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Encyclopedia > Eurovision Song Contest
The modern logo was introduced for the 2004 Contest (in Istanbul) to create a consistent visual identity. The host country's flag appears in the heart.
The modern logo was introduced for the 2004 Contest (in Istanbul) to create a consistent visual identity. The host country's flag appears in the heart.

The Eurovision Song Contest (French: Concours Eurovision de la Chanson[1]) is an annual competition held among active member countries of the European Broadcasting Union (EBU). The term Eurovision has several meanings: technically, the Eurovision Network created by the European Broadcasting Union (EBU). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... For other uses, see Logo (disambiguation). ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ... EBU redirects here. ...


Each member country submits a song to be performed on live television and then casts votes for the other countries' songs to determine the most popular song in the competition. Each country participates via one of their national EBU-member television stations, whose task it is to select a singer and a song to represent their country in the international competition. This article is about the musical composition. ... Live television refers to television broadcasts of events or performances on a delay of between zero and fifteen seconds, rather than from video recordings or film. ... This article is about a television transmitting location or company. ... For other uses, see Singer (disambiguation). ...


The Contest has been broadcast every year since its inauguration in 1956 and is one of the longest-running television programmes in the world. It is also one of the most-watched non-sporting events in the world,[2] with audience figures having been quoted in recent years as anything between 100 million and 600 million internationally.[3][4] Eurovision has also been broadcast outside Europe to such places as Australia, Canada, Mexico, Egypt, Hong Kong, India, Jordan, New Zealand, South Africa, South Korea, Vietnam, and the United States, despite the fact that these countries do not compete.[5][6] Since the year 2000, the Contest has also been broadcast over the Internet,[7] with more than 74,000 people in almost 140 countries having watched the 2006 edition online.[8] This is a list of television-related events in 1956. ... A television program is the content of television broadcasting. ... The year 2006 in television involved some significant events. ...


The Contest is historically known for often showcasing formulaic, orchestrated pop music. However, it has featured a vast, diverse array of songs, including such musical genres as Arab, Armenian, Balkan, Breton, Celtic, Dance, Folk, Greek, Latin, Nordic, Pop-rap, Israeli, Hard rock and Turkish. This article is about the genre of popular music. ... Arab music is the music of Arabic-speaking people or countries, especially those centered around the Arabian Peninsula. ... The music of Southeastern Europe or the Balkans is a type of music distinct from others in Europe. ... Brittany is a Celtic country rich in its cultural heritage. ... Celtic music is a term utilized by artists, record companies, music stores and music magazines to describe a broad grouping of musical genres that evolved out of the folk musical traditions of the Celtic peoples of Northern Europe. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Folk song redirects here. ... Latin American music, or the music of Latin America, is sometimes called Latin music. ... Traditional Nordic dance music is a type of traditional music or folk music that once was common in the mainland part of the Nordic countries - Scandinavia plus Finland. ... Pop rap (or hip pop) is a pop music influenced style of hip hop that contains pop-influenced melodic hooks and pop influenced melodies. ... Modern Israeli music is heavily influenced by its constituents, which include Palestinians (see Palestinian music) and Jewish immigrants (see Jewish music) from more than 120 countries around the world have brought their own musical traditions, making Israel a global melting pot. ... Hard Rock redirects here. ...

Contents

Origins

Further information: History of the Eurovision Song Contest

In the 1950s, as a war-torn Europe rebuilt itself, the European Broadcasting Union (EBU)—based in Switzerland—came up with the idea of an international song contest whereby countries would participate in one television programme, to be transmitted simultaneously to all countries of the union. This was conceived during a meeting in Monaco in 1955 by Marcel Bezençon, a Frenchman working for the EBU.[9] The competition was based upon the existing Sanremo Music Festival held in Italy,[10] and was also seen as a technological experiment in live television: in those days, it was a very ambitious project to join many countries together in a wide-area international network. Satellite television did not exist, and the so-called Eurovision Network comprised a terrestrial microwave network.[11] The name "Eurovision" was first used in relation to the EBU's network by British journalist George Campey in the London Evening Standard in 1951.[12] Based on the Italian Sanremo Music Festival, the first Eurovision Song Contest was the brainchild of Marcel Baison of the European Broadcasting Union. ... The bumsItalic textBold text effects of World War II had far-reaching implications for the international community. ... Marcel Bezençon(1. ... Sanremo Music Festival (Festival della canzone italiana), running since 1951, is an Italian popular song contest held annually (first part of March) in Sanremo. ... Live television refers to television broadcasts of events or performances on a delay of between zero and fifteen seconds, rather than from video recordings or film. ... Satellite television is television delivered by way of communications satellites, as compared to conventional terrestrial television and cable television. ... The Eurovision Network is part of the European Broadcasting Union. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Evening Standard is a newspaper published in London. ...


The first Contest was held in the town of Lugano, Switzerland, on 24 May 1956. Seven countries participated—each submitting two songs, for a total of 14. This was the only Contest in which more than one song per country was performed: since 1957 all Contests have allowed one entry per country.[13] The 1956 Contest was won by the host nation, Switzerland. Lake Lugano Lugano (Latin language: Luganum) is a town (130. ... is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A car from 1956 Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Eurovision Song Contest 1956 was the first Eurovision. ...


The programme was first known as the "Eurovision Grand Prix". This "Grand Prix" name was adopted by the Francophone countries, where the Contest became known as "Le Grand-Prix Eurovision de la Chanson Européenne".[14] The "Grand Prix" has since been dropped and replaced with "Concours" (contest) in these countries. The Eurovision Network is used to carry many news and sports programmes internationally, among other specialised events organised by the EBU.[15] However, the Song Contest has by far the highest profile of these programmes, and has long since become synonymous with the name "Eurovision". This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Format

The format of the Contest has changed over the years, though the basic tenets have always been thus: participant countries submit songs, which are performed live in a television programme transmitted across the Eurovision Network by the EBU simultaneously to all countries. A "country" as a participant is represented by one television broadcaster from that country. The programme is hosted by one of the participant countries, and the transmission is sent from the auditorium in the host city. During this programme, after all the songs have been performed, the countries then proceed to cast votes for the other countries' songs: nations are not allowed to vote for their own song. At the end of the programme, the winner is declared as the song with the most points. The winner receives, simply, the prestige of having won—although it is usual for a trophy to be awarded to the winning songwriters, and the winning country is invited to host the event the following year.[13] An auditorium is the area within a theatre, concert hall or other performance space where the audience is located in order to hear and watch the performance. ... Some loving-cup trophies seen in the London Irish clubhouse at Sunbury in 2002. ...


The programme is invariably opened by one or more presenters, welcoming viewers to the show. Most host countries choose to capitalise on the opportunity afforded them by hosting a programme with such a wide-ranging international audience, and it is common to see the presentation interspersed with video footage of scenes from the host nation, as if advertising for tourism. Between the songs and the announcement of the voting an interval act is performed, which can be any form of entertainment imaginable. Interval entertainment has included such acts as The Wombles (1974)[16] and the first international presentation of Riverdance (1994).[17] A television presenter is a British term for a person who is known for introducing or hosting television programmes. ... Tourist redirects here. ... The Wombles were a pop group featuring musicians dressed as the characters from childrens TV show The Wombles. ... The Eurovision Song Contest 1974 was the nineteenth Eurovision Song Contest. ... Riverdance Promotional Poster Riverdance is a theatrical show consisting of traditional Irish step dancing, notable for its rapid leg movements while body and arms are kept largely stationary. ... The Eurovision Song Contest 1994 was the 39th Eurovision Song Contest and was held on April 30, 1994 in the Point Theatre in Dublin, Ireland. ...


The theme music played before and after the broadcasts of the Eurovision Song Contest (and other Eurovision broadcasts) is the prelude to Marc-Antoine Charpentier's Te Deum.[9] Marc-Antoine Charpentier (1643 - February 24, 1704) was a French composer of the Baroque era. ... Te Deum is an early Christian hymn of praise. ...


The Eurovision Song Contest final is traditionally held on a summer Saturday evening, at 19:00 UTC (20:00 BST, or 21:00 CEST). Usually the contest is held on a Saturday in May, although the dates for the Contest have slipped along the calendar throughout the decades: March/April in the 50s & 60s, April/May in the 70s & 80s and primarily in May during the 90s & 00s. In 2004, due to an increasing number of eligible countries wishing to participate, a qualifying round—known as the Semi Final—was introduced and was held 2-3 days before the final. UTC redirects here. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries not observing daylight saving British Summer Time (BST) is the changing of the clocks in effect in the United Kingdom and Irish Summer Time (IST) in Republic of Ireland between the last Sunday in March and the last Sunday in October each... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries that do not observe summer time Central European Summer Time (CEST) is one of the names of UTC+2 time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ...


In 2008 this was expanded further into two semi-finals and these will be held on the Tuesday and Thursday immediately before the Saturday Final on May 24th.


Participation

Further information: List of countries in the Eurovision Song Contest

Eligible participants include Active Members (as opposed to Associate Members) of the European Broadcasting Union. Active members are those whose states fall within the European Broadcasting Area, or otherwise those who are members of the Council of Europe.[18] The European Broadcasting Area is defined by the International Telecommunication Union as such: The western boundary of Region 1 is a line drawn west of Iceland down the centre of the Atlantic Ocean. ... Anthem Ode to Joy (orchestral)  ten founding members joined subsequently observer at the Parliamentary Assembly observer at the Committee of Ministers  official candidate Seat Strasbourg, France Membership 47 European states 5 observers (Council) 3 observers (Assembly) Leaders  -  Secretary General Terry Davis  -  President of the Parliamentary Assembly Rene van der Linden...


The European Broadcasting Area is defined by the International Telecommunication Union:[19] The International Telecommunication Union (ITU; French: Union internationale des télécommunications, Spanish: Unión Internacional de Telecomunicaciones) is an international organization established to standardize and regulate international radio and telecommunications. ...

The "European Broadcasting Area" is bounded on the west by the western boundary of Region 1, on the east by the meridian 40° East of Greenwich and on the south by the parallel 30° North so as to include the western part of the USSR, the northern part of Saudi Arabia and that part of those countries bordering the Mediterranean within these limits. In addition, Iraq, Jordan and that part of the territory of Turkey lying outside the above limits are included in the European Broadcasting Area.

The western boundary of "Region 1" is a line drawn west of Iceland down the centre of the Atlantic Ocean.[20] The International Telecommunication Union (ITU), in its International Radio Regulations, divides the world into three ITU regions for the purposes of managing the global radio spectrum. ...


Active members include broadcasting organisations whose transmissions are made available to (virtually) all of the population of the country in which they are based.[18]


If an EBU Active Member wishes to participate, they must fulfil conditions as laid down by the rules of the Contest (of which a separate copy is drafted annually). As of 2008, this includes the necessity to have broadcast the previous year's programme within their country, and paid the EBU a participation fee in advance of the deadline specified in the rules of the Contest for the year in which they wish to participate.


Eligibility to participate is not determined by geographic inclusion within the continent of Europe, despite the "Euro" in "Eurovision"—nor has it anything to do with the European Union. Israel, a Middle Eastern country has been involved since 1973. In 1980, Morocco—a North African country—participated in the Contest. For the books called Geography by Ancient Greek authors, see Geographia (Ptolemy) and Geographica (Strabo) For the magazine of the Royal Geographical Society, see Geographical (magazine) Geography is the study of the earth and its features, inhabitants, and phenomena. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ...


Forty-nine countries have participated at least once. These are listed here alongside the year in which they made their debut:

Participation since 1956:      Entered at least once      Never entered, although eligible to do so      Entry intended, but never made the final
Participation since 1956:      Entered at least once      Never entered, although eligible to do so      Entry intended, but never made the final
Year Country making its debut entry
1956 Flag of Belgium Belgium, Flag of France France, Flag of Germany Germanya, Flag of Luxembourg Luxembourg,
Flag of the Netherlands Netherlands, Flag of Italy Italy, Flag of Switzerland Switzerland
1957 Flag of Austria Austria, Flag of Denmark Denmark, Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom
1958 Flag of Sweden Sweden
1959 Flag of Monaco Monaco
1960 Flag of Norway Norway
1961 Flag of Finland Finland, Flag of Spain Spain, Flag of Yugoslavia Yugoslaviab
1964 Flag of Portugal Portugal
1965 Flag of Ireland Ireland
1971 Flag of Malta Malta
1973 Flag of Israel Israel
1974 Flag of Greece Greece
1975 Flag of Turkey Turkey
1980 Flag of Morocco Morocco
1981 Flag of Cyprus Cyprus
1986 Flag of Iceland Iceland
1993 Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina, Flag of Croatia Croatia, Flag of Slovenia Slovenia
1994 Flag of Estonia Estonia, Flag of Hungary Hungary, Flag of Lithuania Lithuania, Flag of Poland Poland,
Flag of Romania Romania, Flag of Russia Russia, Flag of Slovakia Slovakia
1998 Flag of the Republic of Macedonia FYR of Macedonia
2000 Flag of Latvia Latvia
2003 Flag of Ukraine Ukraine
2004 Flag of Albania Albania, Flag of Andorra Andorra, Flag of Belarus Belarus, Flag of Serbia and Montenegro Serbia and Montenegro
2005 Flag of Bulgaria Bulgaria, Flag of Moldova Moldova
2006 Flag of Armenia Armenia
2007 Flag of the Czech Republic Czech Republic, Flag of Georgia (country) Georgia, Flag of Montenegro Montenegro, Flag of Serbia Serbia
a) Occasionally presented as "West Germany", before re-unification in 1990.
b) The entries presented as being from "Yugoslavia" represented the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, except for the 1992 entry, which represented the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x1000, 32 KB) Summary Map showing all countries ever to have participated in the Eurovision Song Contest; and those eligible to do so. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x1000, 32 KB) Summary Map showing all countries ever to have participated in the Eurovision Song Contest; and those eligible to do so. ... The Eurovision Song Contest 1956 was the first Eurovision. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belgium_(civil). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Luxembourg. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Switzerland. ... The Eurovision Song Contest 1957 was the second Eurovision Song Contest. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Austria. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Denmark. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... The Eurovision Song Contest 1958 was the third Eurovision Song Contest and was held on March 12, 1958 in Hilversum, Netherlands. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sweden. ... The Eurovision Song Contest 1959 was the fourth Eurovision and was held on March 11, 1959 in Cannes, France. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Monaco. ... The Eurovision Song Contest 1960 was the fifth Eurovision and was held on March 25, 1960 in London. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Norway. ... The Eurovision Song Contest 1961 was the sixth Eurovision Song Contest. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Finland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_SFR_Yugoslavia. ... Yugoslavia has participated in the Eurovision Song Contest 27 times, debuting in 1961 (see ESC 1961) and since competing in every year until 1992, with the exceptions of 1977, 1978, 1979, 1980, and 1985. ... The Eurovision Song Contest 1964 was the ninth Eurovision Song Contest. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Portugal. ... The Eurovision Song Contest 1965 was the tenth Eurovision and was held on March 20, 1965 in Naples. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ireland. ... The Eurovision Song Contest 1971 was the sixteenth Eurovision and was held on April 3, 1971 in Dublin. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Malta. ... The Eurovision Song Contest 1973 was the eighteenth Eurovision and was held on April 7, 1973 in Luxembourg. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel. ... The Eurovision Song Contest 1974 was the nineteenth Eurovision Song Contest. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece. ... The Eurovision Song Contest 1975 was the twentieth Eurovision and was held on March 22, 1975 in Stockholm. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ... The Eurovision Song Contest 1980 was the 25th Eurovision Song Contest and was held on April 19, 1980 in The Hague. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Morocco. ... The Eurovision Song Contest 1981 was the 26th Eurovision Song Contest and was held on April 4, 1981 at the Simmonscourt Pavilion of the Royal Dublin Society in Dublin. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cyprus. ... The Eurovision Song Contest 1986 was the 31st Eurovision Song Contest and was held on May 3, 1986 in the Grieg Hall in Bergen, Norway. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iceland. ... The Eurovision Song Contest 1993 was the 38th Eurovision Song Contest and was held on May 15, 1993 in Millstreet, Republic of Ireland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bosnia_and_Herzegovina. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Croatia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Slovenia. ... The Eurovision Song Contest 1994 was the 39th Eurovision Song Contest and was held on April 30, 1994 in the Point Theatre in Dublin, Ireland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Estonia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Hungary. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Lithuania. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Romania. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Slovakia. ... The Eurovision Song Contest 1998 was the 43rd Eurovision Song Contest and was held on May 9, 1998 at the National Indoor Arena in Birmingham, England. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Macedonia. ... The Republic of Macedonia has participated in the Eurovision Song Contest as F.Y.R. Macedonia, debuting in 1998 (see ESC1998). ... The Eurovision Song Contest 2000 was the 45th Eurovision Song Contest and was held on May 13, 2000 in the Globen Arena in Stockholm, Sweden, following Charlotte Nilssons victory in Jerusalem last year. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Latvia. ... The Eurovision Song Contest 2003 was the forty-eighth Eurovision Song Contest and was held at the Skonto Hall in Riga, Latvia on May 24, 2003. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ukraine. ... The Eurovision Song Contest 2004 was the forty-ninth Eurovision Song Contest, held in the Abdi Ä°pekçi Arena in Istanbul, Turkey, with the final on 15 May 2004, and the new semi-final three days earlier, on 12 May 2004. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Albania. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Andorra. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belarus. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Serbia_and_Montenegro. ... The Eurovision Song Contest 2005 was the fiftieth edition of the Eurovision Song Contest, which was held at the Palace of Sports, Kiev (Kyiv), Ukraine. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bulgaria. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Moldova. ... The Eurovision Song Contest 2006 was the fifty-first Eurovision Song Contest, held at the Olympic Indoor Hall in Athens, Greece on the 18 May 2006 (for the semi-final) and 20 May 2006 (for the final). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Armenia. ... Eurovision 2007 redirects here. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Czech_Republic. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Georgia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Montenegro. ... Montenegro debuted in 2007 at the 52nd Eurovision Song Contest. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Serbia. ... Serbia debuted (and won) in 2007 at the 52nd Eurovision Song Contest. ... This article is about the 1990 German reunification. ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in the Latin alphabet, Југославија in Cyrillic; English: South Slavia, or literary The Land of South Slavs) describes three political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ... Motto Brotherhood and Unity Anthem Hey, Slavs Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croatian (spoken throughout the territory), Slovenian, Macedonian, Albanian, Hungarian (all official), and languages of other nationalities. ... Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbian Government Republic President  - 1992 - 1993 Dobrica Ćosić  - 1993 - 1997 Zoran Lilić  - 1997 – 2000 Slobodan MiloÅ¡ević  - 2000 - 2003 Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Prime Minister  - 1992 - 1993 Milan Panić  - 1993 - 1998 Radoje Kontić  - 1998 - 2000 Momir Bulatović  - 2000 - 2001 Zoran Žižić  - 2001 - 2003 DragiÅ¡a Pe...

Selection procedures

Each country must submit one song to represent them in any given year they participate. The only exception to this was when each country submitted two songs in the inaugural Contest. There is a rule which forbids any song being entered which has been previously commercially released or broadcast in public before a certain date relative to the Contest in question.[21] The purpose of this rule is to ensure that only new songs are entered into the Contest, and not existing successful songs of years gone by, which might give a country an unfair advantage due to the fact that the song is already known and popular.


Countries may select their songs by any means they wish: whether it be an internal decision made by the participating broadcaster, or a public contest which allows the country's public to televote between several songs. The EBU encourages broadcasters to use the public competition format, as this generates more publicity for the Contest. These public selections are known as national finals. Televoting or televote is the telephone voting in the Eurovision Song Contest. ... Wikibooks has more about this subject: Marketing Look up publicity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Some countries' national finals are as big—if not bigger—than the international Eurovision Song Contest itself, involving many songs being submitted to national public semi-finals. The Swedish national final, Melodifestivalen (literally, "The Melody Festival") includes 32 songs being performed over four semi-finals, played to huge audiences in arenas around the country, before the final show in Stockholm. This has become the highest-rated programme of the year in Sweden by TV audience figures.[22] In Spain, the reality show Operación Triunfo was inaugurated in 2002; the winners of the first three seasons proceeded to represent the country at Eurovision.[23] The logo for Melodifestivalen, which has been in use since 2002. ... For other uses, see Stockholm (disambiguation). ... Reality television is a genre of television programming in which the fortunes of real life people (as opposed to fictional characters played by actors) are followed. ... Location of different versions of Star Academy Operación Triunfo is a reality-show talent contest which first aired on Spains TVE network in 2001. ...


Whichever method is used to select the entry, the song's details must be finalised and submitted to the EBU before a deadline some weeks before the international Contest.


Hosting

See also: List of host cities of the Eurovision Song Contest

Most of the expense of the Contest is covered by event sponsors and contributions from the other participating nations. The Contest is considered a unique showcase for promoting the host country as a tourist destination. In the Summer of 2005, Ukraine abolished its normal visa requirements for tourists to coincide with its hosting of the Contest.[24] This page is a list of those places that have (or will) host the Eurovision Song Contest, one or more times A Amsterdam Athens B Belgrade Bergen, Norway Birmingham Brighton Brussels C Cannes Copenhagen D Dublin E Edinburgh F Frankfurt G Gothenburg H The Hague Harrogate Helsinki Hilversum I Istanbul... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Globen, Stockholm: host of Eurovision 2000.
Globen, Stockholm: host of Eurovision 2000.

Preparations to host the Contest start a matter of weeks after a country wins, and confirms to the EBU that they intend to—and have the capacity to—host the event. A host city is chosen (usually the capital, but not always), and a suitable concert venue. The largest concert venue was a football stadium in Copenhagen, Parken, which held an audience of approximately 38,000 people when Denmark hosted the Contest in 2001.[13] The smallest town in which the Contest has ever been held was Millstreet in County Cork, Ireland, which hosted the show in 1993. The village had a population of 1,500[25]—although the Green Glens Arena venue held considerably more audience members.[26] Download high resolution version (3504x2336, 3393 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (3504x2336, 3393 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Stockholm Globe Arena or, in Swedish, Globen (The Globe) is an arena in Stockholm, Sweden. ... For other uses, see Copenhagen (disambiguation). ... Parken Stadium (English: the Park) is a football stadium in the Indre Østerbro (Inner Østerbro) district of Copenhagen, Denmark, built from 1990-1992. ... Millstreet (Sráid an Mhuilinn in Irish) is a town in west County Cork, Ireland with a population of approximately 1,500. ... Statistics Province: Munster County seat: Cork Code: C Area: 7,457 km² (2,879 sq mi) Population (2006) 480,909 (including City of Cork); 361,766 (without Cork City) Website: www. ... The Green Glens Arena is a public entertainment location in Millstreet, in County Cork, Ireland. ...


It is always a consideration, when choosing a host city and venue, what hotel and press facilities there are in the vicinity.[27] In Kiev 2005, hotel rooms were scarce as the Contest organisers asked the Ukrainian government to put a block on bookings they did not control themselves through official delegation allocations or tour packages: this led to many people's hotel bookings being cancelled.[28] The impact that the Contest has on the host city is inversely proportional to its size: in Riga 2003, the city centre was virtually taken over by Eurovision delegates as they spent their week in the Latvian capital. Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2006)  - City 4,450,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ... Ukraine is a republic under a semi-presidential system with separate legislative, executive, and judicial branches. ... For other uses, see Riga (disambiguation). ...


Eurovision Week

The term "Eurovision Week" is used to refer to the week during which the Contest takes place. As it is a live show, the Eurovision Song Contest requires the performers to have perfected their acts in rehearsals in order for the big night to run smoothly. In addition to rehearsals in their home countries, every participant is given the opportunity to rehearse on the stage in the Eurovision auditorium. These rehearsals are held during the course of several days before the Saturday show, and consequently the delegations arrive in the host city many days before the event. This means, in turn, journalists and fans are also present during the preceding days, and the events of Eurovision last a lot longer than a few hours of television. A number of officially accredited hotels are selected for the delegations to stay in, and shuttle-bus services are used to transport the performers and accompanying people to and from the Contest venue. 82. ...


Each participating broadcaster nominates a Head of Delegation, whose job it is to coordinate the movements of the delegate members, and who acts as that country's representative to the EBU in the host city.[21] Members of the delegations include performers, lyricists, composers, official press officers and—if an orchestra is used that year, and if the song requires one—a conductor. Also present if desired is a commentator: each broadcaster may supply their own commentary for their TV and/or radio feed, to be broadcast in each country. The commentators are given dedicated commentary booths situated around the back of the arena behind the audience.


Rehearsals and press conferences

Estonia rehearsing at the 2006 Contest.
Estonia rehearsing at the 2006 Contest.

Traditionally, delegations would arrive on the Sunday before the Contest, in order to be present for rehearsals starting on the Monday morning. However, with the introduction of the semi-final—and therefore the resulting increase in the number of countries taking part—since 2004 the first rehearsals have commenced during the week before Eurovision Week. The countries taking part in the semi-final currently rehearse over four days from the first Thursday to the Sunday, with two rehearsal periods allowed for each country. The countries which have already directly qualified for the grand final rehearse on the Monday and Tuesday of Eurovision Week.[29] Image File history File links 2006ee_Rehearsal. ... Image File history File links 2006ee_Rehearsal. ...

Switzerland hosting a press conference at Eurovision 2006.
Switzerland hosting a press conference at Eurovision 2006.

After each country has rehearsed, the delegation meets with the show's artistic director in the video viewing room. Here, they watch the footage of the rehearsal just performed, discussing camera angles, lighting and choreography, in order to try to achieve maximum æsthetic effect on television. At this point the Head of Delegation may make known any special requirements needed for the performance, and request them from the host broadcaster. Following this meeting, the delegation hold a press conference where members of the accredited press may pose them questions.[29] The rehearsals and press conferences are held in parallel; so one country holds its press conference, while the next one is in the auditorium rehearsing. A printed summary of the questions and answers which emerge from the press conferences is produced by the host press office, and distributed to journalists' pigeonholes. Image File history File links 2006ch_Press_Conference. ... Image File history File links 2006ch_Press_Conference. ... A joint press conference by U.S. President George W. Bush and British Prime Minister Tony Blair at the White House. ... In organisations and educational institutes, especially those in Britain, people often communicate using pigeonholes. Documents and messages are placed in a persons pigeonhole for them to collect; they can reply by putting a response inside the senders pigeonhole. ...


The Wednesday of Eurovision Week holds two full dress rehearsals of the semi-final; then one final dress rehearsal of the semi-final is held on the Thursday morning before the live show that evening. Once the grand final line-up is known, two dress rehearsals are held on the Friday, and then another last one on Saturday morning before the live transmission of the grand final on Saturday evening.


Parties and Euroclub

On the Monday evening of Eurovision Week, a Mayor's Reception is traditionally held, where the city administration hosts a celebration that Eurovision has come to their city. This is usually held in a grand municipally-owned location in the city centre. All delegations are invited, and the party is usually accompanied by live music, complimentary food and drink and—in recent years—fireworks.[30] For other uses, see Fireworks (disambiguation). ...


After the semi-final and grand final there are after-show parties, held either in a facility in the venue complex or in another suitable location within the city.


A Euroclub is held every night of the week; a Eurovision-themed nightclub, to which all accredited personnel are invited.[31] Laser lights illuminate the dance floor at a Gatecrasher dance music event in Sheffield, England A nightclub (or night club or club) is a drinking, dancing, and entertainment venue which does its primary business after dark. ...


During the week many delegations have traditionally hosted their own parties in addition to the officially-sponsored ones. However, in the new millennium the trend has been for the national delegations to centralise their activity and hold their celebrations in the Euroclub.[30]


Voting

Further information: Voting at the Eurovision Song Contest

The voting systems used in the Contest have changed throughout the years. The modern system has been in place since 1975, and is an adaptation of the Borda count. Countries award a set of points from 1 to 8, then 10 and finally 12 to other songs in the competition — with the favourite song being awarded 12 points. There have been many varied voting systems at the Eurovision Song Contest. ... The Borda count is a single winner election method in which voters rank candidates in order of preference. ...


Historically, a country's set of votes was decided by an internal jury, but in 1997 five countries (Austria, Switzerland, Germany, Sweden and the United Kingdom) experimented with televoting, giving members of the public in those countries the opportunity to vote en-masse for their favourite songs. The experiment was a success,[32] and from 1998 onwards all countries were encouraged to use televoting wherever possible. Back-up juries are still utilised by each country, in the event of the televoting failure. Nowadays members of the public may also vote by SMS, in addition to televoting. Whichever method of voting is used—jury, telephone or SMS—it is not possible to vote for the same country from which the vote is cast; i.e. countries may not cast votes for their own songs. Televoting or televote is the telephone voting in the Eurovision Song Contest. ... Text messaging, or texting is the common term for the sending of short (160 characters or fewer) text messages from mobile phones using the Short Message Service. ...


Presentation of votes

Electronic scoreboard, as Johnny Logan announces the Irish votes in 2004.
Electronic scoreboard, as Johnny Logan announces the Irish votes in 2004.

After the interval act is over, when all the points have been calculated, the presenter(s) of the show call upon each voting country in turn to invite them to announce the results of their vote. Prior to 1994 the announcements were made over telephone lines; with the audio being piped into the auditorium for the audience to hear, and over the television transmission. With the advent of more reliable satellite networks, from 1994 onwards voting spokespeople have appeared on camera from their respective countries to read out the votes. Often the opportunity is taken by each country to show their spokesperson standing in front of a backdrop which includes a famous place in that country. Spokespeople may also give a short message to the hosts and organisers thanking them for the show before giving out their country's points, which has become something of a tradition over the years. Image File history File links Eurovision_2004_Scoreboard. ... Image File history File links Eurovision_2004_Scoreboard. ... A telephone line is a single-user circuit on a telephone communications system. ...


Votes are read out in ascending order, culminating with the maximum 12 points. The scores are repeated by the Contest's presenters in English and French, which has given rise to the famous "douze points" exclamation when the host repeats the top score in French.


From 1957 to 2003, countries were called in the same order in which the songs had been presented. Since 2004, the order of the countries' announcements of votes has changed—due to the presence of the semi-final, and the fact that non-participating countries could also vote. In 2004, the countries were called in alphabetical order (according to their ISO codes).[33] In 2005, the votes from the non-qualifying semi-finalists were announced first, in their running order on the Thursday night; then the finalists gave their votes in their own order of performance. Since 2006, a separate draw has been held to determine the order in which countries would present their votes.[34]


From 1971 to 1973, each country sent two jurors, who were actually present at the Contest venue and announced their votes as the camera was trained on them. In 1973 one of the Swiss jurors decided that he should be the star of the show, and made a great show of presenting his votes with flamboyant gestures.[32] This system was retired for the next year.


In 1956 no public votes were presented: a closed jury simply announced that Switzerland had won. From 1957 to 1987, the points were displayed on a physical scoreboard to the side of the stage. As digital graphic technology progressed, the physical scoreboards were superseded in 1988 by an electronic representation which could be displayed on the TV screen at the will of the programme's director.[35] A scoreboard is a large board for publicly displaying the score in a game or match. ... This article is about the scientific discipline of computer graphics. ... A television director is usually responsible for directing the actors and other taped aspects of a television production. ...


In 2006 the EBU decided to conserve time during the broadcast—much of which had been taken up with the announcement of every single point—because there was an ever-increasing number of countries voting. From then on and onwards, the points from 1–7 were flashed up onto the screen automatically, and the announcers only read out the 8, 10 and 12 points individually.[34]


The voting is presided over by the EBU scrutineer, who is responsible for ensuring that all points are allocated correctly and in turn. The scrutineer is notified in advance of the results of the last five countries in the running-order of voting, to ensure that no foul play can take place in the form of tactical voting; where for example a country could change its votes after seeing how the trend has gone before them on the scoreboard.[36] A scrutineer is a person who observes voting in an election, and/or observes the counting of ballot papers, in order to check that election rules are followed. ... In voting systems, tactical voting (or strategic voting) occurs when a voter supports a candidate other than his or her sincere preference in order to prevent an undesirable outcome. ...


Ties for first place

In 1969, a tie-break system had not yet been conceived, and four countries all tied for first place based on their total numbers of points: France, Spain, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. Since there was no predetermined set of rules to decide the winner, all four countries were declared as winners. This caused much discontent among most of the non-winning countries, and mass-walkouts were threatened. Austria, Finland, Sweden, Norway and Portugal did not participate in the 1970 Contest as a protest against the results of the previous year. This prompted the EBU to introduce a tie-break rule.[32]


In the event of a tie for first place at the end of the evening, a count is made of the total number of countries who awarded any points at all to each of the tied countries; and the one who received points from the most other countries is declared the winner. If the numbers are still tied, it is counted how many sets of maximum marks ("12 points") each country received. If there is still a tie, the numbers of 10-point scores awarded are compared—and then the numbers of 8-points, all the way down the list. In the extremely unlikely event of there then still being a tie for first place, the tied countries are jointly declared as the winners. The same tie-break rule is used if there is a tie for the ninth place in the semi-final, or a tie in the final for the last automatic qualifying place for next year's final.[21]


As of 2008, the only time since 1969 when two or more countries have tied for first place on total points alone was in 1991, when France and Sweden both totalled 146 points. In 1991 the tie-break rules did not include counting the numbers of countries awarding any points at all to these countries, but began with tallying up the numbers of 12 points awarded. Both France and Sweden had received four sets of 12 points. However, because Sweden had received more sets of 10 points, they were declared the winners. Had the current rule been in play, France would have won instead.[32]


Rules

Further information: Rules of the Eurovision Song Contest

There are a number of rules which must be observed by the participating nations. The rules are numerous and unabridged, and a separate draft is produced each year, which explicitly specifies the dates by which certain things must be done; for example the deadline by which all the participating broadcasters must submit the final recorded version of their song to the EBU. Many rules pertain to such matters as sponsorship agreements and rights of broadcasters to re-transmit the show within a certain time. The most notable rules which actually affect the format and presentation of the Contest have changed somewhat over the years, and are highlighted here. The official rules of the Eurovision Song Contest are long, technical, and ever-changing. ...


Hosting

In 1958 it was decided that from then on, the winning country would host the Contest the next year.[13] The winner of the 1957 Contest was the Netherlands, and Dutch television accepted the responsibility of hosting in 1958. In all but five of the years since this rule has been in place, the winning country has hosted the show the following year. The exceptions are:

  • 1960—hosted by the BBC in London when the Netherlands declined due to expense. The UK was chosen to host because they had come second in 1959.[32]
  • 1963—hosted by the BBC in London when France declined due to expense. Although the UK had only come fourth in 1962, Monaco and Luxembourg (who came second and third) had also declined.[32]
  • 1972—hosted by the BBC in Edinburgh when Monaco was unable to provide a suitable venue: Monegasque television invited the BBC to take over due to their previous experience.[32]
  • 1974—hosted by the BBC in Brighton when Luxembourg declined due to expense. The BBC was becoming known as the host by default, if the winning country declined.[16]
  • 1980—hosted by NOS in The Hague when the Israel Broadcasting Authority declined due to expense, and the fact that the date chosen for the Contest (19 April) was Israel's Remembrance Day that year. The Dutch offered to host the Contest after several other broadcasters (including the BBC) were unwilling to do so.[32]

The declinations due to expense were due to those broadcasters' already having hosted the Contest during the past couple of years. Since 1981, all Contests have been held in the country which won the previous year. The Eurovision Song Contest 1960 was the fifth Eurovision and was held on March 25, 1960 in London. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... The Eurovision Song Contest 1963 was the eighth Eurovision and was held on March 23, 1963 in London. ... The Eurovision Song Contest 1972 was the seventeenth Eurovision. ... For other uses, see Edinburgh (disambiguation). ... Télé Monte Carlo or TMC Monte Carlo, traditionally known as TMC is a Monégasque general entertainment television channel. ... The Eurovision Song Contest 1974 was the nineteenth Eurovision Song Contest. ... For other places with the same name, see Brighton (disambiguation). ... The Eurovision Song Contest 1980 was the 25th Eurovision Song Contest and was held on April 19, 1980 in The Hague. ... The Nederlandse Omroep Stichting (NOS, Dutch Broadcasting Foundation) is one of the Dutch broadcasters in the Dutch public broadcasting system, Publieke Omroep. ... Hague redirects here. ... Israel Broadcasting Authority (often referred to as the IBA) (Hebrew: רשות השידור, Reshut haShidur) is Israels state broadcasting network. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Yom Hazikaron (Memorial Day, Hebrew: יום הזכרון לחללי מערכות ישראל ונפגעי פעולות האיבה, Israel Fallen Soldiers and Victims of Terrorism Remembrance Day) is an Israeli national holiday. ...


Live music

All vocals must be sung live: no voices are permitted on backing tracks.[21] In 1999, the Croatian song featured sounds on their backing track which sounded suspiciously like human voices. The Croatian delegation stated that there were no human voices, but only digitally-synthesised sounds which replicated vocals. The EBU nevertheless decided that they had broken the spirit of the rules, and docked them 33% of their points total that year as used for calculating their five-year points average for future qualification.[32]


From 1956 until 1998, it was necessary for the host country to provide a live orchestra for the use of the participants. Prior to 1973, all music was required to be played by the host orchestra. From 1973 onwards, pre-recorded backing tracks were permitted—although the host country was still obliged to provide a live orchestra in order to give participants a choice. If a backing track was used, then all the instruments heard on the track were required to be present on the stage. In 1997 this requirement was dropped.[32] For other uses, see Orchestra (disambiguation). ...


In 1999 the rules were amended to abolish the requirement by the host broadcaster to provide a live orchestra, leaving it as an optional contribution.[32] The host that year, Israel's IBA, decided not to use an orchestra in order to save on expenses, and 1999 became the first year in which all of the songs were played as pre-recorded backing tracks (in conjunction with live vocals). The orchestra has not since made an appearance at the Contest; the last time being in 1998 when the BBC hosted the show in Birmingham.


Language

The rule requiring countries to sing in their own national language has been changed several times over the years. From 1956 until 1965, there was no rule restricting the languages in which the songs could be sung. However, in 1966 a rule was imposed stating that the songs must be performed in one of the official languages of the country participating.[13]


The language restriction continued until 1973, when it was lifted and performers were again free to sing in any language they wished.[13] Several winners in the mid-1970s took advantage of the newly-found freedom, with performers from non-native-English-speaking countries singing in English, including ABBA in 1974.


In 1977, the EBU decided to revert to the national language restriction.[13] However, special dispensation was given to Germany and Belgium as their national song selection procedures were already too advanced to change.[32]


In 1999, the rule was changed again to allow freedom of language once more.[13] This linguistic freedom led to the Belgian entry in 2003, Sanomi, being sung in an entirely fictional language.[37] In 2006 the Dutch entry, Amambanda, was sung partly in English and partly in an artificial language.[38] Sanomi was the Belgian entry in the Eurovision Song Contest 2003, performed in an imaginary language by Urban Trad. ... Amambanda was the Dutch entry in the Eurovision Song Contest 2006, performed predominantly in an imaginary language but with some words in English by Treble. ...


Broadcasting

Each participating broadcaster is required to broadcast the show in its entirety: including all songs, voting and reprise, skipping only the interval act for advertising breaks if they wish.[21] From 1999 onwards, broadcasters who wished to do so were given the opportunity to take more advertising breaks as short, non-essential hiatuses were introduced into the programme.[36]


Political recognition issues

In 1978, during the performance of the Israeli entry, the Jordanian broadcaster JRTV suspended the broadcast and showed pictures of flowers. When it became apparent during the later stages of the voting sequence that Israel was going to win the Contest, JRTV abruptly ended the transmission.[32] Afterwards, the Jordanian news media refused to acknowledge the fact that Israel had won and announced that the winner was Belgium (which had actually come 2nd).[39] In 2005, Lebanon intended to participate in the Contest. However, Lebanese law does not allow recognition of Israel, and consequently Lebanese television did not intend to transmit the Israeli entry. The EBU informed them that such an act would breach the rules of the Contest, and Lebanon was subsequently forced to withdraw from the competition. Their late withdrawal incurred a fine, since they had already confirmed their participation and the deadline had passed.[40] Jordan Radio and Television (JRTV) is the state broadcaster of Jordan. ... News media satellite up-link trucks and photojournalists gathered outside the Prudential Financial headquarters in Newark, New Jersey in August, 2004 following the announcement of evidence of a terrorist threat to it and to buildings in New York City. ...


Other

  • In the first Contest in 1956, there was no time limit on songs. In 1957, a limit of 3½ minutes was recommended. In 1962, this was revised to 3 minutes precisely.[13]
  • There is no restriction imposed by the EBU on the nationality of the performers or songwriters. Individual broadcasters are, however, permitted to impose their own restrictions at their discretion.[21]
  • From 1957 to 1970 (in 1956 there was no restriction at all), only soloists and duos were allowed on stage. From 1963, a chorus of up to three people was permitted. Since 1971, a maximum of six performers have been permitted on the stage.[21]
  • The performance and/or lyrics of a song "must not bring the Contest into disrepute".[21]
  • Since 1990, all people on stage must be at least 16 years of age.[21]

Expansion of the Contest

Further information: Participation in the Eurovision Song Contest
Regular participants in 1992. "Yugoslavia" is coloured in red: 1991 was the last year in which that nation participated under one name.
Regular participants in 1992. "Yugoslavia" is coloured in red: 1991 was the last year in which that nation participated under one name.
Regular participants in 1994. The addition of Central and Eastern European countries, and the separate ex-Yugoslavian states, makes a stark change from the participation map of 1992.
Regular participants in 1994. The addition of Central and Eastern European countries, and the separate ex-Yugoslavian states, makes a stark change from the participation map of 1992.

The number of countries participating each year has steadily grown over the course of the years, from seven participants in 1956 to over 20 in the late 1980s. In 1993 there were 25 countries participating in the competition, including—for the first time that year—Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia and Slovenia, entering independently due to the break-up of the former Yugoslavia. // In 1992 Serbia and Montenegro appeared as FR Yugoslavia  Algeria  Egypt  Jordan  San Marino Official Eurovision website Oikotimes ESCToday Category: ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1200x1000, 33 KB) Summary Illustration showing regular participating countries in the Eurovision Song Contest in 1992. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1200x1000, 33 KB) Summary Illustration showing regular participating countries in the Eurovision Song Contest in 1992. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1200x1000, 33 KB) Summary Illustration showing regular participating countries in the Eurovision Song Contest in 1994. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1200x1000, 33 KB) Summary Illustration showing regular participating countries in the Eurovision Song Contest in 1994. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ...


Due to the fact that the Contest is a live television programme, a reasonable time limit must be imposed on the duration of the show. In recent years the nominal limit has been three hours, with the broadcast occasionally overrunning. In 2005 the programme was a little under 3½ hours long. Following the introduction of the shortened voting announcements in 2006, the duration of the Contest was three hours and five minutes.


Pre-selections and relegation

Since 1993, there have been more countries wishing to enter the Contest than there is time to reasonably include all their entries in a single TV show. Several relegation or qualification systems have, therefore, been tried in order to limit the number of countries participating in the competition in any given year. The 1993 Contest introduced two new features: firstly, a pre-selection competition was held in Ljubljana in which seven new countries fought for three places in the international competition.[32] Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Estonia, Hungary, Romania, Slovenia and Slovakia took part in Kvalifikacija za Millstreet; and the three former Yugoslav republics—Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia and Slovenia—qualified for a place in the international final. Also to be introduced that year was relegation. The six lowest-placed countries in the 1993 score table were forced to skip the next year, in order to allow the countries which failed the 1993 pre-selection into the 1994 Contest.[32] The 1994 Contest included also —for the first time—Lithuania, Poland and Russia. Location in Slovenia Coordinates: , Country Founded AD 15 (as Colonia Iulia Aemona) Government  - Mayor and governor Zoran Janković (Lista Zorana Jankovića) Area  - Total 275. ... A map of the Eastern Bloc 1948-1989. ... Kvalifikacija za Millstreet (English Translation: Qualification for Millstreet; French Translation: Qulification sur Millstreet; German Translation: Qualifikation auf Millstreet) was the preselection for the Eurovision Song Contest 1993. ...


Relegation continued through 1994 and 1995; but in 1996 a different pre-selection system was used, in which nearly all the countries participated. Audio tapes of all the songs were sent to juries in each of the countries some weeks before the television show. These juries selected the songs which would then proceed to be included in the international broadcast.[41] Norway, as the host country in 1996 (having won the 1995 Contest), automatically qualified and was therefore excluded from the necessity of going through the pre-selection.


One country which failed to qualify in the 1996 pre-selection was Germany. As one of the largest financial contributors to the EBU, together with having one of the largest television audiences in Europe, neither they nor the EBU were happy about their exclusion from the international final.[41]


"Big Four"

From 2000 onwards, four particular countries would always qualify for the Eurovision final, regardless of their positions on the scoreboard in previous Contests.[32] They earned this special status by being the four biggest financial contributors to the EBU (without which the production of the Eurovision Song Contest would not be possible). These countries are Germany, France, Spain and the United Kingdom. Due to their "untouchable" status in the Contest, these countries became known as the "Big Four".


Qualification

From 1997 to 2001, countries qualified for each Contest based on the average of their points totals for their entries over the previous five years. However, there was much discontent voiced over this system because a country could be punished by not being allowed to enter merely because of poor previous results, which did not take into account how good a fresh attempt might be. This led the EBU to create what was hoped would be a more permanent solution to the problem, which was to have two shows every year: a qualification round, and the grand final. In these two shows there would be enough broadcast time to include all the countries which wished to participate, every year. The qualification round became known as the Eurovision Semi-Final.


Semi-finals

A qualification round, known as the semi-final, was introduced for the 2004 Contest. This semi-final was held on the Wednesday during Eurovision Week, and was a programme similar in format to the grand final, whose time slot remained 19:00 UTC on the Saturday. Since then, the semi-final programme has been held on the Thursday of Eurovision Week. The Eurovision Song Contest 2004 was the forty-ninth Eurovision Song Contest, held in the Abdi İpekçi Arena in Istanbul, Turkey, with the final on 15 May 2004, and the new semi-final three days earlier, on 12 May 2004. ...


The semi-final includes those countries whose ranking on the scoreboard the previous year was not high enough to ensure direct qualification for the final. Until 2007, it was necessary for a country to attain a place within the top ten of the final scoreboard to be assured of direct qualification for the next year's grand final. The Big Four rule remains, so that France, Germany, Spain and the United Kingdom always automatically bypass the semi-final and are directly included in the grand final.


Since the introduction of the semi-final, it has been possible for countries to vote even though they are not participating in the programme: for example it is possible for one of the Big Four to vote for countries in the semi-final even though they do not participate in the semi-final themselves; and a country in the semi-final, which fails to qualify for the final, may still vote for the other countries in the final on Saturday.


After the votes have been cast in the semi-final, the countries which received the most votes—and will therefore proceed to the final on Saturday—are announced in no particular order. The announcement of the actual number of points these qualifiers received is withheld by the EBU until after the grand final, lest the news influence the result on Saturday through tactical voting or otherwise.


The ten most highly-placed non-Big Four countries in the final were guaranteed a place in next year's final, without the need to participate in next year's semi. If, for example, Germany comes in the top ten, the 11th-placed non-Big-Four country will automatically qualify for next year's final.[21]


On 28 September 2007, at a meeting of the EBU reference group, it was decided that from the 2008 Contest onwards there will be held two semi-finals. Only the host country and the Big Four will automatically qualify for the grand final, and they will be joined by ten countries from each semi—to make a total of 25 entries in the final.[42] is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... The Eurovision Song Contest 2008 is the 53rd edition of the Eurovision Song Contest, which will be hosted by Serbia. ...


Winners

Further information: Eurovision Song Contest winners

Winning the Eurovision Song Contest provides a unique opportunity for the winning artist(s) to capitalise on their success and surrounding publicity by launching or furthering their international career. However, throughout the history of the Contest relatively few names have gone on to be huge international stars. // This article lists all the winners of the Eurovision Song Contest since its debut in 1956. ...


Artists

The most notable winning Eurovision artists whose career was directly launched into the spotlight following their win were ABBA, who won the Contest for Sweden in 1974 with their song "Waterloo". ABBA went on to be one of the most successful bands of their time. Abba redirects here. ... Audio sample Info (help· info) Waterloo was the first single from ABBAs second album Waterloo, their first for Epic and Atlantic. ...


Another notable winner who subsequently achieved international fame and success was Céline Dion, who won the Contest for Switzerland in 1988 with the song "Ne Partez Pas Sans Moi". Dion's success, however, is not as directly attributed to her winning the Contest, as she achieved international fame some years later. Céline Marie Claudette Dion, OC, OQ (born March 30, 1968) is a Canadian Grammy, Juno, and Oscar award-winning pop singer and occasional songwriter and actress. ... Alternate cover Ne partez pas sans moi (meaning Dont Leave Without Me) is the Swiss winning entry in the Eurovision Song Contest 1988, performed by Céline Dion. ...


Other artists who have achieved varying degrees of success after winning the Contest include France Gall ("Poupée De Cire, Poupée De Son", Luxembourg 1965), Lulu ("Boom Bang-a-Bang", United Kingdom 1969), Dana ("All Kinds of Everything", Ireland 1970), Vicky Leandros ("Après Toi", Luxembourg 1972), Brotherhood of Man ("Save Your Kisses for Me", United Kingdom 1976), Marie Myriam ("L'oiseau et l'enfant", France 1977), Johnny Logan (who won twice for Ireland; with "What's Another Year?" in 1980, and "Hold Me Now" in 1987), Bucks Fizz ("Making Your Mind Up", United Kingdom 1981), and Nicole ("Ein Bißchen Frieden", Germany 1982). Many other winners include well-known artists who won the Contest mid-career, after they had already established themselves as successful. France Gall (born Isabelle Genevieve Marie Anne Gall on October 9, 1947 in Paris) is a popular French singer. ... Poupée de cire, poupée de son (Wax doll, sawdust doll) was the winning entry in the Eurovision Song Contest of 1965. ... Marie McDonald McLaughlin Lawrie, OBE, (born 3 November 1948 in Lennoxtown, Stirlingshire), best known by her stage name Lulu, is a Scottish singer, songwriter, actor, model, and television personality who has been successful in the entertainment business from the 1960s through the 2000s. ... Boom Bang-a-Bang was the British entry to the Eurovision Song Contest in 1969 It was sung by Lulu, and written by Peter Warne and Alan Moorhouse. ... Dana Rosemary Scallon was born Rosemary Brown on 30 August 1951 in Islington, London, and brought up in Derry, Northern Ireland. ... All Kinds Of Everything was the winning song in the Eurovision Song Contest 1970, sung in English by Dana representing Ireland in Amsterdam. ... Vicky Leandros (born August 23, 1952 or 1948) is a Greek singer with a long international career. ... Après Toi (English translation: After You) was the winning song of the Eurovision Song Contest 1972 performed in French by Vicky Leandros representing Luxembourg. ... Brotherhood of Man is a 70s British pop group that won Eurovision in 1976 with Save your Kisses for Me. They borrowed the style and two-boy, two-girl approach of Swedish pop group ABBA, who had won Eurovision in 1974. ... Save Your Kisses For Me was the winning song of the Eurovision Song Contest 1976, performed for the United Kingdom by Brotherhood Of Man in The Hague, Netherlands. ... Marie Myriam (born Miriam Lopes, May 8, 1957 in Braga, Portugal) is a French singer. ... LOiseau Et LEnfant (English translation: The Bird And The Child) was the winning song in the Eurovision Song Contest 1977 performed in French by Marie Myriam representing France. ... Johnny Logan Johnny Logan (real name Seán Patrick Michael Sherrard) was born in Frankston near Melbourne, Australia, on 13 May 1954 but lives in Ashbourne, County Meath, Ireland. ... Whats Another Year? was Johnny Logans first Eurovision Song Contest winner, achieving success in the 1980 edition of the Contest. ... The Eurovision Song Contest 1980 was the 25th Eurovision Song Contest and was held on April 19, 1980 in The Hague. ... Hold Me Now is a song composed and performed by Johnny Logan from Ireland. ... The Eurovision Song Contest 1987 was the 32nd Eurovision Song Contest and was held on May 9, 1987 in Brussels. ... Bucks Fizz is an English pop group, formed in 1981 to compete in the Eurovision Song Contest that year. ... Making Your Mind Up is a song by Bucks Fizz who represented the United Kingdom in the Eurovision Song Contest 1981. ... Nicole (Nicole Seibert, née Hohloch; born October 25, 1964 in Saarbrücken) is a successful German singer. ... Ein bißchen Frieden (A Little Peace in English) is a song in German, written by prolific German Eurovision-writing duo Ralph Siegel (music) and Bernd Meinunger (lyrics) for the Eurovision Song Contest 1982 in Harrogate, United Kingdom. ...


Some artists, however, have vanished into relative obscurity, making little or no impact on the international music scene after their win.


Countries

Ireland holds the record for the most number of wins, having won the Contest seven times—including three times in a row in the mid 1990s. In joint second place with five wins each are France, Luxembourg and the United Kingdom. The United Kingdom holds the best record at the Contest in terms of average scoreboard position; having finished in the top two in 20 out of 52 Contests (1956–2007).


The early years of the Contest saw many wins for "traditional" Eurovision countries: France, the Netherlands and Luxembourg. However, the success of these countries has declined in recent decades: the Netherlands last won in 1975; France in 1977; and Luxembourg in 1983. The last time Luxembourg entered the Contest was in 1993.


The first years of the 21st century produced a spate of first-time winners, from both "new" Eurovision countries, and old-timers who had entered for many years without a win. Every year from 2001 to 2007 resulted in a country winning for the first time. The 2006 winner was Finland, which finally won after having entered the Contest for 45 years. Ukraine on the other hand did not have to wait so long, winning with their second entry in 2004. Serbia won the very first year it entered as an independent state, in 2007.


As of 2007, the country which has entered the longest with no wins to their name is Portugal. They started entering in 1964, and are still awaiting their first win.


Criticisms

The Contest has been the subject of criticism regarding both its musical content and the perception that it is more about politics than it is about music.


Musical style and presentation

Due to the fact that the songs are playing to such a diverse international audience with diverse musical tastes, and that countries want to be able to appeal to as many people as possible to gain votes, the majority of the songs historically have been middle-of-the-road pop. Deviations from this formula have rarely achieved success, leading to criticism that the music in the Contest is old-fashioned, and "bubblegum pop".[43] This well-established pattern, however, was notably broken in 2006 with Finnish hard rock band Lordi's landslide victory. As it is a visual show, many performances attempt to attract the attention of the voters through means other than the music, which sometimes leads to bizarre onstage gimmicks. Middle of the Road was a Scottish pop group who enjoyed great success across Europe in the early 1970s. ... Lordi is a hard rock / heavy metal band from Finland. ... A gimmick is a unique or quirky special feature that makes something stand out from its contemporaries. ...


Political voting

The Contest has long been perceived as a political institution, where judges—and now televoters—allocate points based on their nation's political relationship to the other countries, rather than on their opinions of the songs.[44] An analysis of voting patterns does indeed show that certain countries tend to favour certain other countries with which they are politically aligned.[45] Defenders of the Contest argue that the reason certain countries allocate disproportionately high points to others is because the people of those countries share similar musical tastes and cultures[46] and speak similar languages, and are therefore more likely to appreciate each other's music: for example, the explanation for Greece and Cyprus's frequent exchange of 12 points is because those countries share the same music industry and language, and artists who are popular in one country are popular in the other. Foreign affairs redirects here. ...


Spin-offs

A number of spin-offs and imitators of the Eurovision Song Contest have been produced over the years:

In Autumn 2005, the EBU organised a special programme to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the Contest. The show, entitled Congratulations (after Cliff Richard's entry for the United Kingdom in 1968) was held in Copenhagen, and featured many artists from the last 50 years of the Contest. A telephone vote was held to determine the most popular Eurovision song of all-time, which was won by ABBA's Waterloo (winner, Sweden 1974).[48] The singing girl, who is featured in all Junior Eurovision Song Contest logos. ... The Sopot International Song Festival is one of the most prestigious international song contests, often compared to the Eurovision Song Contest. ... Sopot (pronounce: [sÉ”pÉ”t]; German: ; Kashubian: Sopòt) is a seaside town in Eastern Pomerania on the southern coast of the Baltic Sea in northern Poland, with a population of approximately 40,000. ... The Intervision Song Contest (ISC) was the Eastern Bloc equivalent to the Eurovision Song Contest. ... A map of the Eastern Bloc 1948-1989. ... Map of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Sarajevo) Coordinates: , Country Entity Canton Sarajevo Canton Government  - Mayor Semiha Borovac (SDA) Area [1]  - City 141. ... The Bundesvision Song Contest is an annual competition created by German TV entertainer Stefan Raab in 2005. ... This article is about the television network. ... Katrina Leskanich and Renars Kaupers (before the contest) On October 22, 2005, the EBU held a celebration contest to commemorate 50 years of the Eurovision Song Contest called Congratulations. ... Sir Cliff Richard OBE (born Harry Rodger Webb on 14 October 1940) is an English singer, actor and businessman. ... Congratulations, song performed by Cliff Richard as the UK entry in the Eurovision Song Contest 1968. ...


See also

Ruslana performing Heart on Fire at the opening of the 2005 Eurovision Song Contest Best of Eurovision Song Contest was held in Berlin (Germany) on 20th May 2006. ... Katrina Leskanich and Renars Kaupers (before the contest) On October 22, 2005, the EBU held a celebration contest to commemorate 50 years of the Eurovision Song Contest called Congratulations. ... The music of Europe includes the music of Western Europe, Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Northern Europe, Southern Europe. ... This page is a list of those places that have (or will) host the Eurovision Song Contest, one or more times A Amsterdam Athens B Belgrade Bergen, Norway Birmingham Brighton Brussels C Cannes Copenhagen D Dublin E Edinburgh F Frankfurt G Gothenburg H The Hague Harrogate Helsinki Hilversum I Istanbul... // In 1992 Serbia and Montenegro appeared as FR Yugoslavia  Algeria  Egypt  Jordan  San Marino Official Eurovision website Oikotimes ESCToday Category: ...

Notes

  1. ^ Winners of the Eurovision Song Contest (PDF). EBU.ch. Retrieved on 2007-12-26.
  2. ^ Live Webcast. eurovision.tv. Retrieved on 2006-05-25.
  3. ^ Finland wins Eurovision contest. Aljazeera.net (21 May 2006). Retrieved on 2007-05-08.
  4. ^ Matthew Murray. Eurovision Song Contest - International Music Program. museum.tv. Retrieved on 2006-07-15.
  5. ^ Eurovision Trivia (PDF). bbc.co.uk (2002). Retrieved on 2006-07-18.
  6. ^ EBU plans for the future. eurovision.tv (9 May 2007). Retrieved on 2007-05-11.
  7. ^ Philip Laven (July 2002). Webcasting and the Eurovision Song Contest. European Broadcasting Union. Retrieved on 2006-08-21.
  8. ^ Eurovision song contest 2006 - live streaming. Octoshape (8 June 2006). Retrieved on 2006-08-21.
  9. ^ a b Patrick Jaquin (1 December 2004). Eurovision's Golden Jubilee. European Broadcasting Union. Retrieved on 2006-07-15.
  10. ^ History of Eurovision. bbc.co.uk (2003). Retrieved on 2006-07-20.
  11. ^ George T. Waters (Winter 1994). Eurovision: 40 years of network development, four decades of service to broadcasters. European Broadcasting Union. Retrieved on 2006-07-15.
  12. ^ David Fisher (28 January 2006). Media Statistics: 1951. Terra Media. Retrieved on 2006-07-15.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i Historical Milestones. eurovision.tv (2005). Retrieved on 2006-05-26.
  14. ^ Franck Thomas & Laurent Balmer (1999). Histoire 1956 à 1959. eurovision-fr.net. Retrieved on 2006-07-17. (French)
  15. ^ The EBU Operations Department. European Broadcasting Union (14 June 2005). Retrieved on 2006-07-20.
  16. ^ a b 1974: Brighton, United Kingdom. eurovision.tv. Retrieved on 2005-10-24.
  17. ^ Clive Barnes. Riverdance Ten Years on. RiverDance.com. Retrieved on 2006-07-27.
  18. ^ a b Membership conditions. European Broadcasting Union (22 February 2006). Retrieved on 2006-07-18.
  19. ^ Extracts From The Radio Regulations (PDF). International Telecommunication Union (1994). Retrieved on 2006-07-18.
  20. ^ Radio Regulations. International Telecommunication Union (8 September 2005). Retrieved on 2006-07-18.
  21. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Rules of the 2005 Eurovision Song Contest. eurovision.tv (2005). Retrieved on 2006-02-10.
  22. ^ Stella Floras (3 January 2007). Top TV ratings for Melodifestivalen. esctoday.com. Retrieved on 2007-05-08.
  23. ^ Operación Triunfo: Un intenso camino hacia el festival de eurovision. Terra Networks España. Retrieved on 2006-07-22. (Spanish)
  24. ^ Helen Fawkes (19 May 2005). Ukrainian hosts' high hopes for Eurovision. BBC News. Retrieved on 2006-07-15.
  25. ^ Millstreet. cork-guide.ie (19 May 2006). Retrieved on 2006-07-18.
  26. ^ Eurovision 1993 - The Venue. doteurovision.com. Retrieved on 2006-07-18.
  27. ^ Where do we go next year?. esctoday.com (31 May 2006). Retrieved on 2006-07-19.
  28. ^ John Marone. Where Do We Put The Foreign Tourists?. The Ukrainian Observer. Retrieved on 2006-07-18.
  29. ^ a b Rehearsal Schedule. eurovision.tv (2006). Retrieved on 2006-05-26.
  30. ^ a b Latest news from Athens. eurovision.tv (11 May 2006). Retrieved on 2006-05-25.
  31. ^ Sietse Bakker (3 May 2006). Athens 2006: where's the party?. esctoday.com. Retrieved on 2007-05-08.
  32. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p O'Connor, John Kennedy (2005). The Eurovision Song Contest 50 Years The Official History. London: Carlton Books Limited. ISBN 1-84442-586-X. 
  33. ^ Eurovision 2004 - Voting Briefing. eurovision.tv (12 May 2004). Retrieved on 2005-05-07.
  34. ^ a b Results from the draw. eurovision.tv (21 March 2006). Retrieved on 2006-05-27.
  35. ^ A to Z of Eurovision. bbc.co.uk. Retrieved on 2006-08-09.
  36. ^ a b Rules of the 44th Eurovision Song Contest, 1999 (PDF). EBU (13 October 1998). Retrieved on 2006-07-18.
  37. ^ Urban Trad. UrbanTrad.com (28 September 2004). Retrieved on 2006-07-18.
  38. ^ Treble will represent the Netherlands. eurovision.tv. Retrieved on 2006-05-25.
  39. ^ Eurovision Song Contest 1978. esctoday.com (2005). Retrieved on 2007-05-08.
  40. ^ Lebanon withdraws from Eurovision. BBC News (18 March 2005). Retrieved on 2006-07-15.
  41. ^ a b Eurovision 1956–96. TV & Radio Bits. Retrieved on 2006-07-15.
  42. ^ Eurovision: 2 semi finals confirmed!. ESCToday.com (2007-09-28). Retrieved on 2007-09-29.
  43. ^ Jack Stevenson (4 May 2006). Eurovision: The Candy-Coated Song Factory. Bubblegum University. Retrieved on 2006-07-15.
  44. ^ Eurovision votes 'farce' attack. BBC News (16 May 2004). Retrieved on 2006-07-15.
  45. ^ Daniel Fenn, Omer Suleman, Janet Efstathiou & Neil F. Johnson, Oxford University (22 May 2006). Connections, cliques and compatibility between countries in the Eurovision Song Contest (PDF). arxiv.org. Retrieved on 2007-05-02.
  46. ^ Laura Spierdjik & Michel Vellekoop, University of Twente (18 May 2006). Geography, Culture, and Religion: Explaining the Bias in Eurovision Song Contest Voting (PDF). rug.nl. Retrieved on 2007-04-18.
  47. ^ US to emulate Eurovision contest. BBC News (11 February 2006). Retrieved on 2006-07-20.
  48. ^ Abba win 'Eurovision 50th' vote. BBC News (23 October 2005). Retrieved on 2006-07-20.

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Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 203rd day of the year (204th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 200th day of the year (201st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... BBC News website in June 2007. ... is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Eurovision
Eurovision Portal
  • Eurovision Song Contest
Articles in academic journals
  • Yair, G; (1995). 'Unite Unite Europe' The political and cultural structures of Europe as reflected in the Eurovision Song Contest, Social Networks. 17: 147-161.
  • Yair and Maman (1996). The Persistent Structure of Hegemony in the Eurovision Song Contest, Acta Sociologica. 39: 309-325
  • Fenn D; et al ( 2005.). How does Europe make its mind up? Connections, cliques, and compatibility between countries in the Eurovision Song Contest. arXiv:physics/0505071
  • Gatherer, D. (2006). Comparison of Eurovision Song Contest Simulation with Actual Results Reveals Shifting Patterns of Collusive Voting Alliances, Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation vol. 9, no. 2


  Results from FactBites:
 
Eurovision Song Contest - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (6878 words)
The Eurovision Song Contest is an annual competition held between active member countries of the European Broadcasting Union (EBU), in which participating countries each submit a song to be performed on live television; then proceed to cast votes for the other countries' songs, in order to find the most popular song in the competition.
Countries may select their songs by any means they wish: whether it be an internal decision made by the participating broadcaster, or a public contest which allows the country's public to televote between several songs.
The impact that the Contest has on the host city is inversely proportional to its size: in Riga 2003, the city centre was virtually taken over by Eurovision delegates as they spent their week in the Latvian capital.
Eurovision Song Contest (1015 words)
Eurovision is the television network supervised by the European Broadcasting Union (EBU), and was established in the early 1950s to serve two functions: to share the costs of programming with international interest between the broadcasting services of member nations, and to promote cultural appreciation and identification throughout western Europe.
The Eurovision Song Contest is a long, live Saturday evening showcase of pop music talent that typically ranges from the indescribably bad, through the insufferably indifferent, to a few catchy little numbers.
In estimating the significance of the Eurovision Song Contest, perhaps less attention should be given to its bloated festivity or the derivative nature of the contenders' music.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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