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Encyclopedia > European Union legislative procedure
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European Union
Politics is the process by which decisions are made within groups. ...



This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
the European Union
Image File history File links European_flag. ... |- |} The European Union or EU is a supranational and intergovernmental union of 25 European states. ...

Three pillars The Treaty of Maastricht which established the European Union, divided EU policies into three main areas, called pillars. ...

Pillar I: European Community
Pillar II: Common Foreign and Sec. Policy
Pillar III: Police and Judicial Cooperation

Political Institutions The European Community (EC), most important of three European Communities, was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... The Common Foreign and Security Policy or CFSP was established as the second of the three pillars of the European Union in the Maastricht treaty of 1992, and further defined and broadened in the Amsterdam Treaty of 1997. ... Police and Judicial Co-operation in Criminal Matters is the third of the three pillars of the European Union, focusing on co-operation in law enforcement and combating racism. ...

Commission
President (José Barroso)
Barroso Commission
Council of Ministers & European Council
Presidency (Austria)
Parliament
President (Josep Borrell)
MEPs
Party groups
Constituencies
Elections (2004 / By country)

Judiciary The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive body of the European Union. ... The President of the European Commission is notionally the highest ranking unelected official within the European Union. ... This article needs to be updated. ... The Barroso Commission is the European Commission that has been in office since 22 November 2004 and is due to serve until 31 October 2009. ... The Council of the European Union forms, along with the European Parliament, the legislative arm of the European Union (EU). ... The European Council, informally called the European summit, is a meeting of the heads of state or government of the European Union, and the President of the European Commission. ... Presidency of the Council of the European Union refers to the responsibility of presiding over all aspects of the Council of the European Union, when exercised collectively by a government, on a pre-established rota of the member states, of the European Union. ... The European Parliament is the parliamentary body of the European Union (EU), directly elected by EU citizens once every five years. ... The President of the European Parliament oversees all the activities of the European Parliament and its constituent bodies. ... Josep Borrell Josep Borrell Fontelles (born April 24, 1947) is a Spanish politician. ... A Member of the European Parliament (English abbreviation MEP) is a member of the European Unions directly-elected legislative body, the European Parliament. ... Party groups in the European Parliament combine the MEPs from European political parties, informal European political blocs, and independents. ... In five European Union Member States (Belgium, France, Ireland, Italy and the United Kingdom), the national territory is divided into a number of constituencies for European elections. ... Elections in the European Union gives information on election and election results in the European Union. ... Elections to the European Parliament were held from June 10, 2004 to June 13, 2004 in the 25 member states of the European Union, using varying election days according to local custom. ...

Court of Justice
Court of First Instance
Civil Service Tribunal
Patent Tribunal

Advisory bodies The European Court of Justice (ECJ) is formally known as the Court of Justice of the European Communities, i. ... The Court of First Instance, created in 1989, is a court of the European Union. ...

Economic and Social Committee
Committee of the Regions

Financial bodies The European Unions Economic and Social Committee is the consultative assembly of European social and economic partners. This phrase refers mainly to representatives of business, employers and trade unions. ... The Committee of the Regions (CoR) is an institution of the European Union created by the Treaty of Maastricht. ...

European Central Bank
European Investment Bank
European Investment Fund

Decentralised bodies The ECB building in Frankfurt, with the Euro sculpture in the foreground. ... The European Investment Bank (the Banque Européenne dInvestissement) is the European Unions financing institution and was established under the Treaty of Rome (1957) to provide loan finance for capital investment furthering European Union policy objectives, in particular regional development, Trans-European Networks of transport, telecommunications and energy... The European Investment Fund, established in 1994, is a European Union agency for the provision of finance to SMEs (small and medium-sized enterprises). ...

Agencies of the EU

Law The agencies of the European Union (or decentralised bodies of the European Union) are bodies which are distinct from the European Unions institutions, in that they have not been created by the treaties but rather by acts of secondary legislation, in order to accomplish a very specific task. ... The European Union is unique among international organisations in having a complex and highly developed system of internal law which has direct effect within the legal systems of its member states. ...

Acquis communautaire
Procedure
Treaties
Regulations -Directives- Decisions
Recommendations -Opinions

EU-related topics The French term acquis (or sometimes acquis communautaire) is used in European Union law to refer to the total body of EU law accumulated so far. ... The treaties of the European Union are effectively its constitutional law, making up the EUs primary legislation. ... A European Union Directive is the (mutally binding) collective decision made by the member states, acting through their national Government Ministers in the Council of the European Union and the Parliament. ... A European Union decision (defined in Article 249/EC) is one of the three binding instruments provide by secondary EU legislation. ... In European Union Law a recommendation Differs from regulations, directives and decisions, in that they are not binding for Member States. ... European Union. ...

Economic and Monetary Union
Enlargement
Pan-European political parties
Table of affiliated parties by country

This article covers the EMU of the European Union. ... The European Union (EU) was originally created by the six founding states in 1952, but has grown to its current size of 25 member states. ... A European political party, or formally a political party at European level, is a type of political party organization in the European Union, eligible to receive funding from the Union. ... The majority of major political parties in Europe have aligned themselves into the pan-European political organisations listed below. ...

The European Union legislative procedure describes the way the European Union creates and enacts legislation across the community. Legislation refers to the process of enacting statutory laws, or to the set of statutory laws in a state. ...

Contents


Roles of the institutions

The three main institutions of the European Union each have a role to play in the legislative procedure. European Union. ...

  • The European Commission proposes and drafts legislation, but it cannot decide on laws. As the executive arm of the Union, it is also responsible for implementing some measures once they have been passed.
  • The Council of Ministers and the European Parliament jointly form the legislative arm of the Union. They are responsible for formulating and adopting all European laws, with the power jointly to accept, amend or reject proposals drafted by the Commission. The respective roles played by Council and Parliament depend on the legislative procedure being used.

The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive body of the European Union. ... The Council of the European Union forms, along with the European Parliament, the legislative arm of the European Union (EU). ... The European Parliament is the parliamentary body of the European Union (EU), directly elected by EU citizens once every five years. ...

Legislative procedures

There are three main legislative procedures in the EU: the codecision procedure, the cooperation procedure, and the assent procedure. Of these, the codecision procedure is the most common, covering about 80% of all legislation.


The choice of procedure used for each specific legislative proposal depends on the policy area of the proposal in question. For instance, consumer protection legislation is always decided using the codecision procedure. The rules governing which procedure applies to which policy area are laid down in the Treaties of the European Union. The treaties of the European Union are effectively its constitutional law, making up the EUs primary legislation. ...


There is a fourth procedure, the consultation procedure, which was historically important but today is used only for decisions about treaties and enlargement of the Union. The European Union (EU) was originally created by the six founding states in 1952, but has grown to its current size of 25 member states. ...


Codecision procedure

Main article: Codecision procedure

The codecision procedure is the main legislative procedure by which European laws are adopted. This procedure gives the European Parliament the power to adopt legislation jointly with the Council of the European Union, requiring the two bodies to agree on an identical text before any proposal can become law. The codecision procedure is the main legislative procedure by which law can be adopted in the European Community, the first of the three pillars of the European Union. ... The European Parliament is the parliamentary body of the European Union (EU), directly elected by EU citizens once every five years. ... The Council of the European Union forms, along with the European Parliament, the legislative arm of the European Union (EU). ...


If the two institutions are unable to reach agreement, a conciliation committee is set up with an equal number of members from both Parliament and Council. The committee attempts to negotiate a compromise text which must then be approved by both institutions.


Both Parliament and Council have the power to reject a proposal either at second reading or following conciliation, causing the proposal to fall. The Commission may also withdraw its proposal at any time. The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive body of the European Union. ...


The codecision procedure was introduzed with the Maastricht Treaty (1993). Its scope was expanded considerably by the Treaty of Amsterdam (1997) and the Treaty of Nice (2001), with the result today that about 80% of all European Union policy areas are subject to codecision. (This proportion would have increased further, to virtually all areas, if the European constitution had entered into force.) The Maastricht Treaty (formally, the Treaty on European Union) was signed on 7 February 1992 in Maastricht between the members of the European Community and entered into force on 1 November 1993, under the Delors Commission. ... The Amsterdam Treaty (in full: Treaty of Amsterdam amending the Treaty of the European Union, the Treaties establishing the European Communities and certain related acts) which was signed on October 2, 1997, and entered into force on May 1, 1999, made substantial changes to the Treaty on European Union which... Nice Treaty The Treaty of Nice is a treaty adopted in Nice by the European Council to amend the two founding treaties of the European Union: the Treaty on European Union, or Maastricht Treaty, which introduced the Euro and the 3-pillar structure of the EU; the Treaty of Rome... The Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe, commonly referred to as the European Constitution, is an international treaty intended to create a constitution for the European Union. ...


Assent procedure

Main article: Assent procedure

Under this procedure, the Council of the European Union must obtain Parliament's assent before certain important decisions can be taken. Hence, Parliament has the power to accept or reject a proposal, and its rejection of a proposal is final. However, Parliament does not have the power to make amendments. The assent procedure is one of the legislative procedures of the European Community, the 1st of the Three pillars of the European Union. ...


Cooperation procedure

Main article: Cooperation procedure

The cooperation procedure is a rarely-used procedure according to which the European Parliament is allowed two readings of legislative proposals, but does not have the final say about which amendments become law, this power being reserved by Council. The Cooperation procedure was one of the legislative procedures of the European Community, the 1st of the three pillars of the European Union. ...


Historically, this procedure was more widely used, but recent treaty revisions have de-emphasized it in favour of the far more common codecision procedure. Today, the cooperation procedure applies only to certain aspects of economic and monetary union law. The codecision procedure is the main legislative procedure by which law can be adopted in the European Community, the first of the three pillars of the European Union. ...


Consultation procedure

Main article: Consultation procedure

Under this procedure, Council is required to consult Parliament on legislative proposals (as well as other bodies such as the Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions). However, Council is not bound by Parliament's position. Hence, under the consultation procedure, Paliament can recommend amendments or rejection which the Commission is bound to consider, and it can delay the adoption of a measure, but it cannot enforce its will against the will of Council. The Consultation procedure is one of the legislative procedures of the European Community, the 1st of the three pillars of the European Union. ... The European Unions Economic and Social Committee is the consultative assembly of European social and economic partners. This phrase refers mainly to representatives of business, employers and trade unions. ... The Committee of the Regions (CoR) is an institution of the European Union created by the Treaty of Maastricht. ...


Historically, the consultation procedure was the EU's main legislative procedure. Since its replacement by the codecision procedure in most areas, however, it is today used for revision of the treaties, adoption of external treaties, associations and enlargements of the EU. This page is a candidate to be copied to Wiktionary. ... The treaties of the European Union are effectively its constitutional law, making up the EUs primary legislation. ...


Inter-governmental "pillars"

According to the treaties which have evolved to govern the European Union, the European Union rests upon three "pillars". The first pillar is the European Community itself, which has legal personality and adopts most European legislation using the procedures described above.


However, some legal decisions can be enacted in the other two pillars (the Common Foreign and Security Policy and co-operation in the fields of justice and home affairs). These two pillars are essentially intergovernmental, with the Council of Ministers as the main legislative body. The Commission is less influential (and recourse cannot be had to the European Court of Justice). The Common Foreign and Security Policy or CFSP was established as the second of the three pillars of the European Union in the Maastricht treaty of 1992, and further defined and broadened in the Amsterdam Treaty of 1997. ... The European Court of Justice (ECJ) is formally known as the Court of Justice of the European Communities, i. ...


For actions in the second and third pillars, the European Parliament also plays a lesser role. However, it should be noted that the European Union's budget applies across all three pillars, and since Parliament has control of the budget in every detail, it exerts a degree of control even in those areas where it has no direct legislative authority.


If the Treaty establishing a constitution for Europe had been ratified by all member states, it would have abolished the 'pillar' structure, bringing all EU activity under the umbrella of the 'European Union' proper. The Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe, commonly referred to as the European Constitution, is an international treaty intended to create a constitution for the European Union. ...


External links

  • EU website about decision-making.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Legislation (620 words)
Legislation (or "statutory law") is law which has been promulgated (or "enacted") by a legislature or other governing body.
Legislation can also be created at provincial and local levels of government (which have their own legislatures), where separation of powers may be less formal and complete.
The record of events and public statements of legislators that explain the reasons for the law and its expected meaning are called "legislative history".
European Union legislative procedure - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (910 words)
The Council of Ministers and the European Parliament jointly form the legislative arm of the Union.
The rules governing which procedure applies to which policy area are laid down in the Treaties of the European Union.
The codecision procedure was introduzed with the Maastricht Treaty (1993).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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