education policy for US public schools that introduces intelligent design to public-school science curricula and seeks to redefine science to allow for supernatural explanations. ... Flying Spaghetti Monsterism (FSM) is a satirical parody religion created in 2005 to protest the decision by the Kansas State Board of Education to allow alleged problems with evolution to be taught. ...

Theistic evolution, or the less common term, Evolutionary Creationism, is the general belief that some or all classical religious teachings about God and creation are compatible with some or all of the scientific theory of evolution.. God is the monotheistic concept of a supernatural Supreme Being who is the creator of the Universe. ... Creation is a doctrinal position in many religions which maintains that one or a group of gods or deities is responsible for creating the universe. ... For the scientific journal named Science, see Science (journal). ... In mathematics, theory is used informally to refer to a body of knowledge about mathematics. ... A phylogenetic tree of all living things, based on rRNA gene data, showing the separation of the three domains, bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes, as described initially by Carl Woese. ...


Theistic evolution holds that the acceptance of evolutionary biology is not fundamentally different from the acceptance of other sciences, such as astronomy or meteorology which are also based on a methodological assumption of philosophical naturalism to study and explain the natural world, without assuming the existence or nonexistence of the supernatural. In this view, it is held both religiously and scientifically correct to reinterpret ancient religious texts in line with modern-day scientific findings about evolution. This synthesis of the Teleology underlying faith and religious teachings with science can still be described as creationism in holding that divine intervention brought about the origin of life or that divine Laws govern formation of species, but in the creation-evolution controversy its proponents generally take the "evolutionist" side. For this reason, some on both sides prefer to use the term "theistic evolution" to describe this belief. Evolutionary biology is a subfield of biology concerned with the origin and descent of species, as well as their change over time, i. ... // What is science? There are various understandings of the word science. According to empiricism, scientific theories are objective, empirically testable, and predictive — they predict empirical results that can be checked and possibly contradicted. ... Astrometry: the study of the position of objects in the sky and their changes of position. ... Satellite image of Hurricane Hugo Meteorology is the scientific study of the atmosphere that focuses on weather processes and forecasting. ... Methodology of epistemology. ... Naturalism is any of several philosophical stances, typically those descended from materialism and pragmatism, that does not distinguish between the supernatural and the natural. ... Teleology is the supposition that there is design, purpose, directive principle, or finality in the works and processes of nature, and the philosophical study of that purpose. ... This article is about the Abrahamic belief; creationism can also refer to origin beliefs in general or, centuries earlier, to an alternative to traducianism. ... Pre-Cambrian stromatolites in the Siyeh Formation, Glacier National Park. ... The creation-evolution controversy (also termed the creation vs. ...


The term evolutionary creationism is used in particular for beliefs in which God transcends normal time and space, with nature having no existence independent of His will. It allows interpretations consistent with both a literal Genesis and objective science, in which, for example, the events of creation occurred outside time as we know it.

Contents


Spectrum of viewpoints

Evolutionary creationism is a variant of creationism which accepts microevolution and macroevolution while retaining a theistic interpretation of evolution. Theistic evolution is accepted (or at least not rejected) by major Christian churches, including Roman Catholicism; some Judaism denominations; and other religious organizations that lack a literalist stance concerning holy scriptures. With this approach toward evolution, scriptural creation stories are typically interpreted as being allegorical in nature. This article is about the Abrahamic belief; creationism can also refer to origin beliefs in general or, centuries earlier, to an alternative to traducianism. ... Microevolution is the occurrence of small-scale changes in gene frequencies in a population over a few generations, also known as change at or below the species level. ... Macroevolution is the concept that evolution of species and higher taxa is the result of large-scale changes in gene-frequencies over time. ... A phylogenetic tree of all living things, based on rRNA gene data, showing the separation of the three domains, bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes, as described initially by Carl Woese. ... As a noun, Christian is an appellation and moniker deriving from the appellation Christ, which many people associate exclusively with Jesus of Nazareth. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Judaism is the religion of the Jewish people. ... It has been suggested that Biblical liberalism be merged into this article or section. ... Many religions and spiritual movements hold certain written texts (or series of spoken legends not traditionally written down) to be sacred. ... An allegory (from Greek αλλος, allos, other, and αγορευειν, agoreuein, to speak in public) is a figurative mode of representation conveying a meaning other than and in addition to the literal. ...


As cited below, several religious organizations accept evolutionary theory, though their related theological interpretations vary. Additionally, individuals or movements within such organizations may not accept evolution, and stances on evolution may have adapted (or evolved) throughout history.


See also sections of Abrahamic creationism on "The Christian Critique of Creationism" and "The western world outside the United States". Creation is the theological doctrine that all material in the universe was created by a divine agency, such as God, out of nothingness (ex nihilo). ...


Deism

Main article: deistic evolution Historical and modern Deism is defined by the view that reason, rather than revelation or tradition, should be the basis of belief in God. ... Theistic evolution, or the less common term, Evolutionary Creationism, is the general belief that some or all classical religious teachings about God and creation are compatible with some or all of the scientific theory of evolution. ...


Deism is belief in a God or first cause based on reason, rather than on faith or revelation. Most Deists believe that God does not interfere with the world or create miracles. Some deists believe that a Divine Creator initiated a universe in which evolution occurred, by designing the system and the natural laws, although many deists believe that God also created life itself, before allowing it to be subject to evolution. God is the monotheistic concept of a supernatural Supreme Being who is the creator of the Universe. ... Categories: Wikipedia cleanup | Stub | Philosophy of science | Religious Philosophy | Theology ... Reason is a term used in philosophy to refer to the higher cognitive faculties of the human mind. ... This article discusses faith in a religious context. ... For information on the last book of the New Testament see the Book of Revelation. ... According to many religions, a miracle, derived from the old Latin word miraculum meaning something wonderful, is a striking interposition of divine intervention by God in the universe by which the operations of the ordinary course of Nature are overruled, suspended, or modified. ...


One good example of this is the recent (December 2004) conversion to deism of the former atheist philosopher Professor Antony Flew, who now argues that recent research into the origins of life supports the theory that some form of intelligence was involved. Whilst accepting subsequent Darwinian evolution, Flew argues that this cannot explain the complexities of the origins of life. He has also stated that the investigation of DNA "has shown, by the almost unbelievable complexity of the arrangements which are needed to produce [life], that intelligence must have been involved." ← - 2004 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December- → Deaths in December • 30 Artie Shaw • 29 Julius Axelrod • 28 Jacques Dupuis • 28 Jerry Orbach • 28 Susan Sontag • 26 Reggie White • 26 Sir Angus Ogilvy • 23 P. V. Narasimha Rao • 23 Doug Ault • 19 Renata Tebaldi • 16... Professor Antony Garrard Newton Flew (born February 11, 1923) is a British philosopher, known as a supporter of libertarianism and supporter of atheism. ... Space-filling model of a section of DNA molecule Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions specifying the biological development of all cellular forms of life (and most viruses). ...


Some Deists contend that God ceased to exist after setting in motion the laws of the universe.


Other variants

Another perspective is that a Divine Creator engineers quantum events, in a manner which is apparently random, thus exercising authoritative power over nature. Fig. ...


Alternatively, a Divine Creator may intervene through miracles, in the creation of souls, in an afterlife, or ways beyond known physics. For the U.S. hockey teams victory in the 1980 Winter Olympics, see Miracle on Ice, or Miracle (movie) According to many religions, a miracle is an intervention by God in the universe. ... Creation is a doctrinal position in many religions which maintains that one or a group of gods or deities is responsible for creating the universe. ... The afterlife (or life after death) is a generic term referring to a continuation of existence, typically spiritual and experiential, beyond this world, or after death. ... Since antiquity, people have tried to understand the behavior of matter: why unsupported objects drop to the ground, why different materials have different properties, and so forth. ...


Christianity

  • Anglicanism [1] Although Anglicans (Episcopal Church, Church of England) believe that the Bible "contains all things necessary to salvation," nontheless "science and Christian theology can complement one another in the quest for truth and understanding." Specifically on the subject of creation/evolution, Anglicans view "Big Bang cosmology" as being "in tune with both the concepts of creation out of nothing and continuous creation." See the above link for more information.
  • Roman Catholic Church [2] [3] In 1950, Pope Pius XII, in the papal encyclical Humani Generis, stated that the "Teaching Authority of the Church does not forbid that, in conformity with the present state of human sciences and sacred theology, research and discussions, on the part of men experienced in both fields, take place with regard to the doctrine of evolution, in as far as it inquires into the origin of the human body as coming from pre-existent and living matter" with the stipulations that souls are direct creations of God, and all true humans are descendants of a particular individual, Adam and Eve. In 1996, Pope John Paul II stated that "new findings lead us toward the recognition of evolution as more than a hypothesis," and again concluded that "if the origin of the human body comes through living matter which existed previously, the spiritual soul is created directly by God." However, as John Paul II recognized in his October 22, 1996 Message to Pontifical Academy of Sciences, "since the Encyclical Humani generis (1950), my predecessor Pius XII had already stated that there was no opposition between evolution and the doctrine of the faith about man and his vocation, on [certain] conditions." Thus, as a practical matter, evolution had been taught in Catholic primary and secondary schools, not to mention universities, for decades before 1996. Recently Cardinal Christoph Schonborn of Vienna has stated: "Evolution in the sense of common ancestry might be true, but evolution in the neo-Darwinian sense -- an unguided, unplanned process of random variation and natural selection -- is not..." (New York Times editorial, 7 July 2005) but this argument against "Unguided evolution" has been contradicted by Cardinal Poupard [4] and clarified by Cardinal Schonborn himself in a series of catechetical lectures on the topic (to be published in book form). Schonborn's true position: "I see no difficulty in joining belief in the Creator with the theory of evolution, but under the prerequisite that the borders of scientific theory are maintained. In the citations given above (from Julian Huxley, Will Provine, Peter Atkins), it is unequivocally the case that such have been violated. When science adheres to its own method, it cannot come into conflict with faith. But perhaps one finds it difficult to stay within one's territory, for we are, after all, not simply scientists but also human beings, with feelings, who struggle with faith, human beings, who seek the meaning of life. And thus as natural scientists we are constantly and inevitably bringing in questions reflecting worldviews." (2 October 2005, "Creation and Evolution: To the Debate As It Stands")
  • Eastern Orthodox Christianity, for the most part, has no arguments with science. It feels that the Genesis text does not have to be taken literally even if formally it recognizes Adam and Eve as the first humans and features them in icons of the Resurrection. There is a strong tendency in the church to ignore these kind of arguments as meaningless and unimportant for salvation.

History Main article: History of Christianity See also: Timeline of Christianity The history of Christianity is difficult to extricate from that of the European West (and several other culture-regions) in general. ... The term Anglican (from the Angles meaning English) describes the people and churches that follow the religious traditions developed by the established Church of England. ... The Episcopal Church may refer to several members of the Anglican Communion, including: Episcopal Church in the United States of America Scottish Episcopal Church Episcopal Church in Jerusalem and the Middle East Episcopal Church of Cuba idk of the Sudan Spanish Reformed Episcopal Church ... The Church of England is the officially gimp established Christian church in England and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the Christian Church whose visible head is the Pope, currently Pope Benedict XVI. It teaches that it is the one holy catholic and apostolic Church founded by Jesus Christ, and that the sole Church of Christ which in the... In the ancient Church, an encyclical was a circular letter sent to all the churches of a particular area. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wikisource. ... Pope John Paul II (Latin: ), born Karol Józef Wojtyła (May 18, 1920 – April 2, 2005) reigned as pope of the Catholic Church for almost 27 years, from 16 October 1978, making his the second-longest pontificate (or the third-longest, as enumerated by Roman Catholic tradition). ... The Pontifical Academy of Sciences was founded in 1936 under its current name by Pope Pius XI and is placed under the protection of the reigning Supreme Pontiff (the current Pope). ... Unguided evolution is a neologistic term used by some creationists and proponents of intelligent design to describe evolution without supernatural intervention. ... Sir Julian Sorell Huxley, FRS (June 22, 1887 – February 14, 1975) was a British biologist, author, humanist and internationalist, known for his popularisations of science in books and lectures. ... Professor William B. Provine is an American historian of science, particularly of evolutionary biology and population genetics. ... Peter William Atkins (born 1940) is a Fellow and professor of chemistry at Lincoln College in the University of Oxford. ... Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ...

Christian Justification for Evolution

Evolution contradicts a literal interpretation of Genesis; however, according to the two oldest branches of Christianity (Orthodoxy and Catholicism; and most Protestant Churches, these days), Biblical Literalism is not mandatory. Some feel that seeing Genesis as a myth or as an allegory has been considered a "cop-out," and that it was always interpreted literally until biological evolution came and disproved it. Others would state that the concept of myth is not synonymous with being "false"; and that a myth is "a truth in unfamiliar clothing" (J.R.R. Tolkien, C.S. Lewis, and Owen Barfield all support this interpretation). Genesis (Greek: Γένεσις, having the meanings of birth, creation, cause, beginning, source and origin), also called The First Book of Moses, is the first book of Torah (five books of Moses), and is the first book of the Tanakh, part of the Hebrew Bible; it is also the first book of... The Vladimir Icon, one of the most venerated of Orthodox Camilo icons of Mary. ... This article considers Catholicism in the broadest ecclesiastical sense. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... This article concerns the self-labelled Fundamentalist Movement in Protestant Christianity. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Mythology. ... J. R. R. Tolkien in 1916. ... Clive Staples Lewis (November 29, 1898 – November 22, 1963), commonly referred to as C. S. Lewis, was an author and scholar. ... Owen Barfield (November 9, 1898–December 14, 1997) was a British philosopher, author, poet, and critic. ...


Historically, Biblical Literalism came about with the rise of Protestantism; before Protestantism, the Bible wasn't interpreted completely literally. Fr. Stanley Jaki, Benedictine priest, distinguished physicist and theologian, states in his Bible and Science (Christendom Press, 1996): Protestantism is a movement within Christianity, representing a split from within the Roman Catholic Church during the mid-to-late Renaissance in Europe —a period known as the Protestant Reformation. ...

"Insofar as the study of the original languages of the Bible was severed from authoritative ecclesiastical preaching as its matrix, it fueled literalism....Biblical literalism taken for a source of scientific information is making the rounds even nowadays among creationists who would merit Julian Huxley's description of 'bibliolaters.' They merely bring discredit to the Bible as they pile grist upon grist on the mills of latter-day Huxleys, such as Hoyle, Sagan, Gould, and others. The fallacies of creationism go deeper than fallacious reasonings about scientific data. Where creationism is fundamentally at fault is its resting its case on a theological faultline: the biblicism constructed by the [Protestant] Reformers." (Jaki, pages 110-111)

The "metaphorical/literal" distinction arose with the rise of the Scientific Revolution (although its source could be found in earlier writings, such as those of Herodotus). It was considered heretical to interpret the Bible literally at times (cf. Origen, St. Jerome), and Saint Augustine, one of the greatest theologians of the Catholic Church, was in fact the first person to propose a theory similar to evolution (cf. De Genesi ad litteram or The Literal Meaning of Genesis). He suggested that the Biblical text should not be interpreted literally if it contradicts what we know from science and our God-given reason. From an important passage on his "The Literal Interpretation of Genesis" (early fifth century, AD), St. Augustine wrote: Sir Julian Sorell Huxley, FRS (June 22, 1887 – February 14, 1975) was a British biologist, author, humanist and internationalist, known for his popularisations of science in books and lectures. ... In the history of science, the scientific revolution was the period that roughly began with the discoveries of Kepler, Galileo, and others at the dawn of the 17th century, and ended with the publication of the Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica in 1687 by Isaac Newton. ... Bust of Herodotus Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: Ἡροδοτος, Herodotos) was an ancient historian who lived in the 5th century BC (484 BC-ca. ... St. ...

"It not infrequently happens that something about the earth, about the sky, about other elements of this world, about the motion and rotation or even the magnitude and distances of the stars, about definite eclipses of the sun and moon, about the passage of years and seasons, about the nature of animals, of fruits, of stones, and of other such things, may be known with the greatest certainty by reasoning or by experience, even by one who is not a Christian. It is too disgraceful and ruinous, though, and greatly to be avoided, that he [the non-Christian] should hear a Christian speaking so idiotically on these matters, and as if in accord with Christian writings, that he might say that he could scarcely keep from laughing when he saw how totally in error they are. In view of this and in keeping it in mind constantly while dealing with the book of Genesis, I have, insofar as I was able, explained in detail and set forth for consideration the meanings of obscure passages, taking care not to affirm rashly some one meaning to the prejudice of another and perhaps better explanation." (The Literal Interpretation of Genesis 1:19–20 [AD 408])
"With the scriptures it is a matter of treating about the faith. For that reason, as I have noted repeatedly, if anyone, not understanding the mode of divine eloquence, should find something about these matters [about the physical universe] in our books, or hear of the same from those books, of such a kind that it seems to be at variance with the perceptions of his own rational faculties, let him believe that these other things are in no way necessary to the admonitions or accounts or predictions of the scriptures. In short, it must be said that our authors knew the truth about the nature of the skies, but it was not the intention of the Spirit of God, who spoke through them, to teach men anything that would not be of use to them for their salvation." (ibid, 2:9)

In ancient times, the modern concept of "literal" would not have been familiar. Nothing was either purely literal or purely metaphorical, but was conflation between the two, and this is why the myths were so important. Myths were explanations of natural phenomena; they weren't "false," but on the contrary they were true descriptions. Many examples can be brought in here, such as the Hades and Persephony myth, which serves as a description of the seasons. Look up Literal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Literal (from Latin litteralis, from littera, letter); taken in a non-figurative sense. ... In language, a metaphor is a rhetorical trope defined as a direct comparison between two seemingly unrelated subjects. ... Hades (Greek: - Hadēs or - Háidēs) (unseen) means both the ancient Greek abode of the dead and the god of that underworld. ... This article is about divisions of a year. ...


Pope John Paul II wrote to the Pontifical Academy of Sciences on the subject of cosmology and how to interpret Genesis: The Pontifical Academy of Sciences was founded in 1936 under its current name by Pope Pius XI and is placed under the protection of the reigning Supreme Pontiff (the current Pope). ...

"Cosmogony and cosmology have always aroused great interest among peoples and religions. The Bible itself speaks to us of the origin of the universe and its make-up, not in order to provide us with a scientific treatise, but in order to state the correct relationships of man with God and with the universe. Sacred Scripture wishes simply to declare that the world was created by God, and in order to teach this truth it expresses itself in the terms of the cosmology in use at the time of the writer. The Sacred Book likewise wishes to tell men that the world was not created as the seat of the gods, as was taught by other cosmogonies and cosmologies, but was rather created for the service of man and the glory of God. Any other teaching about the origin and make-up of the universe is alien to the intentions of the Bible, which does not wish to teach how heaven was made but how one goes to heaven." (Pope John Paul II, 3 October 1981 to the Pontifical Academy of Sciences, "Cosmology and Fundamental Physics")

The "Clergy Letter" Project, drafted in 2004, and signed by thousands of Christian clergy supporting evolution and faith, states: The Pontifical Academy of Sciences was founded in 1936 under its current name by Pope Pius XI and is placed under the protection of the reigning Supreme Pontiff (the current Pope). ...

"We the undersigned, Christian clergy from many different traditions, believe that the timeless truths of the Bible and the discoveries of modern science may comfortably coexist. We believe that the theory of evolution is a foundational scientific truth, one that has stood up to rigorous scrutiny and upon which much of human knowledge and achievement rests. To reject this truth or to treat it as 'one theory among others' is to deliberately embrace scientific ignorance and transmit such ignorance to our children. We believe that among God’s good gifts are human minds capable of critical thought and that the failure to fully employ this gift is a rejection of the will of our Creator." (An Open Letter Concerning Religion and Science)

Islam

Some Muslims believe in evolutionary creationism, especially among the Liberal movements within Islam. More literalist Muslims, including followers of Wahhabism, reject origin of species from a common ancestor by evolution as incompatible with the Qur'an. However, even amongst Muslims who accept evolution, many believe that humanity was a special creation by God. For example, Shaikh Nuh Ha Mim Keller, an American Muslim and specialist in Islamic law has argued in Islam and Evolution that a belief in macroevolution is not incompatible with Islam, as long as it is accepted that "Allah is the Creator of everything" (Qur'an 13:16) and that Allah specifically created humanity (in the person of Adam; Qur'an 38:71-76). Shaikh Keller cleary states in his conclusion however: Islām is described as a dīn, meaning way of life and/or guidance. ... In modern times there have been a number of liberal movements within Islam (sometimes called in Arabic: الإسلام الإجتهادية or interpretation-based Islam; also الإسلام المتقدمة or progressive Islam — These generally denote religious outlooks which depend mainly on ijtihad or re-interpretations of scriptures. ... Wahhabism (Arabic الوهابية, Wahabism, Wahabbism) is a fundamentalist Islamic movement, named after Muhammad ibn Abd al Wahhab (1703–1792). ... The Quran (Arabic: al-qurān literally the recitation; also called Al Qurān Al Karīm or The Noble Quran; or transliterated Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book of Islam. ... Macroevolution is the concept that evolution of species and higher taxa is the result of large-scale changes in gene-frequencies over time. ...


"As for claim that man has evolved from a non-human species, this is unbelief (kufr) no matter if we ascribe the process to Allah or to "nature," because it negates the truth of Adam's special creation that Allah has revealed in the Qur'an. Man is of special origin, attested to not only by revelation, but also by the divine secret within him, the capacity for ma'rifa or knowledge of the Divine that he alone of all things possesses. By his God-given nature, man stands before a door opening onto infinitude that no other creature in the universe can aspire to. Man is something else."


One of the main criticisms of evolution by Muslims is their assertion that it was created by and supports atheism, and so it is argued that it should be rejected (see for example, Why Darwinism is Incompatible With the Qur'an).


See also Islamic creationism. Islamic creationism – While contemporary Islam tends to take religious texts very literally, it sees Genesis as a corrupted version of Gods message. ...


Judaism

In general, the major Jewish denominations accept theistic evolution, with the exception of some Orthodox groups. The general approach of Judaism is that the creation account in the Torah is not to be taken as a literal text, but rather as a symbolic work. Indeed, Maimonides, one of the great interpreters of Torah in the Middle Ages, wrote that if science and Torah were misaligned, it was either because science was not understood or the Torah was misinterpreted. Maimonides argued that if science proved a point, then the finding should be accepted and inform the interpretation of scripture. Judaism is the religion of the Jewish people. ... Jewish denominations: Over time, the Jewish community has become divided into a number of religious denominations, also called branches or movements. Each denomination has a different understanding of what principles of belief a Jew should hold, and how one should live as a Jew. ... Orthodox Judaism is the stream of Judaism which adheres to a relatively strict interpretation and application of the laws and ethics first canonized in the Talmud (The Oral Law) and later codified in the Shulkhan Arukh (Code of Jewish Law). It is governed by these works and all the Rabbinical... Creation according to Genesis refers to the description of the creation of the heavens and the earth by God, as described in Genesis, the first book of the Bible. ... Torah (תורה) is a Hebrew word meaning teaching, instruction, or law. ... Commonly used image indicating one artists conception of Maimonidess appearance Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon (Hebrew: רבי משה בן מיימון; Arabic: Mussa bin Maimun ibn Abdallah al-Kurtubi al-Israili; March 30, 1135—December 13, 1204), commonly known by his Greek name (Moses) Maimonides, was a Jewish rabbi, physician, and philosopher. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ...


See also Jewish creationism. Jewish views on evolution includes a continuum of views about evolution, creationism, and the origin of life. ...


Hinduism

There is little or no tension between Hinduism and the scientific theory of evolution. Therefore, Hindus could be regarded as theistic evolutionists, although they rarely use this terminology. This article is about the Hindu religion; for other meanings of the word, see Hindu (disambiguation). ...


Evolutionary biologists who were also theists

Although evolutionary biologists have often been agnostics (most notably Thomas Huxley and Charles Darwin) or atheists (most notably Richard Dawkins), from the outset many have had a belief in some form of theism. These have included Alfred Russel Wallace (18231913), who in a joint paper with Charles Darwin in 1858, proposed the theory of evolution by natural selection. Wallace was effectively a deist who believed that "the unseen universe of Spirit" had interceded to create life as well as consciousness in animals and (separately) in humans.. Evolutionary biology is a subfield of biology concerned with the origin and descent of species, as well as their change over time, i. ... Agnosticism is the philosophical and theological view that the existence of God, gods or deities is either unknown or inherently unknowable. ... Thomas Huxley Thomas Henry Huxley F.R.S. (May 4, 1825 - June 29, 1895) was a British biologist, known as Darwins Bulldog for his defence of Charles Darwins theory of evolution. ... In his lifetime Charles Darwin gained international fame as a controversial and influential scientist. ... For information about the band, see Atheist (band). ... Dawkins is the holder of the Charles Simonyi Chair in the Public Understanding of Science at the University of Oxford. ... Alfred Russel Wallace for the Cornish painter see Alfred Wallis Alfred Russel Wallace, OM , FRS (January 8, 1823 – November 7, 1913) was a British naturalist, geographer, anthropologist and biologist. ... 1823 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1913 is a common year starting on Wednesday. ... In his lifetime Charles Darwin gained international fame as a controversial and influential scientist. ... 1858 is a common year starting on Friday. ... A phylogenetic tree of all living things, based on rRNA gene data, showing the separation of the three domains, bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes, as described initially by Carl Woese. ... Natural selection is the process by which variants displaying favorable or deleterious traits end up producing more or fewer progeny relative to other individuals of the same population. ...


An early example of this kind of approach came from computing pioneer Charles Babbage who published his unofficial Ninth Bridgewater Treatise in 1837, putting forward the thesis that God had the omnipotence and foresight to create as a divine legislator, making laws (or programs) which then produced species at the appropriate times, rather than continually interfering with ad hoc miracles each time a new species was required. Charles Babbage Charles Babbage (December 26, 1791 – October 18, 1871) was an English mathematician, analytical philosopher and (proto-) computer scientist who originated the idea of a programmable computer. ... 1837 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


Pierre Teilhard de Chardin (18811955) is a noted geologist and paleontologist as well as a Jesuit Priest who wrote extensively on the subject of incorporating evolution into a new understanding of Christianity. Initially suppressed by the Catholic Church his theological work has had considerable influence and is widely taught in Catholic and most mainline Protestant seminaries. Pierre Teilhard de Chardin Pierre Teilhard de Chardin (; May 1, 1881 – April 10, 1955), a Jesuit priest trained as a palaeontologist and a philosopher, was present at the discovery of Peking Man. ... 1881 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Society of Jesus (Latin: Societas Iesu), commonly known as the Jesuits, is a Roman Catholic religious order. ... The Roman Catholic Church believes its founding was based on Jesus appointment of Saint Peter as the primary church leader, later Bishop of Rome. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ...


Both Ronald Fisher (18901962) and Theodosius Dobzhansky (19001975), were Christians and architects of the modern evolutionary synthesis. Dobzhansky, a Russian Orthodox, wrote a famous 1973 essay entitled Nothing in Biology Makes Sense Except in the Light of Evolution espousing evolutionary creationism: Sir Ronald Fisher Professor Sir Ronald Aylmer Fisher, FRS (17 February 1890 – 29 July 1962) was a British eugenicist, evolutionary biologist, geneticist and statistician. ... 1890 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Theodosius Grigorevich Dobzhansky (Russian — Феодосий Григорьевич Добржанский; sometimes anglicized to Theodore Dobzhansky; January 25, 1900 - December 18, 1975) was a noted geneticist and evolutionary biologist. ... 1900 is a common year starting on Monday. ... 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1975 calendar). ... The modern evolutionary synthesis (often referred to simply as the modern synthesis or the evolutionary synthesis), neo-Darwinian synthesis or neo-Darwinism, generally denotes the combination of Charles Darwins theory of the evolution of species by natural selection, Gregor Mendels theory of genetics as the basis for biological... Nothing in Biology Makes Sense Except in the Light of Evolution is a 1973 essay by the evolutionary biologist and Russian Orthodox Christian Theodosius Dobzhansky, criticising Young Earth creationism and espousing evolutionary creationism. ...

"I am a creationist and an evolutionist. Evolution is God's, or Nature's, method of creation. Creation is not an event that happened in 4004 BC; it is a process that began some 10 billion years ago and is still under way....Does the evolutionary doctrine clash with religious faith? It does not. It is a blunder to mistake the Holy Scriptures for elementary textbooks of astronomy, geology, biology, and anthropology. Only if symbols are construed to mean what they are not intended to mean can there arise imaginary, insoluble conflicts....the blunder leads to blasphemy: the Creator is accused of systematic deceitfulness."

More recently, Kenneth R. Miller professor of biology at Brown University, has written Finding Darwin's God (Cliff Street Books, 1999) in which he states his belief in God and argues that "evolution is the key to understanding God." Dr. Miller has also called himself "an orthodox Catholic and an orthodox Darwinist" (the 2001 PBS special "Evolution"). Other Christian evolutionary creationists include Derek Burke, Professor of Biological Sciences at the University of Warwick; R. J. Berry, Professor of Genetics at University College London; evangelical Christian and geologist Keith B. Miller (no relation to Kenneth) of Kansas State University, who compiled an anthology Perspectives on an Evolving Creation (Eerdmans, 2003); biologist Denis Lamoureux of St. Joseph's College, University of Alberta, Canada who has co-authored with evolution critic Phillip E. Johnson Darwinism Defeated? The Johnson-Lamoureux Debate on Biological Origins (Regent College, 1999); biologist Darrel Falk of Point Loma Nazarene University, author of Coming to Peace with Science; theologian-philosopher John Haught of Georgetown University; Keith Ward, author of God, Chance, and Necessity; Rev. John Polkinghorne of Cambridge University; Fr. George Coyne of the Vatican Observatory; paleobiologist Prof. Simon Conway Morris of Cambridge University, well known for his groundbreaking work on the Burgess Shale fossils and the Cambrian explosion, and author of Life's Solution: Inevitable Humans in a Lonely Universe; and many other scientists and theologians, past and present. Ken Miller Kenneth R. Miller (born 1948) is a biology professor at Brown University. ... Brown University is an Ivy League university located in Providence, Rhode Island. ... The University of Warwick is a campus university in the United Kingdom. ... Sam Berry R.J. Sam Berry is a retired British professor who was professor of genetics at University College London between 1974-2000. ... University College London, commonly known as UCL, is one of the colleges that make up the University of London. ... Keith Brady Miller is professor of geology at Kansas State University in the United States. ... Kansas State University (sometimes referred to as K-State) is an institution of higher learning located in Manhattan, Kansas. ... Denis O. Lamoureux is professor of science and religion at St. ... Phillip E. Johnson Phillip E. Johnson (born 1940) is a retired UC Berkeley American law professor and author. ... Darrel R. Falk is professor of biology and associate provost for research at Point Loma Nazarene University in Point Loma, California (United States). ... Point Loma Nazarene University is a university in San Diego, California. ... John (Jack) F. Haught is Landegger Distinguished Professor of Theology at Georgetown University. ... Georgetown University should not be confused with the University of Georgetown in Georgetown, Guyana or Georgetown College in Georgetown, KY. Georgetown University is a university in the United States. ... John Polkinghorne (October 16, 1930 - ) is a British scientist and theologian. ... REDIRECT [1] ... Fr. ... The Vatican Observatory (Specola Vaticana) is the astronomical research and educational institution of the Holy See. ... Simon Conway Morris is a British paleontologist. ... The Burgess shale (named after Mount Burgess, near where the shale was found) is a black shale found high up in the Canadian Rockies in Yoho National Park near the town of Field, British Columbia. ... The Cambrian Explosion generally refers to the geologically sudden appearance of a number of new complex organisms between 543 and 530 million years ago (mya). ...


Criticisms of theistic evolution

The major atheistic criticism of evolutionary creationism is that of all forms of creationism: the belief in a supernatural creator, which violates both the naturalism and falsifiability requirements of scientific philosophy (see also rationalism). Another criticism of some forms of evolutionary creationism (especially those of deists) are that they are simply a belief in a God of the gaps, where anything that cannot currently be explained by science is attributed to God. For example, the physicist Dr. Paul Davies has stated: "I flatly reject the argument that the origin of life was some sort of miracle. To be sure, we don't yet know how it happened, but that doesn't mean a cosmic magician is needed to prod atoms around." Atheism, in its broadest sense, is characterized by an absence of belief in the existence of gods, thus contrasting with theism. ... The supernatural (Latin: super- exceeding + nature) comprises forces and phenomena which are beyond the realm of current scientific understanding, and which may actually directly contradict conventional scientific understandings. ... The creator god is the divine being that created the universe, according to various traditions and faiths. ... Naturalism refers to a number of different topics: Philosophical naturalism: the view that nothing exists but the world — that there are no supernatural entities. ... Falsifiability is an important concept in the philosophy of science that amounts to the apparently paradoxical idea that a proposition or theory cannot be scientific if it does not admit the possibility of being shown false. ... The philosophy of science is the branch of philosophy which studies the philosophical foundations, presumptions and implications of science both of the natural sciences like physics and biology and the social sciences such as psychology and economics. ... Rationalism, also known as the rationalist movement, is a philosophical doctrine that asserts that the truth can best be discovered by reason and factual analysis, rather than faith, dogma or religious teaching. ... The god of the gaps argument is one used to contrast faith-based explanations for nature with those derived from science. ... A physicist is a scientist trained in physics. ... Paul Charles William Davies (born April 22, 1946) is a British-born, internationally acclaimed physicist, writer and broadcaster, who holds the position of Professor of Natural Philosophy in the Australian Centre for Astrobiology at Macquarie University, Sydney. ...


Theists often reject evolution primarily on the basis of their scriptures. Most monotheistic scriptures contain a creation story describing an event in which animals and humans are instantly created by a supernatural being, typically each in a different way, which seems to contradict the process of natural selection if taken literally. Many religions and spiritual movements hold certain written texts (or series of spoken legends not traditionally written down) to be sacred. ... The term origin belief refers to stories and explanations which describe the beginnings of humanity, earth, life, and the universe. ... Natural selection is the process by which variants displaying favorable or deleterious traits end up producing more or fewer progeny relative to other individuals of the same population. ...


Young Earth creationists criticize theistic evolution on theological grounds (see External links). Created in Gods image, complete with navel. ...


See also

Atheism, in its broadest sense, is characterized by an absence of belief in the existence of gods, thus contrasting with theism. ... It has been suggested that Biblical astronomy be merged into this article or section. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Cosmology, from the Greek: κοσμολογία (cosmologia, κόσμος (cosmos) world + λογια (logia) discourse) is the study of the universe in its totality and by extension mans place in it. ... The cosmological argument is an argument for the existence of God. ... The Creator God is the divine being that created the omniverse, according to various traditions and faiths. ... Historical and modern Deism is defined by the view that reason, rather than revelation or tradition, should be the basis of belief in God. ... There is no universally accepted theory of what the word existence means. ... Theism is the belief in one or more gods or goddesses. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Timeline of the Universe. ... This is a timeline of the Universe describes the events that have occurred and will occur according to prominent theories. ... -1...

References

  • Miller, Kenneth R.; (1999) Finding Darwin's God: A Scientist's Search for Common Ground Between God and Evolution ISBN 0060930497
  • Miller, Keith B.; (2003) Perspectives on an Evolving Creation ISBN 0802805124
  • Falk, Darrel; (2004) Coming to Peace with Science: Bridging the Worlds Between Faith and Biology ISBN 0830827420

Ken Miller Kenneth R. Miller (born 1948) is a biology professor at Brown University. ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) is a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... Keith Brady Miller is professor of geology at Kansas State University in the United States. ... 2003 (MMIII) is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Darrel R. Falk is professor of biology and associate provost for research at Point Loma Nazarene University in Point Loma, California (United States). ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Proponents of theistic evolution

Theodosius Grigorevich Dobzhansky (Russian — Феодосий Григорьевич Добржанский; sometimes anglicized to Theodore Dobzhansky; January 25, 1900 - December 18, 1975) was a noted geneticist and evolutionary biologist. ... Nothing in Biology Makes Sense Except in the Light of Evolution is a 1973 essay by the evolutionary biologist and Russian Orthodox Christian Theodosius Dobzhansky, criticising Young Earth creationism and espousing evolutionary creationism. ... Talk. ... Pope Benedict XVI (Latin: ; born April 16, 1927, as Joseph Alois Ratzinger in Marktl am Inn, Bavaria, Germany) is the 265th reigning pope, the head of the Roman Catholic Church and sovereign of Vatican City. ...

Opponents of theistic evolution


  Results from FactBites:
 
Evolutionary creationism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2492 words)
Evolutionary creationism is a variant of creationism which accepts microevolution and macroevolution while retaining a theistic interpretation of evolution.
The major atheistic criticism of evolutionary creationism is that of all forms of creationism: the belief in a supernatural creator, which violates both the naturalism and falsifiability requirements of scientific philosophy (see also rationalism).
Another criticism of some forms of evolutionary creationism (especially those of deists) are that they are simply a belief in a God of the gaps, where anything that cannot currently be explained by science is attributed to God.
Creationism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5076 words)
Creationism or creation theology is the belief that humans, life, the Earth, and the universe were created by a supreme being or deity's supernatural intervention.
Proponents of creationism claim that it has a rich heritage grounded in ancient recorded histories and consistent with scientific observation, whereas opponents, particularly of what they regard as the pseudosciences of creation science and intelligent design, claim that those are a modern reactionary movement against science.
Jewish creationism includes a continuum of views about creationism, on aspects including the origin of life and the role of evolution in the formation of species as debated in the creation-evolution controversy.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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