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Encyclopedia > Evolution
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For a non-technical introduction to the topic, please see Introduction to evolution.
Part of the Biology series on
Evolution
Mechanisms and processes

Adaptation
Genetic drift
Gene flow
Mutation
Selection
Speciation Image File history File links Padlock. ... Look up evolution in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Evolution is change in organisms over generations. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Image File history File links Tree_of_life. ... A biological adaptation is an anatomical structure, physiological process or behavioral trait of an organism that has evolved over a period of time by the process of natural selection such that it increases the expected long-term reproductive success of the organism. ... In population genetics, genetic drift is the statistical effect that results from the influence that chance has on the success of alleles (variants of a gene). ... Gene flow (also known as gene migration) is the transfer of genes from one population to another. ... It has been suggested that mutant be merged into this article or section. ... Selection is hierachically classified into natural and artificial selection. ... Charles Darwins first sketch of an evolutionary tree from his First Notebook on Transmutation of Species (1837) Speciation is the evolutionary process by which new biological species arise. ...

Research and history

Evidence
History
Modern synthesis
Social effect / Objections While on board HMS Beagle, Charles Darwin collected numerous specimens, many new to science, which supported his later theory of evolution by natural selection. ... The history of evolutionary thought is very long, since the idea of biological evolution has existed since ancient times, but the modern theory wasnt established until the 18th and 19th centuries, with scientists such as Jean-Baptiste Lamarck and Charles Darwin. ... The modern evolutionary synthesis (often referred to simply as the new synthesis, the modern synthesis, the evolutionary synthesis, neo-Darwinian synthesis or neo-Darwinism), generally denotes the integration of Charles Darwins theory of the evolution of species by natural selection, Gregor Mendels theory of genetics as the basis... The theory of transmutation had early origins in the speculations and hypotheses of Erasmus Darwin, and Jean-Baptiste Lamarck. ... This ichthys fish parody reflects the view that Christianity and Darwinian evolution are in conflict, but that Christian TRUTH will triumph. ...

Evolutionary biology fields

Ecological genetics
Evolutionary development
Human evolution
Molecular evolution
Phylogenetics
Population genetics
Evolutionary biology is a subfield of biology concerned with the origin and descent of species, as well as their change, multiplication, and diversity over time. ... Ecological genetics is the study of genetics (itself a field of biology) from an ecological perspective. ... Evolutionary developmental biology (evolution of development or informally, evo-devo) is a field of biology that compares the developmental processes of different animals in an attempt to determine the ancestral relationship between organisms and how developmental processes evolved. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Molecular evolution is the process of the genetic material in populations of organisms changing over time. ... In biology, phylogenetics (Greek: phylon = tribe, race and genetikos = relative to birth, from genesis = birth) is the study of evolutionary relatedness among various groups of organisms (e. ... Population genetics is the study of the distribution of and change in allele frequencies under the influence of the four evolutionary forces: natural selection, genetic drift, mutation, and migration. ...

Biology Portal · v  d  e 

In biology, evolution is the change in a population's inherited characteristics, or traits, from generation to generation. These traits are encoded as genes that are copied and passed on to offspring during reproduction. Random changes in these genes can produce new or altered traits, resulting in differences between organisms. Evolution occurs when these different traits become more common or rare in a population. This can occur randomly through genetic drift, or based on the reproductive value of traits through natural selection. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Heritability, as used professionally in genetics, has a very precise definition. ... In biology, a trait or character is a genetically inherited feature of an organism. ... For other meanings of this term, see gene (disambiguation). ... Biological reproduction is the biological process by which new individual organisms are produced. ... In population genetics, genetic drift is the statistical effect that results from the influence that chance has on the success of alleles (variants of a gene). ... The Galápagos Islands hold 13 species of finches that are closely related and differ most markedly in the shape of their beaks. ...


Under natural selection, organisms with traits that help them to survive and reproduce tend to have more offspring. In doing so, they will pass more copies of inheritable beneficial traits on to the next generation. This leads to advantageous traits becoming more common in each generation, while disadvantageous traits become rarer.[1][2][3] Over time, this process can result in varied adaptations to changing environmental conditions.[4] As differences in and between populations accumulate, new species can evolve. All known species are descended from a single ancestor through this process of gradual divergence.[1][5][6] A biological adaptation is an anatomical structure, physiological process or behavioral trait of an organism that has evolved over a period of time by the process of natural selection such that it increases the expected long-term reproductive success of the organism. ... Charles Darwins first sketch of an evolutionary tree from his First Notebook on Transmutation of Species (1837) Speciation is the evolutionary process by which new biological species arise. ... A group of organisms is said to have common descent if they have a common ancestor. ...


The theory of evolution by natural selection was first put forth in detail in Charles Darwin's 1859 book On the Origin of Species. In the 1930s, Darwinian natural selection was combined with Mendelian inheritance to form the modern evolutionary synthesis.[4] With its enormous explanatory and predictive power, this theory has become the central organizing principle of modern biology, providing a unifying explanation for the diversity of life on Earth.[7][8][9] Charles Robert Darwin (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an eminent English naturalist who achieved lasting fame by convincing the scientific community that species develop over time from a common origin. ... British naturalist Charles Darwins book, The Origin of Species, is one of the pivotal works in scientific literature and arguably the pre-eminent work in biology. ... Gregor Johann Mendel (July 20[1], 1822 – January 6, 1884) was an Augustinian abbot who is often called the father of modern genetics for his study of the inheritance of traits in pea plants. ... Mendelian inheritance (or Mendelian genetics or Mendelism) is a set of primary tenets relating to the transmission of hereditary characteristics from parent organisms to their children; it underlies much of genetics. ... The modern evolutionary synthesis (often referred to simply as the new synthesis, the modern synthesis, the evolutionary synthesis, neo-Darwinian synthesis or neo-Darwinism), generally denotes the integration of Charles Darwins theory of the evolution of species by natural selection, Gregor Mendels theory of genetics as the basis... The New York Times reported on Einsteins confirmed prediction. ... Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity or biological diversity is the variation of taxonomic life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire Earth. ...

Contents

Basic processes

Evolution consists of two basic types of processes: those that introduce new genetic variation into a population, and those that affect the frequencies of existing genes.[10] Random copying errors in genetic material (mutations), migration between populations (gene flow), and the reshuffling of genes during sexual reproduction (genetic recombination) create variation in organisms. In some organisms, like bacteria and plants, variation is also produced through horizontal gene transfer (the transfer of genetic material between organisms that are not directly related) and the mixing of genetic material by hybridization (interbreeding between species). Genetic variation is the variation in the genetic material of a population, and includes the nuclear, mitochodrial, ribosomal genomes as well as the genomes of other organelles. ... Genetic material is used to store the genetic information of an organic life form. ... It has been suggested that mutant be merged into this article or section. ... Gene flow (also known as gene migration) is the transfer of genes from one population to another. ...   Sexual reproduction is a type of reproduction that results in increasing genetic diversity of the offspring. ... It has been suggested that chromosomal crossover be merged into this article or section. ... Horizontal gene transfer (HGT), also Lateral gene transfer (LGT), is any process in which an organism transfers genetic material to another cell that is not its offspring. ... // In biology, hybrid has two meanings. ...


Genetic drift and natural selection act on this variation by increasing or decreasing the frequency of traits: genetic drift does so randomly, while natural selection does so based on whether a trait is beneficial, or conducive to reproduction. In population genetics, genetic drift is the statistical effect that results from the influence that chance has on the success of alleles (variants of a gene). ... The Galápagos Islands hold 13 species of finches that are closely related and differ most markedly in the shape of their beaks. ...


Variation

Main article: Genetic variation

The variation in a population's apparent traits, or phenotypes, is primarily the result of the specific genetic makeup, or genotypes, encoded on DNA molecules called chromosomes. A specific location on a chromosome is known as a locus; a variant of a DNA sequence at a given locus is an allele. The modern evolutionary synthesis defines evolution as the change in the relative frequencies of alleles in a population. The variation between different DNA codings (alleles) at various loci is thus considered responsible for evolutionary change. Genetic variation is the variation in the genetic material of a population, and includes the nuclear, mitochodrial, ribosomal genomes as well as the genomes of other organelles. ... Individuals in the mollusk species Donax variabilis show diverse coloration and patterning in their phenotypes. ... The genotype is the specific genetic makeup (the specific genome) of an individual, in the form of DNA. Together with the environmental variation that influences the individual, it codes for the phenotype of that individual. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions for the development and function of living organisms. ... Figure 1: A representation of a condensed eukaryotic chromosome, as seen during cell division. ... Short and long arms Chromosome. ... In genetics, an allele (pronounced al-eel or al-e-ul) is any one of a number of viable DNA codings occupying a given locus (position) on a chromosome. ... The modern evolutionary synthesis (often referred to simply as the new synthesis, the modern synthesis, the evolutionary synthesis, neo-Darwinian synthesis or neo-Darwinism), generally denotes the integration of Charles Darwins theory of the evolution of species by natural selection, Gregor Mendels theory of genetics as the basis... Allele frequency is a measure of the relative frequency of an allele on a genetic locus in a population. ...


Genetic variation is often the result of a new mutation in a single individual; in subsequent generations, the frequency of that variant may fluctuate in the population, becoming more or less prevalent relative to other alleles at the site. All evolutionary forces act by driving this change in allele frequency in one direction or another. Variation disappears when an allele reaches the point of fixation—when it either reaches a frequency of zero and disappears from the population, or reaches a frequency of one and replaces the ancestral allele entirely. In population genetics, fixation occurs when every individual within a population has the same allele at a particular locus. ...


Most sites in the complete DNA sequence, or genome, of a species are identical in all individuals in the population. Consequently, relatively small genotypic changes can lead to dramatic phenotypic ones. Sites with more than one allele are called polymorphic, or segregating, sites. Polymorphism leads to distinct groups of traits arising within the same species, such as different hair colors or sexes. Interactions between a genotype and the environment may also affect the phenotype, as reflected in developmental and phenotypic plasticity. In biology the genome of an organism is the whole hereditary information of an organism that is encoded in the DNA (or, for some viruses, RNA). ... In biology, polymorphism (from Greek: poly many, morph form) can be defined as discontinuous genetic variation that results in the occurrence of several different forms or types of individuals among the members of a single species. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... We dont have an article called Phenotypic plasticity Start this article Search for Phenotypic plasticity in. ...


Heredity

Main article: Heredity
A section of a model of a DNA molecule. Also: animated version.
A section of a model of a DNA molecule.[11] Also: animated version.

Gregor Mendel's work provided the first firm basis to the idea that heredity occurred in discrete units. He noticed several traits in peas that occur in only one of two forms (e.g., the peas were either "round" or "wrinkled"), and was able to show that the traits were: heritable (passed from parent to offspring); discrete (i.e., if one parent had round peas and the other wrinkled, the progeny were not intermediate, but either round or wrinkled); and distributed to progeny in a well-defined and predictable manner (Mendelian inheritance). His research laid the foundation for the concept of discrete heritable traits, known today as genes. After Mendel's work was "rediscovered" in 1900, the concepts involved were found to have wide applicability, and it was found that most complex traits were polygenetic and not controlled by single-unit characters. Heredity (the adjective is hereditary) is the transfer of characteristics from parent to offspring, either through their genes or through the social institution called inheritance (for example, a title of nobility is passed from individual to individual according to relevant customs and/or laws). ... Image File history File links ADN_static. ... Image File history File links ADN_animation. ... Gregor Johann Mendel (July 20[1], 1822 – January 6, 1884) was an Augustinian abbot who is often called the father of modern genetics for his study of the inheritance of traits in pea plants. ... Mendelian inheritance (or Mendelian genetics or Mendelism) is a set of primary tenets relating to the transmission of hereditary characteristics from parent organisms to their children; it underlies much of genetics. ... In biology, a trait or character is a genetically inherited feature of an organism. ... For other meanings of this term, see gene (disambiguation). ...


Later research gave a physical basis to the notion of genes, and eventually identified DNA as the genetic material, with genes functioning as discrete elements within DNA. DNA is not perfectly copied, and rare mistakes (mutations) in genes can affect traits that the genes control (e.g., pea shape). The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions for the development and function of living organisms. ...


A gene can have modifications such as DNA methylation, which do not change the nucleotide sequence of a gene, but do result in the epigenetic inheritance of a change in the expression of that gene in a trait. Another epigenetic mechanism is via microRNA and RNA interference, which serve regulatory roles in gene transcription and translation. DNA methylation is a type of chemical modification of DNA that can be inherited without changing the DNA sequence. ... Epigenetics is the study of reversible heritable changes in gene function that occur without a change in the sequence of nuclear DNA. It is also the study of the processes involved in the unfolding development of an organism. ... The stem-loop secondary structure of a pre-microRNA from Brassica oleracea. ... Figure 1. ...


Non-DNA based forms of heritable variation exist, such as transmission of the secondary structures of prions or structural inheritance of patterns in the rows of cilia in protozoans such as Paramecium[12] and Tetrahymena.[13] Investigations continue into whether these mechanisms allow for the production of specific beneficial heritable variation in response to environmental signals. If this were shown to be the case, then some instances of evolution would lie outside of the typical Darwinian framework, which avoids any connection between environmental signals and the production of heritable variation. However, the processes that produce these variations are rather rare, often reversible, and leave the genetic information intact. A prion (IPA: [1]  ) — short for proteinaceous infectious particle — (by analogy to virion) is a type of infectious agent. ... Structural inheritance is the transmission of a trait in a living organism by a self-perpetuating spatial structures. ...


Mutation

Main article: Mutation
Mutation can occur because of "copy errors" during DNA replication.
Mutation can occur because of "copy errors" during DNA replication.

Genetic variation arises due to random mutations that occur at a certain rate in the genomes of all organisms. Mutations are permanent, transmissible changes to the genetic material (usually DNA or RNA) of a cell, and can be caused by: "copying errors" in the genetic material during cell division; by exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. In multicellular organisms, mutations can be subdivided into germline mutations that occur in the gametes and thus can be passed on to progeny, and somatic mutations that can lead to the malfunction or death of a cell and can cause cancer. It has been suggested that mutant be merged into this article or section. ... DNA replication. ... DNA replication. ... The word random is used to express lack of purpose, cause, order, or predictability in non-scientific parlance. ... In biology the genome of an organism is the whole hereditary information of an organism that is encoded in the DNA (or, for some viruses, RNA). ... Genetic material is used to store the genetic information of an organic life form. ... Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a nucleic acid polymer consisting of nucleotide monomers. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell. Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green). ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Radioactive decay is the set of various processes by which unstable atomic nuclei emit subatomic particles (radiation). ... Groups I: dsDNA viruses II: ssDNA viruses III: dsRNA viruses IV: (+)ssRNA viruses V: (-)ssRNA viruses VI: ssRNA-RT viruses VII: dsDNA-RT viruses A virus is a microscopic particle (ranging in size from 20 - 300 nm) that can infect the cells of a biological organism. ... Gametes, from the ancient Greek γαμετης (spouse), are the specialized germ cells that come together during fertilization (conception) in organisms that reproduce sexually. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these cells to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ...


Mutations that are not affected by natural selection are called neutral mutations. Their frequency in the population is governed by mutation rate, genetic drift and selective pressure on linked alleles. It is understood that most of a species' genome, in the absence of selection, undergoes a steady accumulation of neutral mutations. In genetics, a neutral mutation is a mutation that occurs in an amino acid codon (presumably within an mRNA molecule) which results in the use of a different, but chemically similar, amino acid. ...


Individual genes can be affected by point mutations, also known as SNPs, in which a single base pair is altered. The substitution of a single base pair may or may not affect the function of the gene, while deletions and insertions of base pairs usually results in a non-functional gene.[14] A point mutation, or substitution, is a type of mutation that causes the replacement of a single base nucleotide with another nucleotide. ... A Single Nucleotide Polymorphism or SNP (pronounced snip) is a DNA sequence variation occurring when a single nucleotide - A, T, C, or G - in the genome (or other shared sequence) differs between members of a species (or between paired chromosomes in an individual). ... Base pairs, of a DNA molecule. ...


Mobile elements, transposons, make up a major fraction of the genomes of plants and animals and appear to have played a significant role in the evolution of genomes. These mobile insertional elements can jump within a genome and alter existing genes and gene networks to produce evolutionary change and diversity.[15] Transposons are sequences of DNA that can move around to different positions within the genome of a single cell, a process called transposition. ...


On the other hand, gene duplications, which may occur via a number of mechanisms, are believed to be one major source of raw material for evolving new genes as tens to hundreds of genes are duplicated in animal genomes every million years.[16] Most genes belong to larger "families" of genes derived from a common ancestral gene (two genes from a species that are in the same family are dubbed "paralogs"). Another mechanism causing gene duplication is intergenic recombination, particularly "exon shuffling", i.e., an aberrant recombination that joins the "upstream" part of one gene with the "downstream" part of another.[17] Genome duplications and chromosome duplications also appear to have served a significant role in evolution. Genome duplication has been the driving force in the Teleostei genome evolution, where up to four genome duplications are thought to have happened, resulting in species with more than 250 chromosomes. Schematic of a region of a chromosome before and after a duplication event Gene duplication occurs when an error in homologous recombination, a retrotransposition event, or duplication of an entire chromosome leads to the duplication of a region of DNA containing a gene [1]. The significance of this process for... In biology, two or more structures are said to be homologous if they are alike because of shared ancestry. ... Polyploidy refers to cells or organisms that contain more than two copies of each of their chromosomes. ... Figure 1: A representation of a condensed eukaryotic chromosome, as seen during cell division. ... Orders See text The Actinopterygii are the ray-finned fish. ...


Large chromosomal rearrangements do not necessarily change gene function, but do generally result in reproductive isolation, and, by definition, speciation; in sexual organisms, species are usually defined by the ability to interbreed). An example of this mechanism is the fusion of two chromosomes in the Homo genus that produced human chromosome 2; this fusion did not occur in the chimpanzee lineage, resulting in two separate chromosomes in extant chimpanzees. Charles Darwins first sketch of an evolutionary tree from his First Notebook on Transmutation of Species (1837) Speciation is the evolutionary process by which new biological species arise. ... Species Homo sapiens sapiens See text for extinct species. ... Type species Simia troglodytes Blumenbach, 1775 distribution of Species Pan troglodytes Pan paniscus Chimpanzee, often shortened to chimp, is the common name for the two extant species in the genus Pan. ... An evolutionary lineage (also called a clade) is composed of species, taxa, or individuals that are related by descent from a common ancestor. ...


Horizontal gene transfer

A phylogenetic tree of all extant organisms, based on 16S rRNA gene sequence data, showing the evolutionary history of the three domains of life, bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes. Originally proposed by Carl Woese.
A phylogenetic tree of all extant organisms, based on 16S rRNA gene sequence data, showing the evolutionary history of the three domains of life, bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes. Originally proposed by Carl Woese.

Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is any process in which an organism transfers genetic material to another organism that is not its offspring. This mechanism allows for the transfer of genetic material between unrelated organisms and is a form of gene flow. Image File history File links Phylogenetic_tree. ... Image File history File links Phylogenetic_tree. ... A phylogenetic tree, also called an evolutionary tree or a tree of life, is a tree showing the evolutionary interrelationships among various species or other entities that are believed to have a common ancestor. ... A non-coding RNA (ncRNA) is any RNA molecule that is not translated into a protein. ... For other meanings of this term, see gene (disambiguation). ... The three-domain system is a biological classification introduced by Carl Woese in 1990 that emphasizes his separation of prokaryotes into two groups, originally called Eubacteria and Archaebacteria. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... Phyla / Classes Phylum Crenarchaeota Phylum Euryarchaeota     Halobacteria     Methanobacteria     Methanococci     Methanopyri     Archaeoglobi     Thermoplasmata     Thermococci Phylum Korarchaeota Phylum Nanoarchaeota Archaea (; from Greek αρχαία, ancient ones; singular Archaeum, Archaean, or Archaeon), also called Archaebacteria (), is a major division of living organisms. ... Kingdoms Animalia - Animals Fungi Plantae - Plants Protista A eukaryote (IPA: ) is an organism with a complex cell or cells, in which the genetic material is organized into a membrane-bound nucleus or nuclei. ... Carl Richard Woese (born July 15, 1928, Syracuse, New York) is an American microbiologist famous for defining the Archaea (a new domain or kingdom of life) in 1977 by phylogenetic taxonomy of 16S ribosomal RNA, a technique pioneered by Woese and which is now standard practice. ... Horizontal gene transfer (HGT), also Lateral gene transfer (LGT), is any process in which an organism transfers genetic material to another cell that is not its offspring. ...


Many mechanisms for horizontal gene transfer have been observed, such as antigenic shift, reassortment, and hybridization. Viruses can transfer genes between species via transduction. Bacteria can incorporate genes from other dead bacteria or plasmids via transformation, exchange genes with living bacteria via conjugation, and have plasmids "set up residence separate from the host's genome".[18] Hybridization is highly significant in plant speciation,[19] and one out of ten species of birds are known to hybridize.[20] There are also examples of hybridization in mammals and insects;[21] however, this most often results in sterile offspring. Antigenic shift is the process by which two different strains of influenza combine to form a new subtype having a mixture of the surface antigens of the two original strains. ... Reassortment is the exchange of DNA between viruses inside a host cell. ... // In biology, hybrid has two meanings. ... Transduction is the process by which bacterial DNA is moved from one bacterium to another by a virus. ... Figure 1: Schematic drawing of a bacterium with plasmids enclosed. ... Transformation is the genetic alteration of a cell resulting from the introduction, uptake and expression of foreign genetic material (DNA or RNA). ... Bacterial conjugation is the transfer of genetic material between bacteria through cell-to-cell contact. ...


Horizontal gene transfer has been shown to result in the spread of antibiotic resistance across bacterial populations.[22] Furthermore, findings indicate that HGT has been a major mechanism for prokaryotic and eukaryotic evolution.[23][24] Antibiotic resistance is the ability of a micro-organism to withstand the effects of an antibiotic. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... Prokaryotes (pro-KAR-ee-oht) (from Old Greek pro- before + karyon nut or kernel, referring to the cell nucleus, + suffix -otos, pl. ... Kingdoms Animalia - Animals Fungi Plantae - Plants Protista A eukaryote (IPA: ) is an organism with a complex cell or cells, in which the genetic material is organized into a membrane-bound nucleus or nuclei. ...


Horizontal gene transfer complicates the inference of the phylogeny of life, as the original metaphor of a tree of life no longer fits. Rather, since genetic information is passed to other organisms and other species in addition to being passed from parent to offspring, "biologists [should] use the metaphor of a mosaic to describe the different histories combined in individual genomes and use [the] metaphor of a net to visualize the rich exchange and cooperative effects of HGT among microbes".[25] In biology, phylogenetics (Greek: phylon = tribe, race and genetikos = relative to birth, from genesis = birth) is the study of evolutionary relatedness among various groups of organisms (e. ...


Mechanisms of evolution

Selection and adaptation

Main articles: Natural selection and Adaptation
A peacock's tail is the canonical example of sexual selection.
A peacock's tail is the canonical example of sexual selection.

Natural selection comes from differences in survival and reproduction. Differential mortality is the survival rate of individuals to their reproductive age. Differential fertility is the total genetic contribution to the next generation. Note that, whereas mutations and genetic drift are random, natural selection is not, as it preferentially selects for different mutations based on differential fitnesses. For example, rolling dice is random, but always picking the higher number on two rolled dice is not random. The central role of natural selection in evolutionary theory has given rise to a strong connection between that field and the study of ecology. The Galápagos Islands hold 13 species of finches that are closely related and differ most markedly in the shape of their beaks. ... A biological adaptation is an anatomical structure, physiological process or behavioral trait of an organism that has evolved over a period of time by the process of natural selection such that it increases the expected long-term reproductive success of the organism. ... Download high resolution version (800x638, 152 KB)Peacock displaying. ... Download high resolution version (800x638, 152 KB)Peacock displaying. ... Peacock re-directs here; for alternate uses see Peacock (disambiguation). ... Illustration from The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex by Charles Darwin showing the Tufted Coquette Lophornis ornatus, female on left, ornamented male on right. ... Random redirects here. ... Ernst Haeckel coined the term oekologie in 1866. ...


Natural selection can be subdivided into two categories: ecological selection occurs when organisms that survive and reproduce increase the frequency of their genes in the gene pool over those that do not survive; and sexual selection occurs when organisms which are more attractive to the opposite sex because of their features reproduce more and thus increase the frequency of those features in the gene pool. Ecological selection (or environmental selection or survival selection or individual selection or asexual selection) refers to natural selection minus sexual selection, i. ... Illustration from The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex by Charles Darwin showing the Tufted Coquette Lophornis ornatus, female on left, ornamented male on right. ...


Natural selection operates on mutations in a number of different ways. Arguably the most common form of selection is stabilizing selection, which decreases the frequency of harmful mutations; "living fossils" may be a result of this. Other forms of natural selection include directional selection, which increases the frequency of a beneficial mutation, and artificial selection, the purposeful breeding of a species. Stabilizing selection, also known as purifying selection or negative selection, is a type of natural selection in which genetic diversity decreases as the population stabilizes on a particular trait value. ... Living fossil is a term for any living species (or clade) of organism which closely resembles species otherwise only known from fossils and has no close living relatives. ... In population genetics, directional selection (sometimes referred to as positive selection) occurs when natural selection favors a single allele and therefore allele frequency continuously shifts in one direction. ... This Chihuahua mix and Great Dane show the wide range of dog breed sizes created using artificial selection. ...


Through the process of natural selection, organisms become better adapted to their environments. Adaptation is any evolutionary process that increases the fitness of the individual, or sometimes the trait that confers increased fitness, e.g., a stronger prehensile tail or greater visual acuity. Note that adaptation is context-sensitive; a trait that increases fitness in one environment may decrease it in another. A biological adaptation is an anatomical structure, physiological process or behavioral trait of an organism that has evolved over a period of time by the process of natural selection such that it increases the expected long-term reproductive success of the organism. ... Fitness (often denoted in population genetics models) is a central concept in evolutionary theory. ...


Most biologists believe that adaptation occurs through the accumulation of many mutations of small effect. However, macromutation is an alternative process for adaptation that involves a single, very large-scale mutation. Most biologists believe that adaptation occurs through the accumulation of small mutations. ...


Recombination

Main article: Genetic recombination

In asexual organisms, variants in genes on the same chromosome will always be inherited together—they are linked, by virtue of being on the same DNA molecule. However, sexual organisms, in the production of gametes, shuffle linked alleles on homologous chromosomes inherited from the parents via meiotic recombination. This shuffling allows independent assortment of alleles (mutations) in genes to be propagated in the population independently. This allows bad mutations to be purged and beneficial mutations to be retained more efficiently than in asexual populations. It has been suggested that chromosomal crossover be merged into this article or section. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Not to be confused with miosis. ... Recombination usually refers to the biological process of genetic recombination and meiosis, a genetic event that occurs during the formation of sperm and egg cells. ... Mendelian inheritance (or Mendelian genetics or Mendelism) is a set of primary tenets relating to the transmission of hereditary characteristics from parent organisms to their children; it underlies much of genetics. ...


However, the meitoic recombination rate is not very high - on the order of one crossover (recombination event between homologous chromosomes) per chromosome arm per generation. Therefore, linked alleles are not perfectly shuffled away from each other, but tend to be inherited together. This tendency may be measured by comparing the co-occurrence of two alleles, usually quantified as linkage disequilibrium (LD). A set of alleles that are often co-propagated is called a haplotype. Strong haplotype blocks can be a product of strong positive selection. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) is the non-random association of alleles at two or more loci on a chromosome. ... A haplotype, a contraction of the phrase haploid genotype, is the genetic constitution of an individual chromosome. ...


Recombination is mildly mutagenic, which is one of the proposed reasons why it occurs with limited frequency. Recombination also breaks up gene combinations that have been successful in previous generations, and hence should be opposed by selection. However, recombination could be favoured by negative frequency-dependent selection (this is when rare variants increase in frequency) because it leads to more individuals with new and rare gene combinations being produced.


When alleles cannot be separated by recombination (for example in mammalian Y chromosomes), there is an observable reduction in effective population size, known as the Hill-Robertson effect, and the successive establishment of bad mutations, known as Muller's ratchet. The human Y chromosome is one of two sex chromosomes, it contains the genes that cause testis development, thus determining maleness. ... The effective population size (Ne) is defined as the number of breeding individuals in an idealized population that would show the same amount of dispersion of allele frequencies under random genetic drift or the same amount of inbreeding as the population under consideration (Sewall Wright). ... Hill and Robertson (1966) found an effect that explains why recombination is evolutionarily selected for. ... In evolutionary genetics, Mullers ratchet is the name given to the process by which the genomes of an asexual population accumulate deleterious mutations in an irreversible manner (hence the word ratchet), a process which the genomes of sexual populations can easily reverse thanks to recombination. ...


Genetic drift

Main article: Genetic drift

Genetic drift is the change in allele frequency from one generation to the next as a result of the statistical effect of chance. The frequency of an allele in the offspring generation will vary according to a probability distribution of the frequency of the allele in the parent generation. Thus, over time even in the absence of selection upon the alleles, allele frequencies tend to "drift" upward or downward, eventually becoming "fixed" - that is, going to 0% or 100% frequency. Thus, fluctuations in allele frequency between successive generations may result in some alleles disappearing from the population due to chance alone. Two separate populations that begin with the same allele frequencies therefore might drift apart by random fluctuation into two divergent populations with different allele sets (for example, alleles present in one population could be absent in the other, or vice versa). In population genetics, genetic drift is the statistical effect that results from the influence that chance has on the success of alleles (variants of a gene). ...


Gene flow and population structure

Main articles: Gene flow and Population genetics
Map of the world showing distribution of camelids. Solid black lines indicate possible migration routes.
Map of the world showing distribution of camelids. Solid black lines indicate possible migration routes.

Gene flow, also called migration, is the exchange of genetic variation between populations, when geography and culture are not obstacles. Ernst Mayr thought that gene flow is likely to be homogenising, and therefore counteracting selective adaptation. Obstacles to gene flow result in reproductive isolation, a necessary condition for speciation. Gene flow (also known as gene migration) is the transfer of genes from one population to another. ... Population genetics is the study of the distribution of and change in allele frequencies under the influence of the four evolutionary forces: natural selection, genetic drift, mutation, and migration. ... Image File history File links Created by Jerry Crimson Mann 10:57, 2 August 2005 (UTC). ... Image File history File links Created by Jerry Crimson Mann 10:57, 2 August 2005 (UTC). ... Species  Lama glama  Lama guanicoe  Vicugna pacos  Vicugna vicugna  Camelus dromedarius  Camelus bactrianus The four llamas and two camels are camelids: members of the biological family Camelidae, the only family in the suborder Tylopoda. ... Gene flow (also known as gene migration) is the transfer of genes from one population to another. ... This article has been identified as possibly containing errors. ... An important concept in evolutionary biology, reproductive isolation is a category of mechanisms that prevent two or more populations from exchanging genes. ... Charles Darwins first sketch of an evolutionary tree from his First Notebook on Transmutation of Species (1837) Speciation is the evolutionary process by which new biological species arise. ...


The free movement of alleles through a population may also be impeded by population structure, the size and geographical distribution of a population. For example, most real-world populations are not actually fully interbreeding; geographic proximity has a strong influence on the movement of alleles within the population. Population structure has profound effects on possible mechanisms of evolution.


The effect of genetic drift depends strongly on the size of the population: drift is important in small mating populations, where chance fluctuations from generation to generation can be large. The relative importance of natural selection and genetic drift in determining the fate of new mutations also depends on the population size and the strength of selection. Natural selection is predominant in large populations, while genetic drift is in small populations. Finally, the time for an allele to become fixed in the population by genetic drift (that is, for all individuals in the population to carry that allele) depends on population size—smaller populations require a shorter time for fixation.


An example of the effect of population structure is the founder effect, in which a population temporarily has very few individuals as a result of a migration or population bottleneck, and therefore loses much genetic variation. In this case, a single, rare allele may suddenly increase very rapidly in frequency within a specific population if it happened to be prevalent in a small number of "founder" individuals. The frequency of the allele in the resulting population can be much higher than otherwise expected, especially for deleterious, disease-causing alleles. Since population size has a profound effect on the relative strengths of genetic drift and natural selection, changes in population size can alter the dynamics of these processes considerably. Simple illustration of founder effect. ... A population bottleneck (or genetic bottleneck) is an evolutionary event in which a significant percentage of a population or species is killed or otherwise prevented from reproducing, and the population is reduced by 50% or more, often by several orders of magnitude. ...


Speciation and extinction

Main articles: Speciation and Extinction
An Allosaurus skeleton.
An Allosaurus skeleton.

Speciation is the process by which new biological species arise. This may take place by various mechanisms. Allopatric speciation occurs in populations that become isolated geographically, such as by habitat fragmentation or migration.[26] Sympatric speciation occurs when new species emerge in the same geographic area.[27][28] Ernst Mayr's peripatric speciation is a type of speciation that exists in between the extremes of allopatry and sympatry. Peripatric speciation is a critical underpinning of the theory of punctuated equilibrium. An example of rapid sympatric speciation can be clearly observed in the triangle of U, where new species of Brassica sp. have been made by the fusing of separate genomes from related plants. Charles Darwins first sketch of an evolutionary tree from his First Notebook on Transmutation of Species (1837) Speciation is the evolutionary process by which new biological species arise. ... The Dodo, shown here in illustration, is an often-cited[1] example of modern extinction. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 119 KB)Photo taken at Canterbury Museum in Christchurch, New Zealand File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 119 KB)Photo taken at Canterbury Museum in Christchurch, New Zealand File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Species type (Marsh, 1878) Paul, 1987 Mateus , 2006 jimmadseni Chure, 2000 vide Glut, 2003 Synonyms Creosaurus Marsh, 1878 Labrosaurus Marsh, 1879 Camptonotus Marsh, 1879  ?Epanterias Cope, 1878 Allosaurus (IPA: ) was a large (up to 11. ... Charles Darwins first sketch of an evolutionary tree from his First Notebook on Transmutation of Species (1837) Speciation is the evolutionary process by which new biological species arise. ... Allopatric speciation, also known as geographic speciation, occurs when populations physically isolated by an extrinsic barrier evolve intrinsic (genetic) reproductive isolation such that if the barrier between the populations breaks down, individuals of the two populations can no longer interbreed. ... Habitat fragmentation is a process of environmental change important in evolution and conservation biology. ... Sympatry is one of three theoretical models for the phenomenon of speciation. ... This article has been identified as possibly containing errors. ... Peripatric speciation (also known as Parapatry) is a type of speciation in the theory of natural selection. ... Punctuated equilibrium (or punctuated equilibria) is a theory in evolutionary biology which states that most sexually reproducing species will show little to no evolutionary change throughout their history. ... The Triangle of U is a theory which describes the evolution and relationships between members of the plant genus Brassica. ...


One common misconception about evolution is the idea that if humans evolved from monkeys, monkeys should no longer exist. This misunderstands speciation, which frequently involves a subset of a population cladogenetically splitting off before speciating, rather than an entire species simply turning into a new one. Cladogenesis is particularly common when two subsets of a population are isolated from each other. Additionally, biologists have never claimed that humans evolved from monkeys—only that humans and monkeys share a common ancestor, as do all organisms.[29] Cladogenesis is an evolutionary splitting event in which each branch and its smaller branches is a clade; an evolutionary mechanism and a process of adaptive evolution that leads to the development of a greater variety of animals or plants. ...


Extinction is the disappearance of species (i.e., gene pools). The moment of extinction is generally defined as occurring at the death of the last individual of that species. Extinction is not an unusual event on a geological time scale—species regularly appear through speciation, and disappear through extinction. The Permian-Triassic extinction event was the Earth's most severe extinction event, rendering extinct 90% of all marine species and 70% of all terrestrial vertebrate species. In the Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction event, many forms of life perished (including approximately 50% of all genera), the most commonly mentioned among them being the non-avian dinosaurs. The Holocene extinction event is a current mass extinction, involving the rapid extinction of tens or hundreds of thousands of species each year. Scientists consider human activities to be the primary cause of the ongoing extinction event, as well as the related influence of climate change.[30] The Dodo, shown here in illustration, is an often-cited[1] example of modern extinction. ... The gene pool of a species or a population is the complete set of unique alleles that would be found by inspecting the genetic material of every living member of that species or population. ... The table and timeline of geologic periods presented here is in accordance with the dates and nomenclature proposed by the International Commission on Stratigraphy. ... The Permian-Triassic (P-T or PT) extinction event, sometimes informally called the Great Dying, was an extinction event that occurred approximately 251 million years ago (mya), forming the boundary between the Permian and Triassic geologic periods. ... An extinction event (also known as: mass extinction; extinction-level event, ELE) occurs when there is a sharp decrease in the number of species in a relatively short period of time. ... Badlands near Drumheller, Alberta where erosion has exposed the KT boundary. ... For other uses of the word, please see Genus (disambiguation). ... Orders & Suborders Saurischia Sauropodomorpha Theropoda Ornithischia Thyreophora Ornithopoda Marginocephalia Dinosaurs were vertebrate animals that dominated the terrestrial ecosystem for over 160 million years, first appearing approximately 230 million years ago. ... The Dodo, a bird of Mauritius, became extinct during the mid-late 17th century after humans destroyed the forests where the birds made their homes and introduced animals that ate their eggs. ... It has been suggested that Global warming in popular culture be merged into this article or section. ...


Cooperation

Generally mathematical models incorporating mutation and natural selection have been used to model adaptation and evolution. Recent trends now incorporate "game theory" as more applicable to generating reliable models.[31] This work and others studies have focused attention on cooperation as a fundamental property needed for evolution to construct new levels of organization. Selfish replicators sacrificing their own reproductive potential to cooperate seems paradoxical in a competitive world. However a number of mechanisms have demonstrated the capacity to generate cooperation, and even altruism, such as kin selection, direct reciprocity, indirect reciprocity, network reciprocity, and group selection. The ubiquity of cooperation in the natural world and studies from the last twenty years reveal cooperation as a significant principle in constructive evolution.[32][33] Game theory is most often described as a branch of applied mathematics and economics that studies situations where players choose different actions in an attempt to maximize their returns. ... Altruism is a well-documented animal behaviour, which appears most obviously in kin relationships but may also be evident amongst wider social groups. ...


Evidence of evolution

Main article: Evidence of evolution
Tiktaalik in context: one of many species that track the evolutionary development of fish fins into tetrapod limbs.
Tiktaalik in context: one of many species that track the evolutionary development of fish fins into tetrapod limbs.

Evolution has left numerous signs of the histories of different species. Fossils, along with the comparative anatomy of present-day organisms, constitute the morphological, or anatomical, record. By comparing the anatomies of both modern and extinct species, paleontologists can infer the lineages of those species. While on board HMS Beagle, Charles Darwin collected numerous specimens, many new to science, which supported his later theory of evolution by natural selection. ... Image File history File links Fishapods. ... Image File history File links Fishapods. ... Binomial name Tiktaalik roseae Daeschler, Shubin & Jenkins, 2006 Tiktaalik (IPA pronunciation: ) is a genus of extinct sarcopterygian (lobe-finned) fishes from the late Devonian period, with many features akin to those of tetrapods (four-legged animals). ... Three small ammonite fossils, each approximately 1. ... Comparative anatomy is the study of similarities and differences in the anatomy of organisms. ... Anatomical drawing of the human muscles from the Encyclopédie. ...


The development of molecular genetics, and particularly of DNA sequencing, has allowed biologists to study the record of evolution left in organisms' genetic structures. The degrees of similarity and difference in the DNA sequences of modern species allows geneticists to reconstruct their lineages. It is from DNA sequence comparisons that figures such as the 96% genotypic similarity between humans and chimpanzees are obtained.[34][35] Molecular genetics is the field of biology which studies the structure and function of genes at a molecular level. ...


Other evidence used to demonstrate evolutionary lineages includes the geographical distribution of species. For instance, monotremes and most marsupials are found only in Australia, showing that their common ancestor with placental mammals lived before the submerging of the ancient land bridge between Australia and Asia. Families Kollikodontidae (extinct) Ornithorhynchidae - Platypus Tachyglossidae - Echidnas Steropodontidae (extinct) Monotremes are mammals that are best known for laying eggs, instead of giving birth to live young like marsupials and placental mammals (Eutheria). ... Orders Didelphimorphia Paucituberculata Microbiotheria Dasyuromorphia Peramelemorphia Notoryctemorphia Diprotodontia Marsupials are mammals in which the female typically has a pouch (called the marsupium, from which the name Marsupial derives) in which it rears its young through early infancy. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Scientists correlate all of the above evidence, drawn from paleontology, anatomy, genetics, and geography, with other information about the history of Earth. For instance, paleoclimatology attests to periodic ice ages during which the world's climate was much cooler, and these are often found to match up with the spread of species which are better-equipped to deal with the cold, such as the woolly mammoth. Paleontology, palaeontology or palæontology (see spelling differences) is the study of the history and development of life on Earth, including that of ancient plants and animals, based on the fossil record (evidence of their prehistoric existence as typically preserved in sedimentary rocks). ... The planet Earth, photographed in the year 1972. ... Paleoclimatology is the study of climate change taken on the scale of the entire history of the Earth. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400 000 years For the animated movie, see Ice Age (movie). ... Binomial name Mammuthus primigenius Blumenbach, 1799 For the rock band, see Wooly Mammoth (band). ...


Morphological evidence

Letter c in the picture indicates the undeveloped hind legs of a baleen whale, vestigial remnants of its terrestrial ancestors.
Letter c in the picture indicates the undeveloped hind legs of a baleen whale, vestigial remnants of its terrestrial ancestors.

Fossils are critical evidence for estimating when various lineages originated. Since fossilization of an organism is an uncommon occurrence, usually requiring hard parts (like teeth, bone, or pollen), the fossil record provides only sparse and intermittent information about ancestral lineages.[36] Image File history File links Skelett_vom_Wal_MK1888_ohne_Text. ... Image File history File links Skelett_vom_Wal_MK1888_ohne_Text. ... Families Balaenidae Balaenopteridae Eschrichtiidae Neobalaenidae Scientifically known as the Mysticeti, the baleen whales, also called whalebone whales or great whales, form a suborder of the order cetacea. ... The human vermiform appendix is a vestigial structure; it no longer retains its original function. ... Three small ammonite fossils, each approximately 1. ...


The fossil record provides several types of data important to the study of evolution. First, the fossil record contains the earliest known examples of life itself, as well as the earliest occurrences of individual lineages. For example, the first complex animals date from the early Cambrian period, approximately 520 million years ago. Second, the records of individual species yield information regarding the patterns and rates of evolution, showing whether, for example, speciation occurs gradually and incrementally, or in relatively brief intervals of geologic time. Thirdly, the fossil record is a document of large-scale patterns and events in the history of life. For example, mass extinctions frequently resulted in the loss of entire groups of species, while leaving others relatively unscathed. Recently, molecular biologists have used the time since divergence of related lineages to calibrate the rate at which mutations accumulate, and at which the genomes of different lineages evolve. An evolutionary lineage (also called a clade) is composed of species, taxa, or individuals that are related by descent from a common ancestor. ... The Early Cambrian is an geological epoch that is part of the Cambrian Era. ... An extinction event (also known as: mass extinction; extinction-level event, ELE) occurs when there is a sharp decrease in the number of species in a relatively short period of time. ... Genome is also a popular science book by Matt Ridley. ...


Phylogenetics, the study of the ancestry of species, has revealed that structures with similar internal organization may perform divergent functions. Vertebrate limbs are a common example of such homologous structures. The appendages on bat wings, for example, are very structurally similar to human hands, and may constitute a vestigial structure. Vestigial structures are idiosyncratic anatomical features such as the panda's "thumb", which indicate how an organism's evolutionary lineage constrains its adaptive development. Other examples of vestigial structures include the degenerate eyes of blind cave-dwelling fish, and the presence of hip bones in whales and snakes. Such structures may exist with little or no function in a more current organism, yet have a clear function in an ancestral species. Examples of vestigial structures in humans include wisdom teeth, the coccyx and the vermiform appendix. In biology, phylogenetics (Greek: phylon = tribe, race and genetikos = relative to birth, from genesis = birth) is the study of evolutionary relatedness among various groups of organisms (e. ... Classes and Clades See below Male and female Superb Fairy-wren Vertebrates are members of the subphylum Vertebrata (within the phylum Chordata), specifically, those chordates with backbones or spinal columns. ... In biology, two or more structures are said to be homologous if they are alike because of shared ancestry. ... The human vermiform appendix is a vestigial structure; it no longer retains its original function. ... In anatomy, a sesamoid bone is a bone embedded within a tendon. ... Wisdom teeth are third molars that usually appear between the ages of 17 and 24 (although they may appear when older, younger, or may not appear at all). ... The coccyx is formed of four fused vertebrae. ... In human anatomy, the vermiform appendix (or appendix, pl. ...


These anatomical similarities in extant and fossil organisms can give evidence of the relationships between different groups of organisms. Important fossil evidence includes the connection of distinct classes of organisms by so-called "transitional" species, such as the Archaeopteryx, which provided early evidence for intermediate species between dinosaurs and birds,[37] and the recently-discovered Tiktaalik, which clarifies the development from fish to animals with four limbs.[38] A transitional fossil or transitional form is the fossilized remains of a life form that illustrates an evolutionary transition. ... Binomial name Archaeopteryx lithographica Meyer, 1861 Synonyms see text Archaeopteryx (from Ancient Greek αρχαιος archaios meaning ancient and πτερυξ pteryx meaning feather or wing;[1] pronounced ), from the late Jurassic Period (Kimmeridgian stage, 155-150 million years ago) of what is now Germany, is the earliest and most primitive known avian. ... Orders & Suborders Saurischia Sauropodomorpha Theropoda Ornithischia Thyreophora Ornithopoda Marginocephalia Dinosaurs were vertebrate animals that dominated the terrestrial ecosystem for over 160 million years, first appearing approximately 230 million years ago. ... Aves redirects here. ... Binomial name Tiktaalik roseae Daeschler, Shubin & Jenkins, 2006 Tiktaalik (IPA pronunciation: ) is a genus of extinct sarcopterygian (lobe-finned) fishes from the late Devonian period, with many features akin to those of tetrapods (four-legged animals). ... A giant grouper at the Georgia Aquarium Fish are aquatic vertebrates that are typically cold-blooded; covered with scales, and equipped with two sets of paired fins and several unpaired fins. ... Groups See text. ...


Molecular evidence

By comparing the genetic and/or protein sequences of species, we can discern their evolutionary relationships. The resultant phylogenetic trees are typically congruent with traditional taxonomy, and are often used to either strengthen or correct taxonomic classifications. Sequence comparison is considered a measure robust enough to be used to correct erroneous assumptions in the phylogenetic tree in instances where other evidence is scarce. For example, neutral human DNA sequences are approximately 1.2% divergent (based on substitutions) from those of their nearest genetic relative, the chimpanzee, 1.6% from gorillas, and 6.6% from baboons.[39] Genetic sequence evidence thus allows inference and quantification of genetic relatedness between humans and other apes.[40][41] The sequence of the 16S rRNA gene, a vital gene encoding a part of the ribosome, was used to find the broad phylogenetic relationships between all extant life. This analysis, originally done by Carl Woese, resulted in the three-domain system, arguing for two major splits in the early evolution of life. The first split led to modern bacteria, and the subsequent split led to modern archaea and eukaryotes. A phylogenetic tree, also called an evolutionary tree or a tree of life, is a tree showing the evolutionary interrelationships among various species or other entities that are believed to have a common ancestor. ... Type species Simia troglodytes Blumenbach, 1775 distribution of Species Pan troglodytes Pan paniscus Chimpanzee, often shortened to chimp, is the common name for the two extant species in the genus Pan. ... Type species Troglodytes gorilla Savage, 1847 distribution of Gorilla Species Gorilla gorilla Gorilla beringei The gorilla, the largest of the living primates, is a ground-dwelling omnivore that inhabits the forests of Africa. ... Type species Simia hamadryas Linnaeus, 1758 Species Papio hamadryas Papio papio Papio anubis Papio cynocephalus Papio ursinus The five baboon species are some of the largest non-hominid members of the primate order; only the Mandrill and the Drill are larger. ... A non-coding RNA (ncRNA) is any RNA molecule that functions without being translated into a protein. ... Figure 1: Ribosome structure indicating small subunit (A) and large subunit (B). ... Carl Richard Woese (born July 15, 1928, Syracuse, New York) is an American microbiologist famous for defining the Archaea (a new domain or kingdom of life) in 1977 by phylogenetic taxonomy of 16S ribosomal RNA, a technique pioneered by Woese and which is now standard practice. ... The three-domain system is a biological classification introduced by Carl Woese in 1990 that emphasizes his separation of prokaryotes into two groups, originally called Eubacteria and Archaebacteria. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... Phyla / Classes Phylum Crenarchaeota Phylum Euryarchaeota     Halobacteria     Methanobacteria     Methanococci     Methanopyri     Archaeoglobi     Thermoplasmata     Thermococci Phylum Korarchaeota Phylum Nanoarchaeota Archaea (; from Greek αρχαία, ancient ones; singular Archaeum, Archaean, or Archaeon), also called Archaebacteria (), is a major division of living organisms. ... Kingdoms Animalia - Animals Fungi Plantae - Plants Protista A eukaryote (IPA: ) is an organism with a complex cell or cells, in which the genetic material is organized into a membrane-bound nucleus or nuclei. ...


Since metabolic processes do not leave fossils, research into the evolution of the basic cellular processes is done largely by comparison of existing organisms. Many lineages diverged when new metabolic processes appeared, and it is theoretically possible to determine when certain metabolic processes appeared by comparing the traits of the descendants of a common ancestor or by detecting their physical manifestations. As an example, the appearance of oxygen in the earth's atmosphere is linked to the evolution of photosynthesis. Overview of the citric acid cycle The citric acid cycle, one of the central metabolic pathways in aerobic organisms. ... The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants. ...


The proteomic evidence also supports the universal ancestry of life. Vital proteins, such as the ribosome, DNA polymerase, and RNA polymerase, are found in everything from the most primitive bacteria to the most complex mammals. The core part of the protein is conserved across all lineages of life, serving similar functions. Higher organisms have evolved additional protein subunits, largely affecting the regulation and protein-protein interaction of the core. Other overarching similarities between all lineages of extant organisms, such as DNA, RNA, amino acids, and the lipid bilayer, give support to the theory of common descent. The chirality of DNA, RNA, and amino acids is conserved across all known life. As there is no functional advantage to right- or left-handed molecular chirality, the simplest hypothesis is that the choice was made randomly by early organisms and passed on to all extant life through common descent. Further evidence for reconstructing ancestral lineages comes from junk DNA such as pseudogenes, "dead" genes which steadily accumulate mutations.[42] The term proteome was coined by Mark Wilkins in 1995 (1) and is used to describe the entire complement of proteins in a given biological organism or system at a given time, i. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Figure 1: Ribosome structure indicating small subunit (A) and large subunit (B). ... 3D structure of the DNA-binding helix-hairpin-helix motifs in human DNA polymerase beta A DNA polymerase is an enzyme that assists in DNA replication. ... RNAP from pictured during elongation. ... In structural biology, a protein subunit or subunit protein is a single protein molecule that assembles (or coassembles) with other protein molecules to form a multimeric or oligomeric protein. ... Protein-protein interactions refer to the association of protein molecules and the study of these associations from the perspective of biochemistry, signal transduction and networks. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions for the development and function of living organisms. ... Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a nucleic acid polymer consisting of nucleotide monomers. ... Phenylalanine is one of the standard amino acids. ... A diagonal molecular slab from the DPPC lipid bilayer simulation1; color scheme: PO4 - green, N(CH3)3 - violet, water - blue, terminal CH3 - yellow, O - red, glycol C - brown, chain C - grey. ... The term chiral (pronounced ) is used to describe an object which is non-superimposable on its mirror image. ... A group of organisms is said to have common descent if they have a common ancestor. ... In molecular biology, junk DNA is a collective label for the portions of the DNA sequence of a chromosome or a genome for which no function has yet been identified. ... A pseudogene is a nucleotide sequences that is similar to a normal gene, but is not expressed as a functional protein. ...


There is also a large body of molecular evidence for a number of different mechanisms for large evolutionary changes, among them: genome and gene duplication, which facilitates rapid evolution by providing substantial quantities of genetic material under weak or no selective constraints; horizontal gene transfer, the process of transferring genetic material to another cell that is not an organism's offspring, allowing for species to acquire beneficial genes from each other; recombination, capable of reassorting large numbers of different alleles and of establishing reproductive isolation; and endosymbiosis, the incorporation of genetic material and biochemical composition of a separate species, a process observed in organisms such as the protist hatena and used to explain the origin of organelles such as mitochondria and plastids as the absorption of ancient prokaryotic cells into ancient eukaryotic ones.[43][44] Schematic of a region of a chromosome before and after a duplication event Gene duplication occurs when an error in homologous recombination, a retrotransposition event, or duplication of an entire chromosome leads to the duplication of a region of DNA containing a gene [1]. The significance of this process for... Horizontal gene transfer (HGT), also Lateral gene transfer (LGT), is any process in which an organism transfers genetic material to another cell that is not its offspring. ... It has been suggested that chromosomal crossover be merged into this article or section. ... An important concept in evolutionary biology, reproductive isolation is a category of mechanisms that prevent two or more populations from exchanging genes. ... The endosymbiotic theory concerns the origins of mitochondria and plastids (e. ... Hatena (or mysterious) is a new creature discovered in Japan. ... Schematic of typical animal cell, showing subcellular components. ... In cell biology, a mitochondrion is an organelle found in the cells of most eukaryotes. ... Plastids are major organelles found in plants and algae. ... Prokaryotes (pro-KAR-ee-oht) (from Old Greek pro- before + karyon nut or kernel, referring to the cell nucleus, + suffix -otos, pl. ...


Ancestry of organisms

See also: Common descent
Morphologic similarities in the Hominidae family are evidence of common descent.
Morphologic similarities in the Hominidae family are evidence of common descent.

The theory of universal common descent proposes that all organisms on Earth are descended from a common ancestor or ancestral gene pool. Evidence for common descent is inferred from traits shared between all living organisms. In Darwin's day, the evidence of shared traits was based solely on visible observation of morphologic similarities, such as the fact that all birds, even those which do not fly, have wings. Today, there is strong evidence from genetics that all organisms have a common ancestor. For example, every living cell makes use of nucleic acids as its genetic material, and uses the same 20 amino acids as the building blocks for proteins. The universality of these traits strongly suggests common ancestry, because the selection of many of these traits seems arbitrary.[45] A group of organisms is said to have common descent if they have a common ancestor. ... Download high resolution version (1103x660, 307 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1103x660, 307 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Genera The hominids are the members of the biological family Hominidae (the great apes), which includes humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans. ... A group of organisms is said to have common descent if they have a common ancestor. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Phenylalanine is one of the standard amino acids. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ...


History of life

Main article: Timeline of evolution
Precambrian stromatolites in the Siyeh Formation, Glacier National Park. In 2002, William Schopf of UCLA published a controversial paper in the journal Nature arguing that formations such as this possess 3.5 billion year old fossilized algae microbes. If true, they would be the earliest known life on earth.
Precambrian stromatolites in the Siyeh Formation, Glacier National Park. In 2002, William Schopf of UCLA published a controversial paper in the journal Nature arguing that formations such as this possess 3.5 billion year old fossilized algae microbes. If true, they would be the earliest known life on earth.

The origin of life from self-catalytic chemical reactions is not a part of biological evolution, but rather of pre-evolutionary abiogenesis. However, disputes over what defines life make the point at which such increasingly complex sets of reactions became true organisms unclear. Not much is yet known about the earliest developments in life. There is no scientific consensus regarding the relationship of the three domains of organisms (Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukaryota) or regarding the precise reactions involved in abiogenesis. Attempts to shed light on the origin of life generally focus on the behavior of macromolecules—particularly RNA—and the behavior of complex systems. This timeline of the evolution of life outlines the major events in the development of life on the planet Earth. ... |Pre-Cambrian stromatolites in the Siyeh Formation, Glacier National Park File links The following pages link to this file: Evolution Origin of life Panspermia Stromatolite ... |Pre-Cambrian stromatolites in the Siyeh Formation, Glacier National Park File links The following pages link to this file: Evolution Origin of life Panspermia Stromatolite ... The Precambrian (or Pre-Cambrian) is an informal name for the eons of the geologic timescale that came before the current Phanerozoic eon. ... Pre-Cambrian stromatolites in the Siyeh Formation, Glacier National Park. ... There is also a non-adjoining national park in Canada by the same name. ... The University of California, Los Angeles, generally known as UCLA, is a public university whose main campus is located in the affluent Westwood neighborhood of Los Angeles, California, United States. ... First title page, November 4, 1869 Nature is one of the oldest and most reputable scientific journals, first published on 4 November 1869. ... Three small ammonite fossils, each approximately 1. ... A seaweed (Laurencia) up close: the branches are multicellular and only about 1 mm thick. ... Pre-Cambrian stromatolites in the Siyeh Formation, Glacier National Park. ... In chemistry and biology, catalysis is the acceleration (increase in rate) or slowing down of a chemical reaction by means of a substance, called a catalyst, that is itself not consumed by the overall reaction. ... This article focuses on the history of the theory of abiogenesis (the spontaneous generation of life from non-living sources). ... For other uses, see Life (disambiguation), Lives (disambiguation) or Living (disambiguation), Living Things (disambiguation). ... Scientific consensus is the collective judgment, position, and opinion of scientists in a particular field of science at a particular time. ... Phyla / Classes Phylum Crenarchaeota Phylum Euryarchaeota     Halobacteria     Methanobacteria     Methanococci     Methanopyri     Archaeoglobi     Thermoplasmata     Thermococci Phylum Korarchaeota Phylum Nanoarchaeota Archaea (; from Greek αρχαία, ancient ones; singular Archaeum, Archaean, or Archaeon), also called Archaebacteria (), is a major division of living organisms. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... Kingdoms Eukaryotes are organisms with complex cells, in which the genetic material is organized into membrane-bound nuclei. ... A macromolecule is a large molecule with a large molecular mass bonded covalently, but generally the use of the term is restricted to polymers and molecules which structurally include polymers. ... Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a nucleic acid polymer consisting of nucleotide monomers. ... There are many definitions of complexity, therefore many natural, artificial and abstract objects or networks can be considered to be complex systems, and their study (complexity science) is highly interdisciplinary. ...


Fossil evidence indicates that the diversity and complexity of modern life has developed over much of the 4.57 billion year history of Earth. Oxygenic photosynthesis emerged around 3 billion years ago, and the subsequent emergence of an oxygen-rich atmosphere made the development of aerobic cellular respiration possible around 2 billion years ago. In the last billion years, simple multicellular plants and animals began to appear in the oceans. Soon after the emergence of the first animals, the Cambrian explosion, a geologically brief period of remarkable biological diversity, originated all the major body plans, or phyla, of modern animals. This event is now believed to have been triggered by the development of the Hox genes. A color image of Earth as seen from Apollo 17. ... The planet Earth, photographed in the year 1972. ... The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants. ... This article or section should be merged with aerobic metabolism. ... Cellular respiration is a process that describes the metabolic reactions and processes that take place in a cell to obtain chemical energy from fuel molecules. ... The Cambrian explosion of species refers to the geologically sudden appearance in the fossil record of the ancestors of familiar animals, starting about 542 million years ago (Mya). ... Phylum (plural: phyla) is a taxon used in the classification of animals, adopted from the Greek phylai the clan-based voting groups in Greek city-states. ... A homeobox is a DNA sequence found within genes that are involved in the regulation of development (morphogenesis) of animals, fungi and plants. ...


About 500 million years ago (mya), plants and fungi colonized the land, and were soon followed by arthropods and other animals. Amphibians first appeared around 300 mya, followed by reptiles, then mammals around 200 mya and birds around 100 mya. The human genus arose around 2 mya, while the earliest modern humans lived 200 thousand years ago. In astronomy, geology, and paleontology, mya is an acronym for million years ago and is used as a unit of time to denote length of time before the present. ... Divisions Green algae Chlorophyta Charophyta Land plants (embryophytes) Non-vascular plants (bryophytes) Marchantiophyta - liverworts Anthocerotophyta - hornworts Bryophyta - mosses Vascular plants (tracheophytes) †Rhyniophyta - rhyniophytes †Zosterophyllophyta - zosterophylls Lycopodiophyta - clubmosses †Trimerophytophyta - trimerophytes Pteridophyta - ferns and horsetails Seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta - seed ferns Pinophyta - conifers Cycadophyta - cycads Ginkgophyta - ginkgo Gnetophyta - gnetae Magnoliophyta - flowering plants... Divisions Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Glomeromycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota Deuteromycota The fungi (singular fungus) are a kingdom of eukaryotic organisms. ... Subphyla and Classes Subphylum Trilobitomorpha Trilobita - trilobites (extinct) Subphylum Chelicerata Arachnida - spiders,scorpions, etc. ... Subclasses and Orders Order Temnospondyli - extinct Subclass Lepospondyli - extinct Subclass Lissamphibia   Anura   Caudata   Gymnophiona Amphibians (class Amphibia; from Greek αμφις both and βιος life) are a taxon of animals that include all living tetrapods (four-legged vertebrates) that do not have amniotic eggs, are ectotherms, and generally spend part of their time... Subclasses Anapsida Diapsida Synonyms Reptilia Laurenti, 1768 Reptiles are tetrapods and amniotes, animals whose embryos are surrounded by an amniotic membrane, and members of the class Sauropsida. ... Subclasses Allotheria* Order Multituberculata (extinct) Order Volaticotheria (extinct) Order Palaeoryctoides (extinct) Order Triconodonta (extinct) Prototheria Order Monotremata Theria Infraclass Marsupialia Infraclass Eutheria The mammals are the class of vertebrate animals characterized by the production of milk in females for the nourishment of young, from mammary glands present on most species... Aves redirects here. ... Species Homo sapiens sapiens See text for extinct species. ...


Study of evolution

Main article: Evolutionary biology

Evolutionary biology is a subfield of biology concerned with the origin and descent of species, as well as their change, multiplication, and diversity over time. ...

History of modern evolutionary thought

Main article: History of evolutionary thought
Gregor Mendel's work on the inheritance of traits in pea plants (pisum sativum) laid the foundation for genetics, a field greatly associated with evolution.
Gregor Mendel's work on the inheritance of traits in pea plants (pisum sativum) laid the foundation for genetics, a field greatly associated with evolution.
Charles Darwin at age 51, just after publishing The Origin of Species.
Charles Darwin at age 51, just after publishing The Origin of Species.

Although the idea of evolution has existed since classical antiquity, being first discussed by Greek philosophers such as Anaximander, the first convincing exposition of a mechanism by which evolutionary change could occur was not proposed until Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace jointly presented the theory of evolution by natural selection to the Linnean Society of London in separate papers in 1858. Shortly after, the publication of Darwin's On the Origin of Species popularized and provided detailed support for the theory. The history of evolutionary thought is very long, since the idea of biological evolution has existed since ancient times, but the modern theory wasnt established until the 18th and 19th centuries, with scientists such as Jean-Baptiste Lamarck and Charles Darwin. ... File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Gregor Johann Mendel (July 20[1], 1822 – January 6, 1884) was an Augustinian abbot who is often called the father of modern genetics for his study of the inheritance of traits in pea plants. ... Mendelian inheritance (or Mendelian genetics or Mendelism) is a set of primary tenets relating to the transmission of hereditary characteristics from parent organisms to their children; it underlies much of genetics. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Image File history File links Charles_Darwin_aged_51_crop. ... Image File history File links Charles_Darwin_aged_51_crop. ... Charles Robert Darwin (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an eminent English naturalist who achieved lasting fame by convincing the scientific community that species develop over time from a common origin. ... British naturalist Charles Darwins book, The Origin of Species, is one of the pivotal works in scientific literature and arguably the pre-eminent work in biology. ... Anaximander Possibly what Anaximanders map looked like Anaximander (Greek: Αναξίμανδρος)(c. ... Charles Robert Darwin (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an eminent English naturalist who achieved lasting fame by convincing the scientific community that species develop over time from a common origin. ... Alfred Russel Wallace Alfred Russel Wallace, OM, FRS (January 8, 1823 – November 7, 1913) was a British naturalist, explorer, geographer, anthropologist and biologist. ... The Linnean Society of London is the worlds premier society for the study and dissemination of taxonomy. ... Two scientific papers; On the Tendency of Species to form Varieties by Alfred Russel Wallace and on the Perpetuation of Varieties and Species by Natural Means of Selection by Charles Darwin were presented to the Linnean Society of London in 1858 that first publicised Darwin — Wallace theory of evolution... British naturalist Charles Darwins book, The Origin of Species, is one of the pivotal works in scientific literature and arguably the pre-eminent work in biology. ...


However, Darwin had no working mechanism for inheritance. This was provided in 1865 by Gregor Mendel, whose research revealed that distinct traits were inherited in a well-defined and predictable manner.[46] 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... Gregor Johann Mendel (July 20[1], 1822 – January 6, 1884) was an Augustinian abbot who is often called the father of modern genetics for his study of the inheritance of traits in pea plants. ... Mendelian inheritance (or Mendelian genetics or Mendelism) is a set of primary tenets relating to the transmission of hereditary characteristics from parent organisms to their children; it underlies much of genetics. ...


In the 1930s, Darwinian natural selection and Mendelian inheritance were combined to form the modern evolutionary synthesis. In the 1940s, the identification of DNA as the genetic material by Oswald Avery and colleagues, and the articulation of the double-helical structure of DNA by James Watson and Francis Crick, provided a physical basis for the notion that genes were encoded in DNA. Since then, the role of genetics in evolutionary biology has become increasingly central.[47] The modern evolutionary synthesis (often referred to simply as the new synthesis, the modern synthesis, the evolutionary synthesis, neo-Darwinian synthesis or neo-Darwinism), generally denotes the integration of Charles Darwins theory of the evolution of species by natural selection, Gregor Mendels theory of genetics as the basis... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions for the development and function of living organisms. ... Oswald Theodore Avery (October 21, 1877–1955) was a Canadian-born American physician and medical researcher. ... James Dewey Watson KBE(Hon) ForMemRS (born April 6, 1928) is an American scientist, best known as one of the four discoverers of the structure of the DNA molecule. ... Francis Harry Compton Crick OM (8 June 1916 – 28 July 2004) was an English physicist, molecular biologist and neuroscientist, most noted for being one of the co-discoverers of the structure of the DNA molecule in 1953. ... RNA codons. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Academic disciplines

Scholars in a number of academic disciplines continue to document examples of evolution, contributing to a deeper understanding of its underlying mechanisms. Every subdiscipline within biology both informs and is informed by knowledge of the details of evolution, such as in ecological genetics, human evolution, molecular evolution, and phylogenetics. Areas of mathematics (such as bioinformatics), physics, chemistry, and other fields all make important contributions to current understanding of evolutionary mechanisms. Even disciplines as far removed as geology and sociology play a part, since the process of biological evolution has coincided in time and space with the development of both the Earth and human civilization. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Evolutionary biology. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Ecological genetics is the study of genetics (itself a field of biology) from an ecological perspective. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Molecular evolution is the process of the genetic material in populations of organisms changing over time. ... In biology, phylogenetics (Greek: phylon = tribe, race and genetikos = relative to birth, from genesis = birth) is the study of evolutionary relatedness among various groups of organisms (e. ... Map of the human X chromosome (from the NCBI website). ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Evolutionary biology is a subdiscipline of biology concerned with the origin and descent of species, as well as their changes over time. It was originally an interdisciplinary field including scientists from many traditional taxonomically-oriented disciplines. For example, it generally includes scientists who may have a specialist training in particular organisms, such as mammalogy, ornithology, or herpetology, but who use those organisms to answer general questions in evolution. Evolutionary biology as an academic discipline in its own right emerged as a result of the modern evolutionary synthesis in the 1930s and 1940s. It was not until the 1970s and 1980s, however, that a significant number of universities had departments that specifically included the term evolutionary biology in their titles. Evolutionary biology is a subfield of biology concerned with the origin and descent of species, as well as their change, multiplication, and diversity over time. ... In biology, a species is one of the basic units of biodiversity. ... Interdisciplinarity is a type of academic collaboration in which specialists drawn from two or more academic disciplines work together in pursuit of common goals. ... Taxonomy, sometimes alpha taxonomy, is the science of finding, describing and naming organisms, thus giving rise to taxa. ... In zoology, mammalogy is the study of mammals – a class of vertebrates with characteristics such as homeothermic metabolism, fur, four-chambered hearts, and complex nervous systems. ... Ornithology (from the Greek ornis = bird and logos = word/science) is the branch of zoology concerned with the scientific study of birds. ... Herpetology (Greek herpeton = to creep, to ramp and logos = in this context explanation or reason) is the branch of zoology concerned with the study of reptiles and amphibians. ... This is a list of academic disciplines (and academic fields). ... The modern evolutionary synthesis (often referred to simply as the new synthesis, the modern synthesis, the evolutionary synthesis, neo-Darwinian synthesis or neo-Darwinism), generally denotes the integration of Charles Darwins theory of the evolution of species by natural selection, Gregor Mendels theory of genetics as the basis...


Evolutionary developmental biology (informally, evo-devo) is a field of biology that compares the developmental processes of different animals in an attempt to determine the ancestral relationship between organisms and how developmental processes evolved. The discovery of genes regulating development in model organisms allowed for comparisons to be made with genes and genetic networks of related organisms. Evolutionary developmental biology (evolution of development or informally, evo-devo) is a field of biology that compares the developmental processes of different animals in an attempt to determine the ancestral relationship between organisms and how developmental processes evolved. ... For other meanings of this term, see gene (disambiguation). ...


Physical anthropology emerged in the late 19th century as the study of human osteology, and the fossilized skeletal remains of other hominids. At that time, anthropologists debated whether their evidence supported Darwin's claims, because skeletal remains revealed temporal and spatial variation among hominids, but Darwin had not offered an explanation of the specific mechanisms that produce variation. With the recognition of Mendelian genetics and the rise of the modern synthesis, however, evolution became both the fundamental conceptual framework for, and the object of study of, physical anthropologists. In addition to studying skeletal remains, they began to study genetic variation among human populations (population genetics); thus, some physical anthropologists began calling themselves biological anthropologists. Physical anthropology, often called biological anthropology, studies the mechanisms of biological evolution, genetic inheritance, human adaptability and variation, primatology, primate morphology, and the fossil record of human evolution. ... Osteology is the scientific study of bones. ... Genera The hominids are the members of the biological family Hominidae (the great apes), which includes humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans. ... Population genetics is the study of the distribution of and change in allele frequencies under the influence of the four evolutionary forces: natural selection, genetic drift, mutation, and migration. ...


The capability of evolution through selection to produce designs optimized for a particular environment has greatly interested mathematicians, scientists and engineers. There has been some recent success in implementing these ideas for artificial uses, including genetic algorithms, which can find the solution to a multi-dimensional problem more quickly than standard software produced by human intelligent designers, and the use of evolutionary fitness landscapes to optimize the design of a system[48] Evolutionary optimization techniques are particularly useful in situations in which it is easy to determine the quality of a single solution, but hard to go through all possible solutions one by one. A genetic algorithm (or short GA) is a search technique used in computing to find true or approximate solutions to optimization and search problems. ... In evolutionary biology, fitness landscapes or adaptive landscapes are used to visualize the relationship between genotypes (or phenotypes) and replicatory success. ...


Social and religious controversies

This caricature of Charles Darwin as an ape reflects the cultural backlash against evolution and common descent.
This caricature of Charles Darwin as an ape reflects the cultural backlash against evolution and common descent.

Ever since the publication of The Origin of Species in 1859, evolution has been a source of nearly constant controversy. In general, controversy has centered on the philosophical, social, and religious implications of evolution, not on the science of evolution itself; the proposition that biological evolution occurs through the mechanism of natural selection is completely uncontested within the scientific community.[49] The theory of transmutation had early origins in the speculations and hypotheses of Erasmus Darwin, and Jean-Baptiste Lamarck. ... The creation-evolution controversy (also termed the creation vs. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Charles Robert Darwin (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an eminent English naturalist who achieved lasting fame by convincing the scientific community that species develop over time from a common origin. ... Families Hylobatidae Hominidae Apes are the members of the Hominoidea superfamily of primates, which includes humans. ... A group of organisms is said to have common descent if they have a common ancestor. ... British naturalist Charles Darwins book, The Origin of Species, is one of the pivotal works in scientific literature and arguably the pre-eminent work in biology. ... The scientific community consists of the interactions and relationships of scientists. ...


As Darwin recognized early on, perhaps the most controversial aspect of evolutionary thought is its applicability to human beings. Specifically, many object to the idea that all diversity in life, including human beings, arose through natural processes without a need for supernatural intervention. Although many religions, such as Catholicism, have reconciled their beliefs with evolution through theistic evolution, creationists object to evolution on the basis that it contradicts their theistic origin beliefs.[50] In some countries—notably the United States—these tensions between scientific and religious teachings have fueled the ongoing creation-evolution controversy, with the politics of creationism especially centering on public education.[51][52][53][54] While many other fields of science, such as cosmology[55] and earth science,[56] also conflict with a literal interpretation of many religious texts, evolutionary biology has borne the brunt of these debates. Some also argue that evolutionary common descent "degrades" human beings by placing them on the same level as other animals, in contrast with past views of a great chain of being in which humans are "above" animals. This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The lunar farside as seen from Apollo 11 Natural science is the rational study of the universe via rules or laws of natural order. ... The position of the Roman Catholic Church on the theory of evolution has changed over the last two centuries from a large period of no official mention, to a statement of neutrality in the 1950s, to a more explicit acceptance in recent years. ... Theistic evolution, less commonly known as evolutionary creationism, is not a theory in the scientific sense, but a particular view about how the science of evolution relates to some religious interpretations. ... The Creation of Light by Gustave Doré. Creation refers to the concept that all humanity, life, the Earth, or the universe as a whole was created by a deity (often referred to as God). ... This ichthys fish parody reflects the view that Christianity and Darwinian evolution are in conflict, but that Christian TRUTH will triumph. ... This article is becoming very long. ... The creation-evolution controversy (also termed the creation vs. ... The politics of creationism currently primarily concerns what should be taught as science in schools, and what is good science. ... The legal status of creation and evolution in public education is the subject of a great deal of debate in legal, political, and religious circles, mainly in the United States. ... Physical cosmology, as a branch of astrophysics, is the study of the large-scale structure of the universe and is concerned with fundamental questions about its formation and evolution. ... Earth science (also known as geoscience, the geosciences or the Earth Sciences), is an all-embracing term for the sciences related to the planet Earth. ... A group of organisms is said to have common descent if they have a common ancestor. ... 1579 drawing of the great chain of being from Didacus Valades, Rhetorica Christiana The great chain of being or scala naturæ is a classical and western medieval conception of the order of the universe, whose chief characteristic is a strict hierarchical system. ...


Evolution has been used to support philosophical and ethical views which most contemporary scientists consider were neither mandated by evolution nor supported by science.[57] For example, the eugenic ideas of Francis Galton were developed into arguments that the human gene pool should be improved by selective breeding policies, including incentives for reproduction for those of "good stock" and disincentives, such as compulsory sterilization, "euthanasia", and later, prenatal testing, birth control, and genetic engineering, for those of "bad stock". Another example of an extension of evolutionary theory that is now widely regarded as unwarranted is "Social Darwinism", a term given to the 19th century Whig Malthusian theory developed by Herbert Spencer into ideas about "survival of the fittest" in commerce and human societies as a whole, and by others into claims that social inequality, racism, and imperialism were justified.[58] Eugenics is the self-direction of human evolution: Logo from the Second International Congress of Eugenics, 1921, depicting it as a tree which unites a variety of different fields. ... Sir Francis Galton F.R.S. (February 16, 1822 – January 17, 1911), half-cousin of Charles Darwin, was an English Victorian polymath, anthropologist, eugenicist, tropical explorer, geographer, inventor, meteorologist, proto-geneticist, psychometrician, and statistician. ... Selective breeding in domesticated animals is the process of developing a cultivated breed over time. ... Compulsory sterilization programs are government policies which attempt to force people to undergo surgical sterilization. ... This poster reads: 60,000 Reichsmark is what this person suffering from hereditary defects costs the community during his lifetime. ... Prenatal diagnosis is the diagnosis of disease or condition in a fetus or embryo before it is born. ... Birth control is a regimen of one or more actions, devices, or medications followed in order to deliberately prevent or reduce the likelihood of a woman becoming pregnant or giving birth. ... An iconic image of genetic engineering; this autoluminograph from 1986 of a glowing transgenic tobacco plant bearing the luciferase, illustrating the possibilities of genetic engineering. ... Social Darwinism in the most basic form is the idea that biological theories can be extended and applied to the social realm. ... The Whigs (with the Tories) are often described as one of two political parties in England and later the United Kingdom from the late 17th to the mid 19th centuries. ... Malthusianism is a brand of the Manchester School capitalist-type political/economic thought developed during the industrial revolution on the basis of the writings of Thomas Malthus. ... Herbert Spencer (27 April 1820 – 8 December 1903) was an English philosopher and prominent classic-liberal political theorist. ... Herbert Spencer coined the phrase survival of the fittest Survival of the fittest is a phrase which is a shorthand for a concept relating to competition for survival or predominance. ... Social inequality refers to disparities in the distribution of material wealth in a society. ... Manifestations Slavery · Racial profiling · Lynching Hate speech · Hate crime · Gay bashing Genocide · Holocaust · Pogrom Ethnocide · Ethnic cleansing · Race war Religious persecution Movements Discriminatory Aryanism · Neo-Nazism · Hate groups White/Black/Latino supremacy Radical Islam · Fundamentalism · Kahanism Anti-discriminatory Abolitionism · Civil rights · Gay rights Womens/Universal suffrage Childrens rights... Cecil Rhodes: Cape-Cairo railway project. ...


Footnotes

  1. ^ a b Futuyma, Douglas J. (2005). Evolution. Sunderland, Massachusetts: Sinauer Associates, Inc. ISBN 0-87893-187-2. 
  2. ^ Lande, R.; Arnold, S.J. (1983). "The measurement of selection on correlated characters". Evolution 37: 1210–1226. 
  3. ^ Haldane, J.B.S. (1953). "The measurement of natural selection". Proceedings of the 9th International Congress of Genetics 1: 480–487. 
  4. ^ a b Mechanisms: the processes of evolution. Understanding Evolution. University of California, Berkeley. Retrieved on 2006-07-14.
  5. ^ Gould, Stephen J. (2002). The Structure of Evolutionary Theory. Belknap Press. ISBN 0-674-00613-5. 
  6. ^ Dawkins, Richard (1989). The Selfish Gene. Oxford University Press Press. ISBN 0-674-00613-5. 
  7. ^ Myers, PZ. "Ann Coulter: No evidence for evolution?", Pharyngula, scienceblogs.com, 2006-06-18. Retrieved on 2006-11-18.
  8. ^ IAP Statement on the Teaching of Evolution Joint statement issued by the national science academies of 67 countries, including the United Kingdom's Royal Society (PDF file)
  9. ^ From the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the world's largest general scientific society: 2006 Statement on the Teaching of Evolution (PDF file), AAAS Denounces Anti-Evolution Laws
  10. ^ Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould once summarized this as "variation proposes and selection disposes". Stephen J. Gould (1997-06-12). Darwinian Fundamentalism. New York Review of Books. Retrieved on 2006-08-01.
  11. ^ Created from PDB 1D65
  12. ^ Beisson, J. & Sonneborn, T. M. (1965). Cytoplasmic inheritance of the organization of the cell cortex of Paramecium aurelia. Proc. natn. Acad Sci. U.S.A. 53, 275-282
  13. ^ Tetrahymena
  14. ^ Snustad, P. and Simmons, A. 2000. Principles of Genetics, 2nd edition. John Wiley and Sons, Inc. New-York, p.20
  15. ^ Aminetzach YT, Macpherson JM, Petrov DA. (1992). "Pesticide resistance via transposition-mediated adaptive gene truncation in Drosophila.". Science 309 (5735): 764-7.. 
  16. ^ Carroll S.B,. Grenier J.K., Weatherbee S.D. (2005). From DNA to Diversity: Molecular Genetics and the Evolution of Animal Design. Second Edition. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 1-4051-1950-0. 
  17. ^ [http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/full/94/15/7698
  18. ^ Pennisi_2003.pdf
  19. ^ Rieseberg LH, Raymond O, Rosenthal DM, Lai Z, Livingstone K, Nakazato T, Durphy JL, Schwarzbach AE, Donovan LA, Lexer C. (2003). "Major ecological transitions in wild sunflowers facilitated by hybridization.". Science 301 (5637): 1211-6.. 
  20. ^ Grant, P.R., and Grant, B.R. (1992). "Hybridization in bird species". Science 256 (4061): 193-7.. 
  21. ^ Gompert Z, Fordyce JA, Forister ML, Shapiro AM, Nice CC. (2006). "Homoploid hybrid speciation in an extreme habitat.". Science 314 (5807): 1923-5. 
  22. ^ Dzidic S, Bedekovic V. (2003). "Horizontal gene transfer-emerging multidrug resistance in hospital bacteria". Acta pharmacologica Sinica 24 (6): 519-526. 
  23. ^ Andersson JO (2005). "Lateral gene transfer in eukaryotes". Cellular and molecular life sciences 62 (11): 1182-1197. 
  24. ^ Katz LA (2002). "Lateral gene transfers and the evolution of eukaryotes: theories and data". International journal of systematic and evolutionary microbiology 52 (5): 1893-1900. 
  25. ^ Evolutionary Theory by Peter Gogarten, Ph.D.
  26. ^ Hoskin et al (Oct 2005). "Reinforcement drives rapid allopatric speciation". Nature 437: 1353-1356. 
  27. ^ Savolainen et al (May 2006). "Sympatric speciation in palms on an oceanic island". Nature 441: 210-213. 
  28. ^ Barluenga et al (February 2006). "Sympatric speciation in Nicaraguan crater lake cichlid fish". Nature 439: 719-723. 
  29. ^ Index to Creationist Claims, Claim CC150 edited by Mark Isaak. The TalkOrigins Archive, 2005
  30. ^ Leakey, Richard and Roger Lewin, 1996, The Sixth Extinction : Patterns of Life and the Future of Humankind, Anchor, ISBN 0-385-46809-1.
  31. ^ Nowak et al. "Evolutionary dynamics of biological games"Science"'303'", 793-799 (2004), see also Nowak's book Evolutionary Dynamics
  32. ^ Nowak et al. Five Rules for the Evolution of Cooperation Science 314, 1560 (2006)
  33. ^ Sachs, J.L. Cooperation within and among species Journal of Evolutionary Biology 19, 1415 (2006)
  34. ^ Chimpanzee Sequencing and Analysis Consortium (2005). "Initial sequence of the chimpanzee genome and comparison with the human genome". Nature 437: 69–87. 
  35. ^ Varki A, Altheide TK. (2005). "Comparing the human and chimpanzee genomes: searching for needles in a haystack.". Genome Res. 15(12): 1746-58. 
  36. ^ Schweitzer M.H. et al (2005). "Soft-tissue vessels and cellular preservation in Tyrannosaurus rex". Science 307 (5717): 1952-1955. 
  37. ^ Feduccia, Alan (1996). The Origin and Evolution of Birds. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-06460-8. 
  38. ^ Daeschler, Edward B., Shubin, Neil H., & Jenkins Jr, Farish A. (April 2006). "A Devonian tetrapod-like fish and the evolution of the tetrapod body plan". Nature 440: 757–763. DOI:10.1038/nature04639. Retrieved on 2006-07-14. 
  39. ^ Two sources: 'Genomic divergences between humans and other hominoids and the effective population size of the common ancestor of humans and chimpanzees'. and 'Quantitative Estimates of Sequence Divergence for Comparative Analysis of Mammalian Genomes' "[1] [2]"
  40. ^ The picture labeled "Human Chromosome 2 and its analogs in the apes" in the article Comparison of the Human and Great Ape Chromosomes as Evidence for Common Ancestry shows how humans have a single chromosome which is two separate chromosomes in the nonhuman apes.
  41. ^ The New York Times report Still Evolving, Human Genes Tell New Story, based on A Map of Recent Positive Selection in the Human Genome, states the International HapMap Project is "providing the strongest evidence yet that humans are still evolving" and details some of that evidence.
  42. ^ Pseudogene evolution and natural selection for a compact genome. "[3]"
  43. ^ Okamoto N, Inouye I. (2005). "A secondary symbiosis in progress". Science 310 (5746): 287. 
  44. ^ Okamoto N, Inouye I. (2006). "Hatena arenicola gen. et sp. nov., a Katablepharid Undergoing Probable Plastid Acquisition.". Protist Article in Print. 
  45. ^ Oklahoma State - Horizontal Gene Transfer: "Sequence comparisons suggest recent horizontal transfer of many genes among diverse species including across the boundaries of phylogenetic 'domains'. Thus determining the phylogenetic history of a species cannot be done conclusively by determining evolutionary trees for single genes."
  46. ^ Bowler, Peter J. (1989). The Mendelian Revolution: The Emergence of Hereditarian Concepts in Modern Science and Society. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. 
  47. ^ Rincon, Paul. "Evolution takes science honours", BBC News, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-07-16. According to the BBC, Colin Norman, news editor of Science, said "[S]cientists tend to take for granted that evolution underpins modern biology [...] Evolution is not just something that scientists study as an esoteric enterprise. It has very important implications for public health and for our understanding of who we are" and Dr. Mike Ritchie, of the school of biology at the University of St Andrews, UK said "The big recent development in evolutionary biology has obviously been the improved resolution in our understanding of genetics. Where people have found a gene they think is involved in speciation, I can now go and look how it has evolved in 12 different species of fly, because we've got the genomes of all these species available on the web."
  48. ^ Interferometric "fitness" and the large optical array, Dr David Buscher and Prof. Chris Haniff, 2003 -- optimizing the design of a large interferometer array using an evolutionary fitness landscape.
  49. ^ An overview of the philosophical, religious, and cosmological controversies by a philosopher who strongly supports evolution is: Daniel Dennett, Darwin's Dangerous Idea: Evolution and the Meanings of Life (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1995). On the scientific and social reception of evolution in the 19th and early 20th centuries, see: Peter J. Bowler, Evolution: The History of an Idea, 3rd. rev. edn. (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003).
  50. ^ [4]
  51. ^ [5]
  52. ^ [6]
  53. ^ [7]
  54. ^ [8]
  55. ^ Spergel, D. N.; et al. (2003). "First-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Determination of Cosmological Parameters". The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 148: 175—194. DOI:10.1086/377226. 
  56. ^ Wilde, S. A.; Valley J. W., Peck W. H. and Graham C. M. (2001). "Evidence from detrital zircons for the existence of continental crust and oceans on the Earth 4.4 Gyr ago". Nature 409: 175—178. 
  57. ^ Darwin strongly disagreed with attempts by Herbert Spencer and other to extrapolate evolutionary ideas to all possible subject matters; see Mary Midgley The Myths we Live By Routledge 2004 p62.
  58. ^ On the history of eugenics and evolution, see Daniel Kevles, In the Name of Eugenics: Genetics and the Uses of Human Heredity (New York: Knopf, 1985).

Douglas Joel Futuyma (born 1942 in New York) is an American biologist. ... Sunderland is a town located in Franklin County, Massachusetts, part of the Pioneer Valley. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Evolution, the International Journal of Organic Evolution, is a bimonthly scientific journal that publishes significant new results of empirical or theoretical investigations concerning facts, processes, mechanics, or concepts of evolutionary phenomena and events. ... The University of California, Berkeley (also known as UC Berkeley, Berkeley, Cal, and by other names, see below) is the oldest and flagship campus of the ten-campus University of California system. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... July 14 is the 195th day (196th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 170 days remaining. ... Steven Gould is a science fiction author, not to be confused with Stephen Jay Gould, a paleontologist and author of popular science works. ... Clinton Richard Dawkins (born March 26, 1941) is a British ethologist, evolutionary biologist and popular science writer who holds the Charles Simonyi Chair for the Public Understanding of Science at Oxford University. ... Paul Zachary Myers (who prefers to be called PZ) is a biology professor at the University of Minnesota, Morris and a prolific science blogger via his weblog, Pharyngula (previously Pharyngula. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... November 18 is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... The premises of the Royal Society in London (first four properties only). ... The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) is an organization that promotes cooperation between scientists, defends scientific freedom, encourages scientific responsibility and supports scientific education for the betterment of all humanity. ... It has been suggested that Darwinian Fundamentalism be merged into this article or section. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... August 1 is the 213th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (214th in leap years), with 152 days remaining. ... A German eye doctor and amateur mathematician, Dr. Martin Nowak of Michelfeld, Germany discovered the worlds largest prime number after a 50-day search using his personal computer. ... A German eye doctor and amateur mathematician, Dr. Martin Nowak of Michelfeld, Germany discovered the worlds largest prime number after a 50-day search using his personal computer. ... First title page, November 4, 1869 Nature is one of the oldest and most reputable scientific journals, first published on 4 November 1869. ... First title page, November 4, 1869 Nature is one of the oldest and most reputable scientific journals, first published on 4 November 1869. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... July 14 is the 195th day (196th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 170 days remaining. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... The goal of the International HapMap Project is to develop a haplotype map of the human genome, also referred to as the HapMap, which will describe the common patterns of human genetic variation. ... For other meanings of this term, see gene (disambiguation). ... In biology, a species is one of the basic units of biodiversity. ... A phylogeny (or phylogenesis) is the origin and evolution of a set of organisms, usually of a species. ... Peter J. Bowler is a historian of biology who has written extensively on the history of evolutionary thought and on the history of genetics. ... The current BBC News logo BBC News and Current Affairs is a major arm of the BBC responsible for the corporations newsgathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... July 16 is the 197th day (198th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 168 days remaining. ... The British Broadcasting Corporation, usually known as the BBC (and also informally known as the Beeb or Auntie) is one of the largest broadcasting corporations in the world in terms of audience numbers, employing 26,000 staff in the UK alone and with a budget of more than £4 billion. ... Science is the journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). ... Daniel Clement Dennett (b. ... cover Darwins Dangerous Idea: Evolution and the Meanings of Life (1995) is a controversial book by Daniel Dennett that argues that Darwinian processes are the central organising force not only in biology (which is not controversial), but also in most other aspects of the Universe, including the human mind... Peter J. Bowler is a historian of biology who has written extensively on the history of evolutionary thought and on the history of genetics. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Charles Robert Darwin (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an eminent English naturalist who achieved lasting fame by convincing the scientific community that species develop over time from a common origin. ... Herbert Spencer (27 April 1820 – 8 December 1903) was an English philosopher and prominent classic-liberal political theorist. ... Mary Midgley, née Scrutton, (b. ... Daniel J. Kevles is Stanley Woodward Professor of History at Yale University, a position he assumed in 2001. ...

References

  • Carroll, Sean B (2005)., Endless Forms Most Beautiful: The New Science of Evo Devo and the Making of the Animal Kingdom, W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0-393-06016-0
  • Futuyma, D. (2005). Evolution. Sinauer Associates, Inc.. ISBN 0-87893-187-2. 
  • Garcia-Fernàndez, Jordi. Amphioxus: a peaceful anchovy fillet to illuminate Chordate Evolution. Int J Biol Sci (May, 2006).
  • Gigerenzer, Gerd, et al., The empire of chance: how probability changed science and everyday life (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1989).
  • Larson, Edward J. Evolution: The Remarkable History of a Scientific Theory (Modern Library Chronicles). Modern Library (May 4, 2004). ISBN 0-679-64288-9
  • Mayr, Ernst. What Evolution Is. Basic Books (October, 2002). ISBN 0-465-04426-3
  • Menand, Louis. 2001 The Metaphysical Club. New York: Farar, Straus and Giraux. ISBN 0-374-19963-9
  • Williams, G.C. (1966). Adaptation and Natural Selection: A Critique of some Current Evolutionary Thought. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.
  • Zimmer, Carl. Evolution: The Triumph of an Idea. Perennial (October 1, 2002). ISBN 0-06-095850-2

Sean B. Carroll is a Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator at the University of Wisconsin in Madison, Wisconsin. ... Douglas Joel Futuyma (born 1942 in New York) is an American biologist. ...

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Topics in population genetics
v  d  e
Key concepts: Hardy-Weinberg law | genetic linkage | linkage disequilibrium | Fisher's fundamental theorem | neutral theory
Selection: natural | sexual | artificial | ecological
Effects of selection on genomic variation: genetic hitchhiking | background selection
Genetic drift: small population size | population bottleneck | founder effect | coalescence
Founders: R.A. Fisher | J. B. S. Haldane | Sewall Wright
Related topics: evolution | microevolution | evolutionary game theory | fitness landscape | genetic genealogy
List of evolutionary biology topics

Population genetics is the study of the distribution of and change in allele frequencies under the influence of the four evolutionary forces: natural selection, genetic drift, mutation, and migration. ... Hardy–Weinberg principle for two alleles: the horizontal axis shows the two allele frequencies p and q, the vertical axis shows the genotype frequencies and the three possible genotypes are represented by the different glyphs In population genetics, the Hardy–Weinberg principle (HWP) (also Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium (HWE), or Hardy... Genetic linkage occurs when particular alleles are inherited jointly. ... Linkage disequilibrium (LD) is the non-random association of alleles at two or more loci on a chromosome. ... In population genetics, Ronald Fishers fundamental theorem of natural selection was originally stated as: The rate of increase in fitness of any organism at any time is equal to its genetic variance in fitness at that time. ... The neutral theory of molecular evolution (also, simply the neutral theory of evolution) is an influential theory that was introduced with provocative effect by Motoo Kimura in the late 1960s and early 1970s. ... Selection is hierachically classified into natural and artificial selection. ... The Galápagos Islands hold 13 species of finches that are closely related and differ most markedly in the shape of their beaks. ... Illustration from The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex by Charles Darwin showing the Tufted Coquette Lophornis ornatus, female on left, ornamented male on right. ... This Chihuahua mix and Great Dane show the wide range of dog breed sizes created using artificial selection. ... Ecological selection (or environmental selection or survival selection or individual selection or asexual selection) refers to natural selection minus sexual selection, i. ... The process by which an evolutionary neutral or in some cases deleterious allele or mutation may spread through the gene pool by virtue of being linked to a beneficial mutation. ... The term background selection refers to the reduction in genetic variation that occurs in the genomic area surrounding a gene that repeatedly mutates to a bad version. ... In population genetics, genetic drift is the statistical effect that results from the influence that chance has on the success of alleles (variants of a gene). ... Species with a small population size are subject to a higher chance of extinction because their small population size makes them more vulnerable to genetic drift, resulting in stochastic variation in their gene pool, their demography and their environment. ... A population bottleneck (or genetic bottleneck) is an evolutionary event in which a significant percentage of a population or species is killed or otherwise prevented from reproducing, and the population is reduced by 50% or more, often by several orders of magnitude. ... Simple illustration of founder effect. ... In genetics, coalescent theory states that all genes or alleles in a given population are ultimately inherited from a single ancestor shared by all members of the population, known as the most recent common ancestor. ... Sir Ronald Aylmer Fisher, FRS (17 February 1890 – 29 July 1962) was a British statistician, evolutionary biologist, and geneticist. ... John Burdon Sanderson Haldane (November 5, 1892 – December 1, 1964), who normally used J.B.S. as a first name, was a British geneticist and evolutionary biologist. ... Sewall Green Wright ForMemRS (December 21, 1889 – March 3, 1988) was an American geneticist known for his influential work on evolutionary theory. ... Microevolution is the occurrence of small-scale changes in allele frequencies in a population, over a few generations, also known as change at or below the species level. ... Evolutionary game theory (EGT) is the application of game theory in evolutionary biology. ... In evolutionary biology, fitness landscapes or adaptive landscapes are used to visualize the relationship between genotypes (or phenotypes) and replicatory success. ... Genetic genealogy is the application of genetics to traditional genealogy. ... This is a list of topics in evolutionary biology and evolution. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
The Talk.Origins Archive: Evolution FAQs (1031 words)
However, the mechanisms of evolution are less well understood, and it is these mechanisms that are described by several theories of evolution.
Evolution does not proceed from any basic randomness, although genetic changes are not coupled to selection and may be characterised as "random" relative to selection pressures, nor do they anticipate the needs of a species.
One of the favorite anti-evolutionist challenges to the existence of transitional fossils is the supposed lack of transitional forms in the evolution of the whales.
Five Major Misconceptions about Evolution (2448 words)
What they don't appreciate is that this rate of evolution is all that is required to produce the diversity of all living things from a common ancestor.
Evolution makes predictions about what we would expect to see in the fossil record, comparative anatomy, genetic sequences, geographical distribution of species, etc., and these predictions have been verified many times over.
Evolution is supported by a wide range of observations throughout the fields of genetics, anatomy, ecology, animal behavior, paleontology, and others.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     

Georgi+Gladyshev
12th April 2012
Life in the Universe emerges and develops under certain conditions in accordance with the general laws of nature, in particular, in accordance with the law of temporal hierarchies, the second law of thermodynamics and the principle of stability of matter. Biological evolution is accompanied by a change in the chemical and supramolecular compositions of living bodies and also is accompanied by a change the compositions in higher hierarchies of living matter. As shown by me in 1977 these well-known changes have the thermodynamic nature (origin). Phenomenological thermodynamics of near-equilibrium quasi-closed systems allows us to explain and predict the evolutionary transformation in the living world. From a viewpoint of power-consuming substance of biological objects the phenomenon of life, first and foremost, is the struggle for power-consuming chemicals. The accumulation of this substance in biological systems is associated with the aspiration of the specific Gibbs function of formation of supramolecular structures of living organisms to a minimum. It is hoped that a careful reading of this Preface (Summary) will contribute to the realization that the development of concepts of classical science opens up new horizons for studying the real world.
Georgi+Gladyshev
12th April 2012
Thermodynamics serves as a basis for optimal solutions of the tasks of physiology, whichare solved by organisms in the characteristic process of life: evolution, development,homeostasis, and adaptation. It is stated that the quasiequilibrium thermodynamics of quasiclosed complex systemsserves as an impetus of evolution, functions, and activities
of all levels of biological systems’ organization.

This fact predetermines the use of Gibbs’
methods and leads to a hierarchical thermodynamics in all spheres of physiology. Theinteraction of structurally related levels and sub-levels of biological systems is determinedby the thermodynamic principle of substance stability. Thus, life is accompanied by athermodynamic optimization of physiological functions of biological systems. Livingmatter, while functioning and evolving, seeks the minimum of specific Gibbs free energyof structure formation at all levels. The spontaneous search of this minimum takes placewith participation of not only spontaneous, but also non-spontaneous processes, initiatedby the surrounding environment. The hormone optimization of the treatment of variouspathologies, presented by Dr. Sergey A. Dzugan et al. demonstrates the effectiveness of their innovative medical approach.
Georgi+Gladyshev
2nd February 2012
The links between molecular structures that retain and transmit genetic information and the structures in different hierarchies can, in the general case (multi-cellular organisms), be presented as the following simplified scheme:
Molecular structures (nucleic acids - > proteins, other biological polymers) - > Supramolecular structures - > Cells - > Organisms - > Populations - > Communities - > Ecosystems, etc. (1). In view of the presence of feedback among the structures in different hierarchies, this scheme should be presented as:
Molecular structures (nucleic acids < - > proteins, other biological polymers) < - > Supramolecular structures < - > Cells < - > Organisms < - > Populations < - > Communities < - > Ecosystems, etc. (2),
where arrows < - > indicate the possibility of reading off direct and reverse (backward) information. As was repeatedly stressed, the rate of transmission of reverse information is, for the examined reasons, low as compared with that of direct information.
Scheme (2) (accords with the well-known facts) pointing to the relatively slow effect of the environment on the structure and characteristics of populations (on the time scale of their life) and, in the final analysis, on the supramolecular and chemical structure of nucleic acids. (Gladyshev G.P. Modern physics B. Vol. 18, Nu. 6, March 10, 2004).
Georgi+Gladyshev
1st February 2012
Thermodynamics serves as a basis for optimal solutions of the tasks of physiology, which are solved by organisms in the characteristic process of life: evolution, development, homeostasis, and adaptation. It is stated that the quasiequilibrium thermodynamics of quasiclosed complex systems serves as an impetus of evolution, functions, and activities of all levels of biological systems’ organization. This fact predetermines the use of Gibbs’ methods and leads to a hierarchical thermodynamics in all spheres of physiology. The interaction of structurally related levels and sub-levels of biological systems is determined by the thermodynamic principle of substance stability. Thus, life is accompanied by a thermodynamic optimization of physiological functions of biological systems. Living matter, while functioning and evolving, seeks the minimum of specific Gibbs free energy of structure formation at all levels. The spontaneous search of this minimum takes place with participation of not only spontaneous, but also non-spontaneous processes, initiated by the surrounding environment. The hormone optimization of the treatment of various pathologies, presented by Dr. Sergey A. Dzugan et al. demonstrates the effectiveness of their innovative medical approach. http://knol.google.com/k/georgi-gladyshev/thermodynamics-optimizes-the-physiology/169m15f5ytneq/44
Georgi Gladyshev
8th January 2012
WHAT IS LIFE? BIO-PHYSICAL PERSPECTIVES
Life arises and develops in gravitationally bound atomic systems, under certain conditions, in the presence of the inflow of energy. A condition of structural dynamic reactivity to the energy inflow qualifies what are anthropomorphically considered as ‘alive objects’.
Alive objects, in this perspective, can be quantified further as thermodynamic quasi-closed supramolecular systems, which are a part of natural open systems.
These systems appear and evolve in periodic conditions near to internal equilibrium. This systems attribute of dynamic life can be understood further by the determination and use of mathematical ‘state functions’, which are functions that quantify the state of a system defined by the ensemble of physical quantities: temperature, pressure, composition, etc., which characterize the system, but neither by its surroundings nor by its history.
In this view, the phenomenon of a life is easily understood as a general consequence of the laws of the universe, in part...
http://knol.google.com/k/georgi-gladyshev/what-is-life-bio-physical-perspectives/3hr52gyju6t3d/3
Georgi Gladyshev
2nd June 2011
I should like to present some articles (sites) to physical chemists and other scientists who wish to explore the life our real world by methods of classical thermodynamics:

http://www.humanthermodynamics.com/JHT/Second-Law-Systems-Evolution.html

http://www.humanthermodynamics.com/On_the_Thermodynamics_of_the_Evolution_and_Aging_of_Biological_Matter.pdf



http://knol.google.com/k/georgi-gladyshev/-/3hr52gyju6t3d/0#knols

http://knol.google.com/k/georgi-p/история-создания-иерархической/169m15f5ytneq/6#

http://knol.google.com/k/georgi-p/thermodynamic-theory-of-evolution-of/169m15f5ytneq/3#
Georgi Gladyshev
22nd May 2011
Life in the Universe emerges and develops under certain conditions in accordance with the general laws of nature, in particular, in accordance with the law of temporal hierarchies, the second law of thermodynamics and the principle of stability of matter. Biological evolution is accompanied by a change in the chemical and supramolecular compositions of living bodies and also is accompanied by a change the compositions in higher hierarchies of living matter. As shown in 1977 these well-known changes have the thermodynamic nature (origin). Phenomenological thermodynamics of near-equilibrium quasi-closed systems allows us to explain and predict the evolutionary transformation in the living world. From a viewpoint of power-consuming substance of biological objects the phenomenon of life, first and foremost, is the struggle for power-consuming chemicals. The accumulation of this substance in biological systems is associated with the aspiration of the specific Gibbs function of formation of supramolecular structures of living organisms to a minimum.

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