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Encyclopedia > Evil eye
John Phillip, "The Evil Eye" (1859), a self-portrait depicting the artist sketching a Spanish gypsy who thinks she is being given the evil eye
John Phillip, "The Evil Eye" (1859), a self-portrait depicting the artist sketching a Spanish gypsy who thinks she is being given the evil eye
Ilya Repin, "Peasant with an evil eye" (1877), portrait of I. F. Radov, the artist's godfather
Ilya Repin, "Peasant with an evil eye" (1877), portrait of I. F. Radov, the artist's godfather

The evil eye is a folk belief that the envy elicited by the good luck of fortunate people may result in their misfortune, whether it is envy of material possessions including livestock, or of beauty, health, or offspring. The perception of the nature of the phenomenon, its causes, and possible protective measures, varies between different cultures. John Phillip, The Evil Eye (detail) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... John Phillip, The Evil Eye (detail) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... John Phillip The Evil Eye (1859), a self-portrait depicting the artist sketching a Spanish gypsy who thinks she is being given the evil eye John Phillip (1817-1867) was a Victorian era painter best known for his portrayals of Spanish life. ... The Gitanos are Roma people living in Spain. ... Ilyá Yefímovich Répin (Илья́ Ефи́мович Ре́пин) (August 5, 1844 (Julian calendar: July 24) – September 29, 1930) was a leading Russian painter and sculptor of the Peredvizhniki artistic school. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Envy (disambiguation). ... This article is about fortune. ... Look up Possession in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Sheep are commonly bred as livestock. ... For beauty as a characteristic of a persons appearance, see Physical attractiveness. ... For other uses, see Offspring (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Forms of belief

In some forms, it is the belief that some people can bestow a curse on victims by the malevolent gaze of their magical eye. The most common form, however, attributes the cause to envy, with the envious person casting the evil eye doing so unintentionally. Also the effects on victims vary. Some cultures report afflictions with bad luck; others believe the evil eye can cause disease, wasting away, and even death. In most cultures, the primary victims are thought to be babies and young children, because they are so often praised and commented upon by strangers or by childless women. The late UC Berkeley professor of folklore Alan Dundes has explored the beliefs of many cultures and found a commonality — that the evil caused by the gaze is specifically connected to symptoms of drying, desiccation, withering, and dehydration, that its cure is related to moistness, and that the immunity from the evil eye that fish have in some cultures is related to the fact that they are always wet.[citation needed] His essay "Wet and Dry: The Evil Eye" is a standard text on the subject. Look up Curse in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Gaze in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Envy (disambiguation). ... This article is about the medical term. ... For other uses, see Death (disambiguation). ... The University of California, Berkeley (also known as Cal, UC Berkeley, UCB, or simply Berkeley) is a prestigious, public, coeducational university situated in the foothills of Berkeley, California to the east of San Francisco Bay, overlooking the Golden Gate and its bridge. ... Alan Dundes, (September 8, 1935 – March 30, 2005) was a folklorist at the University of California at Berkeley. ...


In many forms of the evil eye belief, a person — otherwise not malefic in any way — can harm adults, children, livestock, or a possession, simply by looking at them with envy. The word "evil" can be seen as somewhat misleading in this context, because it suggests that someone has intentionally "cursed" the victim. A better understanding of the term "evil eye" can be gained from the old English word for casting the evil eye, namely "overlooking," implying that the gaze has remained focused on the coveted object, person, or animal for too long. A male Caucasian toddler child A child (plural: children) is a young human. ... Sheep are commonly bred as livestock. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


While some cultures hold that the evil eye is an involuntary jinx cast unintentionally by people unlucky enough to be cursed with the power to bestow it by their gaze, others hold that, while perhaps not strictly voluntary, the power is called forth by the sin of envy. In Jewish religious thought, it is sometimes asserted that the one who looks upon another with envy is not always at fault, but that the envy may be perceived by God, who then may redress the balance between two people by bringing the higher one low. It has been suggested that the term covet (to eye enviously) in the tenth Commandment refers to casting the evil eye, rather than to simply desire or envy. For other uses, see Jinx (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Sin (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Ten Commandments (disambiguation). ...


History

The amount of literary and archaeological evidence attests to the belief in the evil eye in the eastern Mediterranean for more than a millennium starting with Hesiod, Callimachus, Plato, Diodorus Siculus, Theocritus, Plutarch, Heliodorus, Pliny the Elder, and Aulus Gellius. In Peter Walcot's Envy and the Greeks (1978) he referenced more than one hundred of these authors works related to the evil eye. Studying these written sources in order to write on the evil eye only gives a fragmented view of the subject whether it presents a folkloric, theological, classical or anthropological approach to the evil eye. While these different approaches tend to reference similar sources each presents a different yet similar usage of the evil eye, that the fear of the evil eye is based on the belief that certain people have eyes whose glance has the power to injure or even kill and that it can be intentional or unintentional. The origin of the belief can only be guessed, but it can be traced back to the earliest of human records and the references in Deuteronomy indicate that the evil eye was known in the Hebraic world. Deuteronomy (Greek deuteronomium, second, from to deuteronomium touto, this second law, pronounced ) is the fifth book of the Torah of the Hebrew bible and the Old Testament. ...


The Classical Evil Eye

Belief in the evil eye during antiquity is based on the evidence in ancient sources like Aristophanes, Athenaeus, Plutarch and Heliodorus. There are also speculations that claim Socrates possessed the evil eye and that his disciples and admirers were fascinated by Socrates' insistently glaring eyes. His followers were called Blepedaimones, which translates into demon look, not because they were possessors and transmitters of the evil eye, but because they were suspected of being under the hypnotic and dangerous spell of Socrates.


In the Greco-Roman period a scientific explanation of the evil eye was common. Plutarch's scientific explanation stated that the eyes were the chief, if not sole, source of the deadly rays that were supposed to spring up like poisoned darts from the inner recesses of a person possessing the evil eye (Quaest.Conv. 5.7.2-3=Mor.80F-81f). Plutarch treated the phenomenon of the evil eye as something seemingly inexplicable that is a source of wonder and cause of incredulity.


The belief in the evil eye during antiquity varied from different regions and periods. The evil eye was not feared with equal intensity in every corner of the Roman Empire. There were places in which people felt more conscious of the danger of the evil eye. In the Roman days not only were individual considered to possess the power of the evil eye but whole tribes, especially those of Pontus and Scythia, were believed to be transmitters of the evil eye.


Distribution of the belief

Belief in the evil eye is strongest in the Middle East, South Asia, Central Asia and Europe, especially the Mediterranean region; it has also spread to other areas, including northern Europe, particularly in the Celtic regions, and the Americas, where it was brought by European colonists and Middle Eastern immigrants. A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a region of Asia from the Caspian Sea in the west to central China in the east, and from southern Russia in the north to... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... This article is about the European people. ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas in an equal-area projection The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ...


Belief in the evil eye is found in Islamic doctrine, based upon the verse of the Qur'an, "And from the evil of the envier when he envies," [Chapter al-Falaq, verse 5][1] and the statement of Prophet Muhammad, "The influence of an evil eye is a fact..." [Sahih Muslim, Book 26, Number 5427][2]. Authentic practices of warding off the evil eye are also commonly practiced by Muslims: rather than directly expressing appreciation of, for example, a child's beauty, it is customary to say Masha'Allah, that is, "God has willed it", or invoking God's blessings upon the object or person that is being admired. [3] Aside from beliefs based upon authentic Islamic texts, a number of unsubstantiated beliefs about the evil eye are found in folk religion, typically revolving around the use of amulets or talismans as a means of protection. For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... MashaAllah (ما شاء الله) is an Arabic phrase evoked by Muslims to indicate appreciation for an aforementioned individual or event. ... Folk religion consists of beliefs, superstitions and rituals transmitted from generation to generation of a specific culture. ...


Although the concept of cursing by staring or gazing is largely absent in East Asian and Southeast Asian societies, the usog curse is an exception. East Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Usog, is a superstition where an affliction or psychological disorder in the Philippines is attributed to an evil eye hex. ...


The oldest instance of belief in the evil eye dates back to biblical Israel. There are many instances of people casting the evil eye (ayin hara) in both the Tanakh and the Talmud. Ashkenazi Jews in Europe and the Americas routinely exclaim Keyn aynhoreh! (also spelled Kein ayin hara!), meaning "No evil eye!" in Yiddish, to ward off a jinx after something or someone has been rashly praised or good news has been spoken aloud. For the musical collective, see Tanakh (band). ... The Talmud (Hebrew: ) is a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs, and history. ... Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכֲּנָזִי אַשְׁכֲּנָזִים Standard Hebrew, Aškanazi,Aškanazim, Tiberian Hebrew, ʾAškănāzî, ʾAškănāzîm, pronounced sing. ...


In the Aegean region and other areas where light-colored eyes are relatively rare, people with green eyes are thought to bestow the curse, intentionally or unintentionally.[4] This belief may have arisen because people from cultures unused to the evil eye, such as Northern Europe, are likely to transgress local customs against staring or praising the beauty of children. Thus, in Greece and Turkey amulets against the evil eye take the form of blue eyes, and in the painting by John Phillip, above, we witness the culture-clash experienced by a woman who suspects that the artist's gaze implies that he is looking at her with the evil eye. Hazel Eyes redirects here. ...


Among those who do not take the evil eye literally, either by reason of the culture in which they were raised or because they simply do not believe in such things, the phrase, "to give someone the evil eye" usually means simply to glare at the person in anger or disgust.


Protective talismans and cures

This Hamsa hand, called a Hand of Fatimah by Muslims and a Hand of Miriam among Jews, contains the eye motif that wards off the evil eye.
This Hamsa hand, called a Hand of Fatimah by Muslims and a Hand of Miriam among Jews, contains the eye motif that wards off the evil eye.
Turkish aircraft with Nazar boncuğu
Turkish aircraft with Nazar boncuğu

Attempts to ward off the curse of the evil eye have resulted in a number of talismans in many cultures. As a class, they are called "apotropaic" (Greek for "prophylactic" or "protective", literally: "turns away") talismans, meaning that they turn away or turn back harm. I scanned this pendant that I own. ... I scanned this pendant that I own. ... Hamsa can mean:in Arabic it means Whisper Khamsa, a Near Eastern symbol Hamsa bird, an Indian sacred goose or swan Hamsa (musical group) (חמסה), an Israeli musical quintet A subsidiary Purana in hinduism This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... For other persons of the same name, see Fatima (name). ... -1... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (532x760, 52 KB) Summary Cutout of Image:Nazar boncuğu - vliegtuig met blauwe oog dat beschermt tegen het boze oog. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (532x760, 52 KB) Summary Cutout of Image:Nazar boncuğu - vliegtuig met blauwe oog dat beschermt tegen het boze oog. ... Flying machine redirects here. ... An amulet from the Black Pullet grimoire. ...


Disks or balls, consisting of concentric blue and white circles (usually, from inside to outside, dark blue, light blue, white, dark blue) representing an evil eye are common apotropaic talismans in the Middle East, found on the prows of Mediterranean boats and elsewhere; in some forms of the folklore, the staring eyes are supposed to bend the malicious gaze back to the sorcerer. Prow, the fore part of a ship, the stem and its surrounding parts, hence used like keel, by metonymy, of the ship itself. ... For other uses, see Boat (disambiguation). ... John Dee and Edward Kelley evoking a spirit: Elizabethans who claimed magical knowledge A magician is a person skilled in the mysterious and hidden art of magic, which can be described as either the act of entertaining with tricks that are in apparent violation of natural law, such as those...


Known as nazar (Turkish: nazar boncuğu or nazarlık), this talisman is the most frequently seen in Turkey, found in or on houses and vehicles or worn as beads. Image:Nazar boncug(u - vliegtuig met blauwe oog dat beschermt tegen het boze oog. ...


A blue eye can also be found on some forms of the hamsa hand, an apotropaic hand-shaped amulet against the evil eye found in the Middle East. The word hamsa, also spelled khamsa and hamesh, means "five" referring to the fingers of the hand. In Jewish culture, the hamsa is called the Hand of Miriam; in Muslim culture, the Hand of Fatima. Khamsa used as a pendant The Khamsa (Arabic: ‎, literally five, Hebrew: ). An alternative Islamic name for this charm is the Hand of Fatima or Eye of Fatima, in reference to Fatima Zahra, the daughter of Muhammed. ... Secular Jewish culture embraces several related phenomena; above all, it is the culture of secular communities of Jewish people, but it can also include the cultural contributions of individuals who identify as secular Jews, or even those of religious Jews working in cultural areas not generally considered to be connected... Khamsa used as a pendant The Khamsa (Arabic: ‎, literally five, Hebrew: ). An alternative Islamic name for this charm is the Hand of Fatima or Eye of Fatima, in reference to Fatima Zahra, the daughter of Muhammed. ... Khamsa used as a pendant The Khamsa (Arabic: ‎, literally five, Hebrew: ). An alternative Islamic name for this charm is the Hand of Fatima or Eye of Fatima, in reference to Fatima Zahra, the daughter of Muhammed. ...


Greece

The evil eye, as an apotropaic visual device, is known to have been a fixture in Greece dating back to at least the 6th century BC, when it commonly appeared on drinking vessels.[5] In Greece, the evil eye is cast away through the process of xematiasma (ξεμάτιασμα), whereby the "healer" silently recites a secret prayer passed over from an older relative of the opposite sex, usually a grandparent. Such prayers are revealed only under specific circumstances, for according to superstition those who reveal them indiscriminately lose their ability to cast off the evil eye. There are several regional versions of the prayer in question, a common one being: "Holy Virgin, Our Lady, if so and so is suffering of the evil eye release him/her of it" repeated thrice. According to custom, if one is indeed afflicted with the evil eye, both victim and "healer" then start yawning profusely. The "healer" then performs the sign of the cross three times, and spits in the air three times. Apotropaic magic is a ritual observance that is intended to turn away evil. ... “Grandfather” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Superstition (disambiguation). ... Holy Virgin is the first single from the album 21st Century by German trance group Groove Coverage. ... Custom has a number of meanings: A custom is a common practice among a group of people, especially depending on country, culture, time, and religion. ...


Another "test" used to check if the evil eye was cast is that of the oil: under normal conditions, olive oil floats in water, as it is lighter than water. The test of the oil is performed by placing one drop of olive oil in a glass of water. If the drop floats, the test concludes there is no evil eye involved. Synthetic motor oil being poured. ... For the Popeye cartoon character, see Olive Oyl. ... Synthetic motor oil being poured. ...


But if the drop sinks, then is asserted that the evil eye is cast indeed. An alternate form of the test is to place two drops of olive oil into a glass of water. If the drops remain separated, the test concludes there is no evil eye, but if they merge, there is. The Evil Eye is also known to melt the face of all who gaze upon it. In the scientific method, an experiment (Latin: ex- periri, of (or from) trying) is a set of observations performed in the context of solving a particular problem or question, to retain or falsify a hypothesis or research concerning phenomena. ...



The Greek Fathers accepted the traditional belief in the evil eye but attributed it to the Devil and envy. In Greek theology the evil eye or baskania (βασκανία) is considered harmful for the one whose envy inflicts it on others as well as for the sufferer. The Greek Church has an ancient prayer against vaskania from the Mega Hieron Syenekdymon book of prayers (Μέγαν Ιερόν Συνέκδημον). The Church Fathers or Fathers of the Church are the early and influential theologians and writers in the Christian Church, particularly those of the first five centuries of Christian history. ... This is an overview of the Devil. ... For other uses, see Envy (disambiguation). ... Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... Greek Orthodox Church can refer to: the Orthodox Church of Constantinople, headed by the Patriarch of Constantinople, who is also the first among equals of the Eastern Orthodox Communion. ...


Rome

Blue eyes (nazars) on sale
Blue eyes (nazars) on sale

In ancient Rome, people believed that phallic charms and ornaments offered proof against the evil eye. Such a charm was called fascinum in Latin, from the verb fascinare (the origin of the English word "to fascinate"), "to cast a spell", such as that of the evil eye. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 673 KB) Summary English: Blue eyes, sold as protection against the evil eye. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 673 KB) Summary English: Blue eyes, sold as protection against the evil eye. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... This article is about the symbol of the erect penis. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


One such charm is the cornicello, which literally translates to "little horn". In modern Italian language, they are called Cornetti, with the same meaning. Sometimes referred to as the cornuto (horned) or the corno (horn), it is a long, gently twisted horn-shaped amulet. Cornicelli are usually carved out of red coral or made from gold or silver. The type of horn they are intended to copy is not a curled-over sheep horn or goat horn but rather like the twisted horn of an African eland or something similar. Cornicelli Cornicello, which translates from Italian as little horn, is an Italian amulet which was worn to protect against the evil eye. ...


Some theorists endorse the idea that the ribald suggestions made by sexual symbols would distract the witch from the mental effort needed to successfully bestow the curse. Others hold that since the effect of the eye was to dry up liquids, the drying of the phallus (resulting in male impotence) would be averted by seeking refuge in the moist female genitals. The fact that the hamsa hand, a non-phallic apotropaic amulet, is seen as the hand of a woman (Miriam by Jews and Fatima by Muslims) reinforces the idea that protection comes from the feminine element. Ribaldry is a third, and somewhat neglected, genre of sexual entertainment. ...


Among the Romans and their cultural descendants in the Mediterranean nations, those who were not fortified with phallic charms had to make use of sexual gestures to avoid the eye. This is one of the uses of the mano cornuto (a fist with the index and little finger extended) and the mano fico (a fist with the thumb pressed between the index and middle fingers, representing the phallus within the vagina). In addition to the phallic talismans, statues of hands in these gestures, or covered with magical symbols, were carried by the Romans as talismans. In Latin America, carvings of the mano fico continue to be carried as good luck charms. The Evil Eye is also known to melt the face of all who gaze upon it. For gestures in computing, see mouse gesture. ... The Mano Cornuto as plastic art The mano cornuto (horned hand, in Italian) gesture, also known as the devil horns, goat horns, Hook em Horns, throwing the goat, or just the horns is made by making a fist and extending the index finger and the pinky, . This is not to... Military signalmen use hand and body gestures to direct flight operations aboard aircraft carriers. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... Military signalmen use hand and body gestures to direct flight operations aboard aircraft carriers. ...


Judaism

Among Jews, fish are considered to be immune to the evil eye, so their images are often found on hamsa hand amulets. A red thread is also said to protect babies against the evil eye, and according to folkloric custom it is placed on the pillow upon which a newborn baby is presented for the first time at a viewing by family and friends. In the late 20th century it became the custom to wind a red string around the tomb of the great Matriarch, Rachel, located near Bethlehem, in the West Bank, then to cut the string into pieces and give them out to be worn on the left wrist as an effective protection against the evil eye. According to this custom, the left hand is considered to be the receiving side for the body and soul, and by wearing the red string on the left wrist, believers receive a vital connection to the protective energies surrounding the tomb of Rachel, carrying her protective energy with them and drawing from it any time there is need. The Kabbalah Centre and the teachings of kabbalah put much emphasis on this custom. This article is about the Biblical character. ... This article is about the city in the West Bank. ... For the municipality in Germany, see Wrist, Germany. ... Red String is a webcomic by Gina Biggs, influenced by shoujo manga both in art and story style it is a slice of life comic set in Japan and it focuses on the daily life of Miharu Ogawa, a sixteen year old girl who finds out one day that she... The Kabbalah Centre is a highly profitable worldwide [1] marketing organization with headquarters in Los Angeles, California that offers a number of products and courses online and through its local centres. ... This article is about traditional Jewish Kabbalah. ...


India

In India the evil eye, called "drishti" (literally view) or "nazar", is removed through "Aarthi". The actual removal involves different means as per the subject involved. In case of removing human evil eye, a traditional Hindu ritual of holy flame (on a plate) is carried out in which the plate is moved in a circular motion around the person's face so as to absorb the evil effects. Sometimes people will also be asked to spit into a handful of chillies kept in that plate, which are then thrown into fire. For vehicles too, this process is followed with limes or lemons being used instead of chillies. These lemons are crushed by the vehicle and a new lemon is hung with chillies in a bead to ward off any future evil eyes. The use of kumkum on cheeks of newly weds or babies is also a method of thwarting the "evil eye". Toddlers and young children are traditionally regarded as perfect and are likely to attract the evil eye. Often mothers apply a spot of kohl on their children's cheeks or on the forehead to make the child imperfect and ward off evil eyes. ... Kohl is a mixture of soot and other ingredients used predominantly by Middle Eastern , North African, Sub-Saharan African and Asian women, and to a lesser extent men, to darken the eyelids and as mascara for the eyelashes. ...


Islam

It is tradition among many Muslims, that if a compliment is to be made, you are always supposed to say "Masha'Allah" (ما شاء الله) to ward off the evil eye; it literally means "whatever God wills". It is a testimony from someone that he/she believes that either good or bad it will only happen if God wants to. Dari-speakers in Afghanistan use the phrase "Nami Khuda" ([The] name of God) in place of "Mashallah", as well as a phrase with a similar purpose, "Chashmi bad dur" ([May] the evil eye [be] far). These phrases are found in Tajiki as well, in a slightly different form. A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... MashaAllah (ما شاء الله) is an Arabic phrase evoked by Muslims to indicate appreciation for an aforementioned individual or event. ... Dari is a term used to denote one of several closely related Persian dialects spoken in what used to be Greater Khorasan: The official name for the Persian language in Afghanistan; see Dari (Afghanistan) One name used by Zoroastrians (the others being Gabri and Yazdi) to refer to the Northwestern... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Turkey

Main article: Nazar (amulet)

In Turkey and Balkans, evil eye jewelry and trinkets are particularly common. A nazar or evil eye stone (Turkish: nazar boncuğu) is an amulet from ancient mythology that protects against the evil eye. Colourful beads, bracelets, necklaces, anklets, and all manner of decoration may be adorned by this particularly popular symbol, and it is common to see it on almost anything, from babies, horses, doors to cars, cell phones and even airplanes (see photograph of an airplane with a "nazar"). Image:Nazar boncug(u - vliegtuig met blauwe oog dat beschermt tegen het boze oog. ... Balkan redirects here. ...


Bangladesh

In Bangladesh young children often have a large black dot drawn on one side of their foreheads in order to counter the evil eye. Young girls that are often praised for beauty get a dot drawn behind their earlobes with kohl so no one can see it. This keeps away the evil eye of men and other jealous people.


Iran

In Iran, Iraq, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, the seeds of Aspand (Peganum harmala, also called Esfand, Espand, Esphand, and Harmal) are burned on charcoal,[6] where they explode with little popping noises, releasing a fragrant smoke that is wafted around the head of those afflicted by or exposed to the gaze of strangers. As this is done, an ancient Zoroastrian prayer is recited against Bla Band. This prayer is said by Muslims as well as by Zoroastrians in the region where Aspand is utilized against the evil eye. Some sources say that the popping of the seeds relates to the breaking of the curse or the popping of the evil eye itself (although this is not consistent with the idea that a particular person is casting the spell, since no one's eyes are expected to explode as a result of this ritual). In Iran at least, this ritual is sometimes performed in traditional restaurants, where customers are exposed to the eyes of strangers. Dried aspand capsules are also used for protection against the evil eye in parts of Turkey. Binomial name L. Harmal seed capsules Harmal (Peganum harmala) is a plant of the family Nitrariaceae, native from the eastern Mediterranean region east to India. ... Charcoal is the blackish residue consisting of impure carbon obtained by removing water and other volatile constituents from animal and vegetation substances. ... Zoroastrianism was adapted from an earlier, polytheistic faith by Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) in Persia very roughly around 1000 BC (although, in the absence of written records, some scholars estimates are as late as 600 BC). ...


Central America

In Mexico and Central America, infants are considered at special risk for evil eye (see mal de ojo, above) and are often given an amulet bracelet as protection, typically with an eye-like spot painted on the amulet. Another preventive measure is allowing admirers to touch the infant or child; in a similar manner, a person wearing an item of clothing that might induce envy may suggest to others that they touch it or some other way dispel envy. For other uses, see Central America (disambiguation). ...


One traditional cure in rural Mexico involves a curandero (folk healer) sweeping a raw chicken egg over the body of a victim to absorb the power of the person with the evil eye. The egg is later broken into a glass and examined. (The shape of the yolk is thought to indicate whether the aggressor was a man or a woman.) In the traditional Hispanic culture of the Southwestern United States and some parts of Mexico, an egg is passed over the patient and then broken into a bowl of water. This is then covered with a straw or palm cross and placed under the patient's head while he or she sleeps; alternatively, the egg may be passed over the patient in a cross-shaped pattern. The shape of the egg in the bowl is examined in the morning to assess success.[7]


USA

In 1946, the American magician Henri Gamache published a text called Terrors of the Evil Eye Exposed! (later reprinted as Protection against Evil), which offers directions to defend oneself against the evil eye. Gamache's work brought evil eye beliefs to the attention of African American hoodoo practitioners in the southern United States. Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Sorceress by John William Waterhouse Magic, sometimes known as sorcery, is a conceptual system that asserts human ability to control the natural world (including events, objects, people, and physical phenomena) through mystical, paranormal or supernatural means. ... Henri Gamache was the pseudonym of an otherwise unknown author who was active in the United States during the 1940s, and who wrote on the subject of magic. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... Hoodoo is a form of predominantly African American, Christian, traditional folk magic. ... The U.S. Southern states or the South, also known colloquially as Dixie, constitute a distinctive region covering a large portion of the United States, with its own unique heritage, historical perspective, customs, musical styles, and cuisine. ...


Egypt

The Eye of Horus - Horus was an ancient Egyptian sky god in the form of a falcon. The right eye represents a peregrine falcon's eye and the markings around it, that includes the "teardrop" marking sometimes found below the eye. The right eye of Horus is said to ward off evil eye in this culture.


Names in various languages

In most languages the name translates literally into English as "bad eye", "evil eye", "evil look", or just "the eye". Some variants on this general pattern from around the world are: The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...

  • Albanian language "mer më sysh" (to give somebody the bad eye)
  • Armenian "atchk ooloonk" (eye bead); "char atchk" (evil eye)
  • Amharic "Buda" (one with envious eyes)
  • Standard Arabic عين حسد ayin hasad (eye of envy)
  • Tunisian Arabic "'ayn l-mrida" (sick eye)
  • Azerbaijani "göz dəyməsi" (touching of eye); "kəm göz" (evil eye); often simply "göz" (the eye)
  • Bulgarian "uroki"
  • Chamorro "Atan baba"
  • Croatian "Urokljivo oko" (the cursing eye)
  • Dutch "het boze oog" (the evil eye)
  • Persian "bla band" (the eye of evil)[8]
  • Filipino "Matang Nanlilisik" (literally: evil eye); "Usog"
  • Finnish "Paha silmä" (evil eye)
  • French "Le Mauvais Oeil", "La Guigne", "La Skoumoune", depending on region
  • German "Böser Blick" (evil gaze)
  • In Greek, to matiasma (μάτιασμα) or mati (μάτι) someone refers to the act of casting the evil eye (Mati being the Greek word for eye); also: "vaskania" (βασκανία, the Greek word for jinx)
  • Hebrew "ayin ha'ra" (the evil eye)[8]
  • Hungarian szemmel verés (beating with eyes)
  • Italian, malocchio (malignant bad eye)[8]
  • Macedonian, "Zloto Oko"
  • Maltese "l-għajn il-ħażina" (the bad eye)
  • In Persian various terms can be found, depending on the region. In Iran, people use Ceşme Zaxm (pronounced ”Cheshmé Zahm”) which means 'eye of harm', or Ceşme Šur (pronounced "Cheshmé Shoor") meaning 'Sour Eyes'. In Afghanistan, Dari-speaking people use the terms "nazar" (vision) or "chashmi bad" (bad or evil eye). Tajiki-speakers use the terms "chashmi bad" (bad or evil eye) or simply "chashmi" (derived from the word "chashm", meaning "eye");
  • Polish złe oko (evil eye)
  • Portuguese, olho gordo (fat eye), quebranto (breaker) or mau olhado (bad gaze)
  • Romanian [[deochi]] (from the eye)
  • Russian сглаз (a noun from verb сглазить from noun глаз - "an eye"), дурной глаз ("evil eye", "bad eye")
  • Sicilian, ucchiatura ("eye activity, look")
  • In Slovak little babies are said to have a malady named z očú (from the eyes)
  • In Spanish, the phrase is mal de ojo (the eye's curse) or simply el ojo (the eye)
  • Swedish "onda ögat" (the evil eye)
  • Tagalog "ohiya" or mata ng diablo (the devil's eye)
  • Tamil "Dhrishti" or Kan dhristi (the eyes of evil looks)
  • Turkish "Nazar" (stare) or "kem göz" (evil eye) or simply "göz" (eye)
  • Urdu "buri nazar" or simply "nazar" ("bad vision" or simply "vision")
  • Yiddish aynore or ahore (from Hebrew עין הרע cayin harac);

Albanian ( IPA ) is a language spoken by 8 million people, primarily in Albania and Serbia (province of Kosovo-Metohija), but also in other parts of the Balkans with an Albanian population (parts of the Republic of Macedonia, and some parts in Montenegro and Serbia), along the eastern coast of Italy... Not to be confused with the Aramaic language. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... Tunisian Arabic is a Maghrebi dialect of the Arabic language, spoken by some 9 million people. ... The Chamorros are an indigenous people of Guam and the Mariana Islands. ... Farsi redirects here. ... Usog, is a superstition where an affliction or psychological disorder in the Philippines is attributed to an evil eye hex. ... For other uses, see Jinx (disambiguation). ... Hebrew redirects here. ... Malocchia is derived from the Italian term Il Malocchio for the evil eye. ... Farsi redirects here. ... Dari is a term used to denote one of several closely related Persian dialects spoken in what used to be Greater Khorasan: The official name for the Persian language in Afghanistan; see Dari (Afghanistan) One name used by Zoroastrians (the others being Gabri and Yazdi) to refer to the Northwestern... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Sicilian (, Italian: ) is a Romance language. ... Tagalog (pronounced ) is one of the major languages of the Republic of the Philippines. ... Tamil ( ; IPA: ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamil people, originating on the Indian subcontinent. ... Nazar may refer to: Nazar, Navarre, a municipality located in the province of Navarre (Navarra), Spain. ... Urdu ( , , trans. ... Yiddish ( yidish or idish, literally: Jewish) is a non-territorial Germanic language, spoken throughout the world and written with the Hebrew alphabet. ... Hebrew redirects here. ...

Notes

  1. ^ http://quranicrealm.com/quran.php?q=113
  2. ^ USC-MSA Compendium of Muslim Texts
  3. ^ Du'a - What to say when in fear of afflicting something or someone with one?s eye
  4. ^ Cora Lynn Daniels, et al., eds, Encyclopædia of Superstitions, Folklore, and the Occult Sciences of the World (Volume III), p. 1273, Univ. Press of the Pacific, Honolulu, ISBN 1-4102-0916-4
  5. ^ Merriam-Webster. Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia of World Religions. 2000, page 69
  6. ^ Aspand - Espand - Esfand - Esphand Against the Evil Eye in Zoroastrian Magic. Retrieved on 2008-01-19.
  7. ^ http://anthro.palomar.edu/medical/med_1.htm Medical Anthropology: Explanations of Illness
  8. ^ a b c The Evil Eye, The Lucky W Amulet Archive

2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Alan Dundes (1980). "Wet and Dry: The Evil Eye". In: Alan Dundes, Interpreting Folklore. Indiana University Press. Also in: The Evil Eye: A Casebook.
  • Alan Dundes, editor. The Evil Eye: A Casebook. Univ. of Wisconsin Press, 1992.
  • Frederick Thomas Elworthy. The Evil Eye. An Account of this Ancient & Widespread Superstition. London: John Murray, 1895. Republished as: The Evil Eye: The Classic Account of an Ancient Superstition. Dover Publications, 2004. ISBN 0-486-43437-0.
  • Henri Gamache. Terrors of the Evil Eye Exposed. Raymond Publishing, 1946. Republished as Protection Against Evil. Raymond Publishing, 1969.
  • Vasiliki Limberis. "The Eyes Infected by Evil: Basil of Caesarea's Homily." The Harvard Theological Review, Vol.84, No.2. (April, 1991),pp.163-184.
  • Louis C. Jones, "The Evil Eye among European-Americans" Western Folklore, Vol.10, No.1.(1951), pp.11-25.
  • E. Kerr Borthwick. "Socrates, Socratics, and the World." The Classical Quarterly, New Series, Vol.51, No.1. (2001),pp.297-301.
  • Kathleen Warner Slone; M. W. Dickie, "A Knidian Phallic Vase from Corinth." Hesperia, Vol.62, No.4, (Oct-Dec 1993), pp.483-505.
  • Mathew W. Dickie, "Heliodorus and Plutarch on the Evil Eye." Classical Philology, Vol.86, No.1. (Jan., 1991), pp.17-29.

Alan Dundes, (September 8, 1935 – March 30, 2005) was a folklorist at the University of California at Berkeley. ...

See also

It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Gaze aversion. ... The Wadjat - later called The Eye of Horus The Eye of Horus (previously wadjet and the Eye of the Moon; and afterward as The Eye of Ra)[1] is an ancient Egyptian symbol of protection and royal power from deities, in this case from Horus or Ra. ... Map of Ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was the civilization of the Nile Valley between about 3000 BC and the conquest of Egypt by Alexander the Great in 332 BC. As a civilization based on irrigation it is the quintessential example of an hydraulic empire. ... Look up Protection in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Much of the recent sociological debate on power revolves around the issue of the constraining and/or enabling nature of power. ... All-seeing eye redirects here. ... The motif of harmful sensation refers to the physical or mental damage that a person suffers merely by experiencing what should normally be a benign sensation. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Sauron. ... This article is about the novel. ... Tolkien redirects here. ... Usog, is a superstition where an affliction or psychological disorder in the Philippines is attributed to an evil eye hex. ... In Irish mythology, Balor (Balar, Bolar) of the Evil Eye was a king of the Fomorians, a race of giants. ... Wearing a thin red string (as a type of talisman) is a superstition associated with Judaisms Kabbalah in order to ward off misfortune brought about by an evil eye (ayin hara in Hebrew). ... Cheap (on the left) and luxurious (on the right) Mirror Armours (Kazakhstan) Diagram of a Late Mirror Armour with disks (front and back) Mirror armour (Russian: Zertsalo which means a mirror, Kazakh: Shar-ayna were Kazakh: ayna means a mirror too), sometimes referenced as Disk Armour or as Chahar-Ai...

External links

catherine (cat) yronwode (born Catherine Manfredi in San Francisco, May 12, 1947 - ) is a writer and editor notable for her extensive career in comic books, in particular for her role as an editor with Will Eisner, Kitchen Sink Press, and Eclipse Comics (where she was the editor-in-chief); she... Lucky Mojo -- that is, the domain luckymojo. ... Richard Payne Knight (15 February 1750 - 23 April 1824) was a Classical scholar and connoisseur best known for his theories of picturesque beauty and for his interest in ancient phallic imagery. ... 1786 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Fortean Times is a British monthly magazine devoted to the anomalous phenomena popularised by Charles Fort. ... Peter Lamborn Wilson is a political writer, poet, and self-described anarchist ontologist. He sometimes writes under the name Hakim Bey (which may mean Mr Judge in Turkish, and which may or may not have been a name-of-convenience used by other radical writers since the 1970s). ... catherine (cat) yronwode (born Catherine Manfredi in San Francisco, May 12, 1947 - ) is a writer and editor notable for her extensive career in comic books, in particular for her role as an editor with Will Eisner, Kitchen Sink Press, and Eclipse Comics (where she was the editor-in-chief); she... Lucky Mojo -- that is, the domain luckymojo. ...

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The evil eye is known as ayin horeh in Hebrew; ayin harsha in Arabic, droch shuil in Scotland, mauvais oeil in France, bösen Blick in Germany, mal occhio in Italy and was known as oculus malus among the classical Romans.
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