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Encyclopedia > Eurozone
European Union

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
the European Union
Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The European Union or EU is a supranational and international organization of 27 member states. ...



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The Eurozone (less frequently called the Euro Area or Euroland) refers to a currency union among the European Union member states that have adopted the euro as their sole official currency. The Eurosystem, headed by the European Central Bank, is responsible for monetary policy within the Eurozone. The Treaties of the European Union are effectively the basic constitutional texts of the Union. ... The Treaty of Rome signing ceremony Signatures in the Treaty The Treaty of Rome refers to the treaty which established the European Economic Community (EEC) and was signed by France, West Germany, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg on March 25, 1957. ... The Maastricht Treaty (formally, the Treaty of European Union, TEU) was signed on February 7, 1992 in Maastricht, Netherlands after final negotiations in December 1991 between the members of the European Community and entered into force on November 1, 1993 during the Delors Commission. ... The Treaty of Maastricht which established the European Union, divided EU policies into three main areas, called pillars. ... Treaty of Amsterdam amending the Treaty of the European Union, the Treaties establishing the European Communities and certain related acts The Treaty of Amsterdam amending the Treaty of the European Union, the Treaties establishing the European Communities and certain related acts, commonly known as the Amsterdam Treaty, was signed on... Treaty of Nice The Treaty of Nice is a treaty adopted in Nice by the European Council to amend the two founding treaties of the European Union: the Treaty on European Union, or Maastricht Treaty, which introduced the Euro and the 3-pillar structure of the EU; the Treaty of... For other uses, see Treaty of Lisbon (disambiguation). ... There are currently five institutions of the European Union which govern the Union. ... Berlaymont, the Commissions seat The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive branch of the European Union. ... François-Xavier Ortoli, Romano Prodi, José Manuel Barroso and Jacques Delors The President of the European Commission is notionally the highest ranking unelected official within the European Union bureaucracy. ... José Manuel Durão Barroso, GCC (pronounced  ) (born in Porto, March 23, 1956) is a Portuguese politician and the 11th President of the European Commission, being the first Portuguese person to hold the post. ... The Barroso Commission is the European Commission that has been in office since 22 November 2004 and is due to serve until 31 October 2009. ... Established 1952, as the Common Assembly President Hans-Gert Pöttering (EPP) Since 16 January 2007 Vice-Presidents 14 Rodi Kratsa-Tsagaropoulou (EPP) Alejo Vidal-Quadras (EPP) Gérard Onesta (Greens – EFA) Edward McMillan-Scott (ED) Mario Mauro (EPP) Miguel Angel Martínez Martínez (PES) Luigi Cocilovo (ALDE) Mechtild... The President of the European Parliament oversees all the activities of the European Parliament and its constituent bodies. ... Hans-Gert Pöttering (often written as Poettering; born September 15, 1945 in Bersenbrück, Lower Saxony) is a German conservative politician (CDU,European Peoples Party), and has been President of the European Parliament since January 2007. ... A Member of the European Parliament (English abbreviation MEP)[1] is a member of the European Unions directly-elected legislative body, the European Parliament. ... This is a list giving breakdowns of the European Parliamentary session from 2004 to 2009. ... Established 1952 Presiding Country Portugal President Luís Amado President in Office José Sócrates Members 27 (at one time) Political parties 7, including: European Peoples Party Party of European Socialists Meeting place Justus Lipsius, Brussels, Belgium, European Union Web site http://www. ... The Presidency of the Council of the European Union refers to the responsibility of presiding over all aspects of the Council of the European Union, when exercised collectively by a government, on a pre-established rota of the member states, of the European Union. ... Dimitrij Rupel (born April 7, 1946 in Ljubljana) is a liberal politician from Slovenia and current foreign minister of that country. ... Javier Solana, the current High Representative, with Condoleezza Rice The High Representative for the Common Foreign and Security Policy is the main co-ordinator of the Common Foreign and Security Policy within the European Union. ... The procedures for Voting in the Council of the European Union are described in the treaties of the EU. The Council of the European Union was instituted under this name in the Maastricht Treaty. ... This article deals with the meeting of European Union leaders. ... There are currently five institutions of the European Union which govern the Union. ... There are currently five institutions of the European Union which govern the Union. ... Official emblem of the ECJ The Court of Justice of the European Communities, usually called the European Court of Justice (ECJ), is the highest court in the European Union (EU). ... The European Court of Auditors is one of five institutions of the European Union. ... Elections in the European Union gives information on election and election results in the European Union. ... Elections to the European Parliament were held from June 10, 2004 to June 13, 2004 in the 25 member states of the European Union, using varying election days according to local custom. ... In early 2007, Bulgaria and Romania will elect their members of the European Parliament for the first time. ... Elections to the European Parliament will be held in June 2006 in the then–27 member states of the European Union, using varying election days according to local custom. ... European Parliament electoral system is proportional representation. ... A European political party, formally a political party at European level, sometimes informally (especially in academic circles) a Europarty, is a type of political party organization operating transnationally in Europe. ... // Origins of the EU History of the European Union European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) Euratom Single market. ... Austria Poland Belgium Bulgaria Cyprus Czech   Rep. ... The European Union (EU) was created by six founding states in 1957 (following the earlier establishment by the same six states of the European Coal and Steel Community in 1952) and has grown to 27 member states. ... Foreign relations of the European Union Foreign relations of Austria Foreign relations of Belgium Foreign relations of Cyprus Foreign relations of the Czech Republic Foreign relations of Denmark Foreign relations of Estonia Foreign relations of Finland Foreign relations of France Foreign relations of Germany Foreign relations of Greece Foreign relations... The Law of the European Union is the unique legal system which operates alongside the laws of Member States of the European Union (EU). ... For the concept in general, see economic and monetary union. ... There are currently five institutions of the European Union which govern the Union. ... The agencies of the European Union (or decentralised bodies of the European Union) are bodies which are distinct from the European Unions institutions, in that they have not been created by the treaties but rather by acts of secondary legislation, in order to accomplish a very specific task. ... Information on politics by country is available for every country, including both de jure and de facto independent states, inhabited dependent territories, as well as areas of special sovereignty. ... In economics, a monetary union is a situation where several countries have agreed to share a single currency among them, for example, the East Caribbean Dollar. ... Austria Poland Belgium Bulgaria Cyprus Czech   Rep. ... For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ... The Eurosystem is the system of central banks consisting of the European Central Bank and the central banks of the member states of the European Union whose currency is the euro. ... Headquarters Coordinates , , Established 1 January 1998 President Jean-Claude Trichet Central Bank of Austria, Belgium, France, Finland, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Slovenia, Spain Currency Euro ISO 4217 Code EUR Reserves €43bn directly, €338bn through the Eurosystem (including gold deposits). ... Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Economic policy Monetary policy Central bank   Money supply Fiscal policy Spending   Deficit   Debt Trade policy Tariff   Trade agreement Finance Financial market Financial market participants Corporate   Personal Public   Banking   Regulation        Monetary policy is the process by which the government, central bank...


The Eurozone has fifteen members, with a further nine states and territories using it as their sole currency. It circulates widely beyond that, being a contender to the United States Dollar as the world's reserve currency. USD redirects here. ... Percentage of global currencies A reserve currency (or anchor currency) is a currency which is held in significant quantities by many governments and institutions as part of their foreign exchange reserves. ...


Taking official estimates of 2007 GDP, the Eurozone is the largest economy in the world.[1][2][3][4]

Contents

Members

In 1998 eleven EU member-states had met the convergence criteria, and the Eurozone came into existence with the official launch of the euro on 1 January 1999. Greece qualified in 2000 and was admitted on 1 January 2001. Physical coins and banknotes were introduced on 1 January 2002. Slovenia qualified in 2006 and was admitted on 1 January 2007 with Cyprus and Malta joining on 1 January 2008. Currently there are 15 member states with over 320 million people in the Eurozone: This is an article about European Politics, Convergence criteria is also a mathematical term regarding series Convergence criteria, also known as the Maastricht criteria, are the criteria for European Union member states to enter the third stage of European Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) and adopt the euro. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... The euro (EUR or €) is the currency of 13 European Union (EU) member states (Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Slovenia, and Spain), three European microstates which have currency agreements with the EU (Monaco, San Marino and the Vatican City State), Andorra, Montenegro and the... The euro (EUR or €) is the single currency for the European Union and currently 13 of its member states. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ...

     EU Eurozone      EU state joining Eurozone on 1 January 2009 (Slovakia)      EU states obliged to join the Eurozone      EU state with an opt-out on Eurozone participation (U.K.)      EU state planning to hold a referendum on the euro and with an opt-out on Eurozone participation (Denmark)      Areas outside the EU using the euro with an agreement      Areas outside the EU using the euro without an agreement  v • d • e 
     EU Eurozone      EU state joining Eurozone on 1 January 2009 (Slovakia)      EU states obliged to join the Eurozone      EU state with an opt-out on Eurozone participation (U.K.)      EU state planning to hold a referendum on the euro and with an opt-out on Eurozone participation (Denmark)      Areas outside the EU using the euro with an agreement      Areas outside the EU using the euro without an agreement  v  d  e 
State Adopted Population Exceptions
Flag of Austria Austria 01999-01-01 1 January 1999 &0000000008316487.0000008,316,487
Flag of Belgium Belgium 01999-01-01 1 January 1999 &0000000010584534.00000010,584,534
Flag of Cyprus Cyprus 02008-01-01 1 January 2008 &0000000000766400.000000766,400 Flag of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus Northern Cyprus[5]
Flag of Finland Finland 01999-01-01 1 January 1999 &0000000005289128.0000005,289,128
Flag of France France 01999-01-01 1 January 1999 &0000000063392140.00000063,392,140 Flag of New Caledonia New Caledonia[6]
Flag of French Polynesia French Polynesia[6]
Flag of Wallis and Futuna Wallis and Futuna[6]
Flag of Germany Germany 01999-01-01 1 January 1999 &0000000082314906.00000082,314,906
Flag of Greece Greece 02001-01-01 1 January 2001 &0000000011125179.00000011,125,179
Flag of Ireland Ireland 01999-01-01 1 January 1999 &0000000004239848.0000004,239,848
Flag of Italy Italy 01999-01-01 1 January 1999 &0000000059131287.00000059,131,287
Flag of Luxembourg Luxembourg 01999-01-01 1 January 1999 &0000000000476200.000000476,200
Flag of Malta Malta 02008-01-01 1 January 2008 &0000000000404962.000000404,962
Flag of the Netherlands Netherlands 01999-01-01 1 January 1999 &0000000016372715.00000016,372,715 Flag of Aruba Aruba[7]
Flag of the Netherlands Antilles Netherlands Antilles[8]
Flag of Portugal Portugal 01999-01-01 1 January 1999 &0000000010599095.00000010,599,095
Flag of Slovenia Slovenia 02007-01-01 1 January 2007 &0000000002013597.0000002,013,597
Flag of Spain Spain 01999-01-01 1 January 1999 &0000000045116894.00000045,116,894
Flag of Europe Eurozone &0000000320143372.000000320,143,372

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1244x1244, 108 KB) Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1244x1244, 108 KB) Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2009 (MMIX) will be a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...  member state with at least one opt-out  member state with a de facto opt-out  member state without opt-outs Currently, five European Union member states have (or will have) opt-outs from certain parts of the European Union structure, namely:  Denmark (four)  Ireland (two)  Poland (one)  Sweden (one... “UK” redirects here. ...  member state with at least one opt-out  member state with a de facto opt-out  member state without opt-outs Currently, five European Union member states have (or will have) opt-outs from certain parts of the European Union structure, namely:  Denmark (four)  Ireland (two)  Poland (one)  Sweden (one... The Eurozone (less frequently called the Euro Area or Euroland) refers to a currency union among the European Union member states that have adopted the euro as their sole official currency. ... The Eurozone (less frequently called the Euro Area or Euroland) refers to a currency union among the European Union member states that have adopted the euro as their sole official currency. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Austria. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belgium_(civil). ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cyprus. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Turkish_Republic_of_Northern_Cyprus. ... Anthem: Ä°stiklâl Marşı(Turkish) Independence March Capital Nicosia (LefkoÅŸa in Turkish) Official languages Turkish Government Representative democratic republic1  -  President Mehmet Ali Talat  -  Prime Minister Ferdi Sabit Soyer Independence from Cyprus   -  Proclaimed November 15, 1983   -  Recognition By Turkey only  Area  -  Total 3,355 km² (167th ranked together with Cyprus... Image File history File links Flag_of_Finland. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_French_Polynesia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Wallis_and_Futuna. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ireland. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Luxembourg. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Malta. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Aruba. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands_Antilles. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Portugal. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Slovenia. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

Enlargement

Main article: Enlargement of the eurozone
     Eurozone countries      ERM II members      EU member with currency pegged to the euro (Bulgaria)      EU members with free-floating currencies      non-EU members with free-floating currencies      non-EU members using the euro (Montenegro, Kosovo, Andorra, UK Sovereign Base Areas)      non-EU member with currency pegged to the euro (Bosnia and Herzegovina)
     Eurozone countries      ERM II members      EU member with currency pegged to the euro (Bulgaria)      EU members with free-floating currencies      non-EU members with free-floating currencies      non-EU members using the euro (Montenegro, Kosovo, Andorra, UK Sovereign Base Areas)      non-EU member with currency pegged to the euro (Bosnia and Herzegovina)

The twelve countries of the European Union that do not use the euro are: Denmark, Sweden, the United Kingdom, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania and Slovakia. The next enlargement is expected to be Slovakia in 2009.  Eurozone countries  EU states to join Eurozone on 1 January 2008  EU state aiming to join Eurozone on 1 January 2009  EU state aiming to join Eurozone on 1 January 2010  EU states bound by the Maastricht Treaty to ultimately join the Eurozone  EU states with a derogation on Eurozone... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1244x1244, 91 KB) Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1244x1244, 91 KB) Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... The European Exchange Rate Mechanism, ERM, was a system introduced by the European Community in March 1979, as part of the European Monetary System (EMS), to reduce exchange rate variability and achieve monetary stability in Europe, in preparation for Economic and Monetary Union and the introduction of a single currency... A floating exchange rate or a flexible exchange rate is a type of exchange rate regime wherein a currencys value is allowed to fluctuate according to the foreign exchange market. ...


Denmark and the United Kingdom obtained special derogations in the original Maastricht Treaty of the European Union. Both countries are not legally required to join the Eurozone unless their governments decide otherwise, either by parliamentary vote or referendum. The current Danish government has announced plans to hold a referendum on the issue following the adoption of the Treaty of Lisbon.[9][10][11] Derogation is the partial revocation of a law, as opposed to abrogation or the total abolition of a law. ... The Maastricht Treaty (formally, the Treaty of European Union, TEU) was signed on February 7, 1992 in Maastricht, Netherlands after final negotiations in December 1991 between the members of the European Community and entered into force on November 1, 1993 during the Delors Commission. ... This article is about the legislative institution. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A referendum (plural referendums or referenda), ballot question, or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, originally a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... For other uses, see Treaty of Lisbon (disambiguation). ...


Sweden has gained a de facto opt-out in exploiting a legal loophole by not working to meet the criteria to join, and hence not being able to adopt the currency as it is obliged to. This was due to the Swedish public rejecting eurozone membership in a referendum and is tolerated by the Commission, but the Commission has stated it would not be lenient on any future members attempting the same route.


Before a state can join the eurozone, it must spend two years in European Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM II). As of 1 January 2008, five National Central Banks (NCBs) participate in the mechanism (see table below). The remaining currencies are expected to follow as soon as they meet the criteria. The European Exchange Rate Mechanism, ERM, was a system introduced by the European Community in March 1979, as part of the European Monetary System (EMS), to reduce exchange rate variability and achieve monetary stability in Europe, in preparation for Economic and Monetary Union and the introduction of a single currency... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ...


Poland and Romania have the longest time tables, seeing adoption beyond 2013. Other countries are facing inflation problems, which has pushed Estonia's adoption from 2007 back to 2011 (estimated). Other countries are also experiencing economic and spending problems pushing back their original estimates.


Use outside the Union

With formal agreements

Certain states outside the EU have adopted the euro as their currency. For formal adoption, including the right to mint their own coins, a monetary agreement must be concluded. Agreements have been concluded with Monaco, San Marino, and Vatican City. All of these states previously used versions of yielded member state currencies. Vatican and San Marino had their currencies pegged to the Italian lira (Vatican and San Marinese lira) and Monaco used the Monegasque franc, which was pegged on a 1:1 basis to the French franc.[12][13] A fixed exchange rate, sometimes (less commonly) called a pegged exchange rate, is a type of exchange rate regime wherein a currencys value is matched to the value of another single currency or to a basket of other currencies, or to another measure of value, such as gold. ... ISO 4217 Code ITL User(s) Italy, San Marino, Vatican City, but not Campione dItalia Inflation 2. ... The San Marinese lira (plural lire) was the official unit of San Marino. ... The Monégasque franc was one of the official currencies of the Principality of Monaco until 2002, when it changed to the Euro. ... ISO 4217 Code FRF User(s) Monaco, Andorra, France except New Caledonia, French Polynesia, and Wallis and Futuna ERM Since 13 March 1979 Fixed rate since 31 December 1998 Replaced by €, non cash 1 January 1999 Replaced by €, cash 1 January 2002 € = 6. ...

State/Territory Adopted Agreement Population
Flag of Mayotte Mayotte 01999-01-01 1 January 1999 01998-12-31 31 December 1998 &0000000000186452.000000186,452
Flag of Monaco Monaco 01999-01-01 1 January 1999 01998-12-31 31 December 1998 &0000000000032671.00000032,671
Flag of San Marino San Marino 01999-01-01 1 January 1999 01998-12-31 31 December 1998 &0000000000029615.00000029,615
Flag of Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Pierre and Miquelon 01999-01-01 1 January 1999 01998-12-31 31 December 1998 &0000000000006125.0000006,125
Flag of the Vatican City Vatican City 01999-01-01 1 January 1999 01998-12-31 31 December 1998 &0000000000000800.000000800

These countries concluded agreements with EU and member states (Italy in the case of San Marino and Vatican City, France in the case of Monaco) allowing them to use and mint a limited amount of euro (with their own national symbols on the obverse side) to be valid throughout the eurozone. They do not however print banknotes. A similar agreement is being conducted with Andorra (see below).[12][13] Image File history File links Flag_of_Mayotte_(local). ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Monaco. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_San_Marino. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Saint-Pierre_and_Miquelon. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Vatican_City. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... The term obverse, and its opposite, reverse, describe the two sides of units of currency and many other kinds of two-sided objects, most often in reference to coins, but also to medals, drawings, old master prints and other works of art. ...


Agreements were also concluded for two overseas territories of France. Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon off the coast of Canada, and Mayotte in the Indian Ocean are outside the EU but have been allowed to use the euro as their currency. They are, however, not allowed to mint any coins of their own.[14][15] Saint-Pierre and Miquelon (French Saint-Pierre et Miquelon) is a French overseas collectivity consisting of several small islands off the eastern coast of Canada near Newfoundland. ...


Since Saint Barthélemy and Saint Martin were broken away on 22 February 2007 from Guadeloupe to be formed into two new French overseas collectivities, they are in legal limbo until ratification of the Treaty of Lisbon. Anthem For Sweden - The Land of The Incredible Biffs Capital (and largest city) Gustavia Official languages Swedish Government  -  Prime Minister of Sweden Nick XII Bonaparte  -  Prefect Per af Biffsläkt  -  President of the Territorial Council none yet; however Henning is the mayor of Saint-Barthelemy Overseas Collectivity of Sweden   -  Swedish... St. ... Map of European Union in the world  European Union  Outermost regions  Overseas countries and territories Map of EU member states and candidate countries, with an inset showing the 7 outermost regions As of 2007 the European Union has 27 member states, most of which participate in all EU policy areas... For other uses, see Treaty of Lisbon (disambiguation). ...


Without formal agreements

Andorra does not have an official currency and hence no specific euro coins. It previously used the French franc and Spanish peseta as de facto legal tender currency. There has never been a monetary arrangement with either Spain or France; however, the EU and Andorra are currently in negotiations regarding the official status of the euro in Andorra. According to Andorran officials, Andorra would have minted its own euro coins for the first time in 2006; as of June 2008, this has not yet happened, partially due to stalling over bank secrets in December 2005.[16] The peseta is the former currency of Spain and, (along with the French Franc), of Andorra. ...

State/Territory Adopted Seeking Population
Flag of the United Kingdom Akrotiri and Dhekelia 02008-01-01 1 January 2008 None &0000000000014500.00000014,500
Flag of Andorra Andorra 1278 / 02002-01-01 1 January 2002
French franc and Spanish peseta dual circulation since sovereignity established / EUR
Agreement &0000000000082000.00000082,000
Flag of Kosovo Kosovo 01999-09-02 2 September 1999 / 02002-01-01 1 January 2002
DM/EUR semi-official; other currencies and YUM also accepted [2] [3]
Membership &0000000002100000.0000002,100,000
Flag of Montenegro Montenegro 01999-11-06 6 November 1999 / 02002-01-01 1 January 2002
DM/EUR official; dual circulation with YUM until 13/11/2000
Membership &0000000000684736.000000684,736

Montenegro and Kosovo have also used the euro since its launch, as they previously used the German mark rather than the Serbian dinar. This was due to political concerns that Serbia would use the currency to destabilise these provinces (Montenegro was then in a union with Serbia) so received western help in adopting and using the Mark. They switched to the euro when the mark was replaced but have no agreement with the ECB, rather the country depends only on those euros already in circulation.[17] Kosovo also still uses the Serbian dinar in areas mainly populated by the Serbian minority.[18] The use of the euro in these provinces has helped stabilise their economies and for this reason the adoption of the euro by small states has been encouraged by Finance Commissioner Joaquín Almunia while ECB President Jean-Claude Trichet has stated the ECB, which does not grant representation to those who unilaterally adopt the euro, does not support or deter those who wish to use the currency. Some in the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC) have called for the unilateral adoption of the euro by the state.[17] Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Anthem God Save the Queen Akrotiri and Dhekelia (Occupied Areas) Sovereign Base Areas indicated in pink. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Andorra. ... For broader historical context, see 1270s and 13th century. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... ISO 4217 Code FRF User(s) Monaco, Andorra, France except New Caledonia, French Polynesia, and Wallis and Futuna ERM Since 13 March 1979 Fixed rate since 31 December 1998 Replaced by €, non cash 1 January 1999 Replaced by €, cash 1 January 2002 € = 6. ... ISO 4217 Code ESP User(s) Spain, Andorra Inflation 1. ... Sovereignty is the exclusive right to exercise supreme authority over a geographic region or group of people, such as a nation or a tribe. ... For other uses, see Kosovo (disambiguation). ... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... DEM can mean: Deutsche Mark diethyl malonate Digital elevation model Department of Environmental Management, now part of the Department of Conservation and Recreation in Massachusetts Democrat Slang for democrat, often derogatory. ... User(s) Yugoslavia Subunit 1/100 para Symbol din. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Montenegro. ... This article is about the country in Europe. ... is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... DEM can mean: Deutsche Mark diethyl malonate Digital elevation model Department of Environmental Management, now part of the Department of Conservation and Recreation in Massachusetts Democrat Slang for democrat, often derogatory. ... User(s) Yugoslavia Subunit 1/100 para Symbol din. ... This article is about the country in Europe. ... For other uses, see Kosovo (disambiguation). ... The Deutsche Mark (DM, DEM) was the official currency of West and, from 1990, unified Germany. ... ISO 4217 Code RSD User(s) Serbia (including parts of Kosovo) Inflation 6. ... Anthem:  Serbia() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Slovak, Romanian, Croatian, Rusyn 1 Albanian 2 Demonym Serbian Government Parliamentary Democracy  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica    -  First state 7th century   -  Serbian Kingdom3 1217   -  Serbian Empire 1345   -  Independence lost... The current Commissioner The Commissioner for Economic & Financial Affairs is the member of the European Commission responsible for the European Unions Financial and monetary affairs, oftern combined with simmilar portfolios. ... Joaquín Almunia Joaquín Almunia is the member of the European Commission responsible for Economic and Monetary Affairs (since 26 April 2004). ... Order: 2nd President Nationality: French Vice President: Lucas Papademos Term of office: November 1, 2003 – Present Preceded by: Wim Duisenberg Succeeded by: Incumbent Jean-Claude Trichet (born December 20, 1942) is a French banker. ... Anthem Ä°stiklâl Marşı(Turkish) Independence March Capital Nicosia Official languages Turkish Government Representative democratic republic1  -  President Mehmet Ali Talat  -  Prime Minister Ferdi Sabit Soyer Sovereignty from Cyprus   -  Proclaimed November 15, 1983   -  Recognition By Turkey   -  Independence from Cyprus   -  Declared November 15, 1983  Area  -  Total 3,355 km² (not ranked) 1...


With the adoption of the euro in Cyprus, the Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia, which had previously used the Cypriot Pound, also adopted the euro. The base areas are part of the United Kingdom, but are outside of the EU and under military jurisdiction. However their laws, including currency, has been aligned with that of the Republic of Cyprus, leading to the euro's adoption there.[19] North of the UN-administered buffer zone, the self-declared Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC) still uses the Turkish new lira. The TRNC is unrecognised by any country aside from Turkey but governs the northern part of the island outside of the EU. Despite not adopting the euro along with Southern Cyprus, usage of the euro is expected to be high with cross border trade already prompting widespread use of the Cypriot pound and the euro. Use of the euro is seen as a way to boost intra-Cypriot trade and reduce dependence on Turkey.[20] With the use of the euro across the border helping economic integration, the arrival of the euro has been hailed as a major advance in solidifying peace and unification on the island. The Cypriot euro coins, using the Greek and Turkish languages, have been designed to avoid any bias towards any particular area of the island.[21] The UK Sovereign Base Areas are those British military base areas located in countries formerly ruled by the United Kingdom which were retained by it and not handed over when those countries attained independence. ... Anthem God Save the Queen Akrotiri and Dhekelia (Occupied Areas) Sovereign Base Areas indicated in pink. ... ISO 4217 Code CYP User(s) Cyprus (except in the self-proclaimed Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus), Akrotiri and Dhekelia Inflation 2. ... UN Buffer Zone in Cyprus The United Nations Buffer Zone in Cyprus is a 300 km (187 mile) separation barrier along the 1974 Green Line (or ceasefire line) de facto dividing the Republic of Cyprus into north and south regions. ... Anthem Ä°stiklâl Marşı(Turkish) Independence March Capital Nicosia Official languages Turkish Government Representative democratic republic1  -  President Mehmet Ali Talat  -  Prime Minister Ferdi Sabit Soyer Sovereignty from Cyprus   -  Proclaimed November 15, 1983   -  Recognition By Turkey   -  Independence from Cyprus   -  Declared November 15, 1983  Area  -  Total 3,355 km² (not ranked) 1... TRY banknotes and coins The Turkish new lira is the current currency of Turkey and of the de facto state Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. ... Cyprus has been a member of the European Union since 1 May 2004, and is a member of the Economic and Monetary Union of the European Union but has not completed the third stage of the EMU and therefore still uses its own currency, the Cyprus pound. ...


Iceland's former foreign minister Valgerður Sverrisdóttir has said in an interview on 15 January 2007 that she seriously wishes to look into whether Iceland can join the Euro without being a member of the EU. She believes it is difficult to maintain an independent currency in a small economy on the open European market.[22] An extensive poll, released on 11 September 2007, by Capacent Gallup showed that 53% of respondents were in favour of adopting the euro, 37% opposed and 10% undecided.[23] Valgerður Sverrisdóttir (born March 23, 1950) has been the Minister for Foreign Affairs of Iceland since June 15, 2006. ... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ...  EFTA countries (except Switzerland)  EU countries Together these form the EEA. The European Economic Area (EEA) came into being on January 1, 1994 following an agreement between the European Free Trade Association (EFTA) and the European Union (EU). ... is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ...


As trading currency

In 1998, Cuba announced that it would replace the U.S. dollar with the euro as its official currency for international trading.[24] On 1 December 2002, North Korea did the same. (Its internal currency, the won, is not convertible and thus cannot be used to purchase foreign goods. The euro also enjoys popularity domestically, especially among resident foreigners.) Syria followed suit in 2006.[25] USD redirects here. ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... 5000 KPW issued in 2002 The won is the currency of North Korea. ... Convertibility is the quality of money which is officially backed by government reserves of a precious metal, probably the gold standard. ...


Prior to the 2003 invasion of Iraq, President Saddam Hussein announced that he intended to price Iraqi oil in euros, rather than U.S. dollars, since the majority of Iraqi oil trade was with the EU, India and China, not with the United States. This article is about the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ... Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was the fifth President of Iraq and Chairman of the Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council from 1979 until his overthrow by US forces in 2003. ...


Non-EU currencies pegged to the euro

Cape Verde's currency is pegged to the euro having previously been pegged to the Portuguese escudo. Bosnia and Herzegovina's currency, the convertible mark, is pegged to the euro, having previously been pegged to the German Mark. The CFA and Comorian francs, used in former French colonies, and the CFP franc, used in French Pacific Ocean territories, are pegged to the euro, having previously been pegged to the French franc. Currently there are several currencies pegged to the euro, some with fluctuation bands around a central rate and others with no fluctuations allowed around the central rate. ... The escudo was the official currency of Portugal prior to the introduction of the euro in 1 January 1999 (euro coins and notes were not introduced until 2002). ... ISO 4217 Code BAM User(s) Bosnia and Herzegovina Inflation 8. ... ISO 4217 Code DEM User(s) Germany, Montenegro, Kosovo ERM Since 13 March 1979 Fixed rate since 31 December 1998 Replaced by €, non cash 1 January 1999 Replaced by €, cash 1 January 2002 € = 1. ... now. ... ISO 4217 Code KMF User(s) Comoros Inflation rate 3% Source CIA World Fact Book, 2005 est. ... ISO 4217 Code XPF User(s) New Caledonia, French Polynesia, and Wallis and Futuna Inflation 2. ...


People affected by the euro

Category Population Countries and territories
Official members 320 million Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Portugal, Slovenia, Spain
Other European countries and territories using the euro 3 million Akrotiri and Dhekelia, Andorra, Kosovo, Montenegro, Monaco, San Marino, Vatican City
Non-European, non-EU territories using the euro 207 thousand Clipperton Island, French Southern and Antarctic Lands, Mayotte, Saint Pierre and Miquelon
EU countries with currencies pegged to the euro (or at a narrow margin) 26 million Bulgaria, Denmark, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Slovakia
Other European countries with currencies pegged to the euro 4 million Bosnia and Herzegovina
African countries using the CFA franc 110 million Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Côte d'Ivoire, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Niger, Republic of the Congo, Sénégal, Togo
Pacific Island nations using the CFP franc 0.5 million French Polynesia, New Caledonia, Wallis and Futuna
Other countries and territories with currencies pegged to the euro 35 million Cape Verde, Comoros, Morocco
Total 500 million 44 countries and 5 areas.

now. ... ISO 4217 Code XPF User(s) New Caledonia, French Polynesia, and Wallis and Futuna Inflation 2. ...

Eurogroup

Jean-Claude Juncker is the incumbent Eurogroup president
Jean-Claude Juncker is the incumbent Eurogroup president

Finance ministers of EU member states that use the euro meet a day before a meeting of the Economic and Financial Affairs Council (Ecofin) of the Council of the European Union. Legally speaking this group, colloquially called the "Eurogroup", is not an official formation of the Council of the European Union. In September 2004, the Eurogroup decided it should have a semi-permanent president that is to be appointed for a period of two years. Prime Minister and Finance Minister of Luxembourg Jean-Claude Juncker was appointed first president of the Eurogroup, mandated from January 1, 2005, until December 31, 2006, and was re-appointed for a second term in September 2006.[26] Jean-Claude Juncker Jean-Claude Juncker (born December 9, 1954) is the Prime Minister and Finance Minister of Luxembourg, and until July 1, 2005, was president of the European Council, a position he also previously held in 1997. ... The Economic and Financial Affairs Council is one of the oldest configurations of the Council of the European Union. ... Established 1952 Presiding Country Portugal President Luís Amado President in Office José Sócrates Members 27 (at one time) Political parties 7, including: European Peoples Party Party of European Socialists Meeting place Justus Lipsius, Brussels, Belgium, European Union Web site http://www. ... Established 1952 Presiding Country Portugal President Luís Amado President in Office José Sócrates Members 27 (at one time) Political parties 7, including: European Peoples Party Party of European Socialists Meeting place Justus Lipsius, Brussels, Belgium, European Union Web site http://www. ... Jean-Claude Juncker Jean-Claude Juncker (born December 9, 1954) is the Prime Minister and Finance Minister of Luxembourg, and until July 1, 2005, was president of the European Council, a position he also previously held in 1997. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In April 2008, Juncker suggested that the Eurozone should be represented at the International Monetary Fund as a bloc, rather than each member state separately.[27] IMF redirects here. ...

It is absurd for those 15 countries not to agree to have a single representation at the IMF. It makes us look absolutely ridiculous. We are regarded as buffoons on the international scene.

Jean-Claude Juncker. Brussels, 15 April 2008[27]

However Commissioner Joaquin Almunia stated that before there is common representation, a common political agenda should be agreed.[27] Jean-Claude Juncker Jean-Claude Juncker (born December 9, 1954) is the Prime Minister and Finance Minister of Luxembourg, and until July 1, 2005, was president of the European Council, a position he also previously held in 1997. ... This article is about the settlement itself. ... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive of the European Union. ... Joaquín Almunia Joaquín Almunia is the member of the European Commission responsible for Economic and Monetary Affairs (since 26 April 2004). ...


Economy

Comparison of Eurozone with other economies, all figures from 2006.[28]

Bloc/State Population (millions) GDP Main (in € trillions calculated at purchasing power parity) Share of world GDP (% at PPP) Exports* (goods and services, as % of GDP) Imports* (goods and services, as % of GDP)
Eurozone 317 8.4 14.6 21.7 20.9
EU (27) 494 11.9 21.0 14.3 15.0
United States 300 11.2 19.7 10.8 16.6
Japan 128 3.5 6.3 16.8 15.3

(*) Excluding intra-EU trade.


Inflation

HICP figures from the ECB;[29]

  • Mid 1999: 1%
  • Mid 2000: 2%
  • Mid 2001: 2.8%
  • Mid 2002: 1.9%
  • Mid 2003: 1.9%
  • May 2004: 2.5%
  • May 2005: 2.0%
  • May 2006: 2.5%
  • May 2007: 1.9%
  • Nov 2007: 3.1%

Interest rates

Interest rates for the Eurozone, set by the ECB since 1999. Levels are in percentages per annum. Prior to June 2000, the main refinancing operations were fixed rate tenders. This was replaced by variable rate tenders, the figures indicated in the table after that refer to the minimum interest rate at which counterparties may place their bids.[30]

Date Deposit facility Main refinancing operations Marginal lending facility
1999-01-01 2.00 3.00 4.50
1999-01-04[31] 2.75 3.00 3.25
1999-01-22 2.00 3.00 4.50
1999-04-09 1.50 2.50 3.50
1999-11-05 2.00 3.00 4.00
2000-02-04 2.25 3.25 4.25
2000-03-17 2.50 3.50 4.50
2000-04-28 2.75 3.75 4.75
2000-06-09 3.25 4.25 5.25
2000-06-28 3.25 4.25 5.25
2000-09-01 3.50 4.50 5.50
2000-10-06 3.75 4.75 5.75
2001-05-11 3.50 4.50 5.50
2001-08-31 3.25 4.25 5.25
2001-09-18 2.75 3.75 4.75
2001-11-09 2.25 3.25 4.25
2002-12-06 1.75 2.75 3.75
2003-03-07 1.50 2.50 3.50
2003-06-06 1.00 2.00 3.00
2005-12-06 1.25 2.25 3.25
2006-12-13 2.50 3.50 4.50
2006-10-11 2.25 3.25 4.25
2006-08-09 2.00 3.00 4.00
2006-06-15 1.75 2.75 3.75
2006-03-08 1.50 2.50 3.50
2007-03-14 2.75 3.75 4.75
2007-06-13 3.00 4.00 5.00

Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... is the 160th day of the year (161st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... is the 279th day of the year (280th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 67th day of the year (68th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 73rd day of the year (74th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 164th day of the year (165th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Fiscal policies

The primary means for fiscal coordination within the EU lies in the Broad Economic Policy Guidelines which are written for every member state, but with particular reference to the 15 current members of the Eurozone. These guidelines are not binding, but are intended to represent policy coordination among the EU member states, so as to take into account the linked structures of their economies.


For their mutual assurance and stability of the currency, members of the Eurozone have to respect the Stability and Growth Pact, which sets agreed limits on deficits and national debt, with associated sanctions for deviation. The Pact originally set a limit of 3% of GDP for the yearly deficit of all Eurozone member states; with fines for any state which exceeded this amount. In 2005, Portugal, Germany, and France had all exceeded this amount, but the Council of Ministers had not voted to fine those states. Subsequently, reforms were adopted to provide more flexibility and ensure that the deficit criteria took into account the economic conditions of the member states, and additional factors. The Stability and Growth Pact (SGP) is an agreement by European Union member states related to their conduct of fiscal policy, to facilitate and maintain Economic and Monetary Union of the European Union. ...


The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development downgraded its economic forecasts on March 20, 2008 for the Eurozone for the first half of 2008. Europe does not have room to ease fiscal or monetary policy, the 30-nation group warned. For the euro zone, the OECD now forecasts first-quarter GDP growth of just 0.5 percent, with no improvement in the second quarter, which is expected to show just a 0.4 percent gain. [4] The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is an international organization of those developed countries that accept the principles of representative democracy and a free market economy. ... is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


See also

European Union Portal

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... If it is considered as a single state, the economy of the European Unions twenty-seven member states is the worlds largest economy. ... Headquarters Coordinates , , Established 1 January 1998 President Jean-Claude Trichet Central Bank of Austria, Belgium, France, Finland, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Slovenia, Spain Currency Euro ISO 4217 Code EUR Reserves €43bn directly, €338bn through the Eurosystem (including gold deposits). ... For the concept in general, see economic and monetary union. ... Map of European Union in the world  European Union  Outermost regions  Overseas countries and territories Map of EU member states and candidate countries, with an inset showing the 7 outermost regions As of 2007 the European Union has 27 member states, most of which participate in all EU policy areas...

Notes and references

  1. ^ CIA - The World Factbook -- Rank Order - GDP (purchasing power parity). CIA (20 March, 2008). Retrieved on 2008-04-06.
  2. ^ Weak dollar costs U.S. economy its No. 1 spot. Reuters (14 March, 2008). Retrieved on 2008-03-16.
  3. ^ Weak Dollar Costs U.S. Economy Its World No. 1 Spot. New York Times (14 March, 2008). Retrieved on 2008-03-16.
  4. ^ U.S. No Longer World's Largest Economy. About.com. Retrieved on 2008-03-16.
  5. ^ The self-declared Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus is unrecognised by the EU and formally uses the Turkish new lira, however the euro does circulate widely.
  6. ^ a b c French Pacific territories use the CFP franc.
  7. ^ Aruba uses the Aruban florin. It is part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, but not EU.
  8. ^ The Netherlands Antilles uses the Antillean guilder. It is part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, but not the EU. The guilder typically followed the US dollar, but the Netherlands Antilles will split by the end of 2008 resulting in some islands possibly becoming part of the EU. The future currency situation is unclear.
  9. ^ Newsvine - Denmark to Hold New Referendum on Euro
  10. ^ FT.com / World - Denmark to hold new referendum on euro
  11. ^ Denmark to hold second euro referendum - EurActiv.com | EU - European Information on Economy & Euro
  12. ^ a b Agreements on monetary relations (Monaco, San Marino, the Vatican and Andorra). European Communities (2004-09-30). Retrieved on 2006-09-12.
  13. ^ a b The euro outside the euro area, Europa (web portal)
  14. ^ The euro outside the euro area, Europa (web portal)
  15. ^ [1] Agreements concerning the French territorial communities
  16. ^ Boldt, Hans H. and Sant Julià de Lòria (2006-11-15). Andorranische Euros nicht zu jedem Preis (German). Andorra-Intern. Retrieved on 2007-01-03.
  17. ^ a b Euro used as legal tender in non-EU nations International Herald Tribune (2007-01-01)
  18. ^ Kosovo - Economic profile, Europa (web portal)
  19. ^ Theodoulou, Michael (2007-12-27Euro reaches field that is for ever England, Times Online
  20. ^ Hadjicostis, Menelaos (2007-12-30) In north Cyprus, the Turkish lira is official currency, but euro is embraced, International Herald Tribune
  21. ^ Smith, Helena (2008-01-02) Arrival of euro boosts Cyprus peace hopes, The Guardian
  22. ^ Spongenberg, Helena. "Slovenia celebrates full entry into euro club", 2007-01-15. Retrieved on 2007-01-16. 
  23. ^ "Euro support in Iceland hits five-year high", Reuters, 2007-09-11. Retrieved on 2008-01-02. 
  24. ^ "Cuba to adopt Euro in foreign trade", BBC News, 1998-11-08. Retrieved on 2008-01-02. 
  25. ^ "US row leads Syria to snub dollar", BBC News, 2006-02-14. Retrieved on 2008-01-02. 
  26. ^ "Juncker re-elected Eurogroup president, voicing optimism over economic growth", People's Daily, 2006-09-09. Retrieved on 2008-01-02. 
  27. ^ a b c Vucheva, Elitsa (2008-04-15)Eurozone countries should speak with one voice, Juncker says, EU Observer.
  28. ^ What is EMU?, Europa (web portal)
  29. ^ European Central Bank (2007-12-14). Euro area (changing composition) - HICP - Overall index, Annual rate of change, Eurostat, Neither seasonally or working day adjusted. Retrieved on 2008-01-02.
  30. ^ Key ECB interest rates, ECB
  31. ^ The ECB announced on 1998-12-22 that, between 4-21 January 1999, there would be a narrow corridor of 50 base points interest rates for the marginal lending facility and the deposit facility in order to help the transition to the ECB's interest regime.

2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Anthem Ä°stiklâl Marşı(Turkish) Independence March Capital Nicosia Official languages Turkish Government Representative democratic republic1  -  President Mehmet Ali Talat  -  Prime Minister Ferdi Sabit Soyer Sovereignty from Cyprus   -  Proclaimed November 15, 1983   -  Recognition By Turkey   -  Independence from Cyprus   -  Declared November 15, 1983  Area  -  Total 3,355 km² (not ranked) 1... TRY banknotes and coins The Turkish new lira is the current currency of Turkey and of the de facto state Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. ... ISO 4217 Code XPF User(s) New Caledonia, French Polynesia, and Wallis and Futuna Inflation 2. ... The Aruban florin is the official currency of Aruba. ... The gulden is the unit of currency in the Netherlands Antilles. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The International Herald Tribune is a widely read English language international newspaper. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... December 27 is the 361st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (362nd in leap years). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The International Herald Tribune is a widely read English language international newspaper. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Guardian. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Reuters Group plc (LSE: RTR and NASDAQ: RTRSY); pronounced is known as a financial market data provider and a news service that provides reports from around the world to newspapers and broadcasters. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article refers to the news department of the British Broadcasting Corporation, for the BBC News Channel see BBC News (TV channel). ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article refers to the news department of the British Broadcasting Corporation, for the BBC News Channel see BBC News (TV channel). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Peoples Daily (Chinese: 人民日报 Pinyin ) is the official newspaper of the Communist Party of China, published worldwide with a circulation of 3 to 4 million. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Headquarters Coordinates , , Established 1 January 1998 President Jean-Claude Trichet Central Bank of Austria, Belgium, France, Finland, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Slovenia, Spain Currency Euro ISO 4217 Code EUR Reserves €43bn directly, €338bn through the Eurosystem (including gold deposits). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • European Central Bank
  • Eurozone Watch
Image File history File links Euro_symbol_black. ... For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Currently there are several currencies pegged to the euro, some with fluctuation bands around a central rate and others with no fluctuations allowed around the central rate. ... The euro (€; ISO 4217 code EUR) is the currency of twelve of the twenty-five nations that form the European Union (and four outside it, as well as Montenegro and Kosovo), which form the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU). ... The Euro A petroeuro is a petroleum trade valued in the euro as opposed to the US dollar (a petrodollar). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Trichet_signature. ... Headquarters Coordinates , , Established 1 January 1998 President Jean-Claude Trichet Central Bank of Austria, Belgium, France, Finland, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Slovenia, Spain Currency Euro ISO 4217 Code EUR Reserves €43bn directly, €338bn through the Eurosystem (including gold deposits). ... The European System of Central Banks (ESCB) is composed of the European Central Bank (ECB) and the national central banks (NCBs) of all 25 EU Member States. ... The Eurosystem is the system of central banks consisting of the European Central Bank and the central banks of the member states of the European Union whose currency is the euro. ... This is a list of the Presidents of the European Central Bank since the establishment of the bank on June 1, 1998. ... For the concept in general, see economic and monetary union. ... The Economic and Financial Affairs Council is one of the oldest configurations of the Council of the European Union. ... The Stability and Growth Pact (SGP) is an agreement by European Union member states related to their conduct of fiscal policy, to facilitate and maintain Economic and Monetary Union of the European Union. ... The Eurozone (less frequently called the Euro Area or Euroland) refers to a currency union among the European Union member states that have adopted the euro as their sole official currency. ... The snake in the tunnel was the first attempt at European monetary cooperation in the 1970s, aiming at limiting fluctuations between different European currencies. ... There are three stages of monetary cooperation in the European Union. ... The European Currency Unit (â‚ ; ECU) was a basket of the currencies of the European Community member states, used as the unit of account of the European Community before being replaced by the euro. ... The European Exchange Rate Mechanism, ERM, was a system introduced by the European Community in March 1979, as part of the European Monetary System (EMS), to reduce exchange rate variability and achieve monetary stability in Europe, in preparation for Economic and Monetary Union and the introduction of a single currency... For the concept in general, see economic and monetary union. ... The European Monetary Institute (EMI) was the forerunner of the European Central Bank (ECB). ... The introduction of the euro took place principally between 31 December 1998, when the exchange rates between the euro and legacy currencies in the Eurozone became fixed, and early 2002, when euro notes and coins were introduced and the legacy currencies withdrawn. ...  Eurozone countries  EU states to join Eurozone on 1 January 2008  EU state aiming to join Eurozone on 1 January 2009  EU state aiming to join Eurozone on 1 January 2010  EU states bound by the Maastricht Treaty to ultimately join the Eurozone  EU states with a derogation on Eurozone... If it is considered as a single state, the economy of the European Unions twenty-seven member states is the worlds largest economy. ... The economy of Europe comprises more than 710 million people in 48 different states. ... Eonia (Euro OverNight Index Average) is an effective overnight rate computed as a weighted average of all overnight unsecured lending transactions in the interbank market. ... The rise of technology has allowed our environment to be characterized as a global one. ... Percentage of global currencies A reserve currency (or anchor currency) is a currency which is held in significant quantities by many governments and institutions as part of their foreign exchange reserves. ... The euro and US dollar are by far the most used currencies in terms of global reserves. ... The euro (EUR or €) is the currency of 13 European Union (EU) member states (Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Slovenia, and Spain), three European microstates which have currency agreements with the EU (Monaco, San Marino and the Vatican City State), Andorra, Montenegro and the... 1 cent euro coins are made of a steel core plated with copper. ... 2 cent euro coins are made of a steel core plated with copper. ... 5 cent euro coins are made of a steel core plated with copper. ... 10 cent euro coins are made of copper alloy (Nordic gold). ... // 20 cent euro coins are made of copper alloy (Nordic gold). ... 50 cent euro coins are made of copper alloy (Nordic gold). ... 1 euro coins are made of two alloys: the inner part of cupronickel, the outer part of nickel brass. ... // 2 euro coins are made of an inner coin and an outer ring. ... The new reverse side of all €2 coins from 2007 onwards. ... Before the introduction of the euro in 2001, the sixteen (as of 2007) Eurozone members produced their own individual national coinage, most of which featured mint marks, privy marks and/or mint master marks. ... The euro (EUR or €) is the single currency for the European Union and currently 13 of its member states. ... The euro (EUR or €) is the single currency for the European Union and currently 13 of its member states. ... The euro (EUR or €) is the single currency for the European Union and currently 13 of its member states. ... The euro (EUR or €) is the single currency for the European Union and currently 13 of its member states. ... The euro (EUR or €) is the single currency for the European Union and currently 13 of its member states. ... The euro (EUR or €) is the single currency for the European Union and currently 13 of its member states. ... The euro (EUR or €) is the single currency for the European Union and currently 13 of its member states. ... The euro (EUR or €) is the single currency for the European Union and currently 13 of its member states. ... The European Currency Unit (â‚ ; ECU) was a basket of the currencies of the European Community member states, used as the unit of account of the European Community before being replaced by the euro. ... The Schilling was the currency of Austria until 1999, when the Euro was introduced at a fixed parity of €1 = 13. ... ISO 4217 Code BEF User(s) Belgium, Luxembourg ERM Since 13 March 1979 Fixed rate since 31 December 1998 Replaced by €, non cash 1 January 1999 Replaced by €, cash 1 January 2002 € = 40. ... ISO 4217 Code CYP User(s) Cyprus (except in the self-proclaimed Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus), Akrotiri and Dhekelia Inflation 2. ... The Deutsche Mark (DM, DEM) was the official currency of West and, from 1990, unified Germany. ... The gulden (sometimes guilder in English), represented by the symbol Æ’ or fl. ... The markka or mark was the currency used in Finland from 1861 until January 1, 1999, when it was replaced by the euro (€). The currency code used for the markka was FIM, and the usual familiar notation was a postfix mk. ... ISO 4217 Code FRF User(s) Monaco, Andorra, France except New Caledonia, French Polynesia, and Wallis and Futuna ERM Since 13 March 1979 Fixed rate since 31 December 1998 Replaced by €, non cash 1 January 1999 Replaced by €, cash 1 January 2002 € = 6. ... ISO 4217 Code GRD User(s) Greece Inflation 3. ... For the coin of the same value, see Irish one pound coin. ... ISO 4217 Code ITL User(s) Italy, San Marino, Vatican City, but not Campione dItalia Inflation 2. ... The franc was the currency of Luxembourg from 1854 until 2002. ... The Maltese lira, known in the Maltese language as the Lira Maltija, is the currency of Malta. ... The Monégasque franc was one of the official currencies of the Principality of Monaco until 2002, when it changed to the Euro. ... The escudo was the official currency of Portugal prior to the introduction of the euro in 1 January 1999 (euro coins and notes were not introduced until 2002). ... The San Marinese lira (plural lire) was the official unit of San Marino from the 1860s until the introduction of the Euro in 2002. ... ISO 4217 Code SIT User(s) Slovenia Inflation 0. ... ISO 4217 Code ESP User(s) Spain, Andorra Inflation 1. ... The Vatican lira (plural lire) was the official unit of the Vatican City State. ... ISO 4217 Code DKK User(s) Denmark, Greenland, Faroe Islands 1 Inflation 1. ... ISO 4217 Code EEK User(s) Estonia Inflation 4. ... The 5 lats coin, used before WWII, becamed a popular symbol of independence during the Soviet era The lats (in Latvian: lats, plural lati, the ISO 4217 currency code: LVL) is the official currency of Latvia. ... The litas (ISO currency code LTL, symbolized as Lt; plural litai or litų) is the official currency of Lithuania. ... ISO 4217 Code SKK User(s) Slovakia Inflation 2. ... GBP redirects here. ... ISO 4217 Code BGN User(s) Bulgaria Inflation 7. ... ISO 4217 Code CZK User(s) Czech Republic Inflation 1. ... ISO 4217 code: GIP Symbol: £ 1/100th unit: penny Introduced in: 1927 Exchange Rates May 2006 USD exchange: 0. ... ISO 4217 Code HUF User(s) Hungary Inflation 8. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... For the Moldovan currency, see Moldovan leu. ... ISO 4217 Code SEK User(s) Sweden Inflation 2. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The European Union is a unique geo-political entity covering a large portion of the European continent. ... The Treaty of Rome signing ceremony From prehistoric to modern times, the human History of Europe has been turbulent, cultured, and much-documented. ... Members of the European Coal and Steel Community Flag of the European Coal and Steel Community The European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) was founded in 1951 (Treaty of Paris), by France, West Germany, Italy, Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to pool the steel and coal resources of its member... The European Community (EC) was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... The European Atomic Energy Community, or EURATOM, is an international organization composed of the members of the European Union. ... This is a timeline of European Union history including the European Economic Community, its de facto successor. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The first moves towards the establishment of the Union came following the end of the Second World War. ... Out of the two newly founded communities, the European Economic Community (EEC) and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom), the former became the most important community. ... On 1 January 1973, Denmark, Ireland and the United Kingdom became the first countries to join the Communities. ... The European Union is a unique geo-political entity covering a large portion of the European continent. ... The Prodi Commission was the European Commission from 1999 to 2004. ... The Barroso Commission is the European Commission that has been in office since 22 November 2004 and is due to serve until 31 October 2009. ... The European Union or EU is a supranational and international organization of 27 member states. ... The European Union (EU) was created by six founding states in 1957 (following the earlier establishment by the same six states of the European Coal and Steel Community in 1952) and has grown to 27 member states. ... Eurojust (also spelled capitalised as EUROJUST) is a European Union body composed of national prosecutors, magistrates or police officers of equivalent competence from each of the European Unions member states. ... Europol (the name is a contraction of European Police Office) is the European Unions criminal intelligence agency. ... The Treaty of Maastricht which established the European Union, divided EU policies into three main areas, called pillars. ... The European Community (EC) was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... The Common Foreign and Security Policy, or CFSP, was established as the second of the three pillars of the European Union in the Maastricht treaty of 1992, and further defined and broadened in the Amsterdam Treaty of 1999. ... Police and Judicial Co-operation in Criminal Matters (PJC) is the third of the three pillars of the European Union, focusing on co-operation in law enforcement and combating racism. ... European integration is the process of political and economic (and in some cases social and cultural) integration of European states into a tighter bloc. ... The agencies of the European Union (or decentralised bodies of the European Union) are bodies which are distinct from the European Unions institutions, in that they have not been created by the treaties but rather by acts of secondary legislation, in order to accomplish a very specific task. ... Berlaymont, the Commissions seat The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive branch of the European Union. ... Established 1952 Presiding Country Portugal President Luís Amado President in Office José Sócrates Members 27 (at one time) Political parties 7, including: European Peoples Party Party of European Socialists Meeting place Justus Lipsius, Brussels, Belgium, European Union Web site http://www. ... Official emblem of the ECJ The Court of Justice of the European Communities, usually called the European Court of Justice (ECJ), is the highest court in the European Union (EU). ... Elections in the European Union gives information on election and election results in the European Union. ... This article deals with the meeting of European Union leaders. ... Foreign relations of the European Union Foreign relations of Austria Foreign relations of Belgium Foreign relations of Cyprus Foreign relations of the Czech Republic Foreign relations of Denmark Foreign relations of Estonia Foreign relations of Finland Foreign relations of France Foreign relations of Germany Foreign relations of Greece Foreign relations... Established 1952, as the Common Assembly President Hans-Gert Pöttering (EPP) Since 16 January 2007 Vice-Presidents 14 Rodi Kratsa-Tsagaropoulou (EPP) Alejo Vidal-Quadras (EPP) Gérard Onesta (Greens – EFA) Edward McMillan-Scott (ED) Mario Mauro (EPP) Miguel Angel Martínez Martínez (PES) Luigi Cocilovo (ALDE) Mechtild... A European political party, formally a political party at European level, sometimes informally (especially in academic circles) a Europarty, is a type of political party organization operating transnationally in Europe. ... The Law of the European Union is the unique legal system which operates alongside the laws of Member States of the European Union (EU). ... The term acquis (or sometimes acquis communautaire), deriving from French, is used in European Union law to refer to the total body of EU law accumulated so far. ... The European Commission, established following World War II, was the first Europe wide competition authority European Community competition law is one of the areas of authority of the European Union. ... It is proposed that this article be deleted, because of the following concern: There is no copyright law of the European Union at all If you can address this concern by improving, copyediting, sourcing, renaming or merging the page, please edit this page and do so. ... The Official Journal of the European Union is the gazette of record for the European Union. ...  member state with at least one opt-out  member state with a de facto opt-out  member state without opt-outs Currently, five European Union member states have (or will have) opt-outs from certain parts of the European Union structure, namely:  Denmark (four)  Ireland (two)  Poland (one)  Sweden (one... The European Union legislative procedure describes the way the European Union creates and enacts legislation across the community. ... For other uses, see Schengen. ... The Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union is a document containing human rights provisions, solemnly proclaimed by the European Parliament, the Council of the European Union, and the European Commission in December 2000. ... The Treaties of the European Union are effectively the basic constitutional texts of the Union. ... The Treaty of Rome signing ceremony Signatures in the Treaty The Treaty of Rome, signed by France, West Germany, Italy and Benelux (Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg) on March 25, 1957, established the European Economic Community (EEC). ... The Maastricht Treaty (formally, the Treaty of European Union, TEU) was signed on February 7, 1992 in Maastricht, Netherlands after final negotiations in December 1991 between the members of the European Community and entered into force on November 1, 1993 during the Delors Commission. ... Treaty of Amsterdam amending the Treaty of the European Union, the Treaties establishing the European Communities and certain related acts The Treaty of Amsterdam amending the Treaty of the European Union, the Treaties establishing the European Communities and certain related acts, commonly known as the Amsterdam Treaty, was signed on... Treaty of Nice The Treaty of Nice is a treaty adopted in Nice by the European Council to amend the two founding treaties of the European Union: the Treaty on European Union, or Maastricht Treaty, which introduced the Euro and the 3-pillar structure of the EU; the Treaty of... For other uses, see Treaty of Lisbon (disambiguation). ... This is a list of countries bordering the European Union and its predecessor the European Community both at its current geographical extent and after all previous rounds of enlargement. ...  Member states  Candidates Austria Poland Belgium Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Rep. ... This is a list of all the urban areas of the European Union which have more than 750,000 inhabitants in 2005. ... Austria Poland Belgium Bulgaria Cyprus Czech   Rep. ... Map of European Union in the world  European Union  Outermost regions  Overseas countries and territories Map of EU member states and candidate countries, with an inset showing the 7 outermost regions As of 2007 the European Union has 27 member states, most of which participate in all EU policy areas... This article is on the political entity. ... The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is a system of European Union agricultural subsidies and programmes. ... The European Union (EU) has an independent parliament and civil service which is distinct from those of the 27 member states. ... For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ... Freedom of movement for workers is a policy chapter of the acquis communotaire of the European Union. ... The European Investment Bank (the Banque Européenne dInvestissement) is the European Unions financing institution and was established under the Treaty of Rome (1957) to provide loan finance for capital investment furthering European Union policy objectives, in particular regional development, Trans-European Networks of transport, telecommunications and energy... The European Investment Fund, established in 1994, is a European Union agency for the provision of finance to SMEs (small and medium-sized enterprises). ... The Regional policy of the European Union is a policy with the stated aim of improving the economic well-being of certain regions in the EU. Around one third of the EUs budget is devoted to this policy, the aim of which has been stated to be to remove... The Galileo positioning system is a planned Global Navigation Satellite System, to be built by the European Union (EU) and European Space Agency (ESA). ... Cultural cooperation in the European Union has become a community competency since its inclusion in 1992 in the Maastricht Treaty. ... Citizenship of the Union was introduced by the Maastricht Treaty signed in 1992. ... The demographics of the European Union show a highly populated, culturally diverse union of 27 member states. ... The European Institute of Innovation and Technology (EIIT) is a proposal adopted on 22 February 2006 by the European Commission to the European Council intended to be a new flagship research university for excellence in higher education, research and innovation. ... Mass media are the means through which information is transmitted to a large audience. ... The Flag of Europe consists of a circle of twelve golden (yellow) stars on a blue background. ... 4th movement (European Union anthem) samples: Problems playing the files? See media help. ... Statistics in the European Union are collected by Eurostat. ... The agencies of the European Union (or decentralised bodies of the European Union) are bodies which are distinct from the European Unions institutions, in that they have not been created by the treaties but rather by acts of secondary legislation, in order to accomplish a very specific task. ... List of European Councils, by presidency, date, and location. ... The following is a List of European Union directives: // Intellectual property Harmonisation of certain aspects of copyright and related rights in the information society (2001/29/EC May 22, 2001) Criminal measures aimed at ensuring the enforcement of intellectual property rights (proposed) Enforcement of intellectual property rights (2004/48/EC... Austria Poland Belgium Bulgaria Cyprus Czech   Rep. ... A European political party, formally a political party at European level, sometimes informally (especially in academic circles) a Europarty, is a type of political party organization operating transnationally in Europe. ... Presidency of the Council of the European Union refers to the responsibility of presiding over all aspects of the Council of the European Union, when exercised collectively by a government, on a pre-established rota of the member states, of the European Union. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into List of tallest buildings in Europe#List of tallest buildings in the European Union. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Eurozone Watch (1144 words)
A few months ahead of the Euro's 10th anniversary, this report is unlikely to trigger a debate the EMU should go through, given recent developments, such as the increasingly observed cyclical divergence and prolonged business cycles that EMU is experiencing, and the economic tensions that are coming up e.g.
On Eurozone Watch, we have repeatedly written about possible consequences of divergence in EMU business cycles (and possibly connected debates on EMU exit of single countries) and that at some point this might turn up in higher spreads of government bonds.
A year ago we published our forecast on Eurozone Watch that after years of decline (see here), unit labour costs in Germany would start to be back on a rising trend after the wage bargaining round in 2007.
Wikipedia search result (3454 words)
If the United Kingdom were to join the Eurozone, this may affect those jurisdictions that also use the pound sterling, or which have a currency on a par with sterling, the sterling area.
The dates these ten states are expected to enter the third stage of the EMU and adopt the euro vary: 1 January 2007 for Slovenia; 1 January 2008 for Estonia, Cyprus, Latvia and Malta; 2009 for Lithuania and Slovakia; 2010 for the Czech Republic, 2011 for Poland, and finally 2012 for Hungary.
To simplify future adjustments to ATMs at the adoption of the euro, when the Romanian new leu was adopted in 2005 (at 10,000 old lei to 1 new leu) the new banknotes were issued to the same physical proportions as euro banknotes, the old leu notes being substantially longer in relation to their width.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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