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Encyclopedia > European colonization of the Americas
European colonization
of the Americas
History of the Americas
British colonization
Courland colonization
Danish colonization
Dutch colonization
French colonization
German colonization
Portuguese colonization
Russian colonization
Scottish colonization
Spanish colonization
Swedish colonization
Viking colonization
Welsh settlement
Decolonization
Territories in the Americas colonized or claimed by a European great power in 1750.
Territories in the Americas colonized or claimed by a European great power in 1750.

The first known Europeans to reach the Americas are believed to have been the Vikings ("Norse"), who established several colonies in the Americas from the 11th century. One Viking from Iceland, Leif Erikson established a short-lived settlement in Vinland, present day Newfoundland. Settlements in Greenland survived for several centuries, during which time the Greenland Norse and the Inuit people experienced mostly hostile contact. By the 15th century, the Norse Greenland settlements had collapsed. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... British colonization of the Americas (including colonization under the Kingdom of England before the 1707 Acts of Union created the Kingdom of Great Britain) began in the late 16th century, before reaching its peak after colonies were established throughout the Americas, and a protectorate was established in Hawaii. ... The Duchy of Courland was the smallest nation to colonize the Americas with a short-lived colony in Tobago during the 1654–1659, and again 1660–1689. ... Denmark had a colonial empire from the 18th century until the 20th. ... During the 17th century, Dutch traders established trade posts and plantations throughout the Americas; actual colonization, with Dutch settling in the new lands was not as common as with settlements of other European nations. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... In this map of German colonies, yellow marks Klein-Venedig and red the Prussia colonies, some of them in the Caribbean. ... Replica of Pedro Alvares Cabrals ship Anunciação, in the city of Campinas, state of São Paulo, Brazil. ... After the discovery of northern Alaska by Ivan Fedorov in 1732, and the Aleutian Islands, southern Alaska, and north-western shores of North America in 1741 during the Russian exploration conducted by Vitus Bering and Aleksei Chirikov, it took fifty years until the founding of the first Russian colony in... Scottish colonization of the Americas consisted of a number of failed or abandoned settlements in North America, a colony at Darien, Panama and a number of wholly or largely Scottish settlements made as part of Great Britain. ... The Spanish colonization of the Americas began with the arrival in the Western Hemisphere of Christopher Columbus (Cristóbal Colón) in 1492. ... The Swedish colonization of the Americas consisted of a 17th century settlement on the Delaware River in Delaware, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Maryland, and possessions in the Caribbean during the 18th and 19th century. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Welsh settlement in the Americas was the result of several individual initiatives to found distinctively Welsh settlements in the New World. ... Decolonization of the Americas refers to the process by which the countries in North America and South America gained their independence. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (470x608, 18 KB) Map of European colonization of the Americas in 1750 Source file: Based upon Image:Spanish colonization of the Americas. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (470x608, 18 KB) Map of European colonization of the Americas in 1750 Source file: Based upon Image:Spanish colonization of the Americas. ... One of the hallmarks of contemporary great power status is permanent membership on the United Nations Security Council. ... Events March 2 - Small earthquake in London, England April 4 - Small earthquake in Warrington, England August 23 - Small earthquake in Spalding, England September 30 - Small earthquake in Northampton, England November 16 – Westminster Bridge officially opened Jonas Hanway is the first Englishman to use an umbrella James Gray reveals her sex... The name Viking is a loan from the native Scandinavian term for the Norse seafaring warriors who raided the coasts of Scandinavia, Europe and the British Isles from the late 8th century to the 11th century, the period of European history referred to as the Viking Age. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World consisting of the continents of North America[1] and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... A statue of Leif Ericson in front of the Hallgrímskirkja in Reykjavik Leif Ericson (old Icelandic: Leifr Eiríksson) was an explorer, the son of Eric the Red (Eiríkr rauði), a Norwegian outlaw, who was the son of another Norwegian outlaw, Þorvaldr Ásvaldsson. ... Vinland (Old Icelandic: Plain land ) was the name given to an area of North America by the norseman Leif Eiríksson, about the year (AD) 1000. ... Newfoundland —   IPA: [nuw fÉ™n lænd] (French: , Irish: ) is a large island off the east coast of North America, and the most populous part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... For other uses, see Inuit (disambiguation). ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ...


Some Medieval Arabic sources suggest that Muslim explorers from Al-Andalus (Islamic Iberia, comprising modern Spain and Portugal) may have traveled across the Atlantic Ocean to the Americas between the 9th and 14th centuries.[1][2] Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was the century that lasted from 801 to 900. ... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ...


In 1492, a Spanish expedition headed by Christopher Columbus reached the Americas, after which European exploration and colonization rapidly expanded, first through much of the Caribbean Sea region (including the islands of Hispaniola, Puerto Rico (Borinquen) and Cuba) and, early in the 16th century, parts of the mainland of North and South America. Eventually, the entire Western Hemisphere would come under the domination of people of European descent, leading to profound changes to its landscape, population, and plant and animal life. The post-1492 era is known as the period of the Columbian Exchange. Not to be confused with 1492: Conquest of Paradise. ... Christopher Columbus (1451 – May 20, 1506) was a navigator and maritime explorer credited as the discoverer of the Americas. ... Map of Central America and the Caribbean The Caribbean Sea (pronounced or ) is a tropical sea in the Western Hemisphere, part of the Atlantic Ocean, southeast of the Gulf of Mexico. ... Early map of Hispaniola The island of Hispaniola (from Spanish, La Española) is the second-largest island of the Antilles, lying between the islands of Cuba to the west, and Puerto Rico to the east. ... Motto: Joannes Est Nomen Eius (Latin: John is his name) Anthem: La Borinqueña Capital San Juan Largest city San Juan Official languages Spanish, English Government Governor Commonwealth Aníbal Acevedo Vilá Independence None Area  â€¢ Total  â€¢ Water (%)   9,104 km² (Ranked) 1. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... The geographical western hemisphere of Earth, highlighted in yellow. ... Inca-era terraces on Taquile are used to grow traditional Andean staples, such as quinua and potatoes, alongside wheat, a European import. ...


The European and Asian lifestyle included a long history of sharing close quarters with domesticated animals such as cows, pigs, sheep, goats, horses, and various domesticated fowl, which had resulted in epidemic diseases unknown in the Americas. Thus the large-scale contact with Europeans after 1492 introduced novel germs to the indigenous people of the Americas. Epidemics of smallpox (1518, 1521, 1525, 1558, 1589), typhus (1546), influenza (1558), diphtheria (1614) and measles (1618) swept ahead of initial European contact,[3][4] killing between 10 million and 112 million[citation needed] people, about 95% to 98% of the indigenous population.[5][6][7] This population loss and the cultural chaos and political collapses it caused greatly facilitated both colonization of the land and the conquest of the native civilizations.[8] Binomial name Bos taurus Linnaeus, 1758 Rainbow arching over a paddock of cattle Cattle are domesticated ungulates, a member of the subfamily Bovinae of the family Bovidae. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Species See text. ... For the animal, see goat. ... horse, see Horse (disambiguation). ... A fowl is a bird of any kind, although some types of birds use the word specifically in their names (for example, Guineafowl and Peafowl). ... In epidemiology, an epidemic (from [[Latin language] epi- upon + demos people) is a disease that appears as new cases in a given human population, during a given period, at a rate that substantially exceeds what is expected, based on recent experience (the number of new cases in the population during... ... Smallpox (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera) is a contagious disease unique to humans. ... For the unrelated disease caused by Salmonella typhi, see Typhoid fever. ... Influenza, commonly known as flu, is an infectious disease of birds and mammals caused by an RNA virus of the family Orthomyxoviridae (the influenza viruses). ...


Estimates of the population of the Americas at the time Columbus arrived have varied tremendously. This population debate has often had ideological underpinnings. Some have argued that contemporary estimates of a high pre-Columbian indigenous population are rooted in a bias against aspects of Western civilization and/or Christianity. Robert Royal writes that "estimates of pre-Columbian population figures have become heavily politicized with scholars who are particularly critical of Europe often favoring wildly higher figures."[9] Since civilizations rose and fell in the Americas before Columbus arrived, the indigenous population in 1492 was not necessarily at a high point, and may have already been in decline. Indigenous populations in most areas of the Americas reached a low point by the early twentieth century, and in a number of cases started to climb again.[10] An ideology is a collection of ideas. ... For alternative meanings for The West in the United States, see the U.S. West and American West. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... For other uses, see Civilization (disambiguation). ...


The number of deaths caused by European-indigenous warfare has proven difficult to determine. In his book The Wild Frontier: Atrocities during the American-Indian War from Jamestown Colony to Wounded Knee, amateur historian William M. Osborn sought to tally every recorded atrocity in the area that would eventually become the continental United States, from first contact (1511) to the closing of the frontier (1890), and determined that 9,156 people died from atrocities perpetrated by Native Americans, and 7,193 people died from those perpetrated by Europeans. Osborn defines an atrocity as the murder, torture, or mutilation of civilians, the wounded, and prisoners.[11] This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Torture, according to international law, is any act by which severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental, is intentionally inflicted on a person for such purposes as obtaining from him or a third person information or a confession, punishing him for an act he or a third person has...


The first conquests were made by the Spanish and Portuguese. In the 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas, ratified by the Pope, the two kingdoms divided the entire non-European world among themselves, with a line drawn through South America. West of this line, the Spanish rapidly conquered territory, overthrowing the Aztec and Inca Empires to gain control of much of western South America, Central America and Mexico by the mid-16th century, in addition to its earlier Caribbean conquests. Over this same timeframe, Portugal conquered much of eastern South America, naming it Brazil. 1494 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Treaty of Tordesillas (Portuguese: Tratado de Tordesilhas, Spanish: Tratado de Tordesillas), signed at Tordesillas (now in Valladolid province, Spain), June 7, 1494, divided the world outside of Europe into an exclusive duopoly between the Spanish and the Portuguese along a north-south meridian 370 leagues (1550 km) west of... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Pope (from Latin... The word Aztec is usually used as a historical term, although some contemporary Nahuatl speakers would consider themselves Aztecs. ... Capital Cusco 1197-1533 Vilcabamba 1533-1572 Language(s) Quechua, Aymara, Jaqi family, Mochic and scores of smaller languages. ...


Other European nations soon disputed the terms of the Treaty of Tordesillas, which they had not negotiated. England and France attempted to plant colonies in the Americas in the 16th century, but these met with failure. However, in the following century, the two kingdoms, along with the Dutch Republic, succeeded in establishing permanent colonies. Some of these were on Caribbean islands, which had often already been conquered by the Spanish or depopulated by disease, while others were in eastern North America, which had not been colonized by Spain north of Florida. Motto Dieu et mon droit(French) God and my right Territory of the Kingdom of England Capital Winchester; London from 11th century Language(s) Old English (de facto, until 1066) Anglo-Norman language (de jure, 1066 - 15th century) English (de facto, gradually replaced French from late 13th century) Government Monarchy... Map of Dutch Republic by Joannes Janssonius United Netherlands redirects here. ...


Early European possessions in North America included Spanish Florida, the English colonies of Virginia and New England, the French colonies of Acadia and Canada, the Swedish colony of New Sweden, and the Dutch New Netherland. In the 18th century, Denmark-Norway revived its former colonies in Greenland, while the Russian Empire gained a foothold in Alaska. Spanish Florida (Florida Española) refers to the Spanish colony of Florida. ... A map of the Colony of Virginia. ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... The national flag of Acadia, adopted in 1884. ... New Sweden, or Nya Sverige, was a small Swedish settlement along the Delaware River on the Mid-Atlantic coast of North America. ... Map based on Adriaen Blocks 1614 expedition to New Netherland, featuring the first use of the name. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... The Kingdom of Denmark-Norway, consisting of Denmark and Norway, including Norways possessions Iceland, Greenland and the Faroe Islands, is a term used for the two united kingdoms after their amalgamation as one state in 1536. ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... Official language(s) None[1] Spoken language(s) English 85. ...


As more nations gained an interest in the colonization of the Americas, competition for territory became increasingly fierce. Colonists often faced the threat of attacks from neighboring colonies, as well as from indigenous tribes and pirates. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Contents

Early state-sponsored colonists

Further information: Spanish colonization of the AmericasPortugal in the Age of Discovery , and The First European colonization wave (15th century-19th century)

The first phase of European activity in the Americas began with the Atlantic Ocean crossings of Christopher Columbus (1492-1500), sponsored by Spain, whose original attempt was to find a new route to India and China, known as "the Indies." He was followed by other explorers such as John Cabot, who discovered Newfoundland and was sponsored by England. Pedro Alvares Cabral discovered Brazil for Portugal. Amerigo Vespucci, who in voyages from 1497 to 1513 sailing for Spain and Portugal, established that Columbus had discovered a new set of continents. Map makers still use his name, America, for two continents. Other explorers included Giovanni da Verrazzano, sponsored by France, the Portuguese João Vaz Corte-Real in Newfoundland and Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) who explored Canada. In 1513, Vasco Núñez de Balboa crossed the Isthmus of Panama, and led the first European expedition to see the Pacific Ocean from the west coast of the New World. In an action with enduring historical import, Balboa claimed the Pacific Ocean and all the lands adjoining it for the Spanish Crown. It was 1517 before another expedition from Cuba visited Central America, landing on the coast of the Yucatán in search of slaves. The Spanish colonization of the Americas began with the arrival in the Western Hemisphere of Christopher Columbus (Cristóbal Colón) in 1492. ... For additional context, see History of Portugal and Portuguese Empire. ... The first European colonization wave took place from the start of the 15th century until the New Imperialism period in the second part of the 19th century. ... Christopher Columbus (1451 – May 20, 1506) was a navigator and maritime explorer credited as the discoverer of the Americas. ... The Indies, on the display globe of the Field Museum, Chicago, Illinois The Indies or East Indies (or East India) is a term used to describe lands of South and Southeast Asia, occupying all of the former British India, the present Indian Union, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, the Maldives... Giovanni Caboto (c. ... Newfoundland —   IPA: [nuw fÉ™n lænd] (French: , Irish: ) is a large island off the east coast of North America, and the most populous part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Pedro Álvares Cabral (c. ... Amerigo Vespucci Amerigo Vespucci (March 9, 1454 - February 22, 1512) was an Italian merchant, explorer and cartographer. ... Giovanni da Verrazzano (c. ... João Vaz Corte-Real Portuguese explorer (Canada) 15th century João Vaz Corte-Real (pron. ... Newfoundland —   IPA: [nuw fÉ™n lænd] (French: , Irish: ) is a large island off the east coast of North America, and the most populous part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... A much-reproduced fictional portrait of Champlain by Théophile Hamel (1870) (no authentic portrait has survived)[1]) Samuel de Champlain , the father of New France, was born around 1580 in the town of Brouage, a seaport on Frances west coast. ... Vasco Núñez de Balboa Vasco Núñez de Balboa (1475–January 15, 1519) was a Spanish explorer, governor, and conquistador. ... The Isthmus of Panama. ... The west coast of North America consists of the modern American states of California, Oregon, Washington, British Columbia, and arguably Alaska and parts of the Yukon. ... For other uses, see Central America (disambiguation). ... The Spanish Conquest of Yucatán was the campaign undertaken by the Spanish conquistadores against the Late Postclassic Maya states and polities, particularly in the northern and central Yucatán Peninsula but also involving the Maya polities of the Guatemalan highlands region. ...

Spanish and Portuguese Empires in the period of their personal union (1581-1640).
Spanish and Portuguese Empires in the period of their personal union (1581-1640).

These explorations were followed, notably in the case of Spain, by a phase of conquest: The Spaniards, having just finished the Reconquista of Iberian Peninsula from Muslim rule, were the first to colonize the Americas, applying the same model of governing to the former Al-Andalus as to their territories of the New World. Ten years after Columbus's discovery, the administration of Hispaniola was given to Nicolas de Ovando of the Order of Alcántara, founded during the Reconquista. As in the Iberian Peninsula, the inhabitants of Hispaniola were given new landmasters, while religious orders handled the local administration. Progressively the encomienda system, which granted land to European settlers, was set in place. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 370 pixelsFull resolution (1357 × 628 pixel, file size: 38 KB, MIME type: image/png) A map of the Spanish and Portuguese Empires in the period of their personal union (1581-1640). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 370 pixelsFull resolution (1357 × 628 pixel, file size: 38 KB, MIME type: image/png) A map of the Spanish and Portuguese Empires in the period of their personal union (1581-1640). ... For other senses of this word, see Reconquista (disambiguation). ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ... Early map of Hispaniola The island of Hispaniola (from Spanish, La Española) is the second-largest island of the Antilles, lying between the islands of Cuba to the west, and Puerto Rico to the east. ... This article has been rewritten to resolve copyright issues. ... Alcántara, a town on the Tagus (here crossed by a bridge--cantara in Arab, whence the name), is situated in the plain of Extremadura, a great field of conflict for the Moslems and Christians of Spain in the twelfth century. ... The encomienda system was a trusteeship labor system used during the Spanish colonization of the Americas. ...


A relatively small number of conquistadores conquered vast territories, aided by disease epidemics and divisions among native ethnic groups. Mexico was conquered by Hernán Cortés in 1519-1521, while the conquest of the Inca, by Francisco Pizarro, occurred from 1532-35. Conquistador (meaning Conqueror in the Spanish language) is the term used to refer to the soldiers, explorers, and adventurers who brought much of the Americas under Spanish rule between the 15th and 17th centuries. ... Aztec empire The Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire was one of the most important campaigns in the Spanish colonization of America. ... Hernán(do) Cortés Pizarro, 1st Marqués del Valle de Oaxaca (1485–December 2, 1547) was the conquistador who became famous for leading the military expedition that initiated the Spanish Conquest of Mexico. ... The Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire was a process through which a group of Spaniards led by Francisco Pizarro succeeded in toppling the Inca Empire in the early 16th-century. ... “Pizarro” redirects here. ...


Over the first century and a half after Columbus's voyages, the native population of the Americas plummeted by an estimated 80% (from around 50 million in 1492 to eight million in 1650 [12]), mostly by outbreaks of Old World diseases but also by several massacres and forced labour (the mita was re-established in the old Inca Empire, and the tequitl — equivalent of the mita — in the Aztec Empire). The conquistadores progressively replaced the native American oligarchies, in part through miscegenation with the local elites. In 1532, Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor imposed a vice-king to Mexico, Antonio de Mendoza, in order to prevent Cortes' independantist drives, who definitively returned to Spain in 1540. Two years later, Charles V signed the New Laws (which replaced the Laws of Burgos of 1512) prohibiting slavery and the repartimientos, but also claiming as his own all the American lands and all of the autochthonous people as his own subjects. Millions of indigenous people lived in the Americas when the 1492 voyage of Christopher Columbus began an historical period of large-scale European contact with the Americas. ... The Old World consists of those parts of Earth known to Europeans, Asians, and Africans before the voyages of Christopher Columbus; it includes Europe, Asia, and Africa (collectively known as Africa-Eurasia), plus surrounding islands. ... In medicine, infectious disease or communicable disease is disease caused by a biological agent (e. ... In the history of the European colonization of North America, the term Indian massacre was often used to describe either mass killings of Europeans by indigenous people of the North American continent (Indians) or mass killings of indigenous peoples by Europeans. ... Mita was mandatory public service by society in ancient South America. ... Capital Cusco 1197-1533 Vilcabamba 1533-1572 Language(s) Quechua, Aymara, Jaqi family, Mochic and scores of smaller languages. ... The word Aztec is usually used as a historical term, although some contemporary Nahuatl speakers would consider themselves Aztecs. ... Frederick Douglass with his second wife Helen Pitts Douglass (sitting) who was white, a famous 19th century American example of miscegenation. The woman standing is her sister Eva Pitts. ... For the Carlist claimant King Carlos V, see Infante Carlos, Count of Molina. ... Don Antonio de Mendoza, conde de Tendilla, was the first Viceroy of New Spain, serving from 1535 - 1550. ... During the Spanish colonization of the Americas, the New Laws of 1542 were created to prevent the exploitation of the indigenous people by the encomenderos. ... The document known as the Leyes de Burgos (Laws of Burgos) was promulgated on December 27, 1512 in Burgos, Spain. ... The Repartimiento de Labor was a colonial labor system imposed upon the indigenous population of Spanish America and the Philippines. ...


When in May 1493, the Pope Alexander VI enacted the Inter caetera bull granting the new lands to the Kingdom of Spain, he requested in exchange an evangelization of the people. Thus, during Columbus's second voyage, Benedictine friars accompanied him, along with twelve other priests. As slavery was prohibited between Christians, and could only be imposed in non-Christian prisoners of war or on men already sold as slaves, the debate on Christianization was particularly acute during the 16th century. In 1537, the papal bull Sublimis Deus recognized that Native Americans possessed souls, thus prohibiting their enslavement, without putting an end to the debate. Some claimed that a native who had rebelled and then been captured could be enslaved nonetheless. Later, the Valladolid controversy opposed the Dominican priest Bartolomé de Las Casas to the Jesuit Juan Ginés de Sepúlveda, the first one arguing that Native Americans were beings doted with souls, as all other human beings, while the latter argued to the contrary and justified their enslavement. The process of Christianization was at first violent: when the first Franciscans arrived in Mexico in 1524, they burned the places dedicated to pagan cult, alienating much of the local population [13]. In the 1530s, they began to adapt Christian practices to local customs, including the building of new churches on the sites of ancient places of worship, leading to a mix of Old World Christianity with local religions [13]. The Spanish Roman Catholic Church, needing the natives' labor and cooperation, evangelized in Quechua, Nahuatl, Guarani and other Native American languages, contributing to the expansion of these indigenous languages and equipping some of them with writing systems. One of the first primitive schools for Native Americans was founded by Fray Pedro de Gante in 1523. Alexander VI, né Rodrigo Borgia (January 1, 1431 - August 18, 1503) pope (1492-1503), is the most memorable of the secular popes of the Renaissance. ... Inter caetera (Among other [works]) was a papal bull issued by Pope Alexander VI on May 4, 1493, which granted to Spain (the Crowns of Castile and Aragon) all lands to the west and south of a pole-of-pole line 100 leagues (418 km) west and south of any... The Roman Catholic Church, in particular the Jesuit Order, has had an important role in European colonialism, in particular through the aim of evangelization of primitive people. Proselytism has continued through-out the 20th century, with Latin America accounting for the largest Catholic population in the world. ... Christopher Columbus (1451 – May 20, 1506) was a navigator and maritime explorer credited as the discoverer of the Americas. ... For the college, see Benedictine College. ... Slavery in medieval Europe was the keeping of people in slavery in Europe during the Middle Ages. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... On June 2, 1537, Pope Paul III promulgated the encyclical Sublimis Deus (Veritas Ipsa), which declares the natives of the New World to be rational beings with souls who must not be enslaved or robbed. ... The soul, according to many religious and philosophical traditions, is the self-aware essence unique to a particular living being. ... The Valladolid Debate (1550 to 1551) was a debate between protagonists of two opposing attitudes towards the Conquests of the New Worlds, speculation over the humanity of natives of the New World and related subjects. ... Bartolomé de las Casas This article is about a Spanish priest in the 16th century. ... Juan Ginés de Sepúlveda (1494 - 1573) was a Spanish philosopher and theologian. ... The Order of Friars Minor and other Franciscan movements are disciples of Saint Francis of Assisi. ... The Roman Catholic Church in Spain is part of the worldwide Roman Catholic Church, under the spiritual leadership of the Pope and curia in Rome. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Quechuan languages. ... Nahuatl ( [1] is a term applied to a group of related languages and dialects of the Aztecan [2] branch of the Uto-Aztecan language family, indigenous to central Mexico. ... Guaraní (local name: avañeẽ ) is an Amerindian language of South America that belongs to the Tupí-Guaraní subfamily. ... Indigenous languages of the Americas (or Amerindian Languages) are spoken by indigenous peoples from the southern tip of South America to Alaska and Greenland, encompassing the land masses which constitute the Americas. ... Fray Pedro de Gante Fray Pieter van der Moere, also known as Fray Pedro de Gante or Pedro de Mura (ca. ...


To reward their troops, the Conquistadores often allotted Indian towns to their troops and officers. Black African slaves were introduced to substitute for Native American labor in some locations - most notably the West Indies, where the indigenous population was nearing extinction on many islands. Slave redirects here. ...


During this time, the Portuguese gradually switched from an initial plan of establishing trading posts to extensive colonization of what is now Brazil. They imported millions of slaves to run their plantations. A trading post is a place where trading of goods takes place. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Colonialism. ...


The Spanish and Portuguese royal governments expected to rule these settlements and collect at least 20% of all treasure found (the Quinto Real collected by the Casa de Contratación), in addition to collecting all the taxes they could. The Quinto Real or the Quinto del rey, the Kings fifth, was a 20% tax established in 1504 that Spain levied on income related to mineral working and precious metal mining in central and south America. ... La Casa de Contratación (The House of Trade) was a government agency under the Spanish Empire of the 16th and 17th centuries, which attempted to control all Spanish exploration and colonization. ...


Economic immigrants

Many immigrants to the American colonies came for economic reasons. Inspired by the Spanish riches from colonies founded upon the conquest of the Aztecs, Incas, and other large Native American populations in the sixteenth century, the first Englishmen to settle in America hoped for some of the same rich discoveries when they first established a settlement in Jamestown, Virginia. They were sponsored by common stock companies such as the Virginia Charter Company financed by wealthy Englishmen who understood the economic potential of this new land. The main purpose of this colony was the hope of finding gold or the possibility (or impossibility) of finding a passage through the Americas to the Indies. It took strong leaders, like John Smith, to convince the colonists of Jamestown that searching for gold was not taking care of their immediate needs for food and shelter and that "he who shall not work shall not eat." (A direction based on text from the King James Version of the New Testament.) The extremely high mortality rate was quite distressing and cause for despair among the colonists. Tobacco quickly became a cash crop for export and the sustaining economic driver of Virginia and nearby colonies like Maryland. Immigration is the act of moving to or settling in another country or region, temporarily or permanently. ... Economics (deriving from the Greek words οίκω [okos], house, and νέμω [nemo], rules hence household management) is the social science that studies the allocation of scarce resources to satisfy unlimited wants. ... The word Aztec is usually used as a historical term, although some contemporary Nahuatl speakers would consider themselves Aztecs. ... For other meanings of Inca, see Inca (disambiguation). ... Brazilian Indian chiefs The scope of this indigenous peoples of the Americas article encompasses the definitions of indigenous peoples and the Americas as established in their respective articles. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into articles entitled Jamestown Settlement. ... Common stock, also referred to as common shares, are, as the name implies, the most usual and commonly held form of stock in a corporation. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... Statue at Jamestown VA, photo Aug 2007 John Smith (1580–June 21, 1631), was an English soldier, sailor, and author. ... This page is about the version of the Bible; for the Harvey Danger album, see King James Version (album). ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... Shredded tobacco leaf for pipe smoking Tobacco can also be pressed into plugs and sliced into flakes Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in genus Nicotiana. ...


From the beginning of Virginia's settlements in 1587 until the 1680s, the main source of labour and a large portion of the immigrants were indentured servants looking for new life in the overseas colonies. During the 17th century, indentured servants constituted three-quarters of all European immigrants to the Chesapeake region. Most of the indentured servants were English farmers who had been pushed off their lands due to the expansion of livestock raising, the enclosure of land, and overcrowding in the countryside. This unfortunate turn of events served as a push for thousands of people (mostly single men) away from their situation in England. There was hope, however, as American landowners were in need of labourers and were willing to pay for a labourer’s passage to America if they served them for several years. By selling passage for five to seven years worth of work they could hope to start out on their own in America. Indetured servitude is when a persons passage to America is payed for an American Colonist and then the foreigner must work for the american for a certain amount of time (usually 7 years) and then the person is free to do what they please. ... For other uses, see Enclosure (disambiguation). ...


In the French colonial regions, the focus of economy was the fur trade with the natives. Farming was set up primarily to provide subsistence only, although cod and other fish of the Grand Banks were a major export and source of income for the French and many other European nations. The fur trade was also practiced by the Russians on the northwest coast of North America. After the French and Indian War, the English captured virtually all French possessions in North America, leaving only the islands of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon to France. An Alberta fur trader in the 1890s. ... A Sioux in traditional dress including war bonnet, circa 1908. ... the world is coming to the end!!!!! cod is going to eat up alive and do us hard up the emmm. ... Map showing the Grand Banks Historic map of the Grand Banks. ... Combatants France First Nations allies: Algonquin Lenape Wyandot Ojibwa Ottawa Shawnee Great Britain American Colonies Iroquois Confederacy Strength 3,900 regulars 7,900 militia 2,200 natives (1759) 50,000 regulars and militia (1759) Casualties 3,000 killed, wounded or captured 10,400 killed, wounded or captured The French and... Motto: A Mare Labor(Latin) From the Sea, Work[] Anthem: La Marseillaise Capital (and largest city) Saint-Pierre Official languages French Government  - President of the General Council Stéphane Artano  - Préfet (Prefect) Yves Fauqueur Collectivité doutre-mera of France   - ceded by the UKe 30 May 1814   - Territoire d...


Religious immigration

Other groups of colonists came to America searching for the right to practice their religion without persecution. After the Protestant Reformation of the sixteenth century, King Henry VIII's renunciation of the Catholic Church, and the publication of the Bible in English, many began to question the organization of the existing Church of England. One of the primary manifestations of this was the "Puritan" movement, which wanted to "purify" the existing Church of England of its many residual Catholic rites that they believed had no mention in the Bible. Religious persecution is systematic mistreatment of an individual or group due to their religious affiliation. ... “Reformation” redirects here. ... Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England and Lord of Ireland (later King of Ireland) from 22 April 1509 until his death. ... “Catholic Church” redirects here. ... The Church of England logo since 1998 The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... For the record label, see Puritan Records. ...


As the English monarch, Charles I tried to impose his belief in the right of "Divine Right of Kings" to do as he pleased. Ministers and many people in England had a strong feeling of persecution. Crackdowns by the English Church led to the migration of about 20,000 Puritans to New England from about 1629 to 1642. One other manifestation was the English Civil War (1642-1650) that led to Charles I's capture and beheading under Puritan Oliver Cromwell. Pennsylvania was given to William Penn in settlement of a debt the king owed his father. Its government was set up by William Penn in about 1682 to become primarily a refuge for persecuted English Quakers; but others were welcomed. Baptists, Quakers and German and Swiss Protestants flocked to Pennsylvania. Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England, King of Scotland and King of Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. ... For other uses, see English Civil War (disambiguation). ... Oliver Cromwell (25 April 1599 – 3 September 1658) was an English military and political leader best known for his involvement in making England, Scotland and Ireland into a republican Commonwealth and for the brutal war exercised in his conquest of Ireland. ... Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Area  Ranked 33rd  - Total 46,055 sq mi (119,283 km²)  - Width 280 miles (455 km)  - Length 160 miles (255 km)  - % water 2. ... For other uses, see William Penn (disambiguation). ... The Religious Society of Friends, commonly known as Quakers, or Friends, is a religious community founded in England in the 17th century. ... Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Area  Ranked 33rd  - Total 46,055 sq mi (119,283 km²)  - Width 280 miles (455 km)  - Length 160 miles (255 km)  - % water 2. ...


The lure of cheap land, religious freedom and the right to improve themselves with their own hand was very attractive to those who wished to escape from persecution and poverty. In America, all these groups gradually worked out a way to live together peacefully and cooperatively in the roughly 150 years preceding the American Revolution. John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen...


Roman Catholics were the first major religious group to immigrate to the New World, as settlers in the colonies of Spain and Portugal (and later, France) were required to belong to that faith. English and Dutch colonies, on the other hand, tended to be more religiously diverse. Settlers to these colonies included Anglicans, Dutch Calvinists, English Puritans, English Catholics, Scottish Presbyterians, French Huguenots, German and Swedish Lutherans, Quakers, Mennonites, Amish, Moravians, and Jews. The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Frontispiece of Peter Martyr dAnghieras De orbe novo (On the New World). Carte dAmérique, Guillaume Delisle, 1722. ... The term Anglican describes those people and churches following the religious traditions of the Church of England, especially following the Reformation. ... In an unadorned church, the 17th century congregation stands to hear the sermon. ... The Puritans were members of a group of radical Protestants which developed in England after the Reformation. ... Presbyterianism is part of the Reformed churches family of denominations of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin which traces its institutional roots to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. ... From the 16th to the 18th century the name Huguenot was applied to a member of the Protestant Reformed Church of France, historically known as the French Calvinists. ... The Lutheran movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity by the original definition. ... The Religious Society of Friends, commonly known as Quakers, or Friends, is a religious community founded in England in the 17th century. ... The Mennonites are a group of Christian Anabaptist denominations based on the teachings and tradition of Menno Simons. ... This article is about Old Order Amish, but also refers to other Amish sects. ... A Moravian can be: an ethnic group a Christian denomination This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Forced Immigration

Main article: Atlantic slave trade

Slavery existed in America, prior to the presence of Europeans, as the Natives often captured and held other tribe's members as captives. Some of these captives were even forced to undergo human sacrifice under some tribes, such as the Aztecs. The Spanish followed with the enslavement of local aborigines in the Caribbean. As the native populations declined from mostly disease, and significantly from forced exploitation and careless murder, they were often replaced by Africans imported through a large commercial slave trade. By the 18th century, the overwhelming number of black slaves was such that Native American slavery was less common. Africans, who were taken aboard slave ships to the Americas, were primarily obtained from their African homelands by coastal tribes who captured and sold them. The high incidence of nearly always fatal disease, to Europeans, kept nearly all slave capture activities confined to native African tribes. Rum, guns and gun powder were some of the major trade items traded for slaves. Approximately three to four hundred thousand in all, black slaves kept streaming into the ports of Charleston, South Carolina and Newport, Rhode Island until about 1810. The total slave trade to islands in the Caribbean, Brazil, Mexico and to the United States is estimated to have been between 10 and 28 million slaves.[14] In addition to African slaves, poor Europeans were brought over in substantial numbers as indentured servants, particularly in the British Thirteen colonies.[15] The Atlantic slave trade was the trade of African slaves by Europeans that occurred in and around the Atlantic Ocean. ... Slave redirects here. ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World consisting of the continents of North America[1] and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... The European peoples are the various nations and ethnic groups of Europe. ... The word Aztec is usually used as a historical term, although some contemporary Nahuatl speakers would consider themselves Aztecs. ... Native Americans redirects here. ... “West Indian” redirects here. ... World map showing location of Africa A satellite composite image of Africa Africa is the worlds second_largest continent in both area and population, after Asia. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Nickname: Motto: Aedes Mores Juraque Curat (She cares for her temples, customs, and rights) Location of Charleston in South Carolina. ... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston(1670-1789) Columbia(1790-present) Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude... Newport is a city in Newport County, Rhode Island, United States, about 30 miles (48 km) south of Providence. ... “West Indian” redirects here. ... An indentured servant (also called a bonded laborer) is a labourer under contract to work for an employer for a specific amount of time, usually two to seven years, to pay off a passage to a new country or home. ... In 1775, the British claimed authority over the red and pink areas on this map and Spain ruled the orange. ...


See also

The last map of the Spanish Empire (1492-1898). ... Francisco Vásquez de Coronado (ca. ... Hernán(do) Cortés Pizarro, 1st Marqués del Valle de Oaxaca (1485–December 2, 1547) was the conquistador who became famous for leading the military expedition that initiated the Spanish Conquest of Mexico. ... “Pizarro” redirects here. ... Martín de Argüelles, Jr. ... The Spanish Conquest of Yucatán was the campaign undertaken by the Spanish conquistadores against the Late Postclassic Maya states and polities, particularly in the northern and central Yucatán Peninsula but also involving the Maya polities of the Guatemalan highlands region. ... The Treaty of Tordesillas (Portuguese: Tratado de Tordesilhas, Spanish: Tratado de Tordesillas), signed at Tordesillas (now in Valladolid province, Spain), June 7, 1494, divided the world outside of Europe into an exclusive duopoly between the Spanish and the Portuguese along a north-south meridian 370 leagues (1550 km) west of... The Treaty of Alcaçovas (also known as Treaty or Peace of Alcaçovas-Toledo) was signed between the kingdoms of Castile (Castilla, Spain) and Portugal on September 4, 1479 that put an end to the War of the Castilian Succession, a civil war begun in 1474 over the succession... map of New Spain in red, with territories claimed but not controlled in orange. ... In the History of Brazil, Colonial Brazil comprises the period from 1500, with the arrival of the Portuguese, until 1822, when Brazil became independent from Portugal. ... Created in 1542, the Viceroyalty of Peru (in Spanish, Virreinato del Perú) contained most of Spanish-ruled South America until the creation of the separate viceroyalties of New Granada (now Colombia, Ecuador, Panamá and Venezuela, the last-named previously in the Viceroyalty of New Spain) in 1717 and Río... The Monument to the Bandeiras, a stone sculpture group by Victor Brecheret, located in São Paulo, Brazil Bandeirantes were participants in the Bandeiras, expeditions organised by the inhabitants of the then poor village of São Paulo dos Campos de Piratininga together with allied Indians to enslave other Indians... Conquistadors (Spanish: []) (English: Conqueror) were Spanish soldiers, explorers and adventurers who invaded and conquered much of the Americas and Asia Pacific, bringing them under Spanish colonial rule between the 15th and 19th centuries, starting with the 1492 settlement by Christopher Columbus in what is now the Dominican Republic and Haiti. ... The Atlantic world is an organizing concept for the historical study of the Atlantic Ocean rim from the fifteenth century to the present. ... It has been suggested that Benign colonialism be merged into this article or section. ... 2000 Census Population Ancestry Map Immigration to the United States of America is the movement of non-residents to the United States, and has been a major source of population growth and cultural change throughout much of the American history even though the foreign born have never been more than... The Romanus Pontifex[1] is a papal bull written January 8, 1455 by Pope Nicholas V to King Afonso V of Portugal. ... Inter caetera (Among other [works]) was a papal bull issued by Pope Alexander VI on May 4, 1493, which granted to Spain (the Crowns of Castile and Aragon) all lands to the west and south of a pole-of-pole line 100 leagues (418 km) west and south of any... Inca-era terraces on Taquile are used to grow traditional Andean staples, such as quinua and potatoes, alongside wheat, a European import. ... Native Americans redirects here. ... Millions of indigenous people lived in the Americas when the 1492 voyage of Christopher Columbus began an historical period of large-scale European contact with the Americas. ... The west coast of North America consists of the modern American states of California, Oregon, Washington, British Columbia, and arguably Alaska and parts of the Yukon. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Tabish Khair (2006). Other Routes: 1500 Years of African and Asian Travel Writing, p. 12. Signal Books. ISBN 1904955118.
  2. ^ Dr. Youssef Mroueh (2003). Pre-Columbian Muslims in the Americas. Media Monitors Network.
  3. ^ ,American Indian Epidemics
  4. ^ Smallpox: Eradicating the Scourge
  5. ^ Smallpox's history in the world
  6. ^ The Story Of... Smallpox
  7. ^ Smallpox: The Disease That Destroyed Two Empires
  8. ^ 1491: New Revelations of the Americas Before Columbus (ISBN 1-4000-4006-X), Charles C. Mann, Knopf, 2005.
  9. ^ Jennings, p. 83; Royal's quote
  10. ^ Thornton, p. xvii, 36.
  11. ^ The Wild Frontier: Atrocities During The American-Indian War
  12. ^ "La catastrophe démographique" (The Demographical Catastrophe) in L'Histoire n°322, July-August 2007, p.17
  13. ^ a b "Espagnols-Indiens: le choc des civilisations", in L'Histoire n°322, July-August 2007, pp.14- 21 (interview with Christian Duverger, teacher at the EHESS)
  14. ^ BBC News | AFRICA | Focus on the slave trade
  15. ^ The curse of Cromwell

Charles C. Mann (fl. ... LHistoire is a monthly mainstream French magazine dedicated to historical studies, recognized by peers as the most important historical popular magazine (as opposed to specifics university journals or less scientific popular historical magazines). ... LHistoire is a monthly mainstream French magazine dedicated to historical studies, recognized by peers as the most important historical popular magazine (as opposed to specifics university journals or less scientific popular historical magazines). ... The École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales (or School for Advanced Studies in the Social Sciences, also known as EHESS) is a French institution for research and higher education, a Grand Établissement. ...

References

  • De Roo, Peter (1900). History of America before Columbus : according to documents and approved authors, Philadelphia : J.B. Lippincott, 1900, vol. 1: American Aboriginies vol. 2: European ImmigrantsGoogle Books
  • Starkey, Armstrong (1998). European-Native American Warfare, 1675-1815. University of Oklahoma Press

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