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Encyclopedia > Evacuation of East Prussia
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The Evacuation of East Prussia refers to the events that took place in East Prussia, especially the evacuation of German population from that area as well as from other Prussian lands in 1944 and 1945. Some have claimed that it was a case of ethnic cleansing, or even genocide, and they use the term "Prussian Holocaust" to describe these events. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... East Prussia (German: Ostpreu en; Polish: Prusy Wschodnie; Russian: Восточная Пруссия — Vostochnaya Prussiya) was a province of Kingdom of Prussia, situated on the territory of former Ducal Prussia. ... The coat of arms of the Kingdom of Prussia, 1701-1918 The word Prussia (German: Preußen or Preussen, Polish: Prusy, Lithuanian: PrÅ«sai, Latin: Borussia) has had various (often contradictory) meanings: The land of the Baltic Prussians (in what is now parts of southern Lithuania, the Kaliningrad exclave of... 1944 was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... The term ethnic cleansing refers to various policies of forcibly removing people of one ethnic group. ... Look up Genocide on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Genocide means mass murder of a particular ethnic group. ...


The evacuation started under the threat of Soviet invasion. It was completed according to the decision of the Potsdam conference about the expulsion of Germans from territories outside the post-war Germany. Attlee, Truman, and Stalin at Potsdam The Potsdam Conference was a conference held in Potsdam, Germany (near Berlin), from July 17 to August 2, 1945. ... The expulsion of Germans after World War II refers to the mass deportation of people considered Germans (both Reichsdeutsche and Volksdeutsche) from Soviet-occupied areas outside of the Soviet occupation zone of Germany, and is one major part of the German exodus from Eastern Europe after World War II. The...

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German propaganda

The Soviet army initiated an offensive into East Prussia on October 1944, but after two weeks it was temporarily driven back. After that, the German Ministry of Propaganda reported that war crimes had taken place in East Prussian villages, in particular in Nemmersdorf (now Mayakovskoye, Kaliningrad) and Goldap. According to the German side, all the inhabitants of those villages were horrifically murdered. State motto (Russian): Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Official language None; Russian (de facto) Capital Moscow Area  - Total  - % water Largest on the planet 22,402,200 km²  ?% Population  - Total  - Density 3rd before collapse 293,047,571 (July 1991) 13. ... East Prussia (German: Ostpreu en; Polish: Prusy Wschodnie; Russian: Восточная Пруссия — Vostochnaya Prussiya) was a province of Kingdom of Prussia, situated on the territory of former Ducal Prussia. ... October is the tenth month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ... 1944 was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Propagandaministerium (Reichsministerium für Volksaufklärung und Propaganda) (or State Minister for Public enlightenment and propaganda - classic doublespeak) was the ministry for propaganda in Nazi Germany. ... A war crime is a punishable offense, under international (criminal) law, for violations of the law of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ... Mayakovskoye in Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia (formerly Nemmersdorf), was a German village in East Prussia. ... Mayakovskoye (Russian Маяковское, German Nemmersdorf) is a village in Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia. ... Gołdap (sometimes also spelt Gołdapia, Lithuanian Geldapė) is a Polish town and a seat of a powiat in the Warmian-Masurian Voivodship. ...


This version of events was widely disseminated by German propaganda to increase the motivation of German soldiers in their efforts to stop the Red Army. However, the main result was eruption of panic amongst the German civilians. Fleeing from the advanicing Soviet forces, the German refugees trudged in columns through snow at -25°C, while Soviet aircraft raided them. Possibly, more than 2 million people in the eastern provinces of Germany (East Prussia, West Prussia, Pomerania) died, many of frost and starvation, but many were killed by Soviet forces. State motto (Russian): Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Official language None; Russian (de facto) Capital Moscow Area  - Total  - % water Largest on the planet 22,402,200 km²  ?% Population  - Total  - Density 3rd before collapse 293,047,571 (July 1991) 13. ... One of four districts of East Prussia in 1920 - 1938. ... Pomerania (Polish: Pomorze, German: Pommern and Pommerellen, Pomeranian (Kashubian): Pòmòrze and Pòmòrskô, Latin: Pomerania, Pomorania) is a geographical and historical region in northern Poland and Germany on the south coasts of the Baltic Sea between and on both sides of the Vistula and Oder (Odra) rivers... State motto (Russian): Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Official language None; Russian (de facto) Capital Moscow Area  - Total  - % water Largest on the planet 22,402,200 km²  ?% Population  - Total  - Density 3rd before collapse 293,047,571 (July 1991) 13. ...


Soviet propaganda and retribution

Since the times of Imperial Russia, the word "Prussia" was associated with militarism. In the Soviet Union "Prussian militarism and reaction" was presented as the cause of the First World War. Allegedly, Soviet propaganda put the blame for the Second World War on "Prussian militarism" as well. Big Coat of Arms of the Russian Empire, adopted in 1882 Central element from the Coat of Arms of the Russian Empire Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of Russian history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... North Korean propaganda showing a soldier destroying the United States Capitol building. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ...


Since many Soviet soldiers had lost close family and friends at the hands of the Germans (16,900,000 Soviet civilians died in World War 2, more than in any other country and nearly three times more than the number of Jews killed in the Holocaust), they could feel a natural desire to take vengeance on Prussians. Cases of shooting unarmed prisoners of war and German civilians were known even from cases at Soviet military tribunals. Also, when Soviet troops moved into Prussia, a significant number of enslaved Ostarbeiter ("Eastern workers") were freed, and knowledge of those workers' suffering certainly didn't improve the attitude of Soviet soldiers towards Prussians as their anger and hatred were carried out upon the remaining and fleeing population in the form of extermination, expulsion, and mass rape. Concentration camp inmates during the Holocaust The Holocaust was Nazi Germanys systematic genocide (ethnic cleansing) of various ethnic, religious, national, and secular groups during World War II. Early elements include the Kristallnacht pogrom and the T-4 Euthanasia Program established by Hitler that killed some 200,000 people. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ...


The name of Nemmersdorf is presented as a symbol of the war crimes of the Red Army in Germany during the WWII. Others consider it a symbol of propaganda aimed at shifting the attention away from Nazi crimes, equalizing the Wehrmacht and the Red Army in terms of war crimes. A war crime is a punishable offense, under international (criminal) law, for violations of the law of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ... Red Army flag The short forms Red Army and RKKA refer to the Workers and Peasants Red Army, (Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия - Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya in Russian), the armed forces organised by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918. ... North Korean propaganda showing a soldier destroying the United States Capitol building. ... Wehrmacht   listen? was the name of the armed forces of Germany from 1935 to 1945. ... Red Army flag The short forms Red Army and RKKA refer to the Workers and Peasants Red Army, (Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия - Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya in Russian), the armed forces organised by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918. ...


See also

The pursuit of Nazi collaborators refers to the post-WWII pursuit and apprehension of individuals who were not citizens of the Third Reich at the outbreak of World War II and collaborated with the Nazi regime during the war. ... The expulsion of Germans after World War II refers to the mass deportation of people considered Germans (both Reichsdeutsche and Volksdeutsche) from Soviet-occupied areas outside of the Soviet occupation zone of Germany, and is one major part of the German exodus from Eastern Europe after World War II. The... The Bund der Vertriebenen (BdV) (German for Federation of Expellees) is a non-profit organization formed to represent the interests of Germans displaced from their homes in Historical Eastern Germany and other parts of Eastern Europe by the expulsion of Germans after World War II. (Heimatvertriebene: Homeland expellees). It represents... A Terrible Revenge: The Ethnic Cleansing of the East European Germans, 1944-1950 is a book by Alfred_Maurice de Zayas, describing massacres, allegedly committed by the Soviet Army at the end of World War II. According to testimonies of German officers and civilians quoted in the book, women were stripped...

References

  • The Struggle for Europe: The Turbulent History of a Divided Continent 1945-2002 - William I. Hitchcock - 2003 - ISBN 0385497989
    • excerpt
  • A Terrible Revenge: The Ethnic Cleansing of the East European Germans, 1944-1950 - Alfred-Maurice de Zayas - 1994 - ISBN 0312121598
  • Barefoot in the Rubble - Elizabeth B. Walter - 1997 - ISBN 0965779300

Alfred-Maurice de Zayas (b. ... 1994 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International year of the Family. ... 1997 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External Links

  • The expulsion of Germans

  Results from FactBites:
 
Evacuation of East Prussia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (529 words)
The evacuation of East Prussia includes especially the evacuation of German population from that area as well as from other Prussian lands in 1944 and 1945.
Possibly, more than 2 million people in the eastern provinces of Germany (East Prussia, West Prussia, Pomerania) died, many of frost and starvation, but many were killed by Soviet forces.
Also, when Soviet troops moved into Prussia, a significant number of enslaved Ostarbeiter ("Eastern workers") were freed, and knowledge of those workers' suffering certainly didn't improve the attitude of Soviet soldiers towards Prussians.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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