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Encyclopedia > European politics

The politics of Europe deals with the continually evolving politics within the continent. It is a topic far more detailed than other continents due to a number of factors including the long history of nation states in the region as well as the modern day trend towards increased political unity amongst the European states.


The current politics of Europe can be traced back to historical events within the continent. Likewise geography, economy and culture have contributed to the current political make-up of Europe. This article discusses the history of the continent of Europe. ... The Culture of Europe might better be described as a series of overlapping cultures of Europe. ...


Modern European politics is dominated by the European Union, particularly since the fall of the Iron Curtain and the collapse of the Eastern Bloc of Communist states. With the end of the Cold War, the EU expanded eastward to include 25 member states that are represented in the European Parliament. In the summer of 1989, the foreign ministers of Austria and Hungary, Alois Mock and Gyula Horn, ceremoniously cut through the border defences separating their countries. ... During the Cold War, the Eastern Bloc (or Soviet Bloc) comprised the following Central and Eastern European countries: Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary, East Germany, Poland, Albania (until the early 1960s, see below), the Soviet Union, and Czechoslovakia. ... A Communist state is a state governed by a single political party which declares its allegiance to the principles of Marxism-Leninism. ... The Cold War was the open yet restricted rivalry that developed after World War II between the United States and its allies (roughly speaking, NATO members) and the Soviet Union and its allied (roughly speaking, Warsaw Pact members), until the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. ... The European Parliament is the parliamentary body of the European Union (EU), directly elected by EU citizens once every five years. ...

Contents

Modern political climate

Several issues dominate modern European politics.


Despite vastly improved relations between Russia and the Western European states since the end of the cold war, recently tensions have risen over the spread of 'Western' organisations, particuarly the EU and NATO, eastwards into former USSR states.


Most European states have either joined, or stated their ambition to join, the European Union. This has led to governements overhauling corrupt and overly-beauracratic systems in order to bring themselves in line with membership criteria. This in turn has led to improved relations between former enemies, such as Greece and Turkey.


There are few conflicts within Europe, although there remain problems in the Balkans and the Caucasus. The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe southeastern Europe (see the Definitions and boundaries section below). ... The Caucasus is a region in Eastern Europe between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea which includes the Caucasus mountains and surrounding lowlands. ...


International alliances

European states are members of a large number of international organisations, mainly economical, although several are political, or both. The main political unions are detailed below.


European Union

The European Union or EU is a supranational union of 25 European states. It has many activities, the most important being a common single market, consisting of a customs union, a single currency (adopted by 12 out of 25 member states), a Common Agricultural Policy and a Common Fisheries Policy. The European Union also has various initiatives to co-ordinate activities of the member states. A supranational union, sometimes called also a supranational state, is a group of countries that has: some of the traits of a regional international organization and some of the traits of a federal state, In other words, it is a hybrid or transitional institution. ...


The EU, considered as a unit, has the largest economy in the world, with a 2002 GDP of 9.613 trillion euro. The EU economy is expected to grow further over the next decade as more former communist countries join the union. There is also a trend of moving towards increased cooperation in terms of common defence and foreign policy. The numeral trillion refers to one of two number values, depending on the context of where and how it is being used. ... Communism - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... The Common Foreign and Security Policy or CFSP was established as the second of the three pillars of the European Union in the Maastricht treaty of 1992, and further defined and broadened in the Amsterdam Treaty of 1997. ... Foreign Policy is a bimonthly American magazine founded in 1970 by Samuel P. Huntington and Warren Demian Manshel. ...


The union has evolved over time from a primarily economic union to an increasingly political one. This trend is highlighted by the increasing number of policy areas that fall within EU competence: political power has tended to shift upwards from the Member States to the EU.


Commonwealth of Independent States

The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) is a confederation consisting of 12 of the 15 states of the former Soviet Union, (the exceptions being the three Baltic states). Although the CIS has few supranational powers, it is more than a purely symbolic organization and possesses coordinating powers in the realm of trade, finance, lawmaking and security. The most significant issue for the CIS is the establishment of a full-fledged free trade zone / economic union between the member states, to be launched in 2005. It has also promoted cooperation on democratisation and cross-border crime prevention. The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) (in Russian: Содружество Независимых Государств (СНГ) - Sodruzhestvo Nezavisimykh Gosudarstv) is a confederation or alliance consisting of 11 of the 15 former Soviet Republics, the exceptions being the three Baltic states (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania), and Georgia. ... A confederation is an association of sovereign states, usually created by treaty but often later adopting a common constitution. ... Baltic states and the Baltic Sea The Baltic states or the Baltic countries is a term which nowadays refers to three countries in Northern Europe: Estonia Latvia Lithuania Prior to World War II, Finland was sometimes considered, particularly by the Soviet Union, a fourth Baltic state. ...


North Atlantic Treaty Organisation

The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) is a military alliance of mainly European states, plus the United States of America and Canada. The organisation was founded as a collective security measure following World War Two. For the National Association of Theatre Owners, please see National Association of Theatre Owners. ... Collective Security is a system for aspiring for peace in which participants agree that any breach of the peace is to be declared to be of concern to all the participating states, 1 and will result in a collective response. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ...


This provision was intended so that if the Soviet Union launched an attack against the European allies of the United States, it would be treated as if it was an attack on the United States itself, which had the biggest military and could thus provide the most significant retaliation. However the feared Soviet invasion of Europe never came. Instead, the provision was invoked for the first time in the treaty's history on 12 September 2001, in response to the September 11 attacks on the United States the day before.


Independence movements

Belgium

One of Belgium’s parties, the Vlaams Belang, a Flemish equivalent of the French National Front, wants Flanders, the northern part of Belgium, to become independent. Other Flemish parties plead for more regional autonomy. Vlaams Belang (English: Flemish Interest) is a Belgian political party. ... Front National can mean: Front National, a right-wing French political party. ...


The autonomous Belgian region of Wallonia has a movement wanting to leave the Belgian state and join with France. National motto: Walon todi ! (Walloon forever!) Official languages French, German Capital Namur Minister-President Jean-Claude Van Cauwenberghe Area  - Total 16,844 km² Population  - Total (2002)  - Density 3,358,560 inhabitants 199. ...


Denmark

The Danish territories of Greenland and Faroe Islands have very strong independence movements.


France

The Mediterranean island of Corsica has a significant, and growing, group calling for independence from France. There are also movements in the Brittany region of northern France who wish to regain independence lost in 1532, and in Savoy in the south east, which was annexed to France following a disputed referendum in 1860. The Mediterranean Sea is a part of the Atlantic Ocean almost completely enclosed by land, on the north by Europe, on the south by Africa, and on the east by Asia. ... Capital Ajaccio Area 8,680 km² Regional President Camille de Rocca-Serra Population  - 2004 estimate  - 1999 census  - Density 272,000 260,196 30/km² Arrondissements 5 Cantons 52 Communes 360 Départements Corse-du-Sud Haute-Corse Corsica (Corsican: Corsica; French: Corse) is the fourth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea... Traditional coat of arms This article is about the historical duchy and French province, as well as the cultural area of Brittany. ... This article is about the historical region of Savoy. ...


Georgia

Georgia has two regions wishing to join with Russia; Abkhazia and South Ossetia. Abkhazia (Abkhaz Аҧсны/Apsny, Georgian აფხაზეთი/Apkhazeti, Russian Абха́зия/Abkhazia) is a region of 8,600 km² (3,300 sq. ... The Republic of South Ossetia (in Russian Respublika Yuzhnaya Osetiya, Республика Южная Осетия; in Ossetian Respublikae Xussar Iryston, Республикæ Хуссар Ирыстон) is a de facto independent republic within Georgia. ...


Moldova

The eastern Moldovan region of Transnistria has declared independence from Moldova, and wants to join with Ukraine. Despite having no control over the region, the Moldovan government refuses to recognise this claim. Transnistria or Transdniester (Russian: Приднестровье (Pridnestrovye), Romanian Transnistria, referred to as Stânga Nistrului (Left Bank of the Nistru) by official Moldovan sources and Pridnestrovskaia Moldavskaia Respublika by Transnistrian official sources) is a de facto independent, unrecognised state in eastern Europe. ...


Russia

Several of Russia's regions have independence movements, mostly in the state's north caucasus border. The most notable of these is Chechnya, which has well supported guerilla groups involved in open conflict with the Russian authorities. The Chechen Republic (Russian: Чеченская Республика; Chechen: Нохчийн Республика/Noxçiyn Respublika), also known as Chechnya (Russian: Чечня, Chechen: Нохчичьо/Noxçiyçö), Chechnia or Chechenia, is a constituent republic of the Russian Federation. ...


To the west of Russia lies the enclave of Kaliningrad oblast, (formerly known as Prussia). This enclave is separated from the main Russian state by EU member states, which has led to an increased call for autonomy. However, ethnic-German groups call for complete independence. In human geography, an enclave is a piece of land which is totally enclosed within a foreign territory. ... map of Kaliningrad Oblast Kaliningrad Oblast (Russian: Калининградская область), informally called Yantarny kray (Russian:Янтарный Край - meaning Amber land) is an administrative division (oblast) of Russia on the Baltic coast, with no land connection to the rest of Russia: an exclave of the EU. It is the westernmost parcel of... The coat of arms of the Kingdom of Prussia, 1701-1918 The word Prussia (German: Preußen or Preussen, Polish: Prusy, Lithuanian: Prūsai, Latin: Borussia) has had various (often contradictory) meanings: The land of the Baltic Prussians (in what is now parts of southern Lithuania, the Kaliningrad exclave of Russia and...


Serbia and Montenegro

The Serbian autonomous community of Kosovo, which has a majority ethnic-Albanian population, overwhelmingly desires to leave Serbia and have union with Albania. The province is currently governed by the United Nations, though remains part of Serbia under law. Serbia and Montenegro  – Serbia    – Kosovo and Metohia        (UN administration)    – Vojvodina  – Montenegro Official language Serbian1 Capital Belgrade Area  – Total  – % water  88,361 km²  n/a Population  – Total (2002)     (without Kosovo)  – Density  7. ... Kosovo and Metohia (Serbian: Косово и Метохија / Kosovo i Metohija, Albanian: Kosova), in English most oftenly called just Kosovo, is a province of Serbia. ... The United Nations, or UN, is an international organization established in 1945 and now made up of 191 states. ...


In 2006 Serbia and Montenegro is to hold a referendum on whether to retain their union or become separate states. 2006 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Serbia and Montenegro  – Serbia    – Kosovo and Metohia        (UN administration)    – Vojvodina  – Montenegro Official language Serbian1 Capital Belgrade Area  – Total  – % water  88,361 km²  n/a Population  – Total (2002)     (without Kosovo)  – Density  7. ... Serbia and Montenegro  – Serbia    – Kosovo and Metohia        (UN administration)    – Vojvodina  – Montenegro Official language Serbian Capital Podgorica Former Royal Capital Cetinje President Filip Vujanović Prime Minister Milo Đukanović Area  – Total  – % water  13,812 km²  n/a Population  – Total (2003)  – Density  616,258  48. ...


Spain

Within Spain there are independence movements in some of the autonomous regions, notably the regions of Catalonia and Basque country. These are mostly peaceful but some, such as ETA use violent means. Spains fifty provinces (provincias) are grouped into seventeen autonomous communities (comunidades aut nomas), in addition to two African autonomous cities (ciudades aut nomas) (Ceuta and Melilla). ... Capital Barcelona Official languages Spanish and Catalan In Val dAran, also Aranese. ... This article is about the traditional Basque domain. ... ETA logo Euskadi Ta Askatasuna, or ETA, is a Basque paramilitary group that seeks to create an independent socialist state for the Basque people, separate from Spain and France, the countries in which Basque-populated areas currently lie. ...


Ukraine

The Ukrainian autonomous region of Crimea has several movements, calling either for greater autnomy, complete independence, or unification with Russia. The Crimea (officially Autonomous Republic of Crimea, Ukrainian transliteration: Avtonomna Respublika Krym, Ukrainian: Автономна Республіка Крим, Russian: Автономная Республика Крым, pronounced cry-MEE-ah in English) is a peninsula and an autonomous republic of Ukraine on the northern coast of the Black Sea. ...


The East of the country is majority ethnic-Russian, and there are calls from some groups for the area to leave Ukraine and join Russia. This is particuarly the case since the pro-western Victor Yuschenko became president. Viktor Andriyovych Yushchenko (Ukrainian: Віктор Андрійович Ющенко) (born 23 February 1954) is the president of Ukraine. ...


United Kingdom

Within the United Kingdom there are political parties in each of the three British nations calling for independence from the union. In Northern Ireland there are parties calling for the province to leave the union and be united with the Republic of Ireland. Northern Ireland is one of four constituent parts of the United Kingdom. ...


Politics by country

Politics of:

Government Principal Government Officials (From the Chiefs of State and Cabinet Members of Foreign Governments as of December 31, 2002 with minor corrections) President: Alfred Moisiu Prime Minister: Fatos Nano Deputy Prime Minister: Namik Dokle Minister of Agriculture: Agron Duka Minister of Culture, Youth, & Sports: Blendi Klosi Minister of Defense... Government Until very recently, Andorras political system had no clear division of powers into executive, legislative, and judicial branches. ... Armenians voted overwhelmingly for independence in a September 1991 referendum, followed by a presidential election in October 1991 that gave 83% of the vote to Levon Ter-Petrossian. ... The ethnically and culturally homogenous nation state of Austria is the small but prosperous remnant of Austria-Hungary, a vast multinational empire foundered in 1918. ... The Government of Azerbaijan consists of three branches: The executive branch, made up of the President, his Apparat, a Prime Minister, and the Cabinet of Ministers; The legislative branch, consisting of the 125-member Parliament (Milli Majlis). ... Belaruss declaration of independence on August 25, 1991, did not stem from long-held political aspirations but from reactions to domestic and foreign events. ... The Kingdom of Belgium is a sovereign, independent state. ... Government type: emerging democracy Administrative divisions: there are two first-order administrative divisions referred to as the Entities - the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Republika Srpska See Political divisions of Bosnia and Herzegovina Independence: April 1992 (from Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia) National holiday: Bosnia and Herzegovina - BiH... The President of Bulgaria, elected for a 5-year term, is head of state and commander in chief of the armed forces. ... The Republic of Croatia (Croatian: Republika Hrvatska) is a parliamentary democracy with an elected president. ... Since 1974, Cyprus has been divided de facto into the government-controlled southern two-thirds of the island and the Turkish-Cypriot northern one-third. ... The Czech political scene supports a broad spectrum of parties ranging from the semi-reformed Communist Party on the far left to various nationalistic parties on the extreme right. ... Government Denmark is a constitutional monarchy with an almost unbroken link of monarchs for more than 1,000 years (except for an interregnum of eight years from 1332 to 1340). ... On June 28, 1992, Estonian voters approved the constitutional assemblys draft constitution and implementation act, which established a parliamentary government with a president as chief of state and with a government headed by a prime minister. ... Finland has a primarily parliamentary system, although the president also has some notable powers. ... French politics under the Fifth Republic After Charles de Gaulle had the constitution of the French Fifth Republic adopted in 1958, France was ruled by successive right-wing administrations until 1981. ... This article needs cleanup. ... The Federal Republic of Germany (in German: Bundesrepublik Deutschland) is a federal representative democracy. ... The 1975 constitution, which describes Greece as a presidential parliamentary republic, includes extensive specific guarantees of civil liberties and vests the powers of the head of state in a president elected by parliament and advised by the Council of the Republic. ... The Republic of Hungary is an independent, democratic and constitutional state. ... Iceland is a republic. ... The Republic of Ireland is a sovereign, independent state. ... Italy has been a democratic republic since June 2, 1946, when the monarchy was abolished by popular referendum (see birth of the Italian Republic). ... The Saeima, a unicameral legislative body, now is the highest organ of state authority in Latvia. ... Politics of Liechtenstein In a referendum in March 2003, 64% of voters in Liechtenstein approved a measure to give Prince Hans-Adam II the power to dismiss governments, approve judicial nominees and veto laws. ... Lithuania is a multi-party, parliamentary democracy. ... Luxembourg has a parliamentary form of government with a constitutional monarchy by inheritance. ... Politics of the Republic of Macedonia: From the CIA World Factbook 2000/2001, partially updated Country name: conventional long form: The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia conventional short form: none local long form: Republika Makedonija local short form: Makedonija abbreviation: F.Y.R.O.M. Data code: MK Government type... Under its 1964 constitution, Malta became a parliamentary democracy within the Commonwealth. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Monaco has been governed as a constitutional monarchy since 1911, with the Prince as chief of state. ... The Netherlands are a constitutional monarchy. ... Norwegian politics officially have the structure of a constitutional monarchy, giving the King mainly symbolic power while maintaining a stable Western democracy. ... The current government structure consists of a council of ministers led by a Prime Minister, typically chosen from a majority coalition in the bicameral legislatures lower house. ... The four main organs of the national government are the presidency, the prime minister and Council of Ministers (the government), the Assembly of the Republic (the parliament), and the judiciary. ... Romanias 1991 constitution, amended in 2003 proclaims Romania a democratic and social republic, deriving its sovereignty from the people. ... Since gaining its independence with the collapse of the Soviet Union at the end of 1991, Russia (formally, the Russian Federation) has faced serious challenges in its efforts to forge a political system to follow nearly seventy-five years of Soviet rule. ... San Marino was originally led by the Arengo, initially formed with the heads of each family. ... On 4th February, 2003 parliament of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia agreed to a weaker form of cooperation between Serbia and Montenegro within a commonwealth called Serbia and Montenegro. After June 1999, Kosovo was made a United Nations protectorate, under the UN Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) based in Pristina. ... Slovakias highest legislative body is the 150-seat unicameral National Council of the Slovak Republic. ... As a young independent republic, Slovenia pursued economic stabilization and further political openness, while emphasizing its Western outlook and central European heritage. ... Parliamentary democracy was restored following the death of General Franco in 1975, who had ruled since the end of the civil war in 1939. ... Popular government in Sweden rests upon ancient traditions. ... Switzerland is a federal republic, and perhaps the closest state in the world to a direct democracy. ... Turkey is a secular, republican parliamentary democracy. ... Politics of Ukraine Categories: Politics stubs | Ukraine-related stubs | Ukraine | Ukrainian politics | Politics by country ... The politics of the United Kingdom are based upon a unitary state and a democratic constitutional monarchy. ... The pope exercises supreme legislative, executive, and judicial power over the Holy See and the State of the Vatican City, a rare case of elective non-hereditary monarchy. ...

Foreign relations by country

Foreign relations of:

Foreign Relations of Albania Albanian foreign policy has concentrated on maintaining good relations with its Balkan neighbors, gaining access to European-Atlantic security institutions, and securing close ties with the United States. ... Since the establishment of sovereignty with the ratification of the constitution in 1993, Andorra has moved to become an active member of the international community. ... Armenia is a member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the United Nations, the Council of Europe, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, NATOs Partnership for Peace, the North Atlantic Cooperation Council, the International Monetary Fund, and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development. ... The 1955 Austrian State Treaty ended the four-power occupation and recognized Austria as an independent and sovereign state. ... Azerbaijan is a member of the United Nations; the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe; NATOs Partnership for Peace; Euro-Atlantic Partnership; World Health Organization; CFE Treaty member state; the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development; the Council of Europe; the Community of Democracies; the International Monetary Fund... Under an arrangement with the former USSR, Belarus (known as Byelorussian SSR) was an original member of the United Nations. ... The Concert of Europe sanctioned the creation of Belgium in 1830 on the condition that the country remain strictly neutral. ... The implementation of the Dayton Accords of 1995 has focused the efforts of policymakers in Bosnia and Herzegovina, as well as the international community, on regional stabilization in the former Yugoslavia. ... Bulgaria has generally good relations with its neighbors and has proved to be a constructive force in the region under socialist and democratic governments alike. ... History Croatian foreign policy has focused on greater Euro-Atlantic integration, mainly entering the European Union and NATO. In order to gain access to European and trans-Atlantic institutions, it has had to undo many negative effects of the breakup of Yugoslavia and the war that ensued, and improve and... Cyprus has historically followed a non-aligned foreign policy, although it increasingly identifies with the West in its cultural affinities and trade patterns and maintains close relations with Greece. ... Until 1989, the foreign policy of Czechoslovakia had followed that of the Soviet Union. ... Danish foreign policy is founded upon four cornerstones: the United Nations, NATO, the EU, and Nordic cooperation. ... Estonia is a party to 181 international organizations, including the BIS, CBSS, CCC, CE, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EU (member since May 1 2004), FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, International Maritime Organization, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO (correspondent), ITU, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO... Finlands basic foreign policy goal, from the end of the Continuation War with the U.S.S.R. in 1944 until 1991, was to avoid great-power conflicts and to build mutual confidence with the Soviet Union. ... A charter member of the United Nations, France holds one of the permanent seats in the Security Council and is a member of most of its specialized and related agencies. ... Georgias location, nestled between the Black Sea, Russia, and Turkey, gives it strategic importance far beyond its size. ... Germany continues to emphasize close ties with the United States, membership in NATO, maintaining peace through collective security, the deepening of integration among current members of the EU, and expansion of union membership to include central and southern European neighbours. ... Prominent issues in Greek foreign policy include a dispute over the name of the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, the enduring Cyprus problem, Greek-Turkish differences over the Aegean, and relations with the USA. The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Greek refusal to recognize the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia... Except for the short-lived neutrality declared by Imre Nagy in November 1956, Hungarys foreign policy generally followed the Soviet lead from 1947 to 1989. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The Republic of Ireland is involved in a number of outstanding international disputes. ... Disputes - international Italy and Slovenia made progress in resolving bilateral issues; Croatia and Italy made progress toward resolving a bilateral issue dating from World War II over property and ethnic minority rights Illegal immigration Italian and Albanian authorities are cooperating to stop the flow of illegal immigrants (such as Albanians... Today`s Republic of Latvia regards itself as a continuation of the 1918-1940 republic. ... The Principality of Liechtenstein (German: Fürstentum Liechtenstein) is a small, doubly landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Switzerland to its west and by Austria to its east. ... Lithuania became a member of the United Nations on September 18, 1991, and is a signatory to a number of its organizations and other international agreements. ... Luxembourg has long been a prominent supporter of European political and economic integration. ... International disputes Naming dispute with Greece The Republic of Macedonia (also Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia in foreign relations) is in dispute with Greece over its use of the name Macedonia. The Republic contains roughly 38% of the area and nearly 44% of the population of the geographical region known... For the first several years of independence, Malta followed a policy of close co-operation with the United Kingdom and other NATO countries. ... Moldovas Parliament approved the countrys membership in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS--a group of 12 former Soviet republics) and a CIS charter on economic union in April 1994. ... Monaco actively participates in the United Nations, which it joined in 1993. ... The Netherlands abandoned its traditional policy of neutrality after World War II. The Dutch have since become engaged participants in international affairs. ... Norway supports international cooperation and the peaceful settlement of disputes, recognizing the need for maintaining a strong national defense through collective security. ... Poland became a full member of NATO in March 1999, and of the European Union in May 2004. ... Portugal has been a significant beneficiary of the European Union and is a proponent of European integration. ... Priorities Since December 1989, Romania has actively pursued a policy of strengthening relations with the West in general, more specifically with the United States and the European Union. ... Regarding the foreign relations of Russia, Russia has taken important steps to become a full partner in the worlds principal political groupings. ... San Marino is an active player in the international community. ... Since the breakup of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in the early 1990s, the foreign policy of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (renamed Serbia and Montenegro in 2003) was characterized primarily by a desire to secure its political and geopolitical position and the solidarity of ethnic Serbs in the... Slovakia is a member of NATO and the European Union since 2004. ... In regular public statements, Slovenias highest politicians underscore their governments commitment to expanding cooperative arrangements with neighbors and active contributions to international efforts aimed at bringing stability to Southeast Europe. ... After the return of democracy following the death of General Franco in 1975, Spains foreign policy priorities were to break out of the diplomatic isolation of the Franco years and expand diplomatic relations, enter the European Community, and define security relations with the West. ... The foreign policy of Sweden is based on the premise that national security is best served by staying free of alliances in peacetime in order to remain a neutral country in the event of war. ... The international relations of Switzerland are the responsibility of the Federal Department of Foreign Affairs and of all other departments for their respective fields of activity. ... SEE Turkish Foreign Policy Turkeys primary political, economic, and security ties are with the West. ... Ukraine considers Euro-Atlantic integration its primary foreign policy objective, but in practice balances its relationship with Europe and the United States with strong ties to Russia. ... British Prime Minister Tony Blair (left) conducting diplomacy, hosted by the President of the United States, George W. Bush at Camp David in March 2003. ... The Holy See is the legal body that conducts diplomatic relations for the Vatican City. ...

Related articles


The European Union or EU is a supranational organisation of European countries, which currently has 25 member states. ... World map showing location of Europe A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is geologically and geographically a peninsula, forming the westernmost part of Eurasia. ... The Culture of Europe might better be described as a series of overlapping cultures of Europe. ... The economy of Europe is comprised of more than 665 million people in 48 different states. ... Geographically, Europe is a part of the larger landmass known as Eurasia. ... This article discusses the history of the continent of Europe. ... A, thus far incomplete, list of conflicts in Europe, (arranged both alpahabetically and chronologically), including; Wars between European nations Civil Wars within European nations Rebellions by a European nation seeking independence Wars between a European nation and a non-European nation that took place within Europe Global conflicts, in which... Shortcut: Europe topics This is a list of topics related to Europe. ...


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