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Encyclopedia > Evo Morales
Juan Evo Morales Ayma
Evo Morales

Incumbent
Assumed office 
22 January 2006
Vice President Álvaro García Linera
Preceded by Eduardo Rodríguez

Born 26 October 1959 (1959-10-26) (age 48)
Orinoca, Oruro, Bolivia
Political party MAS
Spouse Single; Never married
Religion Roman Catholic

Juan Evo Morales Ayma (born October 26, 1959 in Orinoca, Oruro), popularly known as Evo (pronounced [ˈeβ̞o]), is the President of Bolivia, and has been declared the country's first fully indigenous head of state since the Spanish Conquest in 470 years.[1][2][3][4] The latter claim is controversial,[5] as several mestizo presidents preceded him.[6] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1999x1311, 161 KB) Brasília - O presidente eleito da Bolívia, Evo Morales, concede entrevista coletiva à imprensa, após encontro com o presidente Lula no Palácio do Itamaraty. ... The President of Bolivia is the head of state of Bolivia. ... Open seat redirects here. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Álvaro García Linera Foto:Marcello Casal Jr/ABr Álvaro Marcelo García Linera (October 19, 1962) is a Bolivian politician. ... Eduardo Rodríguez Veltzé (born March 2, 1956) is the current president of the transitional government of Bolivia; prior to that appointment he was the chief justice of the Supreme Court. ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Orinoca is a municipality of Bolivia 1º Section Andomarca province Sud Carangas located 185 Kilometers from Oruro. ... Categories: South America geography stubs | Departments of Bolivia ... The Movement toward Socialism (Movimiento al Socialismo, MAS) is a Bolivian leftist party led by Evo Morales, founded in 1987. ... In relationships, a single person is one who is not married, or, more broadly, who is not in an exclusive romantic relationship. ... A bachelor is a man above the age of majority who has never been married (see single). ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Orinoca is a municipality of Bolivia 1º Section Andomarca province Sud Carangas located 185 Kilometers from Oruro. ... Oruro is a department in Bolivia, with an area of 53,588 km2. ... The President of Bolivia is the head of state of Bolivia. ... For other uses, see Native Americans (disambiguation). ... For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ... The Spanish colonization of the Americas was Spains conquest, settlement, and rule over much of the western hemisphere from 1492-1898. ... Language(s) Predominantly Spanish, (with a minority of other languages), while Mestiços speaks Portuguese Religion(s) Christianity (Predominantly Roman Catholic, with a minority of Protestant and other Religions) Related ethnic groups European (mostly Spanish, Portuguese, French and Italian), Amerindian people, Austronesian people, Hispanics and Latinos Mestizo (Portuguese: Mestiço...


Morales is the leader of Bolivia's cocalero movement — a loose federation of coca leaf-growing campesinos who are resisting the efforts of the United States government to eradicate coca in the province of Chapare in central Bolivia. Morales is also leader of the Movement for Socialism political party (Movimiento al Socialismo, with the Spanish acronym MAS, meaning "more"), which was involved in social conflicts, along with many other groups, commonly referred to as 'social movements'. Cocalero is a term that refers to the coca leaf growers of Peru and Bolivia. ... For other uses, see Coca (disambiguation). ... Campesino may refer to A simple farmer is referred to as a campesino in Spanish. ... Coca eradication is a controversial strategy strongly promoted by the United States government as part of its War on Drugs to eliminate the cultivation of coca, a plant whose leaves are not only traditionally used by indigenous cultures but also, in modern society, in the manufacture of cocaine. ... Chapare, also called The Chapare, is a rural province in the northern region of Cochabamba Department in central Bolivia. ... The Movement toward Socialism (Movimiento al Socialism, MAS) is a leftist party led by Evo Morales. ... This article is about the international language known as Spanish. ... The Bolivian Gas War was a conflict in Bolivia centering around the exploitation of the countrys vast natural gas reserves. ...

Contents

Background

Morales was born in the highlands of Orinoca Oruro, and is of indigenous (Aymara) descent. He was one of seven children born to Dionisio Morales Choque and Maria Mamani; only Morales and two of his siblings survived past childhood.[7] He grew up in an adobe house with a straw roof that was "no more than three by four meters."[7] At age six, he traveled with his father to Argentina to work in the sugar cane harvest.[7] Like many Bolivians,[8][9][10] his parents, while Catholic, worshipped the native earth goddess Pachamama, often with offerings of coca leaves and alcohol.[7] At the age of 12, he accompanied his father in herding llamas from Oruro to the province of Independencia in Cochabamba.[7] For other uses, see Native Americans (disambiguation). ... The Aymara are a native ethnic group in the Andes region of South America; about 2. ... This article is about the inca goddess. ... Binomial name Lama glama (Linnaeus, 1758) The Llama (Lama glama) is a large camelid native to South America. ... Map of Bolivia showing Cochabamba department Cochabamba is one of the nine component departments of Bolivia. ...


When he was 14, Morales showed his organizational skills by forming a football team with other youths; he continued herding llamas to pay the bills.[11] At the age of 16, the three ayllus (network of families) within the community elected him technical director of selection for the canton's team.[11] That same year, in order to attend high school, he moved to Oruro. There he worked as a bricklayer, a baker, and a trumpet player for the Royal Imperial Band (which allowed him to travel across Bolivia).[11][1][12] He graduated from Beltrán Ávila High School,[13] and fulfilled his mandatory military service in La Paz.[11][14] Ayllu is an Aymara word referring to a network of families in a given area. ... For military service in the meaning of an army as a military defense organization, see armed forces. ... Motto: Los discordes en concordia, en paz y amor se juntaron y pueblo de paz fundaron para perpetua memoria Location of La Paz within Bolivia Coordinates: , Country Departament Province Pedro Domingo Murillo Province Founded October 20, 1548 Incorporated (El Alto) 20th century Government  - Mayor Juan Del Granado Area  - Total 470...


Farming in the lowlands

In 1980, while Morales was in his 20s the effects of El Niño caused a 70% decline in agriculture and killed 50% of the animals in his home region. Evo joined the Morales family when they left Orinoca to participate in the colonization of the tropics of Cochabamba, located in the eastern Bolivian lowlands.[11][12] Working on his family's land, he grew crops of oranges, grapefruit, papaya, bananas and coca.[15] Morales soon joined a union of coca growers. Morales claims on his website that by 1981, he became motivated to defend his fellow coca farmers after learning that one of them had been beaten, covered in gasoline, and burned alive by drunken soldiers of the government of Luis García Meza Tejada.[15] In 1981, he was made the head of his local football organization; after his father's death in 1983, he was forced to give up that position in order to concentrate on managing his family's farm.[15] Chart of ocean surface temperature anomaly [°C] during the last strong El Niño in December 1997 El Niño and La Niña (also written in English as El Nino and La Nina) are major temperature fluctuations in surface waters of the tropical Eastern Pacific Ocean. ... Binomial name (L.) Osbeck[1] Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Binomial name Macfad. ... Binomial name L. This article is about the fruit. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Coca (disambiguation). ... Luis García Meza Tejada (b. ...


Union activity

By 1985, Morales was elected general secretary in his union of coca farmers and by 1988 was elected executive secretary of the Tropics Federation.[15] He retains this position to this day, even while serving as president of Bolivia. Around this time the Bolivian government, encouraged by the USA, began a program to eradicate most coca production (see below). By 1996 Morales was made president of the Coordinating Committee of the Six Federations of the Tropics of Cochabamba.[15] Evo was among those opposing the government's position on coca and lobbied for a different policy. This opposition often resulted in him being jailed and in an incident in 1989, beaten near to death by UMOPAR forces (who, assuming he had been slain, dumped his unconscious body in the bushes where it was discovered by his supporters).[15]


Morales soon led a 600 km march from Cochabamba to the capital of La Paz. While they were often attacked by law enforcement, they managed to proceed by sneaking around their control posts.[15] They were often greeted by supporters who gave the marchers drink, food, clothes and shoes. They were greeted with cheers by the citizens of La Paz and the government was forced to negotiate an accord with them.[15] After the marchers returned home, the government reneged on the deal and sent forces to harass them.[15] Morales claims that during this time in 1997 a United States Drug Enforcement Agency helicopter strafed farmers with automatic rifle fire, killing five of his supporters.[15] He also claims he was grazed by assassins' bullets in Villa Tunari in 2000.[15] He was recognized in 1996 by an international coalition against the “War on Drugs”.[15] Morales then found an audience in Europe for his positions and traveled there to gain support and to educate people on the differences between coca leaves and cocaine.[15] In a speech on this issue, he told reporters “I am not a drug trafficker. I am a coca grower. I cultivate coca leaf, which is a natural product. I do not refine (it into) cocaine, and neither cocaine nor drugs have ever been part of the Andean culture.”[1] Since 1973, the DEA has enforced the drug laws in the United States. ...


1995 election, formation of MAS

On March 27, 1995, Morales was among a united organization of farmers, colonizers and indigenous people who founded the Assembly for the Sovereignty of the Common People (ASP) and the Political Tool for the Sovereignty of the Common People (IPSP).[16] Morales and others decided to run for political office in Bolivia under this party. Since the National Electoral Court did not recognize the new organization they were forced to run under the banner of the United Left (IU), “a coalition of leftist parties that was headed by the Communist Party of Bolivia (PCB).”[16] On June 1, 1997, Morales (who carried 70% of the votes) was one of four IU candidates that won a seat in Parliament. The area he represented included the provinces of Chapare and Carrasco and Morales received the most votes of any candidate in Bolivia.[16] Facing continual legal problems because the Bolivian Supreme Court continued to refuse to recognize IPSP,[14] for the local elections of December 5, 1999, Morales came to an agreement with the leader of MAS-U, David Añez Pedraza, to assume the acronym, name and colors of that inactive organization. So the IPSP became the Movimiento al Socialismo or Movement Towards Socialism (MAS).[16] The MAS is described as "an indigenous-based political party that calls for the nationalization of industry, legalization of the coca leaf … and fairer distribution of national resources."[17] is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... The Movement toward Socialism (Movimiento al Socialismo, MAS) is a left-wing Bolivian party led by Evo Morales, founded in 1997. ...


Expulsion from Parliament

While Morales was a Member of Parliament, the governments of Hugo Banzer and Jorge Quiroga broadened the eradication campaign through Plan Dignidad (see below). The coca producing region of Chapare which Morales represented was beset with hundreds of police and military officers who were seen as “committing an innumerable amount of abuses and assassinations which violated the most basic human rights and liberties.”[16] Morales denounced the militarization and said that the government was committing a massacre in the Chapare, he declared that the peasants had a right to resist militarily against the troops who were said to be shooting at protesters.[16] Then three police officers were slain when they attempted to close a coca market.[14] In light of Morales' comments about armed resistance on January 24, 2002 a 104-member majority of the Parliament voted him expelled from the Legislature. The Parliamentary Ethics Commission declared that Morales had committed “serious inadequacies in the execution of his duties.”[16] With his popularity rising for standing up to an unpopular government, on March 5, 2002, he submitted an objection to the Constitutional Tribune saying his rights had been violated. He said his right to defend himself, to the presumption of innocence, and to parliamentary immunity had all been unjustly ignored.[16] Hugo Banzer Suárez (May 10, 1926 – May 5, 2002) was a conservative politician, military general, and President of Bolivia. ... Jorge Fernando Tuto Quiroga Ramírez (born May 5, 1960) was President of Bolivia from August 7, 2001 to August 6, 2002. ... is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... This article is about the day. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ...


In an interview in November 2002 with The Ecologist, Morales spoke about the expulsion saying “I was the congressman with the highest proportion of votes for his area and ‘obeying an order from the US’ they voted to expel me from congress. It is only recently that the constitutional court finally declared the whole farce illegal, and now they are having to pay compensation for what they did.”[14] The Ecologist is a monthly British magazine that broadly focuses on promoting an ecological agenda in its news stories, opinion and debate. ...


The 2002 elections

Evo Morales (right) with French labor union leader José Bové, in 2002
Evo Morales (right) with French labor union leader José Bové, in 2002

The same day he petitioned the Constitutional Tribune, Morales resigned from the Confederation of Coca Producers of Cochabamba and was endorsed by the Six Federations of the Tropics as the MAS 2002 presidential candidate.[16] The supportive crowd cheered him on saying “Kausachum coca!” (Long live coca!) and “Huaiñuchum yanquis!” (Down with Yankees!), they also “hoisted the wipala, the multi-colored checkered flag that is the emblem of the Andean cultures, along with the standard tri-colored Bolivian flag.”[16] Image File history File linksMetadata Evomorales. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Evomorales. ... A union (labor union in American English; trade union, sometimes trades union, in British English; either labour union or trade union in Canadian English) is a legal entity consisting of employees or workers having a common interest, such as all the assembly workers for one employer, or all the workers... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Wiphala: Banner of the Inca Empire Wiphala of the Qullan Suyu. ... Civil flag and ensign, ratio: 15:22 State and war flag, ratio: 15:22 The current flag of Bolivia was originally adopted by Bolivia in 1851. ...


In the 2002 presidential election, Morales came in second place, a surprising upset for Bolivia's traditional parties. This made the indigenous activist an instant celebrity throughout the continent. Morales credited his near victory in part to comments made by then U.S. Ambassador to Bolivia Manuel Rocha, who warned, "As a representative of the United States, I want to remind the Bolivian electorate that if you elect those who want Bolivia to become a major cocaine exporter again, this will endanger the future of U.S. assistance to Bolivia."[18] Morales said that these remarks helped to "awaken the conscience of the people." Indigenous peoples are: Peoples living in an area prior to colonization by a state Peoples living in an area within a nation-state, prior to the formation of a nation-state, but who do not identify with the dominant nation. ... For other uses, see Ambassador (disambiguation). ... Manuel Rocha is a United States diplomat and former Ambassador to Bolivia. ...


The 2005 elections

As a result of growing discontent and popular unrest, and the resignation under pressure of President Carlos Mesa Gisbert, Congress and President Eduardo Rodríguez Veltzé decided to move up the 2007 elections to December 2005. Both popular uprisings had Morales's leadership as a key factor. At a gathering of farmers celebrating the 10th anniversary of the founding of MAS in March 2005, Morales declared, "MAS is ready to rule Bolivia", having "consolidated its position as the [prime] political force in the country". He also said, "the problem is not winning the elections anymore but knowing how to rule the country."[19] The 2005 Bolivian presidential election was held on December 18, 2005. ... Carlos Diego Mesa Gisbert (August 12, Bolivia on Friday, October 17, 2003. ... Eduardo Rodríguez Veltzé (born March 2, 1956) is the current president of the transitional government of Bolivia; prior to that appointment he was the chief justice of the Supreme Court. ...

Schafik Hándal, Hugo Chávez, Fidel Castro and Evo Morales in Havana, 2004.

Preliminary polls placed Morales and the Movement Toward Socialism in an uncomfortable three-way tie with center and right wing forces and urban majority leaders Jorge Quiroga, from the party Social and Democratic Power (PODEMOS), and Samuel Doria Medina, with only a few points' difference. By August 21, Morales had chosen his running mate for the presidential elections, left-wing ideologist, sociologist, mathematician, and political analyst Álvaro García Linera, who fought alongside of Felipe Quispe as part of the Tupac Katari Guerrilla Army (EGTK). Image File history File links Schafik_handal_con_fidel. ... Image File history File links Schafik_handal_con_fidel. ... Schafik Handal Schafik Jorge Handal (born October 13/14, 1930) is a Salvadoran politician. ... Hugo Rafael Chávez Frías (pronounced ) (born July 28, 1954) is the current President of Venezuela. ... Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (born on August 13, 1926) is the current President of Cuba but on indefinite medical hiatus. ... Jorge Fernando Tuto Quiroga Ramírez (born May 5, 1960) was President of Bolivia from August 7, 2001 to August 6, 2002. ... Podemos is the name of a right-of-center, pro-business Bolivian political party. ... Samuel Jorge Doria Medina Auza is a politician in Bolivia. ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Sociology (from Latin: socius, companion; and the suffix -ology, the study of, from Greek λόγος, lógos, knowledge [1]) is the systematic and scientific study of society, including patterns of social relationships, social action, and culture[2]. Areas studied in sociology can range from the analysis of brief contacts between anonymous... For other meanings of mathematics or uses of math and maths, see Mathematics (disambiguation) and Math (disambiguation). ... This is a list of notable political scientists. ... Álvaro García Linera Foto:Marcello Casal Jr/ABr Álvaro Marcelo García Linera (October 19, 1962) is a Bolivian politician. ... Felipe Quispe (left) and Evo Morales. ... The Tupac Katari Guerrilla Army is an indigenous guerilla movement in Bolivia. ...


By December 4, Morales had moved ahead in the polls to around 32% of the vote. Quiroga hovered around 27% with Samuel Doria Medina coming in at less than 15%. All of the parties promised national solidarity, nationalization (in some form) of the hydrocarbons, and wealth for the people. is the 338th day of the year (339th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


On December 14, the Wall Street Journal reported, "Most polls give the 46-year-old Mr. Morales a lead of about 34% to 29% over his nearest rival, conservative former President Jorge Quiroga." Over 100,000 election judges were sworn in as the country prepared for the elections on December 18. is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Wall Street Journal is an influential international daily newspaper published in New York City, New York with an average daily circulation of 1,800,607 (2002). ... is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Exit polls were published almost as soon as voting closed, with Morales expected to win 42–45% of the vote and Quiroga 33–37%. Quiroga conceded defeat within a few hours.


By December 22, the official count was at 53.899% of the vote, with 98.697% of the ballots tallied, and no congressional vote was necessary to determine the winner. is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Domestic Policy

Politics

Morales has articulated the driving force behind MAS in the following terms:

The worst enemy of humanity is U.S. capitalism. That is what provokes uprisings like our own, a rebellion against a system, against a neoliberal model, which is the representation of a savage capitalism. If the entire world doesn't acknowledge this reality, that the national states are not providing even minimally for health, education and nourishment, then each day the most fundamental human rights are being violated.

He has also stated:

… the ideological principles of the organization, anti-imperialist and contrary to neoliberalism, are clear and firm but its members have yet to turn them into a programmatic reality.[19]

Morales has argued for the establishment of a constituent assembly to transform the country. He also proposes the creation of a new hydrocarbon law to guarantee at least 50% of revenue to Bolivia, although MAS has also shown interest in complete nationalization of the gas and oil industries. Morales has taken a middle ground: supporting the nationalization of natural gas companies, but supporting foreign cooperation in the industry.


Morales has referred to the U.S.-driven Free Trade Area of the Americas as "an agreement to legalize the colonization of the Americas" and has supported the stated desire of Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez to form an "Axis of Good" between Bolivia, Cuba, and Venezuela, in contrast to the "Axis of Evil" comprising the United States and its allies.[20] This article or section needs to be updated. ... Hugo Rafael Chávez Frías (pronounced ) (born July 28, 1954) is the current President of Venezuela. ... World map indicating the countries of Chávezs axis of good. The term axis of good is a phrase used by Hugo Chávez, President of Venezuela, to describe the relationship between him, Cubas Fidel Castro, and Bolivias Evo Morales. ... For the movie Behind Enemy Lines II: Axis of Evil, see Behind Enemy Lines II. For cosmic anisotropy, see Anisotropy#Physics. ...


In March 2006, President Evo Morales announced in Santa Cruz an increase in the minimum wage of 50%. As it is currently set at 440 bolivianos(45 euros)per month, it would then increase to 660 bolivianos (67 euros) per month. Morales had earlier stated that it should be increased by 100%.[21] However, 6 out of 10 workers are part of the informal economy, thus limiting the impact of this increase.[22] Coordinates: , Country Department Province Andrés Ibáñez Founded February 26, 1561 Government  - Mayor Percy Fernández Area  - City 325. ... The minimum wage is the minimum rate a worker can legally be paid (usually per hour) as opposed to wages that are determined by the forces of supply and demand in a free market. ... The boliviano (ISO 4217 code: BOB) is the currency of Bolivia. ...


Fulfilling a campaign promise, Morales opened on August 6, 2006 an assembly to begin writing a new constitution aimed at giving more power to the indigenous majority.[23] is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Education reform

Indigenous languages in schools

Morales supports a movement to teach indigenous languages such as Aymara, Quechua, and Guaraní which are spoken mainly in the rural areas of Bolivia. His government estimates that only 37% of the population speaks a native language that predates the introduction of Spanish in the 16th century. Morales's Education Ministry has declared the drive to increase this percentage as part of a broad effort "to decolonize the mindset and the Bolivian state."[24] The program is seen as "emblematic of his government's indigenous-based social agenda".[24] In 2006 Morales's Minister of Education and Culture, Felix Patzi, announced that he would be requiring all government employees to take indigenous language training. The Morales government's proposal to require state schools to teach the languages has angered many urban Bolivians who see it as a move to replace Spanish. This is denied by the Morales government who point out that over half of Bolivians claim indigenous heritage and that it should not be shameful to speak an indigenous language outside of the home or local community. Patzi brought further controversy to the movement by calling Bolivians who can't speak an indigenous language "an embarrassment" and by issuing a letter stating that no school would be recognized unless they guaranteed indigenous language instruction in the 2007 academic year.[24] The Aymara are a native ethnic group in the Andes region of South America; about 2. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Quechuan languages. ... For other uses, see Guaraní (disambiguation). ...


Reform of religious classes in state schools

In June 2005, Minister Felix Patzi brought organizational opposition against the Morales governments' ideas when he declared that "Catholicism would no longer be ‘the official’ religion taught at schools."[25] After mass protests led by the Catholic hierarchy this proposal was shelved by Morales.

For more details on this topic, see Evo Morales and the Roman Catholic Church.

The socialist administration of Bolivian President Evo Morales has not always had a good relationship with the Bolivian hierarchy of the Roman Catholic Church. ...

Aftermath

Evo Morales and members of his cabinet before the "reshuffling".

Morales, initially supportive of Patzi and his policies, faced with the opposition of the Catholic hierarchy dropped the proposal to change the religion classes in state schools. Morales also relaxed the language requirement, no longer requiring it to be obligatory in 2007.[24] In late January 2007, Morales replaced several members of his cabinet, including Patzi whose suggestions had "got Morales in hot water with the Roman Catholic Church".[26] The Bolivian media reported that this cabinet shuffle “reduced the number of ministers of indigenous descent, and incorporated more middle-class politicians from the radical left to his cabinet.”[27] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...


Economy

Nationalization of natural gas industry

Further information: Bolivian Gas Conflict

In 2005, following popular protests and president Gonzalo Sánchez "Goni" de Lozada's resignation, Congress passed an energy law that added a 32% tax on production to an already-existing 18% royalty. It also required that companies renegotiate their contracts with the state. The Bolivian Gas War was a conflict in Bolivia centering around the exploitation of the countrys vast natural gas reserves. ... Gonzalo Sánchez de Lozada y Sánchez Bustamante (born July 1, 1930), familiarly known as Goni, is a Bolivian politician, businessman, and former president. ...


As of May 1, 2006, President Morales signed a decree stating that all natural gas reserves were to be nationalized: "the state recovers ownership, possession and total and absolute control" of hydrocarbons (Bolivia has the second largest resources of natural gas in South America — 1.38 trillion cubic meters — after Venezuela). He thus put to some effect his electoral promises made during the various Gas Wars, declaring that "We are not a government of mere promises: We follow through on what we propose and what the people demand." is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Natural gas (disambiguation). ... Nationalization, also spelled nationalisation, is the act by which a nation takes possession of assets without requiring the owners consent, with or without payment of compensation. ... The Bolivian Gas War was a social conflict in Bolivia centering around the exploitation of the countrys vast natural gas reserves. ...


The announcement was timed to coincide with Worker's Day on May 1. Ordering the military and engineers of YPFB, the state firm, to occupy and secure energy installations, he gave foreign companies a six-month "transition period" to re-negotiate contracts, or face expulsion. Nevertheless, Morales stated that the nationalization would not take the form of expropriations or confiscations. Vice President Álvaro García said in La Paz's main plaza that the government's energy-related revenue will jump to $780 million next year, expanding nearly sixfold from 2002.[28] May Day is a name for various holidays celebrated on May 1 (or in the beginning of May). ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Yacimientos Petrolíferos Fiscales de Bolivia (YPFB) is the state-owned petrol company of Bolivia. ... Expropriation is the act of removing from control the owner of an item of property. ... Confiscation, from the Latin confiscato join to the fiscus, i. ... Álvaro García is the name of: Álvaro García Linera, Bolivian politician. ... Motto: Los discordes en concordia, en paz y amor se juntaron y pueblo de paz fundaron para perpetua memoria Location of La Paz within Bolivia Coordinates: , Country Departament Province Pedro Domingo Murillo Province Founded October 20, 1548 Incorporated (El Alto) 20th century Government  - Mayor Juan Del Granado Area  - Total 470...


Among the 53 installations affected by the measure are those of Brazil's Petrobras, one of the largest foreign investors in Bolivia, which controls 14% of the country's gas reserves.[29] Brazil's Energy Minister, Silas Rondeau, reacted by condemning the move as "unfriendly" and contrary to previous understandings between his country and Bolivia.[30] Petrobras, short for Petróleo Brasileiro S.A., is a government-owned Brazilian oil company headquartered in Rio de Janeiro. ... Silas Rondeau is a Brazilian politician, and a member of Brazilian Democratic Movement Party (PMDB). ...


US Exxon Mobil Corporation, Petrobras, Spain's Repsol YPF, UK gas and oil producer BG Group Plc, and France's Total are the main gas companies present in the country. According to Reuters, "Bolivia's actions echo what Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez, possibly Morales' biggest ally, did in the world's fifth-largest oil exporter with forced contract migrations and retroactive tax hikes — conditions that major oil companies largely agreed to accept." YPFB will pay foreign companies for their services, offering about 50% of the value of production, although the decree indicated that companies exploiting the country's two largest gas fields would get just 18%. Exxon Mobil Corporation or ExxonMobil (NYSE: XOM), headquartered in Irving, Texas, is an oil producer and distributor formed on November 30, 1999, by the merger of Exxon and Mobil. ... Repsol YPF is an integrated oil and gas company with operations in 29 countries, principally Spain and Argentina. ... BG Group Plc (LSE: BG.) is an energy production and distribution company which has its headquarters in Reading outside London, England. ... Look up Total on Wiktionary, the free dictionary A total is a sum. ... Reuters Group plc (LSE: RTR and NASDAQ: RTRSY); pronounced is known as a financial market data provider and a news service that provides reports from around the world to newspapers and broadcasters. ... Hugo Rafael Chávez Frías (pronounced ) (born July 28, 1954) is the current President of Venezuela. ...


Nationalization of smelter

On February 8, 2007, Morales announced that a metal processing plant outside of the city of Oruro owned by the Swiss mining company Glencore International AG would be nationalized. The plant processes tin, lead, and silver. Morales said that there had been “a lack of transparency in its financial dealings” and that corporations that abide by Bolivian law had nothing to fear. He said “Companies that respect Bolivian laws, that do not steal money from the Bolivian people, will be respected. But if the companies do not respect the laws, I have no other alternative than to recover those companies." Vinto was privatized by the Banzer government in 2000, when it was sold to London-based Allied Deals. However, Allied Deals promptly went bankrupt and was unable to meet its commitments, forcing the government to liquidate the asset. The liquidating entity Grant Thornton sold Vinto to Compañía Minera Colquiri, owned by Compañía Minera del Sur (51%) and Great Britain's Commonwealth Development Corporation (49%), in June 2002. Glencore purchased the plant from Comsur-CDC in 2004.[31] is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Glencore International AG (formerly called Marc Rich & Co AG) is one of the worlds largest suppliers of commodities and raw materials, and is also among the worlds largest privately held companies. ...


Coca

Further information: Coca eradication

Coca eradication is a controversial strategy strongly promoted by the United States government as part of its War on Drugs to eliminate the cultivation of coca, a plant whose leaves are not only traditionally used by indigenous cultures but also, in modern society, in the manufacture of cocaine. ...

Licit and illicit uses

Coca is the raw material for cocaine but is prized by many Bolivians (especially among those of Amero-Indian descent) for its traditional uses in medicines and herbal teas. Long before coca was used to make cocaine, the indigenous people of the Andean region, the Aymara and Quechua, chewed coca leaves as a dietary supplement, a means to ease pangs of hunger and thirst and an antidote for altitude sickness.[32] Many Amero-Indians continue to view the plant as sacred. In modern Bolivia, coca leaves may be legally consumed and are most often prepared in teas like mate de coca. The legal sale and consumption of coca leaves are part of daily life for some groups of Bolivian peasants, especially those in mining and other fields of heavy labor. Noted celebrities who have consumed coca tea include the late Pope John Paul II and Princess Anne. While a limited market exists for coca leaves, since the early 1990s the U.S. has put pressure on the Bolivian government to reduce the amount of coca leaves produced for refinement by the international drug trade. For other uses, see Coca (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cocaine (disambiguation). ... The Aymara are a native ethnic group in the Andes region of South America; about 2. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Quechuan languages. ... Coca tea. ... Coat of Arms of Pope John Paul II. The Letter M is for Mary, the mother of Jesus, to whom he held strong devotion Pope John Paul II (Latin: , Italian: Giovanni Paolo II, Polish: Jan PaweÅ‚ II) born   []; 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005) reigned as the 264th Pope of... Princess Anne may refer to more than one person: Anne, Princess Royal (born 15 August 1950), daughter of Elizabeth II of the UK Anne, Princess of Orange (1709‑1759), daughter of George II of Great Britain Anne (1637‑1759), daughter of Charles I of England Princess Anne may refer to... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American...


Plan Dignidad

In 1995 at the height of coca production, one out of every eight Bolivians made a living from coca.[32] The country was the world’s third largest grower of coca after Peru and Colombia.[32] In 1997, 458 square kilometres of land were being used to produce coca leaves, with only 120 km² of that being grown for the licit market.[33] In August 1997, with strong support of the US government, Bolivian President Hugo Banzer developed "Plan Dignidad" ("The Dignity Plan") to counter the "scourge" of drugs. The plan focused on eradication, interdiction (through lab destruction), efforts to counter money laundering, and implementation of social programs that countered and prevented drug addiction. The plan’s heavy emphasis on plant eradication and noticeable lack of focus on trafficking organizations was noted by its critics at the time. The US Embassy in Bolivia defended the aggressive focus on crops, maintaining that Bolivia was devoid of significant trafficking organizations and claiming that the bulk of illegally exported coca went through small ‘mom-and-pop’ operations. This claim continues to be rejected by scholars of Bolivian society who say “Bolivia is very vulnerable to the influence of international trafficking organizations and that it is very likely that the participation of Bolivian entrepreneurs in the illegal business has increased.” During the initial years of the operation area of coca production dropped. While in 1997 it had been 458 km², by 1998 it was down to 380 km²; in 1999 it fell to 218 km², and in 2000 it reached its lowest point at 146 km².[33] Since the 1990s, the US has been funding the Bolivian government's eradication program by an average of $150 million a year.[34] Hugo Banzer Suárez (May 10, 1926 – May 5, 2002) was a conservative politician, military general, and President of Bolivia. ...


Opposition to eradication, rise of Morales

Critics of the aggressive focus on farmers and the program's lack of effort against traffickers argued against the claims that Bolivia’s traffickers were only “mom-and-pop organizations”. They pointed out the increase in prices offered to Peruvian coca farmers during 1998 as proof that international trafficking organizations were going to Peru to make up for the Bolivian shortfall caused by the program. They also pointed to the 1999 indictment for drug trafficking of Marino Diodato who was married to the niece of President Banzer, and was an Italian believed to have Mafia and Camorra ties. By 2001 coca planting in Bolivia moved outside of the traditional growing areas of Chapare and Yungas and the area in production began to climb ever since.[33] This article is about the criminal society. ... The camorra is a mafia-like criminal organization, or secret society, in the region of Campania and the city of Naples in Italy. ...


Along with an increase in world wide coca production, the program contributed to a decline in the real standard of living of Chapare peasants leading to protests and violent social unrest (where both demonstrators and police were slain). The Bolivian government's use of the military in coca-growing regions during the unrest brought criticism from NGOs such as Human Rights Watch.[35] Promises of alternative development for farmers stagnated because of worsening external economic conditions. These conditions caused social mobilization among coca farmers like Evo Morales who called for an end to forced eradication and other measures enacted with the intent of countering narcotics. From 2000 forward, the Bolivian government made several agreements with coca grower federations to end confrontations, but they failed to follow through on their promises causing further opposition to these governments. Morales rose to national attention by leading the political opposition to eradication and this position is a central reason for his election to the Bolivian Congress. His association with anti-eradication forces caused his expulsion from Congress in 2002 which led to his Presidential campaign with its surprising showing that same year.[33] NGO is an abbreviation or code for: Non-governmental organization Nagoya Airport (IATA code) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Human Rights Watch Banner Human Rights Watch is a United States-based international non-government organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. ...


Morales coalition prevails

Pressures from the Morales led coalition caused president Gonzalo Sánchez de Lozada to stop forced eradication. To address some of his opponents concerns in 2003 he initially proposed allowing families to cultivate small plots of coca but in the face of strong pressure from the US Embassy he withdrew the idea.[33] Gonzalo Sánchez de Lozada resigned the presidency due to the Bolivian Gas War. When his successor Carlos Mesa was unable to stem the increasing conflict over distribution of wealth from fossil fuel production he also resigned. Morales's support from coca farmers was seen as a large reason for his victory to the open presidential office in the 2005 election.[36] Gonzalo Sánchez de Lozada y Sánchez Bustamante (born July 1, 1930), familiarly known as Goni, is a Bolivian politician, businessman, and former president. ... Gonzalo Sánchez de Lozada y Sánchez Bustamante (born July 1, 1930), familiarly known as Goni, is a Bolivian politician, businessman, and former president. ... The Bolivian Gas War was a social conflict in Bolivia centering around the exploitation of the countrys vast natural gas reserves. ... Carlos Diego Mesa Gisbert (born August 12, 1953) was the President of Bolivia from October 17, 2003 until his resignation on June 6, 2005. ...


On his way to vote during the 2005 election Morales carried a coca plant. After it was declared that he was the front runner in the election he called for a referendum on how the plant should be controlled. Countering US fears that he would ignore cultivation expressly done for narcotic purposes Morales said, "There won't be the free cultivation of the coca leaf.” He also called on America to enter into an agreement to truly fight drug trafficking. He repeated his position calling for “zero cocaine and zero drug trafficking, but not zero coca or zero cocaleros [coca growers]." He announced his government would study whether the amount of coca allowed for legal traditional consumption should be increased. At the time coca growing was legal on 29,000 acres (120 km²) of the Yungas valley with lesser area in the Chapare region.[12] This article is about the unit of measurement. ...


In early 2006, soon after taking office, Morales traveled to the tropical region of Chapare and met with a crowd of 20,000 consisting mainly cocaleros. A garland of coca leaves was placed around his neck and more leaves placed upon a straw hat he donned to shield him from the sun. He told the crowd, “The fight for coca symbolizes our fight for freedom. Coca growers will continue to grow coca. There will never be zero coca.”[34]


There is much disagreement between Morales's administration and the United States regarding anti-drug laws and cooperation between the countries, but officials from both countries have expressed a desire to work against drug trafficking, with Sean McCormack from the U.S. State Department reinforcing the support of Bolivian anti-drug policy, and Morales calling for zero cocaine and zero drug trafficking.[37] Retail selling Street selling is the bottom of the chain and can be accomplished through purchasing from prostitutes, through cloaked retail stores or refuse houses for users in the act located in red-light districts which often also deal in paraphernalia, dealers marketing merriment at night clubs and other events...


Processing plant

In February 2007, Venezuela loaned Bolivia $250,000 to build two coca processing plants in Chapare and Las Yungas to turn coca into tea and trimate (a mixture of aniseed, chamomile and coca). The plants are set to be up and running in September or October 2007 and the products will likely be sold in Venezuela.[38]


Foreign policy

World tour

Morales and Brazilian President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva
Morales and Brazilian President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva
2007 French presidential election, Evo Morales supported José Bové, an altermondialist candidate; here Bové is at a meeting with Morales' envoy, Bolivian elected official César Navarro Miranda
2007 French presidential election, Evo Morales supported José Bové, an altermondialist candidate; here Bové is at a meeting with Morales' envoy, Bolivian elected official César Navarro Miranda

From December 29, 2005, Evo Morales undertook an international tour described by Latin American media as exceptional.[39] For two weeks, Morales visited several countries in search of political and economic support for his agenda for the transformation of Bolivia. This tour is said to have constituted a break with decades of tradition in which the first international destination visited by a president-elect in Bolivia was the United States. His itinerary also reinforced the view that his election was part of a strengthening of "anti-imperialist" governments and movements in Latin America.[40]

In September, 2007, Morales appeared on "The Daily Show with Jon Stewart". There he discussed various political issues. Morales was only the second sitting head of state to appear on the show and the first to be interviewed on the show using a translator. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2703x1773, 401 KB) Brasília - O presidente Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva cumprimenta o presidente eleito da Bolívia, Evo Morales, no Palácio do Planalto. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2703x1773, 401 KB) Brasília - O presidente Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva cumprimenta o presidente eleito da Bolívia, Evo Morales, no Palácio do Planalto. ... Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (pron. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 181 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) José Bové (French 2007 presidential candidate) and César Navarro Miranda, envoy from Bolivian president Evo Morales. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 181 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) José Bové (French 2007 presidential candidate) and César Navarro Miranda, envoy from Bolivian president Evo Morales. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Altermondialization, from French altermondialisme, is a term coined to define the stance of movements opposed to a neoliberal globalization, but favorable to a globalization respectful of the human rights, the environment, national sovereignty, and cultural diversity. ... is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Stephen Colbert and Jon Stewart on the set of The Daily Show The Daily Show (currently The Daily Show with Jon Stewart, also known as TDS to fans and staffers) is a half-hour satirical fake news program produced by and run on the Comedy Central cable television network in...


Timeline of Morales World tour

is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Orinoca is a municipality of Bolivia 1º Section Andomarca province Sud Carangas located 185 Kilometers from Oruro. ... This article is about the capital of Cuba. ... The red carpet at the 2007 Tribeca Film Festival; to the left is Rachael Harris A red carpet is a strip of carpet in the colour red, which is laid out to welcome VIPs such as dignitaries and celebrities at formal events. ... Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (born on August 13, 1926) is the current President of Cuba but on indefinite medical hiatus. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Hugo Rafael Chávez Frías (pronounced ) (born July 28, 1954) is the current President of Venezuela. ... Nickname: La Sultana del Avila (English:The Avilas Sultan) La Sucursal del paraiso Motto: Ave María Santísima, sin pecado concebida, en el primer instante de su ser natural. ... is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...   (IPA: ) (born 4 August 1960), better known under his second surname Zapatero, is the Prime Minister of Spain. ... The Palacio de la Moncloa, settled in Madrid, is the official residence for the Prime Minister of Spain since 1977, when Adolfo Suarez moved the residence from a palace situated in the centre of Madrid, at Paseo de la Castellana. ... is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... King Juan Carlos I His Majesty King Juan Carlos I (Juan Carlos Alfonso Víctor María de Borbón y Borbón), styled HM The King (born January 5, 1938), is the reigning King of Spain. ... The Palacio de la Zarzuela is a residence of the King of Spain. ... This article is about a breed of domesticated ungulates. ... Native Americans (also Indians, Aboriginal Peoples, American Indians, First Nations, Alaskan Natives, or Indigenous Peoples of America) are the indigenous inhabitants of The Americas prior to the European colonization, and their modern descendants. ...   (born in Madrid on February 25, 1953) is a Spanish politician who served as Spanish prime minister from 1996 to 2004. ... FAES is the acronym for the Spanish think tank association Fundacion para el Análisis y los Estudios Sociales, translated as Foundation for Social Analysis and Studies. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... “Chirac” redirects here. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Dr. Bernard Bot November 21, 1937 is the current Minister of Foreign affairs of The Netherlands. ... The euro (€; ISO 4217 code EUR) is the currency of twelve European Union member states: Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, and Spain. ... is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Javier Solana Madariaga (born July 14, 1942 in Madrid, Spain) is the High Representative for the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) and the Secretary-General of both the Council of the European Union (EU) and the Western European Union (WEU). ... For other places with the same name, see Brussels (disambiguation). ... World map showing location of Europe A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is geologically and geographically a peninsula, forming the westernmost part of Eurasia. ... is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This is a Chinese name; the family name is Hu Hu Jintao (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; born December 21, 1942) is currently the Paramount Leader of the Peoples Republic of China, holding the titles of General Secretary of the Communist Party of China since 2002, President of the... Bo Xilai (薄熙来; pinyin: Bó XÄ«lái; pronounced Beuh Shyii-lie) (born July 1949) is the current Minister of Commerce of the Peoples Republic of China. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Motto: Praestantia Praevaleat Pretoria (May Pretoria Be Pre-eminent In Excellence) Country South Africa Province Gauteng Established 1855 Area  - City 1,644 km²  (634. ... Thabo Mvuyelwa Mbeki ,KStJ [2][3] (born June 18, 1942)[2] is the current President of the Republic of South Africa. ... A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ... is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Desmond Mpilo Tutu (born 7 October 1931) is a South African cleric and activist who rose to worldwide fame during the 1980s as an opponent of apartheid. ... == == Frederik Willem de Klerk (born March 18, 1936) was the last State President of Apartheid-era South Africa, serving from September 1989 to May 1994. ... is the 13th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (pron. ...

Inauguration

Evo Morales' presidential ceremony
Evo Morales' presidential ceremony

On January 21, 2006 Morales attended an indigenous spiritual ceremony at the pre-Colombian archaeological site and modern spiritual center of Tiwanaku where he was crowned as Apu Mallku or Supreme Leader of the Aymara, the indigenous group to which Morales belongs, and received gifts from many groups representing indigenous peoples from various parts of Latin America and the world. Morales claims this is the first time since the days of Tupac Amaru that an Indigenous has held sovereign power in Bolivia. The ceremony was attended by the Slovenian president, Janez Drnovšek.[50] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2480x1654, 581 KB) La Paz, Bolívia - Presidente Lula acompanha posse do presidente Evo Morales. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2480x1654, 581 KB) La Paz, Bolívia - Presidente Lula acompanha posse do presidente Evo Morales. ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Area of the Middle Horizon The Gate of the Sun Tiwanaku (Spanish spellings: Tiahuanaco and Tiahuanacu) is an important Pre-Columbian archaeological site in Bolivia. ... Max Paredes addresses the Council of Mallkus and Amautas Apu Mallku is an Aymara title meaning supreme leader or king conferred on a Mallku or prince. The Apu Mallkus mandate is to oversee the vast network of ayllus, an ancient Andean system of governing councils that predates even the... This article refers to the Inca Túpac Amaru who died in 1572, see Túpac Amaru II for the man whose Christian name was José Gabriel Condorcanqui. ... Janez DrnovÅ¡ek (pronounced: IPA,  ) (born May 17, 1950) is the current President of Slovenia and the former president of Yugoslavia. ...


On January 22 he officially received power in a ceremony in La Paz attended by multiple heads of state, including Argentine President Néstor Kirchner and Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez.[51] Chilean President Ricardo Lagos, whose country has had a history of diplomatic conflict with Bolivia (see War of the Pacific) was also present and met with the dignitary in private. Morales described his presidency as marking a new era, and that the 500 years of colonialism were now at an end. is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Néstor Kirchner, full name Néstor Carlos Kirchner Ostoić (born 25 February 1950), is the President of Argentina, sworn in on May 25, 2003. ... Hugo Rafael Chávez Frías (pronounced ) (born July 28, 1954) is the current President of Venezuela. ... Ricardo Froilán Lagos Escobar (born March 2, 1938) is a lawyer, economist and social democrat politician, who served as president of Chile from 2000 to 2006 . ... For the conflict between Japan and the Allied powers in Asia and the Pacific Ocean from 1937 to 1945, which included World War II campaigns, see Pacific War. ...


Style

Evo Morales and Bolivian vice-president Álvaro García Linera shining shoes
Evo Morales and Bolivian vice-president Álvaro García Linera shining shoes

His behavior contrasts with the usual manners of dignitaries in Latin America. For example, in January 28, 2006 he cut his salary by 57% to $1,875 a month.[52] He is single and, before the election, he shared a flat with other MAS officers. Consequently, his older sister Esther Morales Ayma fulfills the roles of First Lady. He does have two children, each from different women.[53] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (960x1280, 376 KB) Summary Evo Morales, President of Bolivia, shining shoes Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Evo Morales Metadata This file contains additional information, probably... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (960x1280, 376 KB) Summary Evo Morales, President of Bolivia, shining shoes Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Evo Morales Metadata This file contains additional information, probably... Álvaro García Linera Foto:Marcello Casal Jr/ABr Álvaro Marcelo García Linera (October 19, 1962) is a Bolivian politician. ... is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the use of the term first lady internationally. ...


He also aroused much interest in his choice of dress after being pictured often in his striped sweater with world leaders during his world tour. Some speculated that he would wear it to the official inauguration, where he actually dressed in a white shirt without tie (itself unheard of in Latin America in modern times for a head of state at their own inauguration) and a black jacket that was not a part of a conventional suit. The sweater (in Bolivian Spanish, a chompa, from the English word jumper) became his unofficial symbol and copies of it sold widely throughout Bolivia.[54] Some accounts described Morales's signature sweater as alpaca-wool; others reported that was actually made of common acrylic, because native materials had become too expensive for most Bolivians and were sold mostly in the tourist trade.[55] A jumper from Marks & Spencer A sweater (also called sweatshirt, pullover, jumper, and jersey) is a relatively heavy garment intended to cover the torso and arms of the human body (though, in some cases, sweaters are made for dogs and occasionally other animals) and typically to be worn over a... A jumper from Marks & Spencer A sweater (also called sweatshirt, pullover, jumper, and jersey) is a relatively heavy garment intended to cover the torso and arms of the human body (though, in some cases, sweaters are made for dogs and occasionally other animals) and typically to be worn over a... This article is about a breed of domesticated ungulates. ... Acrylic fibers are synthetic fibers made from a polymer (Polyacrylonitrile) with an average molecular weight of ~100,000. ...


Evo Morales is a soccer enthusiast and plays the game frequently, often with local soccer teams.[56] Morales is also a big admirer of Che Guevara and in 2006 held a memorial on the anniversary of Guevara's killing by the Bolivian army in 1967. Soccer redirects here. ... Ernesto Guevara de la Serna (June 14,[1] 1928 – October 9, 1967), commonly known as Che Guevara, El Che or just Che was an Argentine-born Marxist revolutionary, medical doctor , political figure, and leader of Cuban and internationalist guerrillas. ...


Criticism

Movements for regional autonomy

Map of Departments of Bolivia. In blue are those in which Governors (Prefectural Authorities) are strongly pursuing economic and territorial autonomy.
Map of Departments of Bolivia. In blue are those in which Governors (Prefectural Authorities) are strongly pursuing economic and territorial autonomy.

Morales' socialist economic policies have generated opposition from several departments, including Santa Cruz, which have oil and agricultural resources. Political parties that oppose Morales, along with pro-market groups "have neutralized the workings of a Constitutional assembly, responsible for the founding of the 'new' Bolivia".[27] Six of the country's nine governors are also demanding more autonomy from the central government and a larger share of government revenues. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Bolivia is divided into nine departments (Spanish: departamentos). ... Bolivia is divided into nine departments (Spanish: departamentos). ...


The six are the governors of La Paz, Santa Cruz, Cochabamba, Pando, Beni, and Tarija. The remaining three governors are part of Morales' Movimiento al Socialismo party.[57][58] They are among the first generation of popularly (directly) elected governors. Before December 2005, all governors were political appointees of the President.[57]


The call for autonomy comes mainly from the resource-rich, lowland regions of Bolivia, which are centers of opposition against Morales. It has been alleged that the autonomy question “has relatively little to do with language, culture, [and] religion… it is mostly about money and resources — specifically, who controls Bolivia's valuable natural gas reserves, second largest in South America after Venezuela's.”[58] There are other elements as well, for lowland Bolivia tends to self-identify as Mestizo, while large majorities in the highlands self-identify as indigenous. This racial self-image disconnect has exacerbated regional tensions.[citation needed]


Morales sees the calls for autonomy as an attempt to break up Bolivia and has vowed to fight them. He has “repeatedly charged that rich landowners and businesspeople from the eastern city of Santa Cruz, an anti-Morales stronghold, were fomenting and funding the autonomy movement in a bid to grab national resources.”[58]


Morales' critics have argued that the very strength of their protests, which brought to the streets up to a million people in Santa Cruz de la Sierra in January of 2007 demonstrate the popular strength of the anti-Morales movement in the lowlands.[citation needed] Coordinates: , Country Department Province Andrés Ibáñez Founded February 26, 1561 Government  - Mayor Percy Fernández Area  - City 325. ...


Four departments, Santa Cruz, Tarija, Beni and Pando, announced in December 2007, shortly after the proposal of a new Bolivian constitution, that they would seek more autonomy and self-government.[59][60]


Controversy

Ethnicity

Evo Morales has declared himself the first Amerindian president, a controversial claim due to the Amerindian heritages of such prior Bolivian presidents as Mariano Melgarejo (1864), Carlos Quintanilla (1939), René Barrientos (1964), Juan José Torres (1976), Luis García Meza (1980), and Celso Torrelio Villa (1981).[citation needed] While the claim is a potent symbol to many people who have seen themselves as disenfranchised and oppressed by a European minority, this claim has been challenged publicly by the novelist Mario Vargas Llosa,[61] who accuses Evo of fomenting racial divisions in an increasingly mestizo Latin America. Native Americans (also Indians, Aboriginal Peoples, American Indians, First Nations, Alaskan Natives, or Indigenous Peoples of America) are the indigenous inhabitants of The Americas prior to the European colonization, and their modern descendants. ... Manuel Mariano Melgarejo Valencia (1818–1871) was the President of Bolivia from 28 December 1864 to 15 January 1871. ... General Carlos Quintanilla (Cochabamba, Bolivia, January 22, 1888 - June 8, 1964) served as the de-facto President of Bolivia from August 1935 until April 1940. ... René Barrientos Ortuño (born on May 30, 1919; died on April 27, 1969) was a former Vice-President (1964) and President of Bolivia (1964-66 and 1966-69). ... Juan Jose Torres Gonzales (1921— 1976) was a Bolivian socialist politician and military leader. ... Luis García Meza Tejada (b. ... Celso Torrelio Villa (June 3, 1933, Chuquisaca, Bolivia - April 23, 1999, La Paz) was a military general and de facto president of Bolivia between September 1981 and August 1982. ... Mario Vargas Llosa in his youth. ... Language(s) Predominantly Spanish, (with a minority of other languages), while Mestiços speaks Portuguese Religion(s) Christianity (Predominantly Roman Catholic, with a minority of Protestant and other Religions) Related ethnic groups European (mostly Spanish, Portuguese, French and Italian), Amerindian people, Austronesian people, Hispanics and Latinos Mestizo (Portuguese: Mestiço...


The Uruguayan writer Eduardo Galeano responded to Vargas Llosa saying: "I see what is happening in Bolivia as a very significant act of affirmation of diversity [which is opposite to] racism, elitism and militarism, which leave us blind to our marvellous existence, to that rainbow that we are".[62] Eduardo Hughes Galeano (born September 3, 1940) is an Uruguayan journalist whose books have been translated into many languages. ... Mario Vargas Llosa in his youth. ...


Conflict with Reyes Villa

Among Morales's most outspoken political opponents is Cochabamba Governor Manfred Reyes Villa. In early 2007 his opposition to Morales' policies inspired many of the President's supporters to take to the streets and demand his resignation. As the group interacted with police and Reyes Villa's supporters events escalated into violence, leaving two dead and 100 injured before calm could be restored. Manfred Reyes Villa (1954) is a Bolivian politician, who was mayor of Cochabamba four times and ran for presidency in 2002 against Gonzalo Sánchez de Lozada. ...

For more details on this topic, see Cochabamba social unrest of 2007.

The Cochabamba social unrest of 2007 is an event in Bolivia that occurred early in that year. ...

Ponchos Rojos

On January 23, 2007 Morales and Bolivian military chiefs attended an indigenous peoples rally of the "Red Ponchos" (Ponchos Rojos) who support him in the Andean region of Omasuyos. At the rally Morales thanked the group, saying "I urge our Armed Forces along with the ‘Ponchos Rojos’ to defend our unity and our territorial integrity." Because the group is seen as armed and militant by Morales's opposition they accused him and the Armed Forces of supporting "illegal militias."[27] The rally was held in Achacachi which during the 1970s was the center of the leftist guerrilla movement EGTK (Ejercito Guerillera Tupac Katari) which had Morales' vice president Álvaro García Linera in their membership.[58] To the cheers of the crowd Morales chastised those calling for regional autonomy saying, "No caballero [a term for white colonizers] will be able to split apart Bolivia."[58] is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Achacachi is a town on the Altiplano plateau in the South American Andes in Bolivia. ...


Advisor faces terrorism charges in Peru

Walter Chávez discussing the charges with the Bolivian media.

Walter Chávez (an advisor and occasional spokesman for Morales since his 2002 campaign for the presidency) resigned on February 1, 2007 after being indicted for acts of terrorism in his native country of Peru, which seeks his extradition. Chávez who specialized in developing Morales’ public message, is accused by Peruvian authorities of “having been a member of the Túpac Amaru Revolutionary Movement guerrilla group that carried out bombings and kidnappings in the 1980s and 1990s.”[63] The specific charges against Chávez is that he was “a MRTA member who extorted two Peruvian businessmen on behalf of the group in 1990. …[that same year] Chávez was arrested after receiving $10,000 from one of the men, was released on bail a month later and in 1992 fled to Bolivia.”[63] He is also accused "of receiving $5,000 in another case."[64] Chávez has repeatedly denied the charges, saying "They accused me of being part of an MRTA cell but they never proved anything against me."[64] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The Túpac Amaru Revolutionary Movement or Movimiento Revolucionario Túpac Amaru (MRTA) was an insurgent guerrilla movement active in Peru from 1984 to 1997. ... The Túpac Amaru Revolutionary Movement or Movimiento Revolucionario Túpac Amaru (MRTA) was an insurgent guerrilla movement active in Peru from 1984 to 1997. ...


The resignation came as the Bolivian Senate (which is led by an alliance of opposition parties) announced its intention to rapidly investigate the extent of "Chávez's duties and how he obtained residency in the country."[64] Peruvian television, Bolivian newspapers and the Miami Herald were also pursuing the story with ever more vigor, in the days leading to Chávez leaving the Morales government. He explained his resignation to the Miami Herald, saying that "A lot of things have been said that weren't true. This is beginning to hurt the government."[63] In 2006, Peru had quietly asked for the extradition of Chávez but was turned down as he had been granted political asylum by the Bolivian government. Peru announced that it would be re-filing its extradition request. Chávez said he has no plans to defend himself in court by going to Peru.[63] The National Congress (Spanish: Congreso Nacional) is the national legislature of Bolivia, based in the nations capital, La Paz. ... The Miami Herald is a daily newspaper owned by Knight Ridder. ...


Miners protest

In early February 2007, parts of the Bolivian region of La Paz were brought to a standstill as 20,000 miners took to the roads and streets to protest a tax hike to the Complementary Mining Tax (ICM) by the Morales government.[65][66] The protesting miners threw dynamite and clashed with those passing by. The Morales government had attempted to head-off the demonstration by announcing on February 5, 2007 that the tax increase was not directed at the 50,000 miners who are co-op members but at larger private mining companies.[65] This did not dissuade the thousands of protestors who had already gathered nearby the capital in the less affluent city of El Alto.[67] This article is about a high explosive. ... is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...

For more details on this topic, see Bolivian miners' protest of 2007.

20,000 miners take to the streets to protest ICM tax In early 2007 members of Bolivias mining co-operatives took to the streets to protest a proposed tax by the government of Evo Morales. ...

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Lonely Planet logo Lonely Planet Publications (usually known as Lonely Planet or LP for short) claims to be the largest independently owned travel guidebook publisher in the world. ... The World Factbook (ISSN 1553-8133; also known as the CIA World Factbook)[2] is an annual publication of the Central Intelligence Agency of the United States with almanac-style information about the countries of the world. ... CIA redirects here. ... is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... For the news website, see msnbc. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 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Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 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Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... USA Today is a national American daily newspaper published by the Gannett Company. ... is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... BBC News website in June 2007. ... is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Salon. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... BBC News website in June 2007. ... is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... This just IN !!!:paris hiltons new dog. ... is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Miami Herald is a daily newspaper owned by Knight Ridder. ... is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... BBC News website in June 2007. ... is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...

See also

World map indicating the countries of Chávezs axis of good. The term axis of good is a phrase used by Hugo Chávez, President of Venezuela, to describe the relationship between him, Cubas Fidel Castro, and Bolivias Evo Morales. ... For other uses, see Coca (disambiguation). ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Evo Morales
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Evo Morales
  • Presidencia de la República de Bolivia
  • Morales: I Believe Only In The Power Of The People
  • (Spanish) Official Campaign Site Movimiento al Socialismo Bolivia
  • Interview (on CounterPunch)
  • (Spanish) MAS website
  • Profile: Evo Morales, BBC News Online
  • "Bolivia's Home-Grown President" Article in The Nation, (December 21, 2005).
  • "'Evo Fashion' arrives in Bolivia", Morales's distinctive dress sense, on BBC News Online
  • "Bolivia's first Indian president sworn in", Morales' inauguration ceremony on CNN's website
  • Biography of Evo Morales at CIDOB (Spanish)
  • WWW-VL: History: Bolivia
  • Bolivia Gas Under State Control, BBC News Online
  • "Direct Intervention: A Call for Bush and Bolivia’s Morales to Take a Leap of Faith and Change Presidential Issues into Personal Ones", From the Council on Hemispheric Affairs
  • "Bolivian President Evo Morales on Latin America, U.S. Foreign Policy and the Role of the Indigenous People of Bolivia", Interview on Democracy Now!
  • Bolivia: On the Road With Evo — The making of an unlikely president
  • Interview with director of Cocalero, a new documentary about Evo Morales
  • Talk to Jazeera - Evo Morales - 28 March - Pt1 at YouTube
  • Talk to Jazeera - Evo Morales - 28 March - Pt2 at YouTube
Political offices
Preceded by
Eduardo Rodríguez
President of Bolivia
2006 – present
Incumbent


South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Cristina Elisabet Fernández de Kirchner (born February 19, 1953 as Cristina Elisabet Fernández), usually known as Cristina Kirchner, is an Argentine politician from the Justicialist Party. ... Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (pron. ... Verónica Michelle Bachelet Jeria (born September 29, 1951) is a center-left politician and the current President of Chile—the first woman to hold this position in the countrys history. ... Flag of the President of Chile The President of Chile is both the chief of state and the head of government. ... Álvaro Uribe Vélez (born July 4, 1952) is the 56th President of Colombia, whose first term ran from 2002 to 2006 and is currently serving his second term from 2006 to 2010. ... Rafael Vicente Correa Delgado (born 6 April 1963 in Guayaquil) [1]is the President of the Republic of Ecuador. ... Pres. ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... Categories: Stub | 1956 births | Presidents of Paraguay ... Alan Gabriel Ludwig García Pérez (born May 23, 1949 in Lima) is the current President of Peru after winning the 2006 elections on June 4, 2006 in a run-off against Union for Peru candidate Ollanta Humala. ... Ronald Runaldo Venetiaan (born June 18, 1936) is a mathematician[citation needed] and the current president of Suriname. ... George Maxwell Richards, T.C., CMT, Ph. ... Tabaré Ramón Vázquez Rosas (pron IPA: ) (born 17 January 1940) is the current President of Uruguay. ... Hugo Rafael Chávez Frías (pronounced ) (born July 28, 1954) is the current President of Venezuela. ...

Presidents of Bolivia

Simón Bolívar | Antonio José de Sucre | José María Pérez de Urdininea | Pedro Blanco Soto | Andrés de Santa Cruz | Sebastián Ágreda | Mariano Enrique Calvo Cuellar | José Ballivián | Eusebio Guilarte Vera | José Miguel de Velasco Franco | Manuel Isidoro Belzu | Jorge Córdova | José María Linares | José María Achá | Mariano Melgarejo | Agustín Morales | Adolfo Ballivián | Tomás Frías Ametller | Hilarión Daza | Narciso Campero | Gregorio Pacheco | Aniceto Arce | Mariano Baptista | Severo Fernández | José Manuel Pando | Eliodoro Villazón | Ismael Montes | José Gutiérrez | Bautista Saavedra | Felipe S. Guzmán | Hernando Siles Reyes | Carlos Blanco Galindo | Daniel Salamanca Urey | José Luis Tejada Sorzano | David Toro | Germán Busch | Carlos Quintanilla | Enrique Peñaranda | Gualberto Villarroel | Néstor Guillén | Tomás Monje | Enrique Hertzog | Mamerto Urriolagoitia | Hugo Ballivián | René Barrientos | Luis Adolfo Siles Salinas | Alfredo Ovando Candía | Juan José Torres | Juan Pereda | David Padilla | Wálter Guevara | Alberto Natusch | Lidia Gueiler Tejada | Luis García Meza Tejada | Celso Torrelio | Guido Vildoso | Hernán Siles Zuazo | Víctor Paz Estenssoro | Jaime Paz Zamora | Gonzalo Sánchez de Lozada | Hugo Banzer | Jorge Quiroga | Carlos Mesa | Eduardo Rodríguez | Evo Morales Bold text For other uses, see Bolivia (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bolivia_(state). ... This article is about the South American independence leader. ... Antonio José de Sucre (February 3, 1795 – June 4, 1830) was a South American independence leader. ... Pedro Blanco Soto (1795-1829) was President of Bolivia for just a week cut short by his assassination in a convent called La Recoletta in Sucre on New Years Day 1829. ... Andrés de Santa Cruz Andrés de Santa Cruz y Calahumana (1792-1865) Served as President of Peru in 1827 and President of Bolivia from 1829 until 1839, where he was elected after the resignation of Antonio José de Sucre. ... Jose Ballivian (1804-October 16, 1852) was a Bolivian general during the Peruvian-Bolivian War and the 9th president of Bolivia from September 27, 1841 to December 23, 1847. ... Manuel Isidoro Belzu Humerez (14 April 1808 - 23 March 1865) was president of Bolivia from 1848 to 1855. ... Jorge Córdova (1822-1862) was a military officer and former constitutional president of Bolivia (1855-1857). ... José María Linares Lizarazu (July 10, 1810, Potosi – 1861, Valparaíso, Chile) was a Bolivian politician and president (1857-61). ... José María de Achá (1810-1868) was a military general and president of Bolivia (1861-64). ... Manuel Mariano Melgarejo Valencia (1818–1871) was the President of Bolivia from 28 December 1864 to 15 January 1871. ... Agustín Morales (born in La Paz on March 11, 1808 1808; died in La Paz on November 27, 1872) was a military officer and de facto President of Bolivia between 1871 and 1872. ... Adolfo Ballivián Coll (November 15, 1831 – February 14, 1874) was constitutional president of Bolivia between 1873 and 1874. ... Tomás Frías Ametller was twice a president of Bolivia. ... Hilarión Daza Groselle (January 14, 1840 - February 27, 1894) was President of Bolivia from 1876 to 1879. ... Narciso Campero is a province in the Bolivian department of Cochabamba. ... Gregorio Pacheco Leyes (1823-1899) was constitutional president of Bolivia from 1884 to 1888. ... Aniceto Arce was a president of Bolivia. ... Mariano Baptista (born in Calchani on July 16, 1832; died in Cochabamba on March 19, 1907) was President of Bolivia during the 1892-96 period. ... Severo Fernández Alonso (1849-1925) was President of his country, Bolivia, from 1896 to 1899. ... José Manuel Pando Solares was a president of Bolivia. ... Eliodoro Villazón (1948-1939) was a member of the Liberal party and Constitutional President of his country, Bolivia, between 1909 and 1913. ... Ismael Montes (1861 - 1933) was a Bolivian general and political figure. ... Bautista Saavedra Mallea (1870-1939) was President of Bolivia, first as part of a governing junta between 1920-21, and then as constitutionally-elected President of the Republic between 1921 and 1925. ... FELIPE SEGUNDO GUZMÁN Felipe Segundo Guzmán (born in La Paz on January 17, 1879; died in La Paz on June 16, 1932) was a caretaker Bolivian President who led his country during at 11-month period stretching from September of 1925 to August of 1926. ... Hernando Siles Reyes 1882-1942 was the 31st President of Bolivia, serving from 1926-1930. ... Carlos Blanco Galindo (born in Cochabamba, Bolivia, on March 12, 1882; died in Cochabamba on October 2, 1946) served as caretaker President of Bolivia between June of 1930 and March of 1931. ... Daniel Salamanca Urey (July 8, 1869 - July 17, 1935) was president of Bolivia from March 5, 1931 until he was overthrown in a coup detat on November 27, 1934, during the countrys disastrous Chaco War with Paraguay. ... José Luis Tejada Sorzano (Born La Paz January 12, 1882; Died Arica October 4, 1938) was installed by the military as president of Bolivia during the Chaco War. ... José David Toro Ruilova (born in Sucre on June 24 1898; died in Santiago, Chile, on July 25, 1977) was a former colonel in the Bolivian army and member of the High Command during the Chaco War (1932-35). ... German Busch Becerra [kherman] (March 23, 1903 - August 23, 1939) was a Bolivian military and political leader. ... General Carlos Quintanilla (Cochabamba, Bolivia, January 22, 1888 - June 8, 1964) served as the de-facto President of Bolivia from August 1935 until April 1940. ... Enrique Peñaranda del Castillo (born in La Paz on November 15, 1892; died in Madrid, Spain, on December 22, 1969) was a Bolivian general who served as commander of his countrys forces during the second half of the Chaco War (1932-35). ... Gualberto Villarroel López (b. ... Néstor Guillén Olmos (1890-1966) was President of Bolivia for 27 days between July and August of 1946, following the overthrow and assassination of President Gualberto Villarroel (1943-46). ... Tomás Monje Gutierréz (1884-1959) was President of Bolivia between August, 1946, and March of 1947. ... Enrique Hertzog Garaizabal (born in La Paz on December 10, 1896; died in Buenos Aires, Argentina, on December 18, 1981) was a Bolivian politician who was elected President of his country in 1947. ... Mamerto Urriolagoitia (born in Sucre on December 5, 1895; died in Sucre June 4, 1974) was President of his country, Bolivia, from 1949 to 1951. ... Hugo Ballivián Rojas (1901-1995) was de facto President of Bolivia between 1951 and 1952. ... René Barrientos Ortuño (born on May 30, 1919; died on April 27, 1969) was a former Vice-President (1964) and President of Bolivia (1964-66 and 1966-69). ... Luis Adolfo Siles Salinas (1925-2005) was a former Constitutional President of Bolivia. ... Alfredo Ovando Candía (1918 - 1982) was a Bolivian dictator, general and political figure. ... Juan Jose Torres Gonzales (1921— 1976) was a Bolivian socialist politician and military leader. ... Juan Pereda Asbún (1931) is a former military general and de facto president of Bolivia (1978). ... David Padilla Arancibia (1927) was a military general and former de facto president of Bolivia. ... Wálter Guevara Arze (1912-1996) was a Bolivian statesman, cabinet minister, writer, diplomat, and, rather briefly, president (1979) Guevara Arze was born in Cochabamba on March 11, 1912. ... Alberto Natusch Busch (1933-1994) was a Bolivian general and dictator of his country for a brief time in November, 1979. ... Lidia Gueiler Tejada (born 28 August 1921) was the first female President of Bolivia, serving in an interim capacity from 1979 to 1980. ... Celso Torrelio Villa Born June 3, 1933, Died April 23, 1999 is a former general and de facto President of Bolivia between August of 1981 and August of 1982. ... General Guido Vildoso Calderón (b. ... Hernán Siles Zuazo (1914-1996) was a politician from Bolivia. ... Ángel Víctor Paz Estenssoro (October 7, 1907 - June 7, 2001) was a politician from Bolivia. ... Jaime Paz Zamora (April 15, 1939), was President of Bolivia from August 6, 1989 to August 6, 1993. ... Gonzalo Sánchez de Lozada y Sánchez Bustamante (born July 1, 1930), familiarly known as Goni, is a Bolivian politician, businessman, and former president. ... Hugo Banzer Suárez (May 10, 1926 – May 5, 2002) was a conservative politician, military general, and President of Bolivia. ... Jorge Fernando Tuto Quiroga Ramírez (born May 5, 1960) was President of Bolivia from August 7, 2001 to August 6, 2002. ... Carlos Diego Mesa Gisbert (born August 12, 1953) was the President of Bolivia from October 17, 2003 until his resignation on June 6, 2005. ... Eduardo Rodríguez Veltzé (born March 2, 1956) is the current president of the transitional government of Bolivia; prior to that appointment he was the chief justice of the Supreme Court. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Bolivia - Evo Morales (886 words)
Juan Evo Morales Aima (born October 26, 1959) is a leader of the Bolivian cocalero movement, a loose federation of coca-growing campesinos who are resisting the efforts of the Bolivian government to eradicate coca in the province of Chapare.
As an emerging leader of the cocaleros, Morales was elected to the Bolivian Congress in 1997 as a representative of the provinces Chapare and Carrasco de Cochabamba.
Evo Morales, of the Movement to Socialism (MAS), was one of the leaders of this battle.
Evo Morales: Information From Answers.com (3011 words)
Morales was an outspoken critic of the government in Bolivia's subsequently turbulent politics, and was expelled from the congress in 2002 on charges relating to violence involving anti-eradication supporters.
Morales is the leader of Bolivia's cocalero movement – a loose federation of coca leaf-growing campesinos who are resisting the efforts of the United States government to eradicate coca in the province of Chapare in southeastern Bolivia.
Morales invites entrepreneurs and the government of China to invest in projects of exploration and exploitation of gas, and to participate in the construction of gas refineries in Bolivia.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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