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Encyclopedia > Everglades
Map of the Everglades ecoregion as delineated by the WWF. Satellite image from NASA. The yellow line encloses two ecoregions, the "Everglades" and the "South Florida rocklands". The South Florida rocklands ecoregion includes the Florida Keys and offshore islands and two patches within the Everglades.
Map of the Everglades ecoregion as delineated by the WWF. Satellite image from NASA. The yellow line encloses two ecoregions, the "Everglades" and the "South Florida rocklands". The South Florida rocklands ecoregion includes the Florida Keys and offshore islands and two patches within the Everglades.
Everglades is also the name of a city in Collier County, Florida.

The Florida Everglades are subtropical marshland located in the southern portion of the U.S. state of Florida, specifically in parts of Monroe, Collier, Palm Beach, Miami-Dade, and Broward counties. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) is an international non-governmental organization for the conservation, research and restoration of the natural environment, formerly named the World Wildlife Fund, which remains its official name in the United States and Canada. ... The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) (IPA [ˈnæsÉ™]) is an agency of the United States government, responsible for the nations public space program. ... Everglades (also known as Everglades City) is a city in Collier County, Florida, United States. ... The subtropics are the zones of the Earth immediately north and south of the tropic zone, which is bounded by the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn, at latitude 23. ... This article is about marsh, a type of wetland. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      A U.S. state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... Monroe County is a county located in the state of Florida. ... Collier County is a county located in the U.S. state of Florida. ... Palm Beach County is a county located in the state of Florida. ... Miami-Dade County (formerly known as Dade County and many times referred to as simply Miami) is a county located in the southeastern part of the state of Florida. ... Broward County is a county located in the U.S. state of Florida. ...


Though much modified by agricultural development in central and southern Florida, the Everglades is the southern half of a large watershed arising in the vicinity of Orlando known as the Kissimmee River system. The Kissimmee flows from Taylor Creek, Nubbin Slough, and Fisheating Creek, and discharges into Lake Okeechobee, a very large (730 mi² or 1,890 km²), shallow (10 ft or 3 m) fresh water lake. Water leaving Lake Okeechobee in the wet season forms the Everglades, a shallow, slow-moving flood at one time 40 miles (60 km) wide and over 100 miles (160 km) long moving southward across a nearly flat limestone shelf to Florida Bay at the southern end of the state. The Everglades extends from Lake Okeechobee on the north to Florida Bay on the south and was once bordered by Big Cypress Swamp on the west and the Atlantic Coastal Ridge on the east. It has been called River of Grass (Douglas, 1947) because of the slow flow of water from Okeechobee southward and the predominance of a sedge known as sawgrass. Slightly elevated points in this extremely flat area are covered with trees, usually cypress and red mangrove. A drainage basin is the area within the drainage basin divide (blue outline), and drains the surface runoff and river discharge (green lines) of a contiguous area. ... Nickname: Location in Orange County and the state of Florida Coordinates: , Country State Counties Orange Government  - Mayor Buddy Dyer (D) Area  - City 101 sq mi (261. ... The Kissimmee River is a river in southern Florida, USA. Together with a chain of lakes, it forms the headwaters of the Kissimee-Okeechobee-Everglades ecosystem. ... Lake Okeechobee from space, September 1988 View of Lake Okeechobee from Pahokee. ... For other uses, see Lake (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Limestone (disambiguation). ... Florida Bay is the shallow bay located between the southern end of the Florida mainland (the Florida Everglades) and the Florida Keys. ... Corkscrew Swamp Sanctuary is a National Audubon Society sanctuary located in southwest Florida, north of Naples, Florida and east of Bonita Springs. ... Genera See text The Family Cyperaceae, or the Sedge family, is a taxon of monocot flowering plants that superficially resemble grasses or rushes. ... Species See text. ... The coniferous Coast Redwood, the tallest tree species on earth. ... Species Taxodium ascendens - Pond Cypress Taxodium distichum - Bald Cypress Taxodium mucronatum - Montezuma Cypress Taxodium is a genus of one to three species (depending on taxonomic opinion) of extremely flood-tolerant conifers in the cypress family, Cupressaceae, one of several genera in the family commonly known as cypresses. ...


Some 50 percent of the original Everglades has been lost to agriculture. Most of the rest is now protected in a national park, national wildlife refuge, and water conservation areas. Water from the Everglades is still used as a water supply for major cities in the area, such as Miami. The Everglades is crossed from west to east by a toll road called "Alligator Alley", now part of Interstate 75. This article is about national parks. ... National Wildlife Refuge is a designation for certain protected areas of the United States managed by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service. ... This article is about the city in Florida. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Alligator Alley (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


There are several small outlets, such as the Miami River and the New River on the east and the Shark River on the southwest. There is a general south to southwesterly movement of surface water. The Miami River in Florida drains out of the Everglades and runs through downtown Miami, Florida from Miami International Airport to Biscayne Bay. ... The Shark River is a major flowage of the Florida Everglades. ...

Contents

History

For much of its history, systema tic exploration of the Everglades was prevented by the dense growth of sawgrass (Cladium jamaicense), a sedge with very sharp saw-toothed leaves, and up to 53 inches of rainfall a year. The first European to enter the region was Escalente de Fontenada, a Spanish captive of a Native American chief, who named a lake, Laguno del Espiritu Santo, and some islands, Cayos del Espiritu Santo. Between 1841 and 1856 various United States military forces penetrated the Everglades for the purpose of attacking and driving out the Seminoles, who took refuge here. The most important explorations during the later years of the 19th century were those of Major Archie P. Williams in 1883, James E. Ingraham in 1892, and L. Willoughby in 1897. The Seminoles were then practically the only inhabitants. Species See text. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Seminole (disambiguation). ...


In 1850 under the Arkansas Bill, or Swamp and Overflow Act, practically all of the Everglades, which the state had been urging the federal government to drain and reclaim, were turned over to the state for that purpose, with the provision that all proceeds from such lands be applied to their reclamation.[1] A board of trustees for the Internal Improvement Fund, created in 1855 and having as members ex officio the governor, comptroller, treasurer, attorney-general and commissioner-general, sold and allowed to railway companies much of the grant. Between 1881 and 1896 a private company owning 4,000,000 acres (16,000 km²) of the Everglades attempted to dig a canal from Lake Okeechobee through Lake Hicpochee and along the Caloosahatchee River to the Gulf of Mexico; the canal was closed in 1902 by overflows. Six canals were begun under state control in 1905 from the lake to the Atlantic, the northernmost at Jensen Beach, the southernmost at Fort Lauderdale; the total cost, estimated at $1,035,000 for the reclamation of 12,500 m², was raised by a drainage tax, not to exceed ten cents per acre ($24.71/km²), levied by the trustees of the Internal Improvement Fund and Board of Drainage commissioners. Land reclamation is either of two distinct practices. ... This page includes English translations of several Latin phrases and abbreviations such as . ... Look up comptroller in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Canal (disambiguation). ... Lake Okeechobee from space, September 1988 View of Lake Okeechobee from Pahokee. ... The Caloosahatchee River is a river on the southwest Gulf Coast of Florida in the United States, approximately 75 mi (121 long). ... Gulf of Mexico in 3D perspective. ... The Atlantic Ocean, not including Arctic and Antarctic regions. ... Jensen Beach is a census-designated place located in Martin County, Florida. ... Nickname: Coordinates: , Country State County Broward Established 27 March 1911 Government  - Type Commission-Manager  - Mayor Jim Naugle Area [1]  - City 36. ...


The small area reclaimed by prior to that year (1905) was found very fertile and particularly adapted to raising sugar cane, oranges and garden vegetables. Species Ref: ITIS 42058 as of 2004-05-05 Sugarcane is one of six species of a tall tropical southeast Asian grass (Family Poaceae) having stout fibrous jointed stalks whose sap at one time was the primary source of sugar. ... Binomial name (L.) Osbeck Orange—specifically, sweet orange—refers to the citrus tree Citrus sinensis (syn. ... For other uses, see Vegetable (disambiguation). ...


Everglades National Park

An overlook of the Florida Everglades, viewed from the Shark Valley observation tower, in Everglades National Park.
An overlook of the Florida Everglades, viewed from the Shark Valley observation tower, in Everglades National Park.

Everglades National Park preserves the southern portion of the Everglades (all south of Tamiami Trail), but represents only 27.3% of the original area. The Park covers 2,357 mi² (6,105 km²) and is a World Heritage Site. The only highway access is the State Road 9336, running 47 miles (73 km) from Florida City to the coast at Flamingo. There have been recent expansions to the park's tourist facilities to bring in more money to Florida's economy such as a massive extension to the visiting center, many outposts along the bridges that span the Everglades that teach people about the many birds and other wildlife native to the Everglades as well as a small petting zoo. Everglades National Park preserves the southern portion of the Everglades (all south of Tamiami Trail), but represents only 20 % of the original wetland area. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1382x1037, 444 KB)A picture taken by me of Everglades National Park. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1382x1037, 444 KB)A picture taken by me of Everglades National Park. ... Everglades National Park preserves the southern portion of the Everglades (all south of Tamiami Trail), but represents only 20 % of the original wetland area. ... Everglades National Park preserves the southern portion of the Everglades (all south of Tamiami Trail), but represents only 20 % of the original wetland area. ... Alligators are a common sight along the scenic Tamiami Trail from Miami to Naples. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Florida City is a city in Miami-Dade County, Florida, United States. ... Flamingo is a small settlement on the coast at the eastern end of the only road running through the Everglades National Park. ...


Encroachment

The publication in November 1947 of Marjory Stoneman Douglas' Everglades: River of Grass drew attention to the vast area that makes South Florida habitable but was being treated by agricultural interests and housing developers as a worthless swamp that the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers would profitably be able to drain. In early December 1947 President Harry S. Truman protected more than 2 million acres (8,000 km²) as Everglades National Park. Look up publication in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Marjory Stoneman Douglas (1985) Marjory Stoneman Douglas (April 7, 1890 - May 14, 1998) was an American eminent conservationist and writer. ... United States Army Corps of Engineers logo The United States Army Corps of Engineers, or USACE, is made up of some 34,600 civilian and 650 military men and women. ... For other persons named Harry Truman, see Harry Truman (disambiguation). ... Everglades National Park preserves the southern portion of the Everglades (all south of Tamiami Trail), but represents only 20 % of the original wetland area. ...

The Everglades are a popular tourist attraction
The Everglades are a popular tourist attraction

The strength of Mrs. Douglas's name was such that when legislation designed by lawyers representing the sugar growers' industry proposed to suspend all water quality standards in the Everglades for twelve years, it was named the Marjory Stoneman Douglas Act—until the 103-year old author demanded that her name be removed from the pending bill. It still passed in 1994, renamed the Everglades Forever Act, and was amended in 2003. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2934x1846, 2208 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Everglades Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2934x1846, 2208 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Everglades Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Water quality is the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of water, characterized through the methods of hydrometry. ... Amendment has at least two meanings: An amendment is a formal alteration to any official document or record, typically with the aim of improving it for the better. ...


A settlement agreement between the federal government and the State of Florida, and approved by Judge William Hoeveler, imposed a plan to reduce damaging phosphorus levels in the Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge and Everglades National Park by December 31, 2006. Additionally, in 2004 the State of Florida adopted a 10 parts per billion numeric criteria for phosphorus within the Everglades Protection Area, which consists of the Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge, Everglades National Park, and Water Conservation Areas 2 and 3. The excessive phosphorus derives primarily from fertilizer used by sugarcane growers and other agricultural operations as well as construction runoff from the development of coastal areas such as Palm Beach County. Although the vast majority of the Everglades Protection Area currently meets water quality standards, approximately 10% of the area remain severely impacted. General Name, symbol, number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Standard atomic weight 30. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Spreading manure, an organic fertilizer Fertilizers (also spelled fertilisers) are compounds given to plants to promote growth; they are usually applied either via the soil, for uptake by plant roots, or by foliar feeding, for uptake through leaves. ... Species Saccharum arundinaceum Saccharum bengalense Saccharum edule Saccharum officinarum Saccharum procerum Saccharum ravennae Saccharum robustum Saccharum sinense Saccharum spontaneum Sugarcane or Sugar cane (Saccharum) is a genus of 6 to 37 species (depending on taxonomic interpretation) of tall perennial grasses (family Poaceae, tribe Andropogoneae), native to warm temperate to tropical...


Restoration

The State of Florida and the Army Corps of Engineers are undertaking various projects costing billions of dollars under the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan to help ensure the proper quantity, quality, timing and distribution of waters to the Everglades and all of South Florida. Numerous lawsuits affecting Everglades restoration are pending before the courts. The State of Florida and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers are undertaking various projects costing billions of dollars under the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan to help ensure the proper quantity, quality, timing and distribution of waters to the Everglades and all of South Florida. ...


Non-native/Invasive species

The Florida Everglades around Broward County
The Florida Everglades around Broward County

The Everglades also face an ongoing threat from the melaleuca tree (Melaleuca quinquenervia). Sprinkled from airplanes using salt and pepper shakers, the tiny seeds of the thirsty tree were intended to suck up the water and make the "land" of the Everglades suitable for development. The tree remains an invasive nuisance. Additionally, the oils in the trees are highly flammable, which could increase danger from wildfires. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Species 236; see List of Melaleuca species Melaleuca is a genus of plants in the myrtle family Myrtaceae. ... The coniferous Coast Redwood, the tallest tree species on earth. ... Binomial name Melaleuca quinquenervia Melaleuca quinquenervia, known as the Broad-leaved paperbark, is a tree native to south-eastern Australia. ... Airplane and Aeroplane redirect here. ... This article is about common table salt. ... Binomial name L. Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. ... Look up Salt shaker on Wiktionary, the free dictionary For the Australian biodiversity and dryland salinity project, see Saltshaker. ... A ripe red jalapeño cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Subdivision is the act of dividing up land into smaller pieces that are easier to sell, usually via a plat. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with cooking oil. ... Flammable or Flammability refers to the ease at which a substance will ignite, causing fire or combustion. ... For other uses, see Wildfire (disambiguation). ...


Brazilian Pepper (Florida Holly) has also wreaked havoc on the Everglades, exhibiting a tendency to spread rapidly and crowd out native species. It is especially difficult to eradicate and is readily propagated by birds, which eat its small red berries. The Brazilian Pepper problem is not exclusive to the Everglades; however, neither is the Water Hyacinth, which is a widespread problem in Florida's waterways and a major threat to endemic species, and is also difficult and costly to eradicate. Binomial name Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi Brazilian Pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius; also known as Aroeira or Florida Holly) is a sprawling shrub or small tree 7-10 m tall, native to subtropical and tropical South America, in southeastern Brazil, northern Argentina and Paraguay. ... Species Seven species, including: - Anchored Water Hyacinth E. crassipes - Common Water Hyacinth - Variableleaf Water Hyacinth - Brazilian Water Hyacinth The seven species of water hyacinths comprise the genus Eichhornia of free-floating perennial aquatic plants native to tropical South America. ...


Native to southern Asia, the Burmese python, Python molurus bivittatus is a relatively new invasive species in the Everglades. This large snake's population growth is due entirely to the indiscriminate pet trade, a growing cause of invasive species in the United States. Florida wildlife officials speculate that local or nearby states' residents have released their pet pythons after discovering that the snake has become too large to keep (record length in captivity: 27 ft). The Everglades habitat is perfect for bivittatus, and this species is said to be reproducing rapidly. There have been at least four recorded encounters between alligators and this large snake.[1] Trinomial name Python molurus bivittatus Kuhl, 1820 The Burmese Python (Python molurus bivittatus) is the larger subspecies of the Indian Python and one of the 6 biggest snakes in the world, native to rain forest areas of Southeast Asia. ... Lantana invasion of abandoned citrus plantation; Moshav Sdey Hemed, Israel The term invasive species refers to a subset of introduced species or non-indigenous species that are rapidly expanding outside of their native range. ... For other uses, see Snake (disambiguation). ... Lantana invasion of abandoned citrus plantation; Moshav Sdey Hemed, Israel The term invasive species refers to a subset of introduced species or non-indigenous species that are rapidly expanding outside of their native range. ... For other uses, see Alligator (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Snake (disambiguation). ...


External links

References

  1. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/4313978.stm
  • Douglas, Marjory S. 1947. Everglades: River of Grass. (A revised edition was published in 1988 by Pineapple Press, Sarasota, Fl.)
  • Lodge, Thomas E. 1994. The Everglades Handbook. Understanding the Ecosystem. CRC Press 228 p. ISBN 1-884015-06-9
  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.

  Results from FactBites:
 
NRDC: Florida Everglades FAQ (1084 words)
The Everglades are the largest remaining sub-tropical wilderness in the lower 48 states.
Everglades wildlife includes a host of species of wading birds (including egrets, the endangered wood stork, spoonbills, and herons);; grassland birds including the endangered Cape Sable seaside sparrow; alligators; the endangered American crocodile; tropical fish and crustaceans, including the valuable pink shrimp and spiny lobster fisheries; and mammals (including panthers and wild hogs).
Everglades National Park, including Florida Bay, is seriously threatened by the water management practices of the Army Corps of Engineers and the South Florida Water Management District.
Everglades National Park - Everglades National Park (U.S. National Park Service) (451 words)
Everglades National Park is the largest subtropical wilderness in the United States.
The historic Everglades are a vast wetland of international significance.
The Everglades is mild and pleasant from December through April, though rare cold fronts may create near freezing conditions.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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