This was followed, notably in the case of Spain, by a phase of conquest: The Spaniards (just having finished a war against the Muslims in the Iberian peninsula) replaced the Amerindian local oligarchies and impose a new religion: Christianity. European diseases and cruel systems of work (the famous haciendas and mining industry) decimated the Amerindian population. African Negroslaves were introduced to substitute the Amerindian. On the other hand, the Spaniards did not impose their language in the same measure and the Catholic Church even evangelized in Quechua, Nahuatl and Guarani, contributing to the expansion of these Amerindian languages and equipping them with writing systems. One of the first school for Amerindians was founded by Fray Pedro de Gante en 1523.
In the British and French regions, the focus of economy soon shifted from resource extraction to trading with the natives. This was also practiced by the Russians in the northwest coast of North America. After the French and Indian War, Great Britain captured all French possessions in North America.
Slavery under European rule began with importation of white European slaves (or indentured servants), was followed by the enslavement of local aborigines in the Caribbean, and eventually was primarily replaced with Africans imported through a large slave trade as the native populations declined through disease. But by the 18th century, the overwhelming number of black slaves was such that white and Native American slavery was less common.
Italian Cristoforo Colombo Spanish Cristobal Colon (born between Aug. 26 and Oct. 31?, 1451, Genoadied May 20, 1506, Valladolid, Spain) Genoese navigator and explorer whose transatlantic voyages opened the way for European exploration, exploitation, and colonization of the Americas.
Colonization as subtext in James Welch's Winter in the Blood.
Notes on the comparative study of the colonial Americas: further reflections of the Tucson Summit.
The European Union, comprising 25 member states, is the largest political and economic entity covering the European continent, with the Russian Federation being the second (excluding the portions of Russia historically considered to be in Asia).
European integration has been a theme in European relations since the end of the second World War and has spread to Eastern Europe since the end of the Cold War.
Important European herbivores are snails, amphibians, fish, different birds, and mammals, like rodents, deers and roe deers, boars, and living in the mountains, marmots, steinbocks, chamoises among others.
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