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Encyclopedia > Evenks
Evenks
Total population

approx. 67,000[citation needed]

Regions with significant populations
Russia, China, Mongolia
Languages
Russian, Evenk
Religions
Shamanism, Russian Orthodoxy,
Tibetan Buddhism
Related ethnic groups
Evens, Oroqen, Oroch,
other Tungusic peoples

The Evenks or Evenki (obsolete: Tungus or Tunguz, autonym: Эвэнки, Evenki) are a nomadic Tungusic people of Northern Asia. In Russia, the Evenks (Russian: Эвенки, Evenki; pop. 35,527, 2002 Census), are recognized as one of the Indigenous peoples of the Russian North. In China, the Evenki (Simplified Chinese:鄂温克族; Pinyin: Èwēnkè Zú; pop. 30,505, as per 2000 Census) form one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the People's Republic of China. The Evenk language (Evenki language) (SIL: EVN, ISO 639-2: tut) is the largest of the northern group of the Manchu-Tungus languages, a group which also includes the Even and Negidal languages. ... A shaman doctor of Kyzyl. ... The Russian Orthodox Church (Русская Православная церковь) is that body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with... Tibetan Buddhism (Simplified Chinese: 藏传佛教) is the body of religious Buddhist doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet, the Himalayan region (including northern Nepal, Bhutan, and Sikkim and Ladakh), Mongolia, Buryatia, Tuva and Kalmykia (Russia), and northeastern China (Manchuria: Heilongjiang, Jilin). ... The Evens or Eveny (formerly known as the Lamuts a term meaning ocean people in Even) (Эвены in Russian) are a people in Siberia and the Russian Far East. ... The Oroqen people(鄂伦春族) are an ethnic group in northern China. ... Orochs or orochons is a small people of Russia that speak the Oroch (Orochon) dialect of the Southern group of Tungusic languages. ... The term Tungusic peoples is used to describe a peoples speaking a Tungusic languages. ... Russian Census of 2002 (Russian: ) was the first census of Russian Federation carried out on October 9, 2002. ... This list is based solely on territory; the peoples listed here do not belong to a single language family or ethnicity: they are Finno-Ugric, Turkic, Eskimo-Aleut, and other groups. ... Simplified Chinese characters (Simplified Chinese: 简体字; Traditional Chinese: 簡體字; pinyin: jiǎntǐzì; also called 简化字/簡化字, jiǎnhuàzì) are one of two standard character sets of printed contemporary Chinese written language. ... It has been suggested that Pinyin method be merged into this article or section. ...

Contents

Evenks of Russia

Evenks domicile - Evenks home in ethnographic museum in Ulan Ude, Russia.
Evenks domicile - Evenks home in ethnographic museum in Ulan Ude, Russia.

The Evenks were formerly known as tungus. This designation was spread by the Russians, who acquired it from the Yakuts and the Siberian Tatars (in the Yakut language tongus) in the 17th century. The Evenks have several self-designations of which the best known is even, evenk. This became the official designation for the people in 1931. Some groups call themselves orochen ('an inhabitant of the River Oro'), orochon ('a rearer of reindeer'), ile ('a human being'), etc. At one time or another tribal designations and place-names have also been used as self-designations, for instance manjagir, birachen, solon, etc. Several of these have even been taken for separate ethnic entities. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1536 × 2048 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1536 × 2048 pixel, file size: 1. ... Ulan-Ude (Ула́н-Удэ́) (pop. ... Yakuts, self-designation: Sakha, are a Turkic people associated with the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic. ... Kültigin Monument where first mention of Tatar people is inscribed Tatars (Tatar: Tatarlar/Татарлар), sometimes spelled Tartar (more about the name), is a collective name applied to the Turkic speaking people of Eastern Europe and Central Asia. ... Binomial name Rangifer tarandus (Linnaeus, 1758) The reindeer, known as caribou when wild in North America, is an Arctic and Subarctic-dwelling deer (Rangifer tarandus). ...


Besides Evenks, the list of indigenous ethnic groups of Siberia includes similarly named Evens (formerly known as Lamuts). Although related to the Evenks, the Evens are now considered to be a separate ethnic group. The Evens or Eveny (formerly known as the Lamuts a term meaning ocean people in Even) (Эвены in Russian) are a people in Siberia and the Russian Far East. ...


The Evenks are spread over a huge territory of the Siberian taiga from the River Ob in the west to the Okhotsk Sea in the east, and from the Arctic Ocean in the north to Manchuria and Sakhalin in the south. The total area of their habitat is about 2,500,000 km². In all of Russia only the Russians inhabit a larger territory. According to the administrative structure, the Evenks live, from west to east, in Tyumen and Tomsk Oblasts, Krasnoyarsk Krai with Evenk Autonomous Okrug, Irkutsk, Chita, and Amur Oblasts, the Buryat and the Sakha Republics, Khabarovsk Krai, and Sakhalin Oblast. However, the territory where they are a titular nation is confined solely to Evenk Autonomous Okrug, where 3,802 of the 35,527 Evenks live (according to the 2002 Census). More than 18,200 Evenks live in the Sakha Republic. Siberian Federal District (darker red) and the broadest definition of Siberia (red) arctic northeast Siberia Udachnaya pipe Siberia (Russian: , Sibir; Tatar: ) is a vast region of Russia constituting almost all of Northern Asia and comprising a large part of the Euro-Asian Steppe. ... The taiga is found throughout the high northern latitudes, just below the tundra, and just above the steppes. ... Ob (also Obi, Russian Обь) is a river in West Siberia, Russia, the countrys fourth longest. ... The Sea of Okhotsk (from the Russian Okhotskoe more) is a part of the western Pacific Ocean, lying between the Kamchatka Peninsula and the disputed Russo-Japanese Kurile Islands on the east, the Japanese island of Hokkaido to the south and the island of Sakhalin, the Amur province of Siberia... Manchuria (Manchu: Manju; Traditional Chinese: 滿洲; Simplified Chinese: 满洲; pinyin: MÇŽnzhōu, Russian: ) is a vast territorial region in northeast Asia. ... Location of Sakhalin in the Western Pacific Sakhalin, GOST transliteration Sahalin, (Russian: , Korean: Traditional Chinese: 庫頁島; Simplified Chinese: 库页岛; pinyin: kùyèdÇŽo Japanese: 樺太 romaji: karafuto), also Saghalien, is a large elongated island in the North Pacific, lying between 45° 50 and 54° 24 N. It is part of the Russian... Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ... Tyumen Oblast Coat of Arms Tyumen Oblast flag Tyumen Oblast (Russian: ) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast) in Urals Federal District. ... Tomsk Oblast (Russian: ) (2002 pop. ... Krasnoyarsk Krai (Russian: ) (2002 pop. ... Evenk Autonomous Okrug (Russian: ), or Evenkia, is a federal subject of Russia (an autonomous okrug of Krasnoyarsk Krai). ... Irkutsk Oblast (Russian: ) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast), located in south-eastern Siberia in the basins of Angara, Lena, and Nizhnyaya Tunguska rivers, and occupies an area of 767,900 km² (4. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Administrative center Blagoveshchensk Area - total - % water Ranked 14th - 363,700 km² - Population - Total - Density Ranked 59th - est. ... The Buryat Republic (Russian: ; Buryat: Буряад Республика) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). ... Capital Yakutsk Area - total - % water Ranked 1st - 3,103,200 km² - negligible Population - Total - Density Ranked 58th - est. ... Khabarovsk Krai (Russian: ) (1995 pop. ... Sakhalin Oblast on the map of Russia Flag of Sakhalin Oblast Sakhalin Oblast (Russian: , Sakhalinskaya Oblast) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast). ... Titular nation (титульная нация) was a term introduced in the Soviet Union to denote nations that give rise to titles of autonomous entities within the union: Soviet republics, autonomous republics, autonomous regions, etc. ... Capital Yakutsk Area - total - % water Ranked 1st - 3,103,200 km² - negligible Population - Total - Density Ranked 58th - est. ...


Anthropologically the Evenk belong to the Baikal or Paleo-Siberian group of the Mongolian type, originating from the ancient Paleo-Siberian people of the Yenisei River up to the Okhotsk Sea[citation needed]. The Yenisei (Енисе́й) is the greatest river system flowing to the Arctic Ocean, and the fifth longest river in the world. ... The Sea of Okhotsk (from the Russian Okhotskoe more) is a part of the western Pacific Ocean, lying between the Kamchatka Peninsula and the disputed Russo-Japanese Kurile Islands on the east, the Japanese island of Hokkaido to the south and the island of Sakhalin, the Amur province of Siberia...


The Evenk language is the largest of the northern group of the Manchu-Tungus languages, a group which also includes the Even and Negidal languages. The Evenk language (Evenki language) (SIL: EVN, ISO 639-2: tut) is the largest of the northern group of the Manchu-Tungus languages, a group which also includes the Even and Negidal languages. ... Tungusic languages (or Manchu-Tungus languages) are spoken in Eastern Siberia and Manchuria. ...


Evenks of China

According to the 2000 Census, there are 30,505 Evenks in China mainly made up of the Solons and the Khamnigans. 88.8% of China's Evenks live in the Hulunbuir region in the north of the Inner Mongolia Province, near the city of Hailar. The Evenk Autonomous Banner is also located near Hulunbuir. There are also around 3,000 Evenks in neighbouring Heilongjiang Province. Hulunbuir (Chinese: 呼伦贝尔; Pinyin: HÅ«lúnbèiÄ›r) is a prefecture-level city in Inner Mongolia. ... Inner Mongolia (Mongolian: ᠥᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠨᠺᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠺᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠤᠨ r Mongghul-un bertegen Jasaqu Orun; Chinese: 内蒙古自治区; Hanyu Pinyin: N... Hailar (海拉尔; Pinyin: Hǎilāěr) is a city and administrative district in Hulunbuir, Inner Mongolia, Peoples Republic of China. ... Evenk Autonomous Banner (simplified Chinese: 鄂温克族自治旗; pinyin: ÈwÄ“nkèzú Zìzhìqí) is an autonomous banner that lies directly south of the urban district of Hailar in the prefecture-level city of Hulunbuir. ... Heilongjiang (Simplified Chinese: 黑龙江省; Traditional Chinese: 黑龍江省; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Postal System Pinyin: Heilungkiang) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China located in the northeastern part of the country. ...


In 1763, the Qing government moved 500 Solon Evenk and 500 Daur families to the Tacheng and Kuldja areas of Xinjiang, in order to strengthen the empire's western border. 1020 Xibe families (some 4000 persons) followed the next year. Since then, however, the Solons of Xinjiang have assimilated into other ethnic groups, and are not identified as such anymore. [1] [2] The Qing Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: QÄ«ng cháo; Wade-Giles: Ching chao; Manchu: daicing gurun), occasionally known as the Manchu Dynasty, was a dynasty founded by the Manchu clan Aisin Gioro, in what is today northeast China, expanded into China and the surrounding territories, establishing the Empire... The Daur people (Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ; the former name Dahur is considered derogatory) are an ethnic group. ... Tacheng or Qoqek (Chinese:塔城; pinyin: TÇŽchéng), is a city (1994 est. ... Yining (also Kuldja, Kulja, Gulja, Ghulja, Ining) (Simplified Chinese: 伊宁; Traditional Chinese: 伊寧; pinyin: Yízhù) is a city in western Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region of northwestern China, and the capital of the Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture. ... For the county in Shanxi province, see Xinjiang County. ... The Xibe ( Sibe; Chinese, 錫伯 XÄ«bó) are an ethnic group living mostly in northeast China and Xinjiang. ...


Religion

Prior to contact with the Russians, the religion of the Evenks was shamanism. Although many of them have adopted Lamaism (which is the mainstream form of Tibetan Mahayana Buddhism) the Evenks of both the Russian Federation and the People's Republic of China are a nominally Orthodox Christian people. Along with their Even cousins and a few other tribes in Siberia, they are some of the only Asiatic peoples who nominally practice Orthodox Christianity, which they had voluntarily adopted (as opposed to being coerced to do so) during contacts from Russian expansion into Siberia. A shaman doctor of Kyzyl. ... Tibetan Buddhism, (formerly also called Lamaism after their religious gurus known as lamas), is the body of religious Buddhist doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet and the Himalayan region. ... The Evens or Eveny (formerly known as the Lamuts a term meaning ocean people in Even) (Эвены in Russian) are a people in Siberia and the Russian Far East. ...


References

  1. ^ Herold J. Wiens "Change in the Ethnography and Land Use of the Ili Valley and Region, Chinese Turkestan", Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Vol. 59, No. 4 (Dec., 1969), pp. 753-775 (JSTOR access required)
  2. ^ Tianshannet / Окно в Синьцзян / Народности, не относящиеся к тюркской группе (Win dow to Xinjiang / Non-Turkic peoples) (Russian)

JSTOR®, begun in 1995, is an online system for archiving academic journals. ...

External links

  • Evenks

  Results from FactBites:
 
The Red Book of the Peoples of the Russian Empire (2223 words)
The Evenks inhabit a huge territory of the Siberian taiga from the River Ob in the west to the Okhotsk Sea in the east, and from the Arctic Ocean in the north, to Manchuria and Sakhalin in the south.
The peaceful life of the Evenk in the Irkutsk and Chita regions and in the Khabarovsk district was disturbed by the construction of the Baikal-Amur railway.
The Evenks chose 47 representatives to participate in the Congress of Northern Ethnic Minorities that was held in Moscow on March 30--31, 1990 (the total number of the participants was 341).
YakutiaToday.Com - the Sakha Republic (Yakutia) - Nationalities: the Evenks (337 words)
The Evenks inhabit a huge territory of the Siberia from the River Ob in the West to the Okhotsk sea in the East, and from the Arctic Ocean in the North to Manchuria in the South.
A large Evenk community (the Solon, the Tungus, the Ainak, the Nakagyr and the Oroqen) lives in the northeast of China, close to the Soviet border, while others inhabit areas of Inner Mongolia and Manchuria.
Traditionally the Evenks are reindeer herders (Oroqen or Orochon, ‘oron’-reindeer), hunters and fishers (Birar, ‘bira’ - river).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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