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Encyclopedia > Euthanasia

Euthanasia (literally "good death" in Ancient Greek) refers to the practice of ending a life, usually through lethal injection. It is illegal in most countries. // This article is about euthanasia of animals. ... Beginning of Homers Odyssey The Ancient Greek language is the historical stage of the Greek language[1] as it existed during the Archaic (9th–6th centuries BC) and Classical (5th–4th centuries BC) periods in Ancient Greece. ...


Euthanasia, also known as physician assisted suicide, is an extremely controversial subject, not only because there are many differential moral dilemmas associated with it, but also in what constitutes its definition. At one end of the disagreement, proponents say euthanasia (which sometimes encompasses physician aid in dying or physician assisted suicide) is a merciful method of death. At the other end, the opponents of euthanasia consider this method as a form of murder or at least likely to result in unacceptable harm to vulnerable classes of individuals.


Euthanasia can be conducted in various ways. In order to distinguish certain methods, more specific terminology may be used when discussing euthanasia.

Contents

Classification of euthanasia

Euthanasia by consent

Euthanasia may be conducted with consent (voluntary euthanasia) or without consent (involuntary euthanasia). Involuntary euthanasia is conducted where an individual makes a decision for another person incapable of doing so. The decision can be made based on what the incapacitated individual would have wanted, or it could be made on substituted judgment of what the decision-making would want were he or she in the incapacitated person's place, or finally, the decision could be made by assessing objectively whether euthanasia is the most beneficial course of treatment. In any case, euthanasia by proxy consent is highly controversial, especially because multiple proxies may claim the authority to decide for the patient and may or may not have explicit consent from the patient to make that decision.[1] Look up proxy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Euthanasia by means

Euthanasia may be conducted passively, non-aggressively, and aggressively. Passive euthanasia entails the withholding of common treatments (such as antibiotics, pain medications, or surgery) or the distribution of a medication (such as morphine) to relieve pain, knowing that it may also result in death (principle of double effect). Passive euthanasia is the most accepted form, and it is a common practice in most hospitals. Non-aggressive euthanasia entails the withdrawing of life support and is more controversial. Aggressive euthanasia entails the use of lethal substances or forces to kill and is the most controversial means. Look up Pain in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The principle of double effect (PDE) or doctrine of double effect (DDE), sometimes simply called double effect for short, is a thesis in ethics, usually attributed to Thomas Aquinas. ...


Other designations

Some important designations of euthanasia consist of mercy killing and animal euthanasia. The Canadian Council of Animal Care (CCAC) states that euthanasia is "to kill an animal painlessly, and without distress."[2] The CCAC further explains a physical euthanasia technique called Cervical dislocation and a secondary technique called Exsanguination.[2] Look up designation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up coup de grâce in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... // This article is about euthanasia of animals. ... Cervical Dislocation. ... Exsanguination (also known colloquially as bleeding out) is the fatal process of total blood loss. ...


History

The term euthanasia comes from the Greek words "eu"-meaning good and "thanatos"-meaning death, which combined means “well-death” or "dying well". Hippocrates mentions euthanasia in the Hippocratic Oath, which was written between 400 and 300 B.C. The original Oath states: “To please no one will I prescribe a deadly drug nor give advice which may cause his death.”[3] Despite this, the ancient Greeks and Romans generally did not believe that life needed to be preserved at any cost and were, in consequence, tolerant of suicide in cases where no relief could be offered to the dying or, in the case of the Stoics and Epicureans, where a person no longer cared for his life.[1][4] For other uses, see Hippocrates (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Hippocratic Oath (disambiguation). ... Stoicism is a school of philosophy commonly associated with such Greek philosophers as Zeno of Citium, Cleanthes, or Chrysippus and with such later Romans as Cicero, Seneca, Marcus Aurelius, and Epictetus. ... Epicureanism is a system of philosophy based upon the teachings of Epicurus (c340-c270 BC), founded around 307 BC. Epicurus was an atomic materialist, following in the steps of Democritus. ...


English Common Law from the 1300s until the middle of the last century made suicide a criminal act in England and Wales. Assisting another to kill themself remains illegal in that jurisdiction. However, in the 1500s, Thomas More, in describing a utopian community, envisaged such a community as one that would facilitate the death of those whose lives had become burdensome as a result of "torturing and lingering pain".[1][5] This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... For the Elizabethan play, see Sir Thomas More (play). ...


Modern history

Since the 19th Century, euthanasia has sparked intermittent debates and activism in North America and Europe. According to medical historian Ezekiel Emanuel, it was the availability of anesthesia that ushered in the modern era of euthanasia. In 1828, the first known anti-euthanasia law in the United States was passed in the state of New York, with many other localities and states following suit over a period of several years.[6] After the Civil War, voluntary euthanasia was promoted by advocates, including some doctors.[7] Support peaked around the turn of the century in the U.S. and then grew again in the 1930s. This article is about the state. ...


The first major effort to legalize euthanasia in the United States arose as part of the eugenics movement in the early years of the twentieth century. In an article in the Bulletin of the History of Medicine, Brown University historian Jacob M. Appel documented extensive political debate over legislation to legalize physician-assisted suicide in both Iowa and Ohio in 1906.[8] Appel indicates social activist Anna S. Hall was the driving force behind this movement.[9] In his book A Merciful End, Ian Dowbiggen has revealed the role that leading public figures, including Clarence Darrow and Jack London, played in advocating for the legalization of euthanasia.[10] Clarence Seward Darrow (April 18, 1857 Kinsman Township, Trumbull County, Ohio - March 13, 1938 Chicago) was an American lawyer and leading member of the American Civil Liberties Union, best known for defending teenage thrill killers Leopold and Loeb in their trial for murdering 14-year-old Bobby Franks (1924) and... For other persons named Jack London, see Jack London (disambiguation). ...


Euthanasia societies were formed in England in 1935 and in the U.S.A. in 1938 to promote aggressive euthanasia. Although euthanasia legislation did not pass in the U.S. or England, in 1937, doctor-assisted euthanasia was declared legal in Switzerland as long as the person ending the life has nothing to gain.[11][3] During this period, euthanasia proposals were sometimes mixed with eugenics.[12] While some proponents focused on voluntary euthanasia for the terminally ill, others expressed interest in involuntary euthanasia for certain eugenic motivations (e.g., mentally "defective").[13] During this same era, meanwhile, U.S. court trials tackled cases involving critically ill people who requested physician assistance in dying as well as “mercy killings”, such as by parents of their severely disabled children.[14] Eugenics is the self-direction of human evolution: Logo from the Second International Eugenics Conference [10], 1921, depicting it as a tree which unites a variety of different fields. ...


Prior to and during World War II, the Nazis carried out an involuntary euthanasia program, largely in secret. In 1939, Nazis, in what was code-named Action T4, killed children under three who exhibited mental retardation, physical deformity or other debilitating problems which they considered gave the disabled child "life unworthy of life”. This program was later extended to include older children and adults.[3]. Inmates of mental asylums in Germany and Austria would be transported to an intermediate facility, from where they would be retransported to one of six killing centres at Brandenburg near Berlin (January 1940 - September 1940), Grafeneck near Stuttgart (January 1940 - December 1940), Hartheim near Linz in Austria (January 1940 - December 1944), Sonnenstein/Pirna near Dresden (April 1940 - August 1943), Bernburg near Magdeburg (September 1940 - April 1943), Hadamar near Koblenz (January 1941 - August 1941). This poster reads: 60,000 Reichsmarks is what this person suffering from hereditary defects costs the community during his lifetime. ...


The T4 program of the Nazis was extended to killing of concentration camp inmates when Philipp Bouhler,the head of the T4 program, allowed Heinrich Himmler to utilize T4 doctors, staff and facilities to kill concentration camp prisoners who were "most seriously ill" in a program designated "14f13". [15] Piles of bodies in a liberated Nazi concentration camp in Germany Prior to and during World War II, Nazi Germany under Hitler maintained concentration camps (Konzentrationslager, abbreviated KZ or KL) throughout the territories it controlled. ... Philipp Bouhler (born 11 September 1899 in Munich; died 19 May 1945 in Dachau (suicide)) was a Nazi German government official, head of the Führers Chancellery and leader of the euthanasia programme, the so-called Aktion T4. ... Himmler redirects here. ...


Post-War history

Due to outrage over Nazi euthanasia, in the 1940s and 1950s there was very little public support for euthanasia, especially for any involuntary, eugenics-based proposals. Catholic church leaders, among others, continued speaking against euthanasia as a violation of the sanctity of life. (Nevertheless, owing to its principle of double effect, Roman Catholic moral theology did leave room for shortening life with pain-killers and what could be characterized as passive euthanasia.[16]) On the other hand, judges were often lenient in mercy-killing cases. [17] During this period, prominent proponents of euthanasia included Glanville Williams (The Sanctity of Life and the Criminal Law) and clergyman Joseph Fletcher ("Morals and medicine"). By the 1960s, advocacy for a right-to-die approach to voluntary euthanasia increased. Symbol of Jain philosophy It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Inviolability. ... The principle of double effect (PDE) or doctrine of double effect (DDE), sometimes simply called double effect for short, is a thesis in ethics, usually attributed to Thomas Aquinas. ... Glanville Llewelyn Williams QC, LL.D., F.B.A. was an influential English legal professor and formerly the Rouse Ball Professor of English Law at the University of Cambridge. ... Joseph Fletcher (1905-1991) was an American professor who founded the theory of situational ethics in the 1960s, and was a pioneer in the field of bioethics. ...


A key turning point in the debate over voluntary euthanasia (and physician assisted dying), at least in the United States, was the public furor over the case of Karen Ann Quinlan. The Quinlan case paved the way for legal protection of voluntary passive euthanasia.[18] In 1977, California legalized living wills and other states soon followed suit. Karen Ann Quinlan (March 29, 1954 – June 11, 1985) was an important figure in the history of the right to die debate in United States. ...


In 1990, Dr. Jack Kevorkian, a Michigan physician, became infamous for encouraging and assisting people in committing suicide which resulted in a Michigan law against the practice in 1992. Kevorkian was tried and convicted in 1999 for a murder displayed on television.[11][3] Also in 1990, the Supreme Court approved the use of non-aggressive euthanasia.[19] Jack Kevorkian during his public appearance in January 2008 Jack Kevorkian (pronounced [1]) (born on May 26, 1928 [2]) is an American pathologist. ...


In 1994, Oregon voters approved the Death with Dignity Act, permitting doctors to assist terminal patients with six months or less to live to end their lives. The U.S. Supreme Court allowed such laws in 1997.[1] The Bush administration failed in its attempt to use drug law to stop Oregon in 2001, in the case Gonzales v. Oregon.[11] In 1999, non-aggressive euthanasia was permitted in Texas. Measure 16 of 1994 established Oregons Death with Dignity Act, which legalizes physician-assisted suicide with certain restrictions, making Oregon the first U.S. state and one of the first jurisdictions in the world to officially do so. ... Holding The Controlled Substances Act does not empower the Attorney General of the United States to prohibit doctors from prescribing regulated drugs for use in physician-assisted suicide under state law permitting the procedure. ...


In 1993, the Netherlands decriminalized doctor-assisted suicide, and in 2002, restrictions were loosened. During that year, physician-assisted suicide was approved in Belgium. Belgium's at the time most famous author Hugo Claus, suffering from Alzheimer's disease, was among those that asked for euthanasia. He died in March 2008, assisted by an Antwerp doctor. Australia's Northern Territory approved a euthanasia bill in 1995, but that was overturned by Australia’s Federal Parliament in 1997.[11][1][3] Euthanasia (Greek, good death) is the practice of killing a person or animal, in a painless or minimally painful way, for merciful reasons, usually to end their suffering. ... Hugo Maurice Julien Claus (born April 5, 1929 in Bruges, Belgium) is a prolific Flemish novelist, poet, playwright, painter and film director. ... For other uses, see Antwerp (disambiguation). ...


Most recently, amid U.S. government roadblocks and controversy, Terri Schiavo, a Floridian who was in a vegetative state since 1990, had her feeding tube removed in 2005. Her husband had won the right to take her off life support, which he claimed she would want but was difficult to confirm as she had no living will and the rest of her family claimed otherwise.[11] Theresa Terri Marie Schindler Schiavo (December 3, 1963 – March 31, 2005), from St. ... A living will, also called will to live, advance health directive, or advance health care directive, is a specific type of power of attorney or health care proxy or advance directive. ...


Arguments for and against voluntary euthanasia

Since World War II, the debate over euthanasia in Western countries has centered on voluntary euthanasia (VE) within regulated health care systems. In some cases, judicial decisions, legislation, and regulations have made VE an explicit option for patients and their guardians.[20] Proponents and critics of such VE policies offer the following reasons for and against official voluntary euthanasia policies: Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Reasons given for voluntary euthanasia:

  • Choice: Proponents of VE emphasize that choice is a fundamental principle for liberal democracies and free market systems.[1]
  • Quality of Life: The pain and suffering a person feels during a disease, even with pain relievers, can be incomprehensible to a person who has not gone through it. Even without considering the physical pain, it is often difficult for patients to overcome the emotional pain of losing their independence. [1] Moreover, despite modern painkillers, there is little available to deal with the problem of 'breathlessness', which makes many ailing patients feel they will suffocate.[21]
  • Economic costs and human resources: Today in many countries there is a shortage of hospital space. The energy of doctors and hospital beds could be used for people whose lives could be saved instead of continuing the life of those who want to die which increases the general quality of care and shortens hospital waiting lists. It is a burden to keep people alive past the point they can contribute to society.[22]
  • Pressure: All the arguments against voluntary euthanasia can be used by society to form a terrible and continuing psychological pressure on people to continue living for years against their better judgment. One example of this pressure is the risky and painful methods that those who genuinely wish to die would otherwise need to use, such as hanging.
  • Sociobiology: Currently many if not most euthanasia proponents and laws tend to favor the dying or very unhealthy for access to euthanasia. However some highly controversial proponents claim that access should be even more widely available. For example, from a sociobiological viewpoint, genetic relatives may seek to keep an individual alive (Kin Selection), even against the individual's will. This would be especially so for individuals who are not actually dying anyway. More liberal voluntary euthanasia policies would empower the individual to counteract any such biased interest on the part of relatives.[citation needed]

This article or section includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ...

Reasons given against voluntary euthanasia:

  • Professional role: Critics argue that voluntary euthanasia could unduly compromise the professional roles of health care employees, especially doctors. They point out that European physicians of previous centuries traditionally swore some variation of the Hippocratic Oath, which in its ancient form excluded euthanasia: "To please no one will I prescribe a deadly drug nor give advice which may cause his death.." However, since the 1970s, this oath has largely fallen out of use.
  • Moral: Some people consider euthanasia of some or all types to be morally unacceptable.[1] This view usually treats euthanasia to be a type of murder and voluntary euthanasia as a type of suicide, the morality of which is the subject of active debate.
  • Theological: Voluntary euthanasia has often been rejected as a violation of the sanctity of human life. Specifically, some Christians argue that human life ultimately belongs to God, so that humans should not be the ones to make the choice to end life. Orthodox Judaism takes basically the same approach, however, it is more open minded, and does, given certain circumstances, allow for euthanasia to be exercised under passive or non-aggressive means. Accordingly, some theologians and other religious thinkers consider voluntary euthanasia (and suicide generally) as sinful acts, i.e. unjustified killings.[23]
  • Feasibility of implementation: Euthanasia can only be considered "voluntary" if a patient is mentally competent to make the decision, i.e., has a rational understanding of options and consequences. Competence can be difficult to determine or even define.[1]
  • Necessity: If there is some reason to believe the cause of a patient's illness or suffering is or will soon be curable, the correct action is sometimes considered to attempt to bring about a cure or engage in palliative care.[1]
  • Wishes of Family: Family members often desire to spend as much time with their loved ones as possible before they die.
  • Consent under pressure: Given the economic grounds for voluntary euthanasia (VE), critics of VE are concerned that patients may experience psychological pressure to consent to voluntary euthanasia rather than be a financial burden on their families. [24] Even where health costs are mostly covered by public money, as in various European countries, VE critics are concerned that hospital personnel would have an economic incentive to advise or pressure people toward euthanasia consent.[25]

For other uses, see Hippocratic Oath (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Hippocratic Oath (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Hippocratic Oath (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Suicide (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Suicide (disambiguation). ... In law, competence is conerns the mental capacity of a individual to participate in legal proceedings. ...

Euthanasia and the Law

Main article: Euthanasia and the Law

During the 20th Century, efforts to change government policies on euthanasia have met limited success in Western countries. Country policies are described here in alphabetical order, followed by the exceptional case of The Netherlands. Euthanasia policies have also been developed by a variety of NGOs, most notably medical associations and advocacy organizations. During the 20th Century, efforts to change government policies on euthanasia have met limited success in Western countries. ... During the 20th Century, efforts to change government policies on euthanasia have met limited success in Western countries. ... In 2002 Netherlands legalized euthanasia. ...


Euthanasia and religion

Catholic teaching

The teaching of the Catholic Church on euthanasia rests on several core principles of Catholic ethics, including the sanctity of human life, the dignity of the human person, concomitant human rights, due proportionality in casuistic remedies, the unavoidability of death, and the importance of charity.[26] The Church's official position is the 1980 Declaration on Euthanasia issued by the Sacred Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith.[26] Look up Inviolability in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about virtue. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... The word proportionality may have one of a number of meanings: In mathematics, proportionality is a mathematical relation between two quantities. ... Casuistry is a broad term that refers to a variety of forms of case-based reasoning. ... Allegorical personification of Charity as a mother with three infants by Anthony van Dyck // The word charity entered the English language through the O.Fr word charite which was derived from the Latin caritas.[1] In Christian theology charity, or love (agapē), is the greatest of the three theological virtues... The Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (CDF) (Congregatio pro Doctrina Fidei) is the oldest of the nine congregations of the Roman Curia. ...


In Catholic medical ethics official pronouncements strongly oppose active euthanasia, whether voluntary or not[27], while allowing dying to proceed without medical interventions that would be considered "extraordinary" or "disproportionate." The Declaration on Euthanasia states that:

"When inevitable death is imminent... it is permitted in conscience to take the decision to refuse forms of treatment that would only secure a precarious and burdensome prolongation of life, so long as the normal care due to a sick person in similar cases is not interrupted."

The Declaration concludes that doctors, beyond providing medical skill, must above all provide patients "with the comfort of boundless kindness and heartfelt charity".


Although the Declaration allows people to decline heroic medical treatment when death is imminently inevitable, it unequivocably prohibits the hastening of death and restates Vatican II's condemnation of "crimes against life 'such as any type of murder, genocide, abortion, euthanasia, or willful suicide'". [28] [Emphasis added.] The Second Vatican Council, or Vatican II, was an Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church opened under Pope John XXIII in 1962 and closed under Pope Paul VI in 1965. ...


Protestant policies

Protestant denominations vary widely on their approach to euthanasia and physician assisted death. Since the 1970s, Evangelical churches have worked with Roman Catholics on a sanctity of life approach, though the Evangelicals may be adopting a more exceptionless opposition. While liberal Protestant denominations have largely eschewed euthanasia, many individual advocates (e.g., Joseph Fletcher) and euthanasia society activists have been Protestant clergy and laity. As physician assisted dying has obtained greater legal support, some liberal Protestant denominations have offered religious arguments and support for limited forms of euthanasia. People such as Lutherans are taught euthanasia is wrong and that it is God who has the right over life and death[citation needed] Symbol of Jain philosophy It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Inviolability. ... Joseph Fletcher (1905-1991) was an American professor who founded the theory of situational ethics in the 1960s, and was a pioneer in the field of bioethics. ...


Jewish policies

Like the trend among Protestants, Jewish medical ethics have become divided, partly on denominational lines, over euthanasia and end of life treatment since the 1970s. Generally, Jewish thinkers oppose voluntary euthanasia, often vigorously,[29] though there is some backing for voluntary passive euthanasia in limited circumstances.[30] Likewise, within the Conservative Judaism movement, there has been increasing support for passive euthanasia (PAD)[31] In Reform Judaism responsa, the preponderance of anti-euthanasia sentiment has shifted in recent years to increasing support for certain passive euthanasia (PAD) options.[citation needed] In bioethics, end-of-life medical care covers a range of treatment options for patients who considered critically ill. ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. ... This article is about Conservative (Masorti) Judaism in the United States. ... Reform Judaism can refer to (1) the largest denomination of American Jews and its sibling movements in other countries, (2) a branch of Judaism in the United Kingdom, and (3) the historical predecessor of the American movement that originated in 19th-century Germany. ... Note: This is based on an entry from the 1906 public domain Jewish Encyclopedia The responsa literature, known in Hebrew as Sheelot U-teshuvot (questions and answers), is the body of written decisions and rulings given by rabbis to questions addressed to them. ...


Islamic policies

A Muslim person who has killed himself should be washed, prayed over and buried with the Muslims, because he is a sinner but he is not a kaafir(nonmuslim). Killing oneself is a sin but it is not kufr. If he killed himself he should be washed, shrouded and prayed over, but the khaleefah and important people should not pray for him, by way of rebuke, lest anyone think that they approve of what he did. If the khaleefah, ruler, judges, president or mayor do not pray over him in order to denounce this action and announce that it is wrong, then this is good, but some of the Muslims should still offer the (funeral) prayer for him.


Buddhism

There are many different views among Buddhists on the issue of euthanasia. Here are a few:


In Theravada Buddhism a lay person daily recites the simple formula: "I undertake the precept to abstain from destroying living beings."[32] For Buddhist monastics (bhikkhu) however the rules are more explicitly spelled out. For example, in the monastic code (Patimokkha), it states: Theravada (Pali; Sanskrit: Sthaviravada) is one of the eighteen (or twenty) Nikāya schools that formed early in the history of Buddhism. ... Upāsaka (masculine) or Upāsikā (feminine) are from the Sanskrit and Pāli words for attendant.[1] This is the title of followers of Buddhism (Gautama Buddha) who are not monks, nuns or novices in a Buddhist order and who undertake certain vows. ... A Buddhist Monk in Sri Lanka In Pāli, a bhikkhu (male) or bhikkhuni (female) is a fully ordained Buddhist monk. ... In Buddhism, the Patimokkha is the basic Theravada code of monastic discipline, consisting of 227 rules for fully ordained monks (bhikkhus) and 311 for nuns (bhikkhunis). ...

"Should any bhikkhu intentionally deprive a human being of life, or search for an assassin for him, or praise the advantages of death, or incite him to die (thus): 'My good man, what use is this wretched, miserable life to you? Death would be better for you than life,' or with such an idea in mind, such a purpose in mind, should in various ways praise the advantages of death or incite him to die, he also is defeated and no longer in communion."[33]

In other words, such a monk or nun would be expelled irrevocably from the Buddhist monastic community (sangha).[34] The prohibition against assisting another in their death includes circumstances when a monastic is caring for the terminally ill and extends to a prohibition against a monastic's purposively hastening another's death through word, action or treatment.[33] Sangha (संघ saṃgha) is a word in Pali or Sanskrit that can be translated roughly as association or assembly or community. It is commonly used in several senses to refer to Buddhist or Jain groups. ...


American Buddhist monk Thanissaro Bhikkhu wrote: Thanissaro Bhikkhu (Geoffrey DeGraff) (1949 - ) is an American Buddhist monk of the Thai forest kammatthana tradition. ...

Thus, from the Buddha's perspective, encouraging a sick person to relax her grip on life or to give up the will to live would not count as an act of compassion. Instead of trying to ease the patient's transition to death, the Buddha focused on easing his or her insight into suffering and its end.[35]

The Dalai Lama was cited by the Agence-France Presse in a 18 September 1996 article entitled "Dalai Lama Backs Euthanasia in Exceptional Circumstances" regarding his position on legal euthanasia: Jetsun Jamphel Ngawang Lobsang Yeshe Tenzin Gyatso (born Llhamo Döndrub (Tibetan: ; Wylie: Lha-mo Don-grub) 6 July 1935 in Qinghai [1]), is the fourteenth and current Dalai Lama. ... is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ...

Asked his view on euthanasia, the Dalai Lama said Buddhists believed every life was precious and none more so than human life, adding: 'I think it's better to avoid it.'
'But at the same time I think with abortion, (which) Buddhism considers an act of killing ... the Buddhist way is to judge the right and wrong or the pros and cons.'
He cited the case of a person in a coma with no possibility of recovery or a woman whose pregnancy threatened her life or that of the child or both where the harm caused by not taking action might be greater.
"These are, I think from the Buddhist viewpoint, exceptional cases," he said. "So it's best to be judged on a case by case basis."

Euthanasia protocol

See also: Lethal injection#Euthanasia protocol
A now-unused machine that facilitated euthanasia through heavy doses of drugs. The laptop screen led the user through a series of steps and questions to ensure he or she was fully prepared. The machine is pictured on display in a museum.
A now-unused machine that facilitated euthanasia through heavy doses of drugs. The laptop screen led the user through a series of steps and questions to ensure he or she was fully prepared. The machine is pictured on display in a museum.

Euthanasia can be accomplished either through an oral, intravenous, or intramuscular administration of drugs. In individuals who are incapable of swallowing lethal doses of medication, an intravenous route is preferred. The following is a Dutch protocol for parenteral (intravenous) administration to obtain euthanasia: This article is about the execution and euthanasia method. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1069x750, 104 KB) Summary Four terminally-ill people chose to end their lives using this machine. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1069x750, 104 KB) Summary Four terminally-ill people chose to end their lives using this machine. ...


Intravenous administration is the most reliable and rapid way to accomplish euthanasia and therefore can be safely recommended. A coma is first induced by intravenous administration of 20 mg/kg sodium thiopental (Nesdonal) in a small volume (10 ml physiological saline). Then a triple intravenous dose of a non-depolarizing neuromuscular muscle relaxant is given, such as 20 mg pancuronium bromide (Pavulon) or 20 mg vecuronium bromide (Norcuron). The muscle relaxant should preferably be given intravenously, in order to ensure optimal availability. Only for pancuronium bromide (Pavulon) are there substantial indications that the agent may also be given intramuscularly in a dosage of 40 mg.[36] Sodium thiopental, better known as Sodium Pentothal (a trademark of Abbott Laboratories), thiopental, thiopentone sodium, or trapanal, is a rapid-onset short-acting barbiturate general anaesthetic. ... A muscle relaxant is a drug which decreases the tone of a muscle. ... Pancuronium bromide is a chemical compound, used in medicine with the brand name Pavulon® (Organon Pharmaceuticals). ... Vecuronium bromide (trade name Norcuron) is a muscle relaxant in the category of non depolarising neuromuscular blocking agents. ...


With regards to nonvoluntary euthanasia, the cases where the person could consent but was not asked are often viewed differently from those where the person could not consent. Some people raise issues regarding stereotypes of disability that can lead to non-disabled or less disabled people overestimating the person's suffering, or assuming it to be unchangeable when it could be changed. For example, many disability rights advocates responded to Tracy Latimer's murder by pointing out that her parents had refused a hip surgery that could have greatly reduced or eliminated the physical pain Tracy experienced. Also, they point out that a severely disabled person need not be in emotional pain at their situation, and claim that the emotional pain, if present, is due to societal prejudice rather than the disability, analogous to a person of a particular ethnicity wanting to die because they have internalized negative stereotypes about their ethnic background. Another example of this is Keith McCormick, a New Zealander Paralympian who was "mercy-killed" by his caregiver, and Matthew Sutton.[37][38] The disability rights movement aims to improve the quality of life of people with disabilities. ... Robert William Bob Latimer (born March 13, 1953), a Canadian canola and wheat farmer, was convicted of second-degree murder in the death of his daughter Tracy (November 23, 1980 – October 24, 1993). ...


With regards to voluntary euthanasia, many people argue that 'equal access' should apply to access to suicide as well, so therefore disabled people who cannot kill themselves should have access to voluntary euthanasia.


Euthanasia in the arts

The films Children of Men and Soylent Green, as well as the book The Giver, depict instances of government-sponsored euthanasia in order to strengthen their dystopian themes. The protagonist of Johnny Got His Gun is a brutally mutilated war veteran whose request for euthanasia furthers the work's anti-war message. Children of Men is a 2006 dystopian science fiction film co-written and directed by Alfonso Cuarón. ... For the metal band, see Soilent Green. ... This article is about the book. ... This article is about the philosophical concept and literary form. ... Johnny Got His Gun is a novel written in 1938 (published 1939) by American novelist and screenwriter Dalton Trumbo. ...


The recent films Mar Adentro and Million Dollar Baby argue more directly in favor of euthanasia by illustrating the suffering of their protagonists. These films have provoked debate and controversy in their home countries of Spain and the United States respectively. Mar adentro (English title: The Sea Inside) is a 2004 film by the Chilean-Spanish director Alejandro Amenábar, written by Mateo Gil and Amenábar. ... Million Dollar Baby is an Academy Award winning 2004 dramatic film directed by Clint Eastwood. ...


A recurring character in Black Jack by Osamu Tezuka is a former war doctor who specializes in euthanasia. However, he is frequently prevented when the protagonist saves the patient instead. Black Jack (ブラック・ジャック Burakku Jakku) is a manga written by Osamu Tezuka in the 1970s, dealing with the medical adventures of a doctor named Black Jack. ... Tezuka redirects here. ...


In the 1997 film "Critical Care," directed by Sidney Lumet, the plot centers around a doctor involved in a complex lawsuit involving two daughters of the doctor's patient. One daughter, an empty-headed model, is trying to have her father be allowed to die. Her sister, pretending to be an Evangelical Christian, is trying to keep the father alive. It is revealed that the father's date of death will determine whether the daughter will receive her father's entire estate. Eventually the doctor resolves the issue by making the women split the money, allowing him to be unbiased in his decision to allow euthanasia or not. Ultimately, he allows his patient to die.


Thrash metal band Megadeth's 1994 album Youthanasia (the title is a pun on euthanasia), implying that society is euthanasing its youth. Megadeth is an American thrash metal band led by founder, frontman, guitarist, and songwriter Dave Mustaine. ... Youthanasia is the sixth studio album by thrash metal band Megadeth, released on November 1, 1994. ...


See also

this page is on a specific paper, for the category of Euthanasia, see Euthanasia Voluntary Active Euthanasia is the name of a paper by Dan W. Brock in which it the morality and legality of Euthanasia is studied. ... Futile medical care refers to the belief that in cases where there is no hope for improvement of an incapacitating condition, that no course of treatment is called for. ... The International Task Force on Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide is a 501(c)(3) non-profit educational organization that concerns itself with the issues of euthanasia, assisted suicide, advance directives, assisted suicide proposals, right-to-die cases, disability rights, pain control, and related bioethical issues. ... Terminal sedation (also known as palliative sedation, slow euthanasia or sedation for intractable distress in the dying/of a dying patiënt) is the practice of inducing unconsciousness in a terminally ill person for the remainder of the persons life, usually by means of a continuous intravenous or subcutaneous... Senicide is the abandonment to death or killing of the elderly. ... John Bodkin Adams, (January 21, 1899–July 4, 1983) was a general practitioner in Eastbourne cleared of murdering one of his patients. ... For other places with the same name, see Eastbourne (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Derek Humphry (b. ... Diane Pretty (November 15, 1958 - May 11, 2002) was a British woman from Luton, Bedfordshire, who became the focus of a debate about assisted dying in Britain during the early part of the 21st Century. ... Jack Kevorkian during his public appearance in January 2008 Jack Kevorkian (pronounced [1]) (born on May 26, 1928 [2]) is an American pathologist. ... Arthur Koestler (September 5, 1905, Budapest – March 3, 1983, London) was a Hungarian polymath who became a naturalized British subject. ... Final Exit: The Practicalities of Self-Deliverance and Assisted Suicide for the Dying, is a controversial 1991 book by Derek Humphry, a newspaper reporter and author whose wife Jean ended her life with an intentional overdose of medication after a long and painful decline from terminal cancer. ... Dr. Death is a moniker that has been adopted by, or an epithet that has been applied to, multiple people: Aribert Heim, an Austrian doctor and one of the worlds most wanted Nazi war criminals. ... A kaishakunin (Japanese: 介錯人) is an appointed second whose duty is to behead one who has committed seppuku at the moment of agony. ... Hara-kiri redirects here. ... Karen Ann Quinlan (March 29, 1954 – June 11, 1985) was an important figure in the history of the right to die debate in United States. ... Theresa Terri Marie Schindler Schiavo (December 3, 1963 – March 31, 2005), from St. ... A persistent vegetative state (PVS) is a condition of patients with severe brain damage in whom coma has progressed to a state of wakefulness without detectable awareness. ... The founder of the Voluntary Euthanasia Legalisation Society (1935) The Voluntary Euthanasia Legislation Society (VELS) undertook an unsuccessful movement to legalize euthanasia in Great Britain. ... For other persons named Peter Singer, see Peter Singer (disambiguation). ... Utilitarianism is a suggested theoretical framework for morality, law and politics, based on quantitative maximisation of some definition of utility for society or humanity. ... The principle of double effect (PDE) or doctrine of double effect (DDE), sometimes simply called double effect for short, is a thesis in ethics, usually attributed to Thomas Aquinas. ... Terry Wallis (born 1963 or 1964) is an American man living in Arkansas who on June 11, 2003 regained awareness after spending almost 20 years in a minimally conscious state. ... This poster reads: 60,000 Reichsmarks is what this person suffering from hereditary defects costs the community during his lifetime. ... Lord Dawson of Penn, featured on the cover of TIME on 1 September 1930. ... George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert; 3 June 1865 – 20 January 1936) was the first British monarch belonging to the House of Windsor, which he created from the British branch of the German House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. ...

Notes and references

Notes

  • I. ^  The word euthanasia comes from the Ancient Greek word ευθανασία, meaning "well death". ευ-, eu- (well) + θάνατος, thanatos (death).

Beginning of Homers Odyssey The Ancient Greek language is the historical stage of the Greek language[1] as it existed during the Archaic (9th–6th centuries BC) and Classical (5th–4th centuries BC) periods in Ancient Greece. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/euthanasia-voluntary/ An overview of voluntary euthanasia
  2. ^ a b "Glossary." CCAC Programs. 2005. Canadian Council on Animal Care. 13 July 2007 (http://www.ccac.ca/en/CCAC_Programs/ETCC/GlossaryEng.htm).
  3. ^ a b c d e History of Euthanasia
  4. ^ See Senicide
  5. ^ See Humphry and Wickett (1986:8-10) on More, Montaigne, Donne, and Bacon.
  6. ^ History of Euthanasia (PowerPoint presentation), Euthanasia.com. "The earliest American statute explicitly to outlaw assisting suicide was enacted in New York in 1828, Act of Dec. 10, 1828, ch. 20, §4, 1828 N. Y. Laws 19 (codified at 2 N. Y. Rev. Stat. pt. 4, ch. 1, tit. 2, art. 1, §7, p. 661 (1829)), and many of the new States and Territories followed New York's example. Marzen 73-74." Retrieved June 16, 2007.
  7. ^ Humphry and Wickett 1986:11-12, Emanuel 2004.
  8. ^ Appel, Jacob M. "A Duty to Kill? A Duty to Die." Bulletin of the History of Medicine. 78.3 (October 2004): 610-634.
  9. ^ Appel, Jacob M. "A Duty to Kill? A Duty to Die." Bulletin of the History of Medicine. 78.3 (October 2004): 610-634.
  10. ^ A Merciful End: The Euthanasia Movement in Modern America (Hardcover) by Ian Dowbiggin
  11. ^ a b c d e euthanasia. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-07
  12. ^ Merciful Release and other sources...
  13. ^ EugenicsArchive.org
  14. ^ Kamisar 1977
  15. ^ Lifton, Robert JayThe Nazi Doctors: Medical Killing and the Psychology of Genocide, p. 135 1986 Basic Books
  16. ^ Papal statements 1956-1957 and Gerald Kelly
  17. ^ Humphrey and Wickett, ch.4. See also, Kamisar and John Bodkin Adams case.
  18. ^ For the U.K. see the Bland case.
  19. ^ Cruzan v. Director, Missouri Department of Health
  20. ^ See Government policies below for specific examples
  21. ^ Death on prescription? | Independent, The (London) | Find Articles at BNET.com
  22. ^ See also Utilitarianism
  23. ^ See Religious views of suicide
  24. ^ "Terminally ill patients often fear being a burden to others and may feel they ought to request euthanasia to relieve their relatives from distress." letter to the editor of the Financial Times by Dr David Jeffrey, published 11 Jan 2003.
  25. ^ "If euthanasia became socially acceptable, the sick would no longer be able to trust either doctors or their relatives: many of those earnestly counselling a painless, 'dignified' death would be doing so mainly on financial grounds. Euthanasia would become a euphemism for assisted murder." FT WEEKEND - THE FRONT LINE: Don't take liberties with the right to die by Michael Prowse, Financial Times, 4th Jan 2003
  26. ^ a b Sacred Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith. "Declaration on Euthanasia," May 5, 1980.
  27. ^ "...no one is permitted to ask for this act of killing, either for himself or herself or for another person entrusted to his or her care, nor can he or she consent to it, either explicitly or implicitly. nor can any authority legitimately recommend or permit such an action."
  28. ^ SACRED CONGREGATION FOR THE DOCTRINE OF THE FAITH: DECLARATION ON EUTHANASIA quoting GAUDIUM ET SPES
  29. ^ E.g., J. David Bleich, Eliezer Waldenberg
  30. ^ E.g., see writings of Daniel Sinclair, Moshe Tendler, Shlomo Zalman Auerbach, Moshe Feinstein.
  31. ^ See Elliot Dorff and, for earlier speculation, Byron Sherwin.
  32. ^ This is the first of the Five Precepts. It has various interpretations.
  33. ^ a b Thanissaro Bhikkhu (1994). Buddhist Monastic Code I: Chapter 4, Parajika. Retrieved 2007-11-11 from "Access to Insight" at http://www.accesstoinsight.org/lib/authors/thanissaro/bmc1/ch04.html.
  34. ^ There are only four offenses (parajika) that could lead to such an expulsion for a monk; eight such offenses for a nun (bhikkhuni). The other three parajika for monks are: engaging in a sexual act; stealing; and, falsely claiming to have achieved advanced spiritual states (such as jhanic absorptions or nibbana) (Thanissaro 1994).
  35. ^ Thanissaro Bhikkhu “Educating Compassion” Article link at Access to Insight
  36. ^ Administration and Compounding Of Euthanasic Agents.
  37. ^ NZ Herald Story.
  38. ^ Parents walk free after killing son. ABC News Online (2007-04-04).

Senicide is the abandonment to death or killing of the elderly. ... Microsoft Office PowerPoint is a presentation program developed by Microsoft for its Microsoft Office system. ... John Bodkin Adams, (January 21, 1899–July 4, 1983) was a general practitioner in Eastbourne cleared of murdering one of his patients. ... Holding 1. ... For mercy killings not performed on humans, see Animal euthanasia. ... This article discusses utilitarian ethical theory. ... There are a variety of religious views of suicide. ... Rabbi Dr. J. (Judah) David Bleich (pronounced Blikhe) is an authority on Jewish law and ethics and bioethics. ... Rabbi Eliezer Yehuda Waldenberg (b. ... Daniel Sinclair is a scholar of Jewish law (Halakhah) who specializes in contemporary Jewish medical ethics. ... Rabbbi Moshe David Tendler is the rabbi of The Community Synagogue of Monsey. ... Rav Shlomo Zalman Auerbach July 20, 1910 (23 Tammuz 5670)- February 20, 1995 (20 Adar 5755), was a renowned rabbi and Rosh Yeshiva. ... Rabbi Moshe Feinstein (1895-1986) Moshe Feinstein (1895 - 1986) was a Lithuanian Orthodox rabbi and scholar, who was world renowned for his expertise in halakha and was the de facto supreme rabbinic authority for Orthodox Jewry of North America. ... Elliot N. Dorff (born 24 June 1943) is a Conservative rabbi, a professor of Jewish theology at the University of Judaism in California (where he is also Rector), author, and a bio-ethicist. ... Byron Sherwin is a Jewish scholar and author with expertise in theology, inter-religious dialogue, mysticism and Jewish ethics. ... This article is about the Buddhist concept; see Pancasila Indonesia for the Indonesian state philosophy. ... Thanissaro Bhikkhu (Geoffrey DeGraff) (1949 - ) is an American Buddhist monk of the Thai forest kammatthana tradition. ... High-ranking Chinese bhikkunis in an alms round. ... Dhyāna means meditation in Sanskrit. ... The following article is about the term Nirvana in the context of Buddhism. ... The Australian Broadcasting Corporation or ABC is Australias national non-profit public broadcaster. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Selected bibliography

Neutral (approx.)

  • Battin, Margaret P., Rhodes, Rosamond, and Silvers, Anita, eds. Physician assisted suicide: expanding the debate. NY: Routledge, 1998.
  • Emanuel, Ezekiel J. 2004. "The history of euthanasia debates in the United States and Britain" in Death and dying: a reader, edited by T. A. Shannon. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.

Dennis J. Horan, David Mall, eds. (1977). Death, dying, and euthanasia. Frederick, MD: University Publications of America. ISBN 0-89093-139-9. 

  • Kopelman, Loretta M., deVille, Kenneth A., eds. Physician-assisted suicide: What are the issues? Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001. (E.g., Engelhardt on secular bioethics)
  • Magnusson, Roger S. “The sanctity of life and the right to die: social and jurisprudential aspects of the euthanasia debate in Australia and the United States” in Pacific Rim Law & Policy Journal (6:1), January 1997.
  • Palmer, “Dr. Adams’ Trial for Murder” in The Criminal Law Review. (Reporting on R. v. Adams with Devlin J. at 375f.) 365-377, 1957.
  • Paterson, Craig, "A History of Ideas Concerning Suicide, Assisted Suicide and Euthanasia" (2005). Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1029229
  • PCSEPMBBR, United States. President's Commission for the Study of Ethical Problems in Medicine and Biomedical and Behavioral Research. 1983. Deciding to forego life-sustaining treatment: a report on the ethical, medical, and legal issues in treatment decisions. Washington, DC: President's Commission for the Study of Ethical Problems in Medicine and Biomedical and Behavioral Research: For sale by the Supt. of Docs. U.S. G.P.O.
  • Robertson, John. 1977. Involuntary euthanasia of defective newborns: a legal analysis. In Death, dying, and euthanasia, edited by D. J. Horan and D. Mall. Washington: University Publications of America. Original edition, Stanford Law Review 27 (1975) 213-269.
  • Stone, T. Howard, and Winslade, William J. “Physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia in the United States” in Journal of Legal Medicine (16:481-507), December 1995.

Viewpoints

Giorgio Agamben; translated by Daniel Heller-Roazen (1998). Homo sacer: sovereign power and bare life. Stanford, Calif: Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-3218-3. 


Raphael Cohen-Almagor (2001). The right to die with dignity: an argument in ethics, medicine, and law. New Brunswick, N.J: Rutgers University Press. ISBN 0-8135-2986-7. 


Appel, Jacob. 2007. A Suicide Right for the Mentally Ill? A Swiss Case Opens a New Debate. Hastings Center Report, Vol. 37, No. 3.


Dworkin, R. M. Life's Dominion: An Argument About Abortion, Euthanasia, and Individual Freedom. New York: Knopf, 1993.


Fletcher, Joseph F. 1954. Morals and medicine; the moral problems of: the patient's right to know the truth, contraception, artificial insemination, sterilization, euthanasia. Princeton, N.J.K.: Princeton University Press.


Derek Humphry, Ann Wickett (1986). The right to die: understanding euthanasia. San Francisco: Harper & Row. ISBN 0-06-015578-7. 


Kamisar, Yale. 1977. Some non-religious views against proposed 'mercy-killing' legislation. In Death, dying, and euthanasia, edited by D. J. Horan and D. Mall. Washington: University Publications of America. Original edition, Minnesota Law Review 42:6 (May 1958).


Kelly, Gerald. “The duty of using artificial means of preserving life” in Theological Studies (11:203-220), 1950.


Panicola, Michael. 2004. Catholic teaching on prolonging life: setting the record straight. In Death and dying: a reader, edited by T. A. Shannon. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.


Paterson, Craig. Assisted Suicide and Euthanasia: An Natural Law Ethics Approach. Aldershot, Hampshire: Ashgate, 2008.


Rachels, James. The End of Life: Euthanasia and Morality. New York: Oxford University Press, 1986.


Sacred congregation for the doctrine of the faith. 1980. The declaration on euthanasia. Vatican City: The Vatican.


Tassano, Fabian. The Power of Life or Death: Medical Coercion and the Euthanasia Debate. Foreword by Thomas Szasz, MD. London: Duckworth, 1995. Oxford: Oxford Forum, 1999.

External links

Look up Euthanasia in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
  • Euthanasia and Religion - various religious views of euthanasia
  • Religious views
  • The Ethics of Euthanasia - a UK site that looks at the issues, case studies and ethical and Christian responses
  • Religion and Ethics - Euthanasia - many views of euthanasia, for, against, and religious, from the BBC
  • Euthanasia ProCon.org - "Should euthanasia be legal?" - Pros, cons, history, laws, polls, and biographies of key players in debate
  • Issue Guide on the Right to Die - Analysis of public opinion and policy alternatives from Public Agenda Online
  • Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs - FAQ brochures explaining Dutch policy on euthanasia (English)
  • Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sport - Information on Dutch euthanasia legislation (English)
  • Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy entry
  • - Euthanasia World Directory international information on voluntary euthanasia, assisted suicide, and self-deliverance
  • Final Exit Network provides guides to self-deliverance for the terminally and hopelessly ill to end their suffering
  • Compassion & Choices - provides education, support and advocacy for the choice-in-dying movement
  • Dignity in Dying - leading campaigning organisation promoting patient choice at the end of life
  • World Federation of Right To Die Societies
  • Assisted Suicide
  • Suicide & Euthanasia- Presents pro-choice arguments from a Biblical perspective.
  • Voluntary Euthanasia- Atheist Foundation of Australia Inc
  • A defense of euthanasia
  • Bioethics and euthanasia
  • Pro Euthanasia Dr Philip Nitschke - (Australian) Euthanasia law reform advocacy website, currently based in New Zealand.
  • Euthanasia and the Right to Life
  • Euthanasia Clinic - Roger Graham. Founder of Assisted Euthanasia Society of Paradise (AESOP), expelled from Cambodia for proposing Euthanasia Tourism, advocate for a Compassionate Law, an activist for Euthanasia since 1971.
  • Euthanasia.com
  • Not Dead Yet. Not Dead Yet is a disability rights group opposing assisted suicide)
  • Is Killing Kind?
  • Christian study on euthanasia
  • www.carenotkilling.org.uk. Care, NOT Killing: a UK alliance promoting palliative care, opposing euthanasia and assisted suicide
  • National Right to Life articles on euthanasia
  • International Task Force against Euthanasia- many resources
  • Non-religious arguments against euthanasia
  • A Papal encyclical dealing with a number of issues of life and death including euthanasia
  • A brief presentation of the issue and the Christian Catholic viewpoint on it
  • The Rosicrucian Fellowship's viewpoint: Suicide and Euthanasia
  • Scholarly articles on Euthanasia from the Wisconsin Lutheran Seminary Library


Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... Not dead yet is a phrase used in the following ways: Not Dead Yet is a United States disability rights group which opposes assisted suicide and euthanasia Im not dead yet is a famous line from the Monty Python movie Monty Python and the Holy Grail. ... The disability rights movement aims to improve the quality of life of people with disabilities. ...

For other uses, see Death (disambiguation). ... This article is about the medical procedure. ... Brain death is defined as a complete and irreversible cessation of brain activity. ... Clinical death occurs when a patients heartbeat and breathing have stopped. ... A persistent vegetative state (PVS) is a condition of patients with severe brain damage in whom coma has progressed to a state of wakefulness without detectable awareness. ... This article is about incurable disease. ... It has been suggested that Big killer be merged into this article or section. ... This is an index of lists of people who died, by cause of death, in alphabetical order of cause. ... // The following is a list of notable deaths in 2007. ... The Fountain of Eternal Life in Cleveland, Ohio Immortality (or eternal life) is the concept of living in physical or spiritual form for an infinite length of time, or in a state of timelessness. ... is the death of infants in the first year of life. ... Legal death is a legal pronouncement by a qualified person that further medical care is not appropriate, and that a patient should be considered dead under the law. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Maternal health. ... Crude death rate by country Mortality rate is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in some population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit time. ... For other uses, see Afterlife (disambiguation). ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The crematorium at Haycombe Cemetery, Bath, England. ... For other uses, see Decomposition (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Funeral (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Anticipatory Grief be merged into this article or section. ... Margaret of Spain, Empress of Austria, in Mourning, 1666; note the children and servants in mourning dress behind her. ... An ecological funeral, also known as promession, is a method for allowing the body of the deceased to decompose in an environmentally-friendly way. ... Resomation is a process for the lawful disposal of human remains, which is claimed by its practitioners to be highly ecologically favourable. ... Look up séance in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Judgment Day redirects here. ... Not to be confused with cryogenics. ... NDE redirects here. ... Near-Death studies is a school of psychology and psychiatry that studies the phenomenology and after-effects of a Near-death experience, also called NDE. The phenomenology of a NDE usually includes physiological, psychological and transcendental factors that come together to form an overall pattern when numerous NDE reports are... Reincarnation research is a field of inquiry that records and analyzes memories that subjects claim to have of past lives. ... For other uses, see Genocide (disambiguation). ... E. H. Langlois The fascination with death extends back as far as history tells. ... For other uses, see Martyr (disambiguation). ... Marcus Aurelius and members of the Imperial family offer sacrifice in gratitude for success against Germanic tribes: contemporary bas-relief, Capitoline Museum, Rome For other uses, see Sacrifice (disambiguation). ... Human sacrifice is the act of killing a human being for the purposes of making an offering to a deity or other, normally supernatural, power. ... A sheep is led to the altar, 6th century BC Corinthian fresco. ... For other uses, see Suicide (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see War (disambiguation). ... A Western depiction of Death as a skeleton carrying a scythe. ...


 
 

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