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Encyclopedia > Everglades National Park
Everglades National Park
IUCN Category Ib (Wilderness Area)
Location: Florida, USA
Nearest city: Homestead, FL
Coordinates: 25°19′0″N, 80°56′0″W
Area: 1,508,571.47 acres (6,104.97 km²)
1,494,970.67 acres (6,049.93 km²) federal
Established: December 6, 1947
Visitation: 1,181,355 (in 2004)
Governing body: National Park Service

Everglades National Park preserves the southern portion of the Everglades (all south of Tamiami Trail), but represents only 20 % of the original wetland area. The Park covers 2,357 mi² (6,105 km²) and is a World Heritage Site. The only highway access to the main part is State Road 9336 and its extension in the park, running 38 miles (61 km) from Florida City to the coast at Flamingo. Excluding the main visitor center and some smaller park facilities, there is no development in the park; this 1,296,500 acre (5,246 km²) area has been designated the Marjory Stoneman Douglas Wilderness. The World Conservation Union or International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation. ... Broadly, a wilderness area is a region where the land is left in a state where human modifications are minimal; that is, as a wilderness. ... Image File history File links Locator_Dot. ... Image File history File links US_Locator_Blank. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Location of Homestead in Miami-Dade County, Florida Homestead is a city in Miami-Dade County, Florida, United States nestled between Biscayne National Park to the east and Everglades National Park to the west. ... December 6 is the 340th day (341st on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ... The National Park Service (NPS) is the United States federal agency that manages all National Parks, many National Monuments, and other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. ... An Anhinga perched on the boardwalk railing Everglades is also the name of a city in Collier County, Florida. ... Alligators are a common sight along the scenic Tamiami Trail from Miami to Naples. ... A subtropical wetland in Florida, USA, with an endangered American Crocodile. ... A mile is any of several units of distance, or, in physics terminology, of length. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Originally the Ingraham Highway, Florida State Road 9336 is a two- to four-lane road connecting Floridas Turnpike and US 1 (SR 5) with Everglades National Park near Florida City, Florida. ... A mile is a unit of length, usually used to measure distance, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, United States customary units and Norwegian/Swedish mil. ... km redirects here. ... Florida City is a city in Miami-Dade County, Florida, United States. ... Flamingo is a small settlement on the coast at the eastern end of the only road running through the Everglades National Park. ... Marjory Stoneman Douglas (1985) Marjory Stoneman Douglas (April 7, 1890 – May 14, 1998) was an American eminent conservationist and writer. ... Wilderness is generally defined as a natural environment on Earth that has not been modified by human activity. ...


The area was authorized as a national park on May 30, 1934, but it was not fully established until December 6, 1947. The park was designated an International Biosphere Reserve on October 26, 1976. On November 10, 1978, most of the park was declared a wilderness area. Wilderness designations covered 1,296,505 acres (5247 km²) in 2003 — about 86 % of the park. It was listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site on October 24, 1979 and as a Wetland of International Importance on June 4, 1987. However, in 1993 it was placed on the List of World Heritage Sites in danger. The parks of the United States National Park system are one type of protected area in the United States and are operated by the National Park Service. ... May 30 is the 150th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (151st in leap years). ... 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... December 6 is the 340th day (341st on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ... A Biosphere Reserve is an international conservation designation for reserves designated by UNESCO under the MaB (Man and the Biosphere) Programme. ... October 26 is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 66 days remaining. ... 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... November 10 is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 51 days remaining. ... 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... Broadly, a wilderness area is a region where the land is left in a state where human modifications are minimal; that is, as a wilderness. ... UNESCO logo UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... October 24 is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 68 days remaining. ... This page refers to the year 1979. ... June 4 is the 155th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (156th in leap years), with 210 days remaining. ... 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... These are 31 sites which the UNESCO World Heritage Committee has decided to include on a list of World Heritage Sites in danger; this list also shows the year in which the World Heritage committee added the site to this list. ...


There are a number of car parks and trails within the Park, of which the most famous is the Anhinga Trail. This trail allows very close approach to birds such as herons and anhinga. The latter birds often perch on the rails of the boardwalk. The park has mosquitos year-round, and they can be a major problem in the summer, even with mosquito repellant. The Anhinga Trail is a historic area southwest of Florida City, Florida, United States. ... Genera See text. ... Binomial name Anhinga anhinga (Linnaeus, 1766) For the bird genus called Anhinga (Darters), see Anhinga The Anhinga (Anhinga anhinga), sometimes called Snakebird, Darter, or American Darter, is a water bird of the warmer parts of North America and South America. ... Photograph of the boardwalk in Atlantic City, NJ, USA, taken August 2003. ... Diversity 41 genera Genera See text. ...


In October 2005, Hurricane Wilma came across the tip of Florida and had devastating effects on the park. Heavy damage was sustained at the Flamingo area of the park. The visitor center, lodge, restaurant, and marina store were shut down, with the area closed off to all visitors not escorted by a park ranger. As of March 14, 2006 the Marina Store, Visitor Center, and boat ramps are now open. The Lodge, Flamingo Restaurant, and Buttonwood Cafe still remain closed. Updates can be found on the Everglades National Park website. March 14 is the 73rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (74th in leap years) with 292 days remaining in the year. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Contents

Park Geography

Everglades National Park is surrounded by the urban and agricultural areas of Miami, Homestead, and Florida City to its east, the Florida Straits and Florida Keys to its south, the Gulf of Mexico to its west and Big Cypress National Preserve to its north. Big Cypress is similar to the northern portion of the Everglades and it is about half the size of the park itself. This article is about the city in Florida. ... A homestead is: A farm with the buildings around it, see homestead (buildings) Ones legal residence, see homestead (law) An area measure of 160 acres (650,000 m²), see homestead (area) and Homestead Act To homestead is to establish ownership of previously unowned property (usually but not exclusively land... Florida City is a city located in Miami-Dade County, Florida. ... Categories: Stub | Straits ... Palm trees in Islamorada The Florida Keys are an archipelago, a string of about 1700 islands in the southeast United States. ... Gulf of Mexico in 3D perspective. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


In the southeastern section of the park is the Earnest F. Coe Visitor Center, the park headquarters. It is located just to the west of Homestead and Florida City on state road 9336. Four miles to the west of the headquarters is the Royal Palm Visitor center. The general area of Royal Palm and the headquarters is nestled in a pineland area, as are the Hidden Lake Education and Daniel Beard Centers a few miles to the west. The large Taylor Slough runs from Royal Palm to Florida Bay. To the west of Royal Palm is also Long Pine Key. Long Pine Key (which is not actually an island) is located about four miles from Royal Palm on 9336 and is a prominent camping area in the forest like pineland area. Another four miles to the west on 9336 is the Pahayokee Overlook, which is a raised observation platform that overlooks the park to the north. A homestead is: A farm with the buildings around it, see homestead (buildings) Ones legal residence, see homestead (law) An area measure of 160 acres (650,000 m²), see homestead (area) and Homestead Act To homestead is to establish ownership of previously unowned property (usually but not exclusively land... Florida City is a city located in Miami-Dade County, Florida. ... Taylor Slough, located in the south eastern corner of the Everglades and the much larger Shark River Slough, farther to the west, are the principal natural drainages for the freshwater Everglades. ... Florida Bay is the shallow bay located between the southern end of the Florida mainland (the Florida Everglades) and the Florida Keys. ...


Continuing south, 9336 runs through a large cypress swamp. Just on the outside edge of this swamp is Mahogany Hammock, a trail located twenty miles from the headquarters, deep in the park. Even farther south, one comes into the coastal mangrove swamps. Hidden in the thousands of mangrove trees are hundreds of small lakes bay and rivers that empty into the Florida Straits. The swampy estuaries in this area are the only place in the U.S., where crocodiles can be found, although they are very rare. Also in these areas are manatees, which are often spotted at the surface on cool autumn mornings. At the very end of 9336 is the Flamingo Visitor Center, the farthest south visitor center in the park. It is located on the arid coastal prairie and lies just to the north of Florida Bay. Trails leading from Flamingo go west onto Cape Sable a cape in the extreme southwestern part of Florida. Also leading from Flamingo is the 99 mile Wilderness Waterway, a canoe trip from Flamingo in the south to the Gulf Coast Visitor Center in the north. The Gulf Coast Visitor Center serves as a visitor center for both the northwestern part of the everglades and the neighboring Big Cypress National Preserve. Binomial name Crocodylus acutus (Cuvier, 1807) The American Crocodile (Crocodylus acutus) is the only New World crocodile and the top predator in its range. ... Florida Bay is the shallow bay located between the southern end of the Florida mainland (the Florida Everglades) and the Florida Keys. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...

The view from the Shark Valley Tower
The view from the Shark Valley Tower

In the northern section of the park, the most prominent area is the Shark Valley Visitor Center. A tram road which starts and ends at this center extends about seven miles from the northeastern border of the park into the Shark River Slough, an extensive freshwater slough that flows from Lake Okeechobee (north of the park) to the southwestern coast of Florida. The Shark River Slough is dotted with hundreds of small, jungle-like hardwood hammocks, which are home to many of the Everglades mammals and raptors. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1382x1037, 444 KB)A picture taken by me of Everglades National Park. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1382x1037, 444 KB)A picture taken by me of Everglades National Park. ... Lake Okeechobee from space, September 1988 View of Lake Okeechobee from Pahokee. ...


The general Shark Valley area is perhaps what most visitors think of when they think of the everglades, as it is surrounded by a seemingly eternity of sawgrass in all directions. Alligators and wading birds often come within feet of visitors, and occasionally, a lazy alligator will block the road. At the point in the Shark Valley tram road where it turns back north there is the Shark Valley Observation Tower, a sixty five foot tower that overlooks the sawgrass prairie to the south.


Flora

The soil of the islands is very fertile and is subject to frequent inundation, but gradually the water area is being replaced by land. The vegetation is luxuriant, the live oak, wild lemon, wild orange, cucumber, pawpaw, custard-apple and wild rubber trees being among the indigenous species; there are, besides, many varieties of wild flowers, the orchids being especially noteworthy. There are two seasons, wet and dry, but the climate is equable. Southern live oaks on Skidaway Island, near Savannah, Georgia Live oak is a general term for a number of unrelated oaks in several different sections of the genus Quercus that happen to share the character of evergreen foliage. ... Binomial name Podophyllum peltatum L. The American Mayapple (Podophyllum peltatum) is a herbaceous perennial plant in the family Berberidaceae, native to the eastern part of North America. ... Binomial name Capparis mitchelii Wild orange, is an Australian native plant. ... Binomial name Cucumis sativus L. Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Species See text Pawpaw (Asimina) is a genus of eight or nine species of small trees with large leaves and fruit, native to southeastern North America. ... Binomial name Annona reticulata L. The Custard-apple (Annona reticulata), also known in English as bullocks heart or bulls heart, is a species of Annona, native to the tropical New World, preferring a low elevation, and a warm, humid climate. ... Orchid re-directs here; for alternate uses see Orchid (disambiguation) Genera Over 800 See List of Orchidaceae genera. ...


Fauna

Specialties of the park include the Short-tailed Hawk and Smooth-billed Ani, and the Caribbean Flamingo at its only regular North American mainland site, usually near the town of Flamingo. Other wading birds such as herons, egrets, Wood Stork, Roseate Spoonbill and ibises are abundant. Limpkins can also be found in the Everglades. Binomial name Buteo brachyurus Vieillot, 1816 Short-tailed Hawk, Buteo brachyurus, is a bird of prey in the family Accipitridae, which also includes the eagles, hawks and Old World vultures. ... Binomial name Crotophaga ani (Linnaeus, 1758) The Smooth-billed Ani, Crotophaga ani, is a large near-passerine bird in the cuckoo family. ... Binomial name Phoenicopterus ruber Linnaeus, 1758 The Caribbean Flamingo (Phoenicopterus ruber) is a large species of flamingo closely related to the Greater Flamingo and Chilean Flamingo, with which it is sometimes considered conspecific. ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... This article is about the geomorphological/geopolitical term; MAINLAND is also a cheese brand owned by Fonterra, a New Zealand dairy company. ... Flamingo is a small settlement on the coast at the eastern end of the only road running through the Everglades National Park. ... Genera See text. ... Genera Egretta Ardea An egret is any of several herons, most of which are white or buff, and several of which develop fine plumes during the breeding season. ... Binomial name Mycteria americana Linnaeus, 1758 The Wood Stork (Mycteria americana) is a large wading bird in the stork family Ciconiidae. ... Binomial name Platalea ajaja (Linnaeus, 1758) Synonyms Ajaja ajaja The Roseate Spoonbill (Platalea ajaja, sometimes separated in the monotypic genus Ajaja) is a wading bird of the ibis and spoonbill family Threskiornithidae. ... Genera Threskiornis Pseudibis Thaumatibis Geronticus Nipponia Bostrychia Theristicus Cercibis Mesembrinibis Phimosus Eudocimus Plegadis Lophotibis Ibises are a group of long-legged wading birds in the family Threskiornithidae. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


The raptors include the rare Snail Kite and the very common Red-shouldered Hawk and Osprey. Orders Accipitriformes     Cathartidae     Pandionidae     Accipitridae     Sagittariidae Falconiformes     Falconidae A bird of prey or raptor is a bird that hunts its food, especially one that preys on mammals or other birds. ... Binomial name Rostrhamus sociabilis (Vieillot, 1817) The Snail Kite, Rostrhamus sociabilis, is a bird of prey in the family Accipitridae, which also includes the eagles, hawks and Old World vultures. ... Binomial name Buteo lineatus (Gmelin, 1788) The Red-shouldered Hawk, Buteo lineatus, is a medium-sized hawk. ... Binomial name Pandion haliaetus (Linnaeus, 1758) The Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) is a medium large raptor which is a specialist fish-eater with a worldwide distribution. ...


From Flamingo, the water and mud flats of Florida Bay allow views of pelicans, shorebirds, terns and skimmers. Florida Bay is the shallow bay located between the southern end of the Florida mainland (the Florida Everglades) and the Florida Keys. ... Species Pelecanus occidentalis Pelecanus thagus Pelecanus erythrorhynchos Pelecanus onocrotalus Pelecanus crispus Pelecanus rufescens Pelecanus philippensis Pelecanus conspicillatus A pelican is any of several very large water birds with a distinctive pouch under the beak belonging to the bird family Pelecanidae. ... Families Charadridae Jacanidae Rostratulidae Ibidorhynchidae Recurvirostridae Haematopodidae Scolopacidae Dromadidae Burhinidae Glareolidae Thinocoridae Waders, called Shorebirds in North America (where wader is used to refer to long-legged wading birds such as storks and herons), are members of the order Charadriiformes, excluding the more marine web-footed seabird groups. ... Genera Sterna (Gelochelidon) (Hydroprogne) (Thalasseus) Chlidonias Phaetusa Anous Procelsterna Gygis Larosterna Terns are seabirds in the family Sternidae, previously considered a subfamily Sterninae of the gull family Laridae. ... Species Black Skimmer (Rhynchops niger) African Skimmer (Rhynchops flavirostris) Indian Skimmer (Rhynchops albicollis) For other uses, see Skimmer (disambiguation). ...


The otter, alligator and crocodile are found, also deer and the severely endangered Florida panther. The park is the only place in the world that alligators and crocodiles coexist naturally. Binomial name Lontra canadensis (Schreber, 1777) The Northern River Otter, Lontra canadensis, is a North American member of the Mustelidae or weasel family. ... Binomial name Alligator mississippiensis (Daudin, 1801) American Alligator range map The American Alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) is one of the two living species of Alligator, a genus within the family Alligatoridae. ... Binomial name Crocodylus acutus (Cuvier, 1807) The American Crocodile (Crocodylus acutus) is the only New World crocodile and the top predator in its range. ... Trinomial name Puma concolor coryi The Florida Panther (Puma concolor coryi) is a critically endangered subspecies of Puma that lives in the low pinelands, palm forests and swamps of southern Florida in the United States, especially near the Big Cypress National Preserve [1]. It is the last subspecies of Puma...

See also

  • Nike Missile Site HM-69

The Nike Missile Site HM-69 (also known as Hole in the Donut or Everglades Nike Site or Missile Base) is a historic site in Homestead, Florida, United States. ...

External links

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Everglades National Park

 
 

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