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Encyclopedia > Europium
63 samariumeuropiumgadolinium
-

Eu

Am
General
Name, Symbol, Number europium, Eu, 63
Chemical series lanthanides
Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f
Appearance silvery white
Atomic mass 151.964(1) g/mol
Electron configuration [Xe] 4f7 6s2
Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 25, 8, 2
Physical properties
Phase solid
Density (near r.t.) 5.264 g·cm−3
Liquid density at m.p. 5.13 g·cm−3
Melting point 1099 K
(826 °C, 1519 °F)
Boiling point 1802 K
(1529 °C, 2784 °F)
Heat of fusion 9.21 kJ·mol−1
Heat of vaporization 176 kJ·mol−1
Heat capacity (25 °C) 27.66 J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor pressure
P/Pa 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T/K 863 957 1072 1234 1452 1796
Atomic properties
Crystal structure cubic body centered
Oxidation states 3,2
(mildly basic oxide)
Electronegativity  ? 1.2 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies
(more)
1st: 547.1 kJ·mol−1
2nd: 1085 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 2404 kJ·mol−1
Atomic radius 185 pm
Atomic radius (calc.) 231 pm
Miscellaneous
Magnetic ordering no data
Electrical resistivity (r.t.) (poly) 0.900 µΩ·m
Thermal conductivity (300 K) est. 13.9 W·m−1·K−1
Thermal expansion (r.t.) (poly)
35.0 µm/(m·K)
Young's modulus 18.2 GPa
Shear modulus 7.9 GPa
Bulk modulus 8.3 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.152
Vickers hardness 167 MPa
CAS registry number 7440-53-1
Selected isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of europium
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
150Eu syn 36.9 y ε 2.261 150Sm
151Eu 47.8% Eu is stable with 88 neutrons
152Eu syn 13.516 y ε 1.874 152Sm
β- 1.819 152Gd
153Eu 52.2% Eu is stable with 90 neutrons
References

Europium (IPA: /jʊˈrəʊpiəm/) is a chemical element in the periodic table that has the symbol Eu and atomic number 63. It was named after the continent Europe. General Name, Symbol, Number samarium, Sm, 62 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 150. ... General Name, Symbol, Number gadolinium, Gd, 64 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 157. ... General Name, Symbol, Number americium, Am, 95 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass (243) g/mol Electron configuration [Rn] 5f7 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 25, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... File links The following pages link to this file: Europium User:Femto/elements e8 Categories: GFDL images ... This is a standard display of the periodic table of elements. ... This extended periodic table was suggested by Glenn T. Seaborg in 1969. ... This is a list of chemical elements, sorted by name and color coded according to type of element. ... Categories: Chemical elements ... sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex... The lanthanide series comprises the 15 elements from lanthanum to lutetium on the periodic table, with atomic numbers 57 through 71. ... A periodic table group is a vertical column in the periodic table of the chemical elements. ... In the periodic table of the elements, a period is a row of the table. ... A block of the periodic table of elements is a set of adjacent groups. ... 6 *Lanthanides 7 **Actinides IUPAC has not recommended a specific format for the periodic table, so different conventions are permitted and are often used for the group number of lanthanides and actinides. ... A period 6 element is one of the chemical elements in the sixth row (or period) of the periodic table of the elements, including the Lanthanides. ... The f-block of the periodic table of elements consists of those elements for which, in the atomic ground state, the highest-energy electrons occupy f-orbitals. ... Color is an important part of the visual arts. ... Europium sample. ... The atomic mass of a chemical element is the mass of an atom at rest, most often expressed in unified atomic mass units. ... To help compare different orders of magnitude we list here masses between 60. ... Hydrogen = 1 List of Elements in Atomic Number Order. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... General Name, Symbol, Number xenon, Xe, 54 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 5, p Appearance colorless Atomic mass 131. ... The Electron is a fundamental subatomic particle that carries an electric charge. ... Example of a sodium electron shell model An electron shell, also known as a main energy level, is a group of atomic orbitals with the same value of the principal quantum number n. ... In the physical sciences, a phase is a set of states of a macroscopic physical system that have relatively uniform chemical composition and physical properties (i. ... In jewelry, a solid gold piece is the alternative to gold-filled or gold-plated jewelry. ... Density (symbol: ρ - Greek: rho) is a measure of mass per volume. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Density (symbol: ρ - Greek: rho) is a measure of mass per volume. ... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... The Kelvin scale is a thermodynamic (absolute) temperature scale where absolute zero—the lowest possible temperature where nothing could be colder and no heat energy remains in a substance—is defined as zero kelvin (0 K). ... Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale. ... Fahrenheit is a temperature scale named after the German physicist Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736), who proposed it in 1724. ... The boiling point of a substance is the temperature at which it can change its state from a liquid to a gas throughout the bulk of the liquid at a given pressure. ... The Kelvin scale is a thermodynamic (absolute) temperature scale where absolute zero—the lowest possible temperature where nothing could be colder and no heat energy remains in a substance—is defined as zero kelvin (0 K). ... Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale. ... Fahrenheit is a temperature scale named after the German physicist Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736), who proposed it in 1724. ... Standard enthalpy change of fusion of period three. ... Kilojoule per mole are an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material, where energy is measured in units of 1000 joules, and the amount of material is measured in mole units. ... The standard enthalpy change of vaporization, ΔvHo, also (less correctly) known as the heat of vaporization is the energy required to transform a given quantity of a substance into a gas. ... Kilojoule per mole are an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material, where energy is measured in units of 1000 joules, and the amount of material is measured in mole units. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... In chemistry and physics, Vapor pressure is the pressure of a vapor in equilibrium with its non-vapor phases. ... Enargite crystals In mineralogy and crystallography, a crystal structure is a unique arrangement of atoms in a crystal. ... In chemical nomenclature, the oxidation number (formerly known as the Stock number) of an element in a molecule or complex is the charge that it would bear if all the ligands were removed along with the electron pairs that were shared with the central atom. ... A bases in chemistry is a chemical substance which has a free pair of electrons to bind a Hydrogen ion commonly referred to as a proton (IUPAC definition). ... The electronegativities on this page are incorrect and need to be updated Electronegativity is a measure of the ability of an atom or molecule to attract electrons in the context of a chemical bond. ... The ionization energy (IE) of an atom or of a molecule is the energy required to strip it of an electron. ... These tables list the ionization energy in kJ/mol necessary to remove an electron from a neutral atom (first energy), respectively from a singly, doubly, etc. ... Kilojoule per mole are an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material, where energy is measured in units of 1000 joules, and the amount of material is measured in mole units. ... The atomic radius is the distance from the atomic nucleus to the outermost stable electron orbital in an atom that is at equilibrium. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... Picometre (American spelling: picometer) is an SI measure of length that is equal to 10−12 of a metre. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... In physics, magnetism is one of the phenomena by which materials exert an attractive or repulsive force on other materials. ... // Headline text POOP!! Danny Hornsby (also known as Gnome) is a measure indicating how strongly a Gnome can opposes the flow of electric current. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... In physics, thermal conductivity, k, is the intensive property of a material that indicates its ability to conduct heat. ... During heat transfer, the energy that is stored in the intermolecular bonds between atoms changes. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... This article is about a physical property. ... In materials science, shear modulus S, sometimes referred to as the modulus of rigidity, is defined as the ratio of shear stress to the shear strain: S = shear stress/shear strain = (F/A)/Φ. Another commonly accepted symbol is G. Shear modulus is usually measured in ksi (kips per square... The bulk modulus K of a fluid or solid is the inverse of the compressibility: where p is pressure and V is volume. ... When a sample of material is stretched in one direction, it tends to get thinner in the other two directions. ... A Vickers hardness tester The Vickers hardness test was developed in the early 1920s as an alternative method to measure the hardness of materials. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... Europium (Eu) Standard atomic mass: 151. ... Isotopes are any of the several different forms of an element each having different atomic mass. ... Natural abundance refers to the prevalence of different isotopes of an element as found in nature. ... Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ... In physics, the decay mode describes a particular way a particle decays. ... The decay energy is the energy released by a nuclear decay. ... An electronvolt (symbol: eV) is the amount of energy gained by a single unbound electron when it falls through an electrostatic potential difference of one volt. ... In nuclear physics, a decay product, also known as a daughter product, is a nuclide resulting from the radioactive decay of a parent or precursor nuclide. ... A Synthetic radioisotope is a radionuclide that is not found in nature: no natural process or mechanism exists which produces it, or it is so unstable that it decays away in a very short period of time. ... (Redirected from 1 E s) An order of magnitude is the class of scale or magnitude of any amount, where each class contains values of a fixed ratio to the class preceding it. ... Electron capture is a decay mode for isotopes that will occur when there are too many protons in the nucleus of an atom, and there isnt enough energy to emit a positron; however, it continues to be a viable decay mode for radioactive isotopes that can decay by positron... General Name, Symbol, Number samarium, Sm, 62 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 150. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A Synthetic radioisotope is a radionuclide that is not found in nature: no natural process or mechanism exists which produces it, or it is so unstable that it decays away in a very short period of time. ... (Redirected from 1 E s) An order of magnitude is the class of scale or magnitude of any amount, where each class contains values of a fixed ratio to the class preceding it. ... General Name, Symbol, Number samarium, Sm, 62 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 150. ... In nuclear physics, beta decay (sometimes called neutron decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta particle (an electron or a positron) is emitted. ... General Name, Symbol, Number gadolinium, Gd, 64 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 157. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Recommended values for many properties of the elements, together with various references, are collected on these data pages. ... For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words see here. ... The periodic table of the chemical elements A chemical element, often called simply an element, is a substance that cannot be decomposed or transformed into other chemical substances by ordinary chemical processes. ... The periodic table of the chemical elements is a tabular method of displaying the chemical elements, first devised in 1869 by the Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev. ... In chemistry and physics, the atomic number (Z) is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom. ... World map showing Europe A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is one of the six inhabited continents of the Earth. ...

Contents

Notable characteristics

Europium is the most reactive of the rare earth elements; it instantly oxidizes in air, and resembles calcium in its reaction with water; deliveries of the metal element in solid form even under mineral oil are rarely shiny. Europium ignites in air at about 150 °C to 180 °C. It is about as hard as lead and quite ductile. Rare earth ore Rare earth elements and rare earth metals are trivial names sometimes applied to a collection of 17 chemical elements in the periodic table, namely scandium, yttrium, and the lanthanides. ... General Name, Symbol, Number calcium, Ca, 20 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 4, s Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 40. ...


Applications

There are few commercial applications for europium metal, although it has been used to dope some types of glass to make lasers, as well as being used for screening for Down syndrome and some other genetic diseases. Due to its ability to absorb neutrons, it is also being studied for use in nuclear reactors. Europium oxide (Eu2O3) is widely used as a red phosphor in television sets and fluorescent lamps, and as an activator for yttrium-based phosphors. It is also being used as an agent for the manufacture of fluorescent glass. Europium fluorescence is used to interogate biomolecular interactions in drug-discovery screens. It is also used in the anti-counterfeiting phosphors in Euro banknotes. [1] Glass can be made transparent and flat, or into other shapes and colors as shown in this sphere from the Verrerie of Brehat in Brittany. ... // Experiment using a (likely argon) laser. ... A phosphor is a substance that can exhibit the phenomenon of fluorescence (glowing during absorption of radiation of another kind) or phosphorescence (sustained glowing without further stimulus). ... It has been suggested that Crookes tube be merged into this article or section. ... A compact fluorescent lamp A fluorescent lamp is a type of electric lamp that excites argon and mercury vapor to create luminescence. ... General Name, Symbol, Number yttrium, Y, 39 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 3, 5, d Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 88. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ...


Europium is commonly included in trace element studies in geochemistry and petrology to understand the processes that form igneous rocks (rocks that cooled from magma or lava). The nature of the europium anomaly found is used to help reconstruct the relationships within a suite of igneous rocks. The field of geochemistry involves study of the chemical composition of the Earth and other planets, chemical processes and reactions that govern the composition of rocks and soils, and the cycles of matter and energy that transport the Earths chemical components in time and space, and their interaction with... Petrology is a field of geology which focuses on the study of rocks and the conditions by which they form. ... Igneous rocks are formed when molten rock (magma) cools and solidifies, with or without crystallization, either below the surface as intrusive (plutonic) rocks or on the surface as extrusive (volcanic) rocks. ... Magma is molten rock located beneath the surface of the Earth (or any other rocky planet), and which often collects in a magma chamber. ... Look up lava, Aa, pahoehoe in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...


History

Europium was first found by Paul Émile Lecoq de Boisbaudran in 1890, who obtained basic fraction from samarium-gadolinium concentrates which had spectral lines not accounted for by samarium or gadolinium; however, the discovery of europium is generally credited to French chemist Eugène-Antole Demarçay, who suspected samples of the recently discovered element samarium were contaminated with an unknown element in 1896 and who was able to isolate europium in 1901. Paul Émile (François) Lecoq de Boisbaudran (April 18, 1838 - May 28, 1912) was a French chemist born in Cognac. ... 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar). ... General Name, Symbol, Number samarium, Sm, 62 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 150. ... General Name, Symbol, Number gadolinium, Gd, 64 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 157. ... General Name, Symbol, Number samarium, Sm, 62 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 150. ... General Name, Symbol, Number gadolinium, Gd, 64 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 157. ... A chemist pours from a Florence flask. ... Eugène-Antole Demarçay (January 1, 1852 - December, 1904) was a French chemist. ... General Name, Symbol, Number samarium, Sm, 62 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 150. ... 1896 (MDCCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


Occurrence

Europium is never found in nature as the free element; however, there are many minerals containing europium, with the most important sources being bastnasite and monazite. Europium has also been identified in the spectra of the sun and certain stars. In geology, the mineral bastnasite is one of a family of three carbonate-fluoride minerals. ... Monazite powder In geology, the mineral monazite is a reddish-brown phosphate containing rare earth metals and an important source of thorium, lanthanum, and cerium. ...


Compounds

Europium compounds include:

Europium(II) compounds tend to predominate, which is a slight exception as most lanthanides form compounds with an oxidation state of +3. Europium(II) chemistry is very similar to barium(II) chemistry, as they have similar ionic radii. See also europium compounds. Fluoride is the ionic form of fluorine. ... The chloride ion is formed when the element chlorine picks up one electron to form an anion (negatively-charged ion) Cl−. The salts of hydrochloric acid HCl contain chloride ions and are also called chlorides. ... Europium(III) chloride hexahydrate Properties Europium(III) chloride (EuCl3), also known as europium trichloride, is a compound of europium and chlorine. ... A bromide is a phrase, or person who uses phrases, which have been used and repeated so many times as to become either insincere in their meaning, or seem like an attempt at trying to explain the obvious. ... An iodide ion is an iodine atom with a −1 (negative one) charge. ... An oxide is a chemical compound of oxygen with other chemical elements. ... Formally, sulfide is the dianion, S2−, which exists in strongly alkaline aqueous solutions formed from H2S or alkali metal salts such as Li2S, Na2S, and K2S. Sulfide is exceptionally basic and, with a pKa > 14, it does not exist in appreciable concentrations even in highly alkaline water. ... The selenide ion is Se2-. A selenide is a chemical compound in which selenium serves as a anion with oxidation number of -2, much as sulfur does in a sulfide. ... Telluride is either: A compound of a metal with the element Tellurium. ... Definition The nitride ion is very very gay and retarded A nitride (compound) is a compound that has nitrogen with more electropositive elements. ... The lanthanide series comprises the 15 elements from lanthanum to lutetium on the periodic table, with atomic numbers 57 through 71. ... General Name, Symbol, Number barium, Ba, 56 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 6, s Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 137. ... Ionic radius is a concept for expressing the sizes of ions in ionic crystals. ...


Isotopes

Naturally occurring europium is composed of 2 stable isotopes, 151-Eu and 153-Eu, with 153-Eu being the most abundant (52.2% natural abundance). 35 radioisotopes have been characterized, with the most stable being 150-Eu with a half-life of 36.9 years, 152-Eu with a half-life of 13.516 years, and 154-Eu with a half-life of 8.593 years. All of the remaining radioactive isotopes have half-lifes that are less than 4.7612 years, and the majority of these have half lifes that are less than 12.2 seconds. This element also has 8 meta states, with the most stable being 150m-Eu (t½ 12.8 hours), 152m1-Eu (t½ 9.3116 hours) and 152m2-Eu (t½ 96 minutes). Isotopes are any of the several different forms of an element each having different atomic mass. ... Natural abundance refers to the prevalence of different isotopes of an element as found in nature. ... A radionuclide is an atom with an unstable nucleus. ... Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ... Radioactive decay is the set of various processes by which unstable atomic nuclei (nuclides) emit subatomic particles. ... A nuclear isomer is a metastable state of an atom caused by the excitation of a proton or neutron in its nucleus so that it requires a change in spin before it can release its extra energy. ...


The primary decay mode before the most abundant stable isotope, 153-Eu, is electron capture, and the primary mode after is beta minus decay. The primary decay products before 153-Eu are element Sm (samarium) isotopes and the primary products after are element Gd (gadolinium) isotopes. In physics, the decay mode describes a particular way a particle decays. ... Electron capture is a decay mode for isotopes that will occur when there are too many protons in the nucleus of an atom, and there isnt enough energy to emit a positron; however, it continues to be a viable decay mode for radioactive isotopes that can decay by positron... In nuclear physics, beta decay (sometimes called neutron decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta particle (an electron or a positron) is emitted. ... In nuclear physics, a decay product, also known as a daughter product, is a nuclide resulting from the radioactive decay of a parent or precursor nuclide. ... General Name, Symbol, Number samarium, Sm, 62 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 150. ... General Name, Symbol, Number gadolinium, Gd, 64 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 157. ...


Precautions

The toxicity of europium compounds has not been fully investigated, but there are no clear indications that europium is highly toxic compared to other heavy metals. The metal dust presents a fire and explosion hazard. Europium has no known biological role.


References

  • Los Alamos National Laboratory – Europium

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Look up europium in
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Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikimedia Commons logo by Reid Beels The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Europium and the Euro [1]

  Results from FactBites:
 
Europium Summary (1935 words)
Europium is the most reactive of the rare earth elements; it quickly oxidizes in air, and resembles calcium in its reaction with water.
Europium oxide (Eu) is widely used as a red phosphor in television sets, and as an activator for yttrium-based phosphors.
Europium is never found in nature as the free element; however, there are many minerals containing europium, with the most important sources being bastnasite and monazite.
It's Elemental - The Element Europium (135 words)
Europium is the most reactive of the rare earth elements.
Since it is a good absorber of neutrons, europium is being studied for use in nuclear reactors.
Europium oxide (Eu), one of europium's compounds, is widely used as a red phosphor in television sets and as an activator for yttrium-based phosphors.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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