FACTOID # 1: Idaho produces more milk than Iowa, Indiana and Illinois combined.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > European Union
Flag of the European Union Presidency insignia of the European Union
Flag Presidency insignia
MottoIn varietate concordia  (Latin)
"United in diversity"[1]
AnthemOde to Joy[1]  (orchestral)
Political centres Brussels
Strasbourg
Luxembourg
Official languages
Demonym European
Member states
Government Sui generis
 -  Commission José Manuel Barroso (EPP)
 -  Parliament Hans-Gert Pöttering (EPP)
 -  Council Slovenia
 -  European Council Janez Janša (EPP)
Formation
 -  Paris Treaty 18 April 1951 
 -  Rome Treaty 25 March 1957 
 -  Maastricht Treaty 7 February 1992 
Area
 -  Total 4,324,782 km² (7th¹)
1,669,807 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 3.08
Population
 -  2008 estimate 497,198,740 (3rd¹)
 -  Density 114/km² (69th¹)
289/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2007 (IMF) estimate
 -  Total $14,953 trillion (1st¹)
 -  Per capita $28,213 (14th¹)
GDP (nominal) 2007 (IMF) estimate
 -  Total $16,574 trillion (1st¹)
 -  Per capita $33,482 (13th¹)
Currency
Time zone (UTC+0 to +2)
 -  Summer (DST)  (UTC+1 to +3)
Internet TLD .eu
1 If listed among entities with traditional nation state status.[2]

The European Union (EU) is a political and economic community of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in Europe. It was established in 1993 by the Treaty of Maastricht, adding new areas of policy to the existing European Community. With almost 500 million citizens, the EU combined generates an estimated 30% share of the world's nominal gross domestic product (US$16.6 trillion) in 2007.[2] Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... European flag The European flag consists of a circle of twelve golden stars on a blue background. ... Presidency of the Council of the European Union refers to the responsibility of presiding over all aspects of the Council of the European Union, when exercised collectively by a government, on a pre-established rota of the member states, of the European Union. ... For other uses, see Motto (disambiguation). ... The Council of Europe (COE) has developed a series of European symbols for the continent of Europe, and these have since been shared with the European Union (EU). ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... An anthem is a composition to an English religious text sung in the context of an Anglican service. ... 4th movement (European Union anthem) samples: Problems playing the files? See media help. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... It has been suggested that oneseat. ... For other places with the same name, see Brussels (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Strasburg. ... An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... Chameleon, a symbol of the multilingualism of the European Union. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a people or the inhabitants of a place. ... Citizenship of the Union was introduced by the Maastricht Treaty signed in 1992. ... Austria Poland Belgium Bulgaria Cyprus Czech   Rep. ... // The flag of the Council of Europe and the European Union. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Austria. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belgium_(civil). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bulgaria. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cyprus. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Czech_Republic. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Denmark. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Estonia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Finland. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Hungary. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ireland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Latvia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Lithuania. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Luxembourg. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Malta. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Portugal. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Romania. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Slovakia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Slovenia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sweden. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Sui generis is a (post) Latin expression, literally meaning a scholar like what pradeep is or unique in its characteristics. ... François-Xavier Ortoli, Romano Prodi, José Manuel Barroso and Jacques Delors The President of the European Commission is notionally the highest ranking unelected official within the European Union bureaucracy. ... José Manuel Durão Barroso, GCC (pronounced  ) (born in Porto, March 23, 1956) is a Portuguese politician and the 11th President of the European Commission, being the first Portuguese person to hold the post. ... The European Peoples Party (EPP) is the largest transnational European political party. ... The President of the European Parliament oversees all the activities of the European Parliament and its constituent bodies. ... Hans-Gert Pöttering (often written as Poettering; born September 15, 1945 in Bersenbrück, Lower Saxony) is a German conservative politician (CDU), and has been President of the European Parliament since January 2007. ... The European Peoples Party (EPP) is the largest transnational European political party. ... Presidency of the Council of the European Union refers to the responsibility of presiding over all aspects of the Council of the European Union, when exercised collectively by a government, on a pre-established rota of the member states, of the European Union. ... The European Council, sometimes informally called the European Summit, is a meeting of the heads of state or government of the European Union, and the President of the European Commission (not to be confused with the Council of the European Union, or the Council of Europe). ... Janez JanÅ¡a (born September 17, 1958 as Ivan JanÅ¡a) in Ljubljana is a Slovenian politician and head of the Slovenian Democratic Party since 1995. ... The European Peoples Party (EPP) is the largest transnational European political party. ... The European Union is a unique geo-political entity covering a large portion of the European continent. ... The Treaty of Paris, signed on April 18, 1951 between Belgium, France, West Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands established the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), which subsequently became part of the European Union. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Treaty of Rome signing ceremony Signatures in the Treaty The Treaty of Rome, signed by France, West Germany, Italy and Benelux (Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg) on March 25, 1957, established the European Economic Community (EEC). ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... The Maastricht Treaty (formally, the Treaty of European Union, TEU) was signed on February 7, 1992 in Maastricht, Netherlands after final negotiations in December 1991 between the members of the European Community and entered into force on November 1, 1993 during the Delors Commission. ... is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different surface areas  here is a list of areas between 1 million km² and 10 million km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... A percentage is a way of expressing a proportion, a ratio or a fraction as a whole number, by using 100 as the denominator. ... Map of countries by population for the year 2007 This is a list of countries ordered according to population. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Population density by country, 2006 List of countries and dependencies by population density in inhabitants/km². The list includes sovereign states and self-governing dependent territories that are recognized by the United Nations. ... PPP of GDP for the countries of the world (2003). ... IMF redirects here. ... There are three lists of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year). ... Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ... This article includes two lists of countries of the world[1] sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) at purchasing power parity (PPP) per capita, the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year divided by the average population for the same year. ... IMF redirects here. ... World map of GDP (Nominal and PPP). ... Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ... Map of countries by 2006 GDP (nominal) per capita (IMF, October 2007). ... The Eurozone (also called Euro Area, Eurosystem or Euroland) refers to the European Union member states that have adopted the euro currency union. ... For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ... ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... Look up De jure in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... GBP redirects here. ... ISO 4217 Code BGN User(s) Bulgaria Inflation 7. ... ISO 4217 Code CZK User(s) Czech Republic Inflation 1. ... ISO 4217 Code DKK User(s) Denmark, Greenland, Faroe Islands 1 Inflation 1. ... ISO 4217 Code EEK User(s) Estonia Inflation 4. ... ISO 4217 Code HUF User(s) Hungary Inflation 8. ... The 5 lats coin, used before WWII, becamed a popular symbol of independence during the Soviet era The lats (in Latvian: lats, plural lati, the ISO 4217 currency code: LVL) is the official currency of Latvia. ... The litas (ISO currency code LTL, symbolized as Lt; plural litai or litų) is the official currency of Lithuania. ... ISO 4217 Code PLN User(s) Poland Inflation 2. ... For the Moldovan currency, see Moldovan leu. ... ISO 4217 Code SKK User(s) Slovakia Inflation 2. ... ISO 4217 Code SEK User(s) Sweden Inflation 2. ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... UTC redirects here. ... Although DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... UTC redirects here. ... A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is a top-level domain used and reserved for a country or a dependent territory. ... A nation-state is a specific form of state, which exists to provide a sovereign territory for a particular nation, and which derives its legitimacy from that function. ... Austria Poland Belgium Bulgaria Cyprus Czech   Rep. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The Maastricht Treaty (formally, the Treaty of European Union, TEU) was signed on February 7, 1992 in Maastricht, Netherlands after final negotiations in December 1991 between the members of the European Community and entered into force on November 1, 1993 during the Delors Commission. ... The European Community (EC) was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... GDP redirects here. ... USD redirects here. ...


The EU has developed a single market through a standardised system of laws which apply in all member states, guaranteeing the freedom of movement of people, goods, services and capital.[3] It maintains a common trade policy, agricultural and fisheries policies, and a regional development policy.[4] Fifteen member states have adopted a common currency, the euro. It has developed a role in foreign policy, representing its members in the World Trade Organization, at G8 summits and at the United Nations. Twenty-one EU countries are members of NATO. It has developed a role in justice and home affairs, including the abolition of passport control between many member states under the Schengen Agreement.[5] A single market is a customs union with common policies on product regulation, and freedom of movement of all the four factors of production (land, enterprise, capital and labour). ... Austria Poland Belgium Bulgaria Cyprus Czech   Rep. ... In European Union law, the Four Freedoms (sometimes the Four Liberties) are the free movement of goods, services, capital, and labour within the internal market of the European Union. ... The Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) is the fisheries policy of the European Union. ... The Regional policy of the European Union is a policy with the stated aim of improving the economic well-being of certain regions in the EU. Around one third of the EUs budget is devoted to this policy, the aim of which has been stated to be to remove... For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ... The Common Foreign and Security Policy, or CFSP, was established as the second of the three pillars of the European Union in the Maastricht treaty of 1992, and further defined and broadened in the Amsterdam Treaty of 1999. ... WTO redirects here. ... Group of Eight redirects here. ... UN redirects here. ... This article is about the military alliance. ... For other uses, see Schengen. ...


EU operation is a hybrid of intergovernmentalism and supranationalism. In certain areas it depends upon agreement between the member states. However, it also has supranational bodies, able to make decisions without the agreement of members. Important institutions and bodies of the EU include the European Commission, the European Parliament, the Council of the European Union, the European Council, the European Court of Justice and the European Central Bank. EU citizens elect the Parliament every five years. Intergovernmentalism is a theory of decision-making in international organizations, where power is possessed by the member-states and decisions are made by unanimity. ... Supranationalism is a method of decision-making in international organizations, wherein power is held by independent appointed officials or by representatives elected by the legislatures or people of the member states. ... Berlaymont, the Commissions seat The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive branch of the European Union. ... Established 1952, as the Common Assembly President Hans-Gert Pöttering (EPP) Since 16 January 2007 Vice-Presidents 14 Rodi Kratsa-Tsagaropoulou (EPP) Alejo Vidal-Quadras (EPP) Gérard Onesta (Greens – EFA) Edward McMillan-Scott (ED) Mario Mauro (EPP) Miguel Angel Martínez Martínez (PES) Luigi Cocilovo (ALDE) Mechtild... Established 1952 Presiding Country Portugal President Luís Amado President in Office José Sócrates Members 27 (at one time) Political parties 7, including: European Peoples Party Party of European Socialists Meeting place Justus Lipsius, Brussels, Belgium, European Union Web site http://www. ... This article deals with the meeting of European Union leaders. ... Official emblem of the ECJ The Court of Justice of the European Communities, usually called the European Court of Justice (ECJ), is the highest court in the European Union (EU). ... Headquarters Coordinates , , Established 1 January 1998 President Jean-Claude Trichet Central Bank of Austria, Belgium, France, Finland, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Slovenia, Spain Currency Euro ISO 4217 Code EUR Reserves €43bn directly, €338bn through the Eurosystem (including gold deposits). ... Citizenship of the Union was introduced by the Maastricht Treaty signed in 1992. ...


The EU traces its origins to the European Coal and Steel Community formed among six countries in 1951 and the Treaty of Rome in 1957. Since then the EU has grown in size through the accession of new member states and has increased its powers by the addition of new policy areas to its remit. The Treaty of Lisbon signed in December 2007 is intended to amend the existing treaties to update the political and legal structure of the union, if ratification is completed in 2008. Members of the European Coal and Steel Community Flag of the European Coal and Steel Community The European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) was founded in 1951 (Treaty of Paris), by France, West Germany, Italy, Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to pool the steel and coal resources of its member... The Treaty of Rome signing ceremony Signatures in the Treaty The Treaty of Rome, signed by France, West Germany, Italy and Benelux (Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg) on March 25, 1957, established the European Economic Community (EEC). ... For other uses, see Treaty of Lisbon (disambiguation). ...

Contents

History

Main article: History of the European Union

The European Union is a unique geo-political entity covering a large portion of the European continent. ...

European Coal and Steel Community

Further information: Pax Europea, End of World War II in Europe, and European Coal and Steel Community

The political climate after the end of World War II favoured Western European unity, seen by many as an escape from the extreme forms of nationalism which had devastated the continent.[6] One of the first successful proposals for European cooperation came in 1951 with the European Coal and Steel Community. This had the aim of bringing together control of the coal and steel industries of its member states, principally France and West Germany. This was with the aim that war between them would not then be possible, as coal and steel were the principal resources for waging war. The Community's founders declared it "a first step in the federation of Europe", with the hope that this would enable Europe to pursue the development of Africa.[7] The other founding members were Italy, and the three Benelux countries: Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg.[8] Pax Europea, Latin for the European peace, is the long period of relative peace experienced by Northern and Western Europe (including Greece and Turkey) in the period following World War II—often associated above all with the creation of the European Union and its predecessors. ... During the Battle for Berlin, the Red Flag was raised over the Reichstag, May 1945. ... Members of the European Coal and Steel Community Flag of the European Coal and Steel Community The European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) was founded in 1951 (Treaty of Paris), by France, West Germany, Italy, Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to pool the steel and coal resources of its member... For others with the same name see Robert Schumann (disambiguation). ... The Quai dOrsay, home of the French Foreign Office. ... Members of the European Coal and Steel Community Flag of the European Coal and Steel Community The European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) was founded in 1951 (Treaty of Paris), by France, West Germany, Italy, Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to pool the steel and coal resources of its member... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolizing French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... European integration is the process of political and economic (and in some cases social and cultural) integration of European states into a tighter bloc. ... Members of the European Coal and Steel Community Flag of the European Coal and Steel Community The European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) was founded in 1951 (Treaty of Paris), by France, West Germany, Italy, Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to pool the steel and coal resources of its member... Coal Example chemical structure of coal Coal is a fossil fuel formed in ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ... Location of Benelux in Europe Official languages Dutch and French Membership  Belgium  Netherlands  Luxembourg Website http://www. ...


European Communities

Further information: Treaty of Rome and European Community

Two additional communities were created in 1957: the European Economic Community (EEC) establishing a customs union, and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom) for cooperation in developing nuclear energy.[8] In 1967 the Merger Treaty created a single set of institutions for the three communities, which were collectively referred to as the European Communities, although more commonly just as the European Community (EC).[9] The Treaty of Rome signing ceremony Signatures in the Treaty The Treaty of Rome, signed by France, West Germany, Italy and Benelux (Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg) on March 25, 1957, established the European Economic Community (EEC). ... The European Community (EC) was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... The European Community (EC) was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... A customs union is a free trade area with a Common External Tariff. ... The European Atomic Energy Community, or EURATOM, is an international organization composed of the members of the European Union. ... This article concerns the energy stored in the nuclei of atoms; for the use of nuclear fission as a power source, see Nuclear power. ... The Merger Treaty, signed in Brussels on 8 April 1965 and in force since 1 July 1967, first gathered together the organizational structures of the then three European Communities (European Coal and Steel Community, European Economic Community and Euratom). ... The European Community (EC) was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ...

In 1973 the European Communities enlarged to include Denmark, Ireland and the United Kingdom.[10] Norway had negotiated to join at the same time but a referendum rejected membership and so it remained outside. Download high resolution version (2693x1748, 1095 KB)TreatyRomesigning This material is offered free of charge for EU-related information and education purposes. ... Download high resolution version (2693x1748, 1095 KB)TreatyRomesigning This material is offered free of charge for EU-related information and education purposes. ... The Treaty of Rome signing ceremony Signatures in the Treaty The Treaty of Rome, signed by France, West Germany, Italy and Benelux (Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg) on March 25, 1957, established the European Economic Community (EEC). ... The European Community (EC) was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ...


The first direct, democratic elections of members of the European Parliament were held in 1979.[11] They were the first European elections to be held, allowing citizens to elect 410 MEPs to the European Parliament, and also the first international election in history. Member-states in 1979. ... Elections in the European Union gives information on election and election results in the European Union. ... A Member of the European Parliament (English abbreviation MEP)[1] is a member of the European Unions directly-elected legislative body, the European Parliament. ... Established 1952, as the Common Assembly President Hans-Gert Pöttering (EPP) Since 16 January 2007 Vice-Presidents 14 Rodi Kratsa-Tsagaropoulou (EPP) Alejo Vidal-Quadras (EPP) Gérard Onesta (Greens – EFA) Edward McMillan-Scott (ED) Mario Mauro (EPP) Miguel Angel Martínez Martínez (PES) Luigi Cocilovo (ALDE) Mechtild...


Greece, Spain and Portugal joined in the 1980s.[12] The Schengen Agreement in 1985 created largely open borders without passport controls between most member states.[13] In 1986 the European flag began to be used and leaders signed the Single European Act. This revised the way community decision making operated to take account of its greater membership, aimed to further reduce trade barriers and introduce greater European Political Cooperation.
For other uses, see Schengen. ... Border control Border crossing between Germany and The Netherlands Border controls are measures used by a country to monitor or regulate its borders. ... For Microsoft Corporation’s “universal login” service, formerly known as Microsoft Passport Network, see Windows Live ID. For other types of travel document, see Travel document. ... The Flag of Europe consists of a circle of twelve golden (yellow) stars on a blue background. ... The Single European Act (SEA) was the first major revision of the Treaty of Rome. ... A trade barrier is general term that describes any government policy or regulation that restricts international trade, the barriers can take many forms, including: Import duties Import licenses Export licenses Quotas Tariffs Subsidies Non-tariff barriers to trade Most trade barriers work on the same principle: the imposition of some... The European political cooperation (EPC) was introduced informally in 1970 in response to the Davignon report and was formalised by the Single European Act with effect from 1987. ...


European Union

Further information: Post-Cold War era and Maastricht Treaty
The Iron Curtain's fall enabled eastward enlargement. (Berlin Wall)
The Iron Curtain's fall enabled eastward enlargement. (Berlin Wall)

In 1990 after the fall of the Iron Curtain, the former East Germany became part of the Community as part of a newly reunited Germany.[14] With enlargement toward eastern Europe on the agenda, the Copenhagen criteria for candidate members to join the European Union were agreed. The post-Cold War era is a time period following the end of the Cold War. ... The Maastricht Treaty (formally, the Treaty of European Union, TEU) was signed on February 7, 1992 in Maastricht, Netherlands after final negotiations in December 1991 between the members of the European Community and entered into force on November 1, 1993 during the Delors Commission. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Warsaw Pact countries to the east of the Iron Curtain are shaded red; NATO members to the west of it — blue. ... The European Union (EU) was created by six founding states in 1957 (following the earlier establishment by the same six states of the European Coal and Steel Community in 1952) and has grown to 27 member states. ... View in 1986 from the west side of graffiti art on the walls infamous death strip Walls poster in memory of the fall. ... Warsaw Pact countries to the east of the Iron Curtain are shaded red; NATO members to the west of it — blue. ... This article is about the state which existed from 1949 to 1990. ... Statistical regions of Europe as delineated by the United Nations (UN definition of Eastern Europe marked red):  Northern Europe  Western Europe  Eastern Europe  Southern Europe Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current borders: Russia (dark orange), other countries formerly part of the USSR... The Copenhagen criteria are the rules that define whether a country is eligible to join the European Union. ...


The Maastricht Treaty came into force on 1 November 1993.[15] Maastricht established a revised structure and the name 'European Community' officially replaced the earlier 'European Communities'. The European Community now formed one of three pillars of the new European Union, which included co-operation in matters of foreign policy and home affairs. The term European Union generally replaced the term European Community, which will be abolished by the Treaty of Lisbon along with the pillar system. The Maastricht Treaty (formally, the Treaty of European Union, TEU) was signed on February 7, 1992 in Maastricht, Netherlands after final negotiations in December 1991 between the members of the European Community and entered into force on November 1, 1993 during the Delors Commission. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... The Treaty of Maastricht which established the European Union, divided EU policies into three main areas, called pillars. ... The Common Foreign and Security Policy, or CFSP, was established as the second of the three pillars of the European Union in the Maastricht treaty of 1992, and further defined and broadened in the Amsterdam Treaty of 1999. ... Police and Judicial Co-operation in Criminal Matters (PJC) is the third of the three pillars of the European Union, focusing on co-operation in law enforcement and combating racism. ... For other uses, see Treaty of Lisbon (disambiguation). ...


Austria, Sweden and Finland joined in 1995. The Amsterdam Treaty in 1997 amended the Maastricht treaty in areas such as democracy and foreign policy. Amsterdam was followed by the Treaty of Nice in 2001, which revised the Rome and Maastricht treaties to allow the EU to cope with further enlargement to the east. Treaty of Amsterdam amending the Treaty of the European Union, the Treaties establishing the European Communities and certain related acts The Treaty of Amsterdam amending the Treaty of the European Union, the Treaties establishing the European Communities and certain related acts, commonly known as the Amsterdam Treaty, was signed on... Treaty of Nice The Treaty of Nice is a treaty adopted in Nice by the European Council to amend the two founding treaties of the European Union: the Treaty on European Union, or Maastricht Treaty, which introduced the Euro and the 3-pillar structure of the EU; the Treaty of...


In 2002, twelve member states adopted the euro as a single currency. Since then, the Eurozone has increased to encompassing fifteen countries. In 2004, the EU saw its biggest enlargement to date when ten new countries, most of which former parts of the Eastern Bloc, acceded the Union.[16] Three years later, two more joined.[16] For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ... The Eurozone (also called Euro Area, Eurosystem or Euroland) refers to the European Union member states that have adopted the euro currency union. ... A map of the Eastern Bloc 1948-1989. ...


A treaty establishing a constitution for the EU was signed in Rome in 2004, intended to replace all previous treaties with a single document. However, it never completed ratification after rejection by French and Dutch voters in referenda. In 2007, it was agreed to replace that proposal with a new Reform Treaty, that would amend rather than replace the existing treaties. This treaty was signed on 13 December 2007 in Lisbon and is known as the Lisbon treaty.[17] It will come in effect in January 2009 if ratified by that date.
Wikisource has original text related to this article: Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe The constitutional treaty as signed in Rome on 29 October 2004 by representatives of the EU member states The Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe (TCE), commonly referred to as the European Constitution, was an unimplemented... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A referendum (plural referendums or referenda), ballot question, or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, originally a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... For other uses, see Treaty of Lisbon (disambiguation). ... The treaties of the European Union are effectively its constitutional law, making up the EUs primary legislation. ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... For other uses, see Lisbon (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Treaty of Lisbon (disambiguation). ...


Member states

Austria Poland Belgium Bulgaria Cyprus Czech   Rep. ... The European Union (EU) was created by six founding states in 1957 (following the earlier establishment by the same six states of the European Coal and Steel Community in 1952) and has grown to 27 member states. ... Image File history File links European_Union_map. ...

Null
The continental territories of the member states of the European Union (European Communities pre-1993), animated in order of accession.
The continental territories of the member states of the European Union (European Communities pre-1993), animated in order of accession.
Bos.
& Herz.

The European Union is composed of 27 independent sovereign countries which are known as member states: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom.[18] There are three official candidate countries, Croatia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, and Turkey; the western Balkan countries of Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, and Serbia are officially recognised as potential candidates.[19] Kosovo has been granted similar status.[20] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Motto Ti Shqipëri më jep nder më jep emrin shqipëtar Anthem Rreth flamurit të përbashkuar (United Around the Flag) Albania() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital TiranÑ‘ Largest city Tiranë Official languages Albanian (Shqip) Demonym Albanian Government Parliamentary republic  -  President Bamir Topi  -  Prime Minister Sali Berisha Independence from... For other uses, see Austria (disambiguation). ... BLR redirects here. ... For other uses, see Belgium (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Anthem: Lijepa naÅ¡a domovino Our beautiful homeland Croatia() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Zagreb Official languages Croatian Demonym Croat(s) Croatian(s) Government Parliamentary republic  -  President Stjepan Mesić  -  Premier Ivo Sanader Establishment  -  Founded    -  Medieval duchy March 4, 852   -  Independence May 21, 879   -  Elevated to kingdom 925... Not to be confused with Cypress. ... Motto: (Czech) Truth prevails Anthem:  Czech Republic() – on the European continent() – in the European Union() [] Capital (and largest city) Prague Official languages Czech Demonym Czech Government Parliamentary republic  -  President Václav Klaus  -  Prime Minister Mirek Topolánek Independence (formed 9th century)   -  October 28, 1918   -  January 1, 1993  EU accession May... For other uses, see Denmark (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Estonia (disambiguation). ... Anthem: Maamme(Finnish) VÃ¥rt land(Swedish) Finland() – on the European continent() – in the European Union()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Helsinki Official languages Finnish, Swedish Demonym Finnish, Finn Government Parliamentary republic1  -  President Tarja Halonen (sd)  -  Prime Minister Matti Vanhanen (c) Independence from Russian Empire   -  Autonomy March 29, 1809   -  Declared December... Motto: Liberté, Égalité, Fraternité Liberty, Equality, Fraternity Anthem: La Marseillaise France() – on the European continent() – in the European Union() Capital (and largest city) Paris Official languages French Demonym French Government Unitary semi-presidential republic  -  President Nicolas Sarkozy  -  Prime Minister François Fillon Formation  -  French State 843 French State Formed   -  Current... “Deutschland” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Greece (disambiguation). ... Motto: none Historically Regnum Mariae Patronae Hungariae (Latin) Anthem: Himnusz Hymn (God, bless the Hungarians) Hungary() – on the European continent() – in the European Union() [] Capital (and largest city) Budapest Official languages Hungarian (Magyar) Demonym Hungarian Government Parliamentary republic  -  President László Sólyom  -  Prime minister Ferenc Gyurcsány Foundation  -  Foundation... This article is about the country in Europe. ... Anthem:  The Soldiers Song Republic of Ireland() – on the European continent() – in the European Union()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Dublin Official languages Irish, English Demonym Irish Government Republic and Parliamentary democracy  -  President Mary McAleese  -  Taoiseach Bertie Ahern, TD Independence from the United Kingdom   -  Declared 24 April 1916   -  Ratified 21... “Italian Republic” redirects here. ... Motto TÄ“vzemei un BrÄ«vÄ«bai(Latvian) For Fatherland and Freedom Anthem Dievs, svÄ“tÄ« Latviju!(Latvian) God, bless Latvia! Latvia() – on the European continent() – in the European Union() [] Capital (and largest city) Riga Official languages Latvian Ethnic groups  59. ... Motto: Tautos jÄ—ga vienybÄ—je The strength of the nation lies in unity Anthem: TautiÅ¡ka giesmÄ— Lithuania() – on the European continent() – in the European Union() [] Capital (and largest city) Vilnius Official languages Lithuanian Demonym Lithuanian Government  -  President Valdas Adamkus  -  Prime Minister Gediminas Kirkilas Independence from the Russian Empire... This article is about the country in western Europe. ... For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... This article is about the Mediterranean country. ... For other uses of Moldova and Moldavia, see Moldova (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country in Europe. ... For other uses, see Netherlands (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Norway (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country in Europe. ... Anthem A Portuguesa Capital (and largest city) Lisbon5 Official languages Portuguese1 Government Parliamentary democracy  -  President Cavaco Silva  -  Prime Minister José Sócrates Formation June 24, 1128   -  Founding of the First County of Portugal 868   -  Battle of São Mamede June 24, 1128   -  Kingdom 25 July 1139   -  Recognized 5 October 1143... Motto:  (each main institution has its own motto) Anthem: DeÅŸteaptă-te, române! Romania() – on the European continent() – in the European Union() [] Capital (and largest city) Bucharest (BucureÅŸti) Official languages Romanian1 Demonym Romanian Government Unitary semi-presidential republic  -  President Traian Băsescu  -  Prime Minister Călin Popescu-T... Anthem Hymn of the Russian Federation Capital (and largest city) Moscow Official languages Russian official throughout nation; thirty others co-official in various regions Government Semi-presidential federal republic  -  President Vladimir Putin  -  Prime Minister Mikhail Fradkov Formation  -  Declared June 12, 1990   -  Finalized December 25, 1991  Area  -  Total 17,075,400... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... Anthem: Nad Tatrou sa blýska Lightning over the Tatras Slovakia() – on the European continent() – in the European Union() [] Capital (and largest city) Bratislava Official languages Slovak Demonym Slovak Government Parliamentary republic  -  President Ivan GaÅ¡parovič  -  Prime Minister Robert Fico Independence due to dissolution of Czechoslovakia   -  Date January 1, 19931... Anthem:  A Toast Slovenia() – on the European continent() – in the European Union() [] Capital (and largest city) Ljubljana Official languages Slovenian, Italian1, Hungarian1 Demonym Slovenian, Slovene Government Parliamentary republic  -  President Janez DrnovÅ¡ek  -  President-elect Danilo Türk  -  Prime Minister Janez JanÅ¡a Independence from Yugoslavia   -  Declared June 25, 1991   -  Recognized... Motto (Latin) Further Beyond Anthem  1(Spanish) Royal March Spain() – on the European continent() – in the European Union() Capital (and largest city) Madrid Official languages Spanish2 Demonym Spanish, Spaniard Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Head of State King Juan Carlos I  -  President of the Government Formation 15th century   -  Dynastic union 1516   -  Unification... Sverige redirects here. ... For other uses of the word Switzerland, see Switzerland (disambiguation). ... For other uses of the word Switzerland, see Switzerland (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Republic of Turkey. ... Anthem Ще не вмерла України ні слава, ні воля(Ukrainian) Shche ne vmerla Ukrayiny ni slava, ni volya(transliteration) Ukraines glory has not yet perished, nor her freedom Ukraine() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Kiev (Kyiv) Official languages Ukrainian Demonym Ukrainian Government Semi-presidential system  -  President Viktor Yushchenko  -  Prime Minister Viktor Yanukovych Independence from... “UK” redirects here. ... “Sovereign” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Country (disambiguation). ... For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... This article is about the country in Europe. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... For other uses, see Kosovo (disambiguation). ...


To join the EU, a country must meet the Copenhagen criteria, defined at the 1993 Copenhagen European Council. These require a stable democracy which respects human rights and the rule of law; a functioning market economy capable of competition within the EU; and the acceptance of the obligations of membership, including EU law. Evaluation of a country's fulfilment of the criteria is the responsibility of the European Council.[21] The current framework does not specify how a country could exit the Union (although Greenland withdrew in 1985), but the proposed Treaty of Lisbon contains a formal procedure for withdrawing. The Copenhagen criteria are the rules that define whether a country is eligible to join the European Union. ... For other uses, see Copenhagen (disambiguation). ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      The rule of law, in its most basic form, is the principle that no one is above the law. ... This article deals with the meeting of European Union leaders. ... For other uses, see Treaty of Lisbon (disambiguation). ...


Four Western European countries that have chosen not to join the EU have partly committed to the EU's economy and regulations: Iceland, Liechtenstein, and Norway are a part of the single market through the European Economic Area, and Switzerland has similar ties through bilateral treaties. [22][23] The relationships of european microstates Andorra, Monaco, San Marino, Liechtenstein, and Vatican City can include use of the euro and other co-operation.[24] A single market is a customs union with common policies on product regulation, and freedom of movement of all the four factors of production (land, enterprise, capital and labour). ...  EFTA countries (except Switzerland)  EU countries Together these form the EEA. The European Economic Area (EEA) came into being on January 1, 1994 following an agreement between the European Free Trade Association (EFTA) and the European Union (EU). ... Bilateralism is a term referring to trade or political relations between two states. ... The five European microstates encompassed by the European Union There are a number of small microstates in Europe; due to their size they are often closely linked with another larger state and now most European microstates have special relations with the European Union. ... For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ...


Geography

Mont Blanc in the Alps is the highest peak in the EU.
Mont Blanc in the Alps is the highest peak in the EU.

The territory of the EU consists of the combined territories of its 27 member states with some exceptions outlined below. The territory of the EU is not the same as that of Europe, as parts of the continent are outside the EU, such as Switzerland, Norway, and European Russia. Some parts of member countries are not part of the EU, despite forming part of the European continent (for example the Channel Islands and Faroe Islands). Several territories associated with member states that are outside geographic Europe are also not part of the EU (such as Greenland, Aruba, the Netherlands Antilles, and all the non-European territories associated with the United Kingdom). Some overseas territories are part of the EU even if they are not geographically part of Europe, such as the Azores, the Canary Islands, French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Madeira, Martinique, Réunion, Saint Barthélemy, and Saint Martin.[25][26][27] The 25 member states of the European Union occupy most of Western Europe and parts of Cental and Eastern Europe. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixelsFull resolution (3008 × 2000 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixelsFull resolution (3008 × 2000 pixel, file size: 1. ... This article is about the Alpine mountain. ... Alp redirects here. ... Europe is traditionally reckoned as one of seven continents. ... This article is about the British dependencies. ... Map of European Union in the world  European Union  Outermost regions  Overseas countries and territories Map of EU member states and candidate countries, with an inset showing the 7 outermost regions As of 2007 the European Union has 27 member states, most of which participate in all EU policy areas... Motto (Portuguese for Rather die free than in peace subjugated) Anthem  (national)  (local) Capital Ponta Delgada1 Angra do Heroísmo2 Horta3 Largest city Ponta Delgada Official languages Portuguese Government Autonomous region  -  President Carlos César Establishment  -  Settled 1439   -  Autonomy 1976  Area  -  Total 2,333 km² (n/a) 911 sq mi... Anthem: Arrorró Capital Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and Santa Cruz de Tenerife Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 13th  7,447 km²  1. ... For other uses, see Madeira (disambiguation). ... Anthem For Sweden - The Land of The Incredible Biffs Capital (and largest city) Gustavia Official languages Swedish Government  -  Prime Minister of Sweden Nick XII Bonaparte  -  Prefect Per af Biffsläkt  -  President of the Territorial Council none yet; however Henning is the mayor of Saint-Barthelemy Overseas Collectivity of Sweden   -  Swedish... St. ...

The EU's climate is influenced by its 69,000 km coastline. (Crete)
The EU's climate is influenced by its 69,000 km coastline. (Crete)

The EU's member states cover a combined area of 4,422,773 square kilometres (1,707,642 sq mi).[28] The total territory of the EU is larger than all but six countries and its highest peak is Mont Blanc in the Graian Alps, 4807 metres above sea level. The landscape, climate, and economy of the EU are influenced by its coastline, which is 69,342 kilometres (43,087 mi) long. The EU has the world's second longest coastline, after Canada. The combined member states share land borders with 21 non-member states for a total of 12,441 kilometres (7,730 mi), the fifth longest border in the world.[29][30][31] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixelsFull resolution (3008 × 2000 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixelsFull resolution (3008 × 2000 pixel, file size: 3. ... For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ... Countries by area. ... This article is about the Alpine mountain. ... The chief peaks of the Graian Alps, from the Mont Cenis to the Little St Bernard Pass, are usually divided into three groups, the Central (the watershed between the two passes named), the Western or French, and the Eastern or Italian; in the following lists the initials C, W, and... Alp redirects here. ... This is a list of countries bordering the European Union and its predecessor the European Community both at its current geographical extent and after all previous rounds of enlargement. ...


Including the overseas territories of member states, the EU experiences most types of climate from Arctic to tropical, rendering meteorological averages for the EU as a whole meaningless. In practice, the majority of the population lives either in areas with a Mediterranean climate (Southern Europe), a temperate maritime climate (Western Europe), or a warm summer continental or hemiboreal climate (Eastern Europe).[32] Updated Köppen-Geiger climate map[1] The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. ... Solar radiation has a lower intensity in polar regions because it travels a longer distance through the atmosphere, and is spread across a larger surface area. ... Naples beach in Florida lined with coconut trees is an example of a tropical climate. ...  Areas with Mediterranean climate A Mediterranean climate is a climate that resembles the climate of the lands in the Mediterranean Basin. ... World map showing the oceanic climate zones. ... Hemiboreal means halfway between the temperate and subarctic (or boreal) zones. ...


Governance

European Community Common Foreign and Security Policy Police and Judicial Co-operation in Criminal Matters There are currently five institutions of the European Union which govern the Union. ...

The three pillars constituting the European Union (clickable)
The three pillars constituting the European Union (clickable)

The EU is based on a series of treaties which have built up the current structure by successive additions and amendments.[33] The treaties define the broad policy goals of the organisation and establish institutions with the necessary legal powers to implement those goals, including the ability to enact legislation[34] which can directly affect all member states and their inhabitants (the principle of 'direct effect').[35] National courts enforce the EU treaties and the laws enacted under them, as one of the conditions of membership. In the case of a conflict where a law stemming from EU legislation conflicts with another national law, the EU law is considered to take precedence (principle of 'Supremacy').[36] Decisions regarding EU legislation may be referred to the European Court of Justice by national courts. The EU is regulated by a number of institutions, primarily the Council of the European Union, the European Commission, and European Parliament. The Law of the European Union is the unique legal system which operates alongside the laws of Member States of the European Union (EU). ... The Law of the European Union is the unique legal system which operates alongside the laws of Member States of the European Union (EU). ... Official emblem of the ECJ The Court of Justice of the European Communities, usually called the European Court of Justice (ECJ), is the highest court in the European Union (EU). ... Established 1952 Presiding Country Portugal President Luís Amado President in Office José Sócrates Members 27 (at one time) Political parties 7, including: European Peoples Party Party of European Socialists Meeting place Justus Lipsius, Brussels, Belgium, European Union Web site http://www. ... Berlaymont, the Commissions seat The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive branch of the European Union. ... Established 1952, as the Common Assembly President Hans-Gert Pöttering (EPP) Since 16 January 2007 Vice-Presidents 14 Rodi Kratsa-Tsagaropoulou (EPP) Alejo Vidal-Quadras (EPP) Gérard Onesta (Greens – EFA) Edward McMillan-Scott (ED) Mario Mauro (EPP) Miguel Angel Martínez Martínez (PES) Luigi Cocilovo (ALDE) Mechtild...


The EU is often described as being divided into three areas of responsibility, called 'pillars'. The original European Community policies form the first pillar, while the second consists of Common Foreign and Security Policy. The third pillar originally consisted of Justice and Home Affairs, however owing to changes introduced by the Amsterdam and Nice treaties, it currently only consists of Police and Judicial Co-operation in Criminal Matters. Broadly speaking, the second and third pillars can be described as the intergovernmental pillars because the supranational institutions of the Commission, Parliament and the Court of Justice play less of a role or none at all, while the lead is taken by the intergovernmental Council of Ministers and the European Council. Most activities of the EU come under the first, Community pillar. This is mostly economically oriented and the supranational institutions have more influence.[37] The Treaty of Maastricht which established the European Union, divided EU policies into three main areas, called pillars. ... The Common Foreign and Security Policy, or CFSP, was established as the second of the three pillars of the European Union in the Maastricht treaty of 1992, and further defined and broadened in the Amsterdam Treaty of 1999. ... Police and Judicial Co-operation in Criminal Matters (PJC) is the third of the three pillars of the European Union, focusing on co-operation in law enforcement and combating racism. ...


Commission

Main article: European Commission

The European Commission acts as the EU's executive arm and is responsible for initiating legislation and the day-to-day running of the EU. It is intended to act solely in the interest of the EU as a whole, as opposed to the Council which consists of leaders of member states who reflect national interests. The commission is also seen as the motor of European integration. It is currently composed of 27 commissioners for different areas of policy, one from each member state. Berlaymont, the Commissions seat The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive branch of the European Union. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2816 × 2112 pixel, file size: 4. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2816 × 2112 pixel, file size: 4. ... The Berlaymont building is an important governmental building in Brussels, Belgium. ... For other places with the same name, see Brussels (disambiguation). ... Berlaymont, the Commissions seat The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive branch of the European Union. ... Berlaymont, the Commissions seat The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive branch of the European Union. ... In political science and constitutional law, the executive is the branch of government responsible for the day-to-day management of the state. ... Legislative initiative is the constitutionally defined power to propose law proposals (bills). ... European integration is the process of political and economic (and in some cases social and cultural) integration of European states into a tighter bloc. ... The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive of the European Union. ...


The President of the Commission and all the other commissioners are nominated by the Council. Appointment of the Commission President, and also the Commission in its entirety, have to be confirmed by Parliament.[38] François-Xavier Ortoli, Romano Prodi, José Manuel Barroso and Jacques Delors The President of the European Commission is notionally the highest ranking unelected official within the European Union bureaucracy. ...


Council

The Council of the European Union forms one half of the EU's legislature. It is an organised platform where national ministers responsible for the area of policy being addressed, meet. Although the Council meets in different compositions, it is considered to be one single body.[39] In addition to its legislative functions, the Council also exercises executive functions in relations to the Common Foreign and Security Policy. Established 1952 Presiding Country Portugal President Luís Amado President in Office José Sócrates Members 27 (at one time) Political parties 7, including: European Peoples Party Party of European Socialists Meeting place Justus Lipsius, Brussels, Belgium, European Union Web site http://www. ... This article deals with the meeting of European Union leaders. ... Established 1952 Presiding Country Portugal President Luís Amado President in Office José Sócrates Members 27 (at one time) Political parties 7, including: European Peoples Party Party of European Socialists Meeting place Justus Lipsius, Brussels, Belgium, European Union Web site http://www. ... A legislatureis a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to ratify laws. ... The Common Foreign and Security Policy, or CFSP, was established as the second of the three pillars of the European Union in the Maastricht treaty of 1992, and further defined and broadened in the Amsterdam Treaty of 1999. ...


The rotating Presidency of the EU Council is taken by each member state in turn for a period of six months, during which the relevant member chairs most meetings of the Council.[39] The member state holding the presidency typically uses it to drive and focus on a limited number of policy areas; such as various types of reform, enlargement or external relations with a specific part of the world. Presidency of the Council of the European Union refers to the responsibility of presiding over all aspects of the Council of the European Union, when exercised collectively by a government, on a pre-established rota of the member states, of the European Union. ...


Highest-ranking political leadership in the EU is provided by the European Council (not to be mistaken for the Council of Europe), which is the EU Council when composed of heads of government of the member states (e.g. the prime minister or President) plus the President of the Commission. The European Council meets on at least four summits a year, and is lead by the head of government of the rotating presidency.[39] This article deals with the meeting of European Union leaders. ... Anthem Ode to Joy (orchestral)  ten founding members joined subsequently observer at the Parliamentary Assembly observer at the Committee of Ministers  official candidate Seat Strasbourg, France Membership 47 European states 5 observers (Council) 3 observers (Assembly) Leaders  -  Secretary General Terry Davis  -  President of the Parliamentary Assembly Rene van der Linden... A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... President is a title held by many leaders of organizations, companies, trade unions, universities, and countries. ... François-Xavier Ortoli, Romano Prodi, José Manuel Barroso and Jacques Delors The President of the European Commission is notionally the highest ranking unelected official within the European Union bureaucracy. ... List of European Councils, by presidency, date, and location. ...


Parliament

Main article: European Parliament
The hemicycle of the Parliament's Louise Weiss building in Strasbourg
The hemicycle of the Parliament's Louise Weiss building in Strasbourg

The other half of the EU's legislature is the European Parliament. The 785 Members of the European Parliament (MEPs) are directly elected by EU citizens every five years. Although MEPs are elected on a national basis, they sit according to political groups rather than their nationality. Each country has a set number of seats. The Parliament and the Council form and pass legislation jointly, using codecision, in certain areas of policy. This procedure will extend to many new areas under the proposed Treaty of Lisbon, and hence increase the power and relevance of the Parliament. The Parliament also has the power to reject or censure the Commission and the EU budget. The President of the European Parliament carries out the role of speaker in parliament and represents it externally. The president and vice presidents are elected by MEPs every two and a half years.[40] Established 1952, as the Common Assembly President Hans-Gert Pöttering (EPP) Since 16 January 2007 Vice-Presidents 14 Rodi Kratsa-Tsagaropoulou (EPP) Alejo Vidal-Quadras (EPP) Gérard Onesta (Greens – EFA) Edward McMillan-Scott (ED) Mario Mauro (EPP) Miguel Angel Martínez Martínez (PES) Luigi Cocilovo (ALDE) Mechtild... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 900 pixel, file size: 899 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 900 pixel, file size: 899 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... A legislatureis a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to ratify laws. ... Established 1952, as the Common Assembly President Hans-Gert Pöttering (EPP) Since 16 January 2007 Vice-Presidents 14 Rodi Kratsa-Tsagaropoulou (EPP) Alejo Vidal-Quadras (EPP) Gérard Onesta (Greens – EFA) Edward McMillan-Scott (ED) Mario Mauro (EPP) Miguel Angel Martínez Martínez (PES) Luigi Cocilovo (ALDE) Mechtild... A Member of the European Parliament (English abbreviation MEP)[1] is a member of the European Unions directly-elected legislative body, the European Parliament. ... Citizenship of the Union was introduced by the Maastricht Treaty signed in 1992. ... The codecision procedure is the main legislative procedure by which law can be adopted in the European Community, the first of the three pillars of the European Union. ... For other uses, see Treaty of Lisbon (disambiguation). ... The President of the European Parliament oversees all the activities of the European Parliament and its constituent bodies. ... It has been suggested that Speakers of the House be merged into this article or section. ...


Legal System

Further information: Law of the European Union and Treaties of the European Union

Although the Treaties are the ultimate source of EU Law, there are a number of legislative instruments available to the EU institutions. The three main instruments are Regulations, Directives and Decisions. There is no formal hierarchy regarding the three types. The Law of the European Union is the unique legal system which operates alongside the laws of Member States of the European Union (EU). ... The treaties of the European Union are effectively its constitutional law, making up the EUs primary legislation. ... A directive is a legislative act of the European Union which requires member states to achieve a particular result without dictating the means of achieving that result. ... A European Union decision (defined in Article 249/EC) is one of the three binding instruments provide by secondary EU legislation. ...


Regulations are legislative acts which become law in all member states the moment they come into force, without the requirement for any implementing measures to have been taken by member states.[41] Once in force their contents automatically override conflicting domestic provisions, as a result of having direct effect in the national law of the member states.[34] Direct effect is a principle of European Union Law stating that European regulations have a direct effect on EU citizens and on the laws of the member states. ...


Directives require member states to achieve a certain result while leaving them discretion as to how to achieve the result within a certain time period. Directives are generally used where it is thought preferable to leave the precise details of legislative implementation to national governments.[42] Once the stated time period has passed, under certain conditions provisions within a Directive may have direct effect in national law against Member States. Direct effect is a principle of European Union Law stating that European regulations have a direct effect on EU citizens and on the laws of the member states. ...

The ECJ in Luxembourg can judge member states over EU law
The ECJ in Luxembourg can judge member states over EU law

Decisions offer an alternative to the two above modes of legislation. The Council and the Commission may publish in the official journal a decision, notified to a particular addressee, such as an individual trader or a company. Decisions will be found most commonly in Competition Law, or on rulings on State Aid, and can be challenged by the addressee under certain circumstances before the EU courts. Image File history File links EUCoJ.jpg‎ I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links EUCoJ.jpg‎ I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Official emblem of the ECJ The Court of Justice of the European Communities, usually called the European Court of Justice (ECJ), is the highest court in the European Union (EU). ... The European Commission, established following World War II, was the first Europe wide competition authority European Community competition law is one of the areas of authority of the European Union. ... In economics, a subsidy is generally a monetary grant given by a government to lower the price faced by producers or consumers of a good, generally because it is considered to be in the public interest. ... Official emblem of the ECJ The Court of Justice of the European Communities, usually called the European Court of Justice (ECJ), is the highest court in the European Union (EU). ...


The EU's legal system contains a multiplicity of legislative procedures used to enact the above legislation. The treaties provide the basis for all legislation and lay down the different ways of adopting legislation for different policy areas.[43] A common feature of the EU's legislative procedures is that almost all legislation must be proposed by the Commission, rather than member states or European parliamentarians. The two most common procedures are co-decision, under which the European Parliament can veto proposed legislation, and consultation, under which Parliament is only permitted to give an opinion which can be ignored by European leaders. In most cases legislation must be agreed by the council.[44] See: European Union legislative procedure. The European Union legislative procedure describes the way the European Union creates and enacts legislation across the community. ...


Courts

Further information: European Court of Justice

The judicial branch of the EU consists of the European Court of Justice (ECJ) and the Court of First Instance (to be renamed the "General Court" upon the entering into force of the Treaty of Lisbon). Together they interpret and apply the treaties and the law of the EU.[45] The Court of First Instance mainly deals with cases taken by individuals and companies directly before the EU's courts, and the ECJ primarily deals with cases taken by member states, the institutions and cases referred to the EU's courts by the courts of member states.[46] Decisions from the Court of First Instance can be appealed to the Court of Justice but only on a point of law.[47] Official emblem of the ECJ The Court of Justice of the European Communities, usually called the European Court of Justice (ECJ), is the highest court in the European Union (EU). ... Official emblem of the ECJ The Court of Justice of the European Communities, usually called the European Court of Justice (ECJ), is the highest court in the European Union (EU). ... The Court of First Instance, created in 1989, is a court of the European Union. ... For other uses, see Treaty of Lisbon (disambiguation). ...


National courts within the Member States also play a key role in the EU as enforcers of EU law, and a "spirit of cooperation" between EU and national courts is laid down in the Treaties. National courts can apply EU law in domestic cases, and if they require clarification on the interpretation or validity of any EU legislation related to the case it may make a reference for a preliminary ruling to the ECJ. The right to declare EU legislation invalid however is reserved to the EU courts.


Politics

Two major political issues for the EU are European integration and enlargement. Enlargement, the accession of new states to the EU, is a highly politicised issue. Supporters argue it aids democracy in new members, as well as supporting the European economy as a whole. Opponents fear the EU is expanding beyond its current political capabilities, and/or cultural boundaries. Public opinion, and hence political party viewpoint, has been more skeptical towards enlargement since the simultaneous accession of 10 members in 2004. This is most acute in relation to the candidacy of Turkey.[48][49][50] The European Union or EU is a supranational and international organization of 27 member states. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 472 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1448 × 1840 pixel, file size: 394 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 472 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1448 × 1840 pixel, file size: 394 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... François-Xavier Ortoli, Romano Prodi, José Manuel Barroso and Jacques Delors The President of the European Commission is notionally the highest ranking unelected official within the European Union bureaucracy. ... José Manuel Durão Barroso, GCC (pronounced  ) (born in Porto, March 23, 1956) is a Portuguese politician and the 11th President of the European Commission, being the first Portuguese person to hold the post. ... European integration is the process of political and economic (and in some cases social and cultural) integration of European states into a tighter bloc. ... The European Union (EU) was created by six founding states in 1957 (following the earlier establishment by the same six states of the European Coal and Steel Community in 1952) and has grown to 27 member states. ... One of a number of posters created to promote the Marshall Plan in Europe, featuring Turkey Turkeys formal application to join the European Community—the organization that has since developed into the European Union—was made on April 14th, 1987. ...


Integration is another political issue, where the public view is sometimes that national interest conflicts with that of the EU. The aim of increasing harmonisation between states has meant that national powers have been transferred to the European level. This is criticised by eurosceptics who fear the loss of national sovereignty.[51] In 2004 the European Constitution was agreed between national leaders and the EU institutions. However it did not come into force after it was rejected in referenda in two countries, with the prospect of further rejections had attempts at ratification continued. In October 2007 European leaders finalised a new Treaty of Lisbon which contains much of the now defunct constitution, without the latter's constitutional terms and elements. Euroscepticism has become a general term for opposition to the process of European integration. ... “Sovereign” redirects here. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe The constitutional treaty as signed in Rome on 29 October 2004 by representatives of the EU member states The Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe (TCE), commonly referred to as the European Constitution, was an unimplemented... For other uses, see Treaty of Lisbon (disambiguation). ...


The treaty is expected to come into force in 2009. If ratified it will introduce more majority voting in the Council and increase the powers of the European Parliament. The treaty also proposes to abolish the EU's pillar system. More aspects of foreign policy will now be subject to the supranational, as opposed to intergovernmental, institutions.[52][17] The procedures for Voting in the Council of the European Union are described in the treaties of the EU. The Council of the European Union was instituted under this name in the Maastricht Treaty. ...


Justice, freedom and security

Further information: Police and Judicial Co-operation in Criminal Matters and European Commissioner for Justice, Freedom & Security
The Schengen Agreement has ensured open borders between most member states. (Austro-German border)
The Schengen Agreement has ensured open borders between most member states. (Austro-German border)

Much of the EU's competence in the justice and home affairs area originates from the signing of the Schengen Agreement in 1985 on gradual abolition of border controls between six of the then ten European Community member states. In order to implement the Schengen Agreement, the signatory states included measures designed to compensate for the effect of reduced border controls in the areas of asylum, immigration and criminal justice.[53] The Maastricht Treaty transferred the Schengen acquis to the EU (title IV of the Maastricht Treaty as originally enacted).[54] Police and Judicial Co-operation in Criminal Matters (PJC) is the third of the three pillars of the European Union, focusing on co-operation in law enforcement and combating racism. ... Franco Frattini Barroso Commission, 2004 to 2009 The Commissioner for Justice, Freedom, & Security is the member of the European Commission. ... Image File history File linksMetadata SchengenGrenzeBayern-Tirol. ... Image File history File linksMetadata SchengenGrenzeBayern-Tirol. ... For other uses, see Schengen. ... For other uses, see Schengen. ... Right of asylum (or political asylum) is an ancient judicial notion, under which a person persecuted for political opinions or religious beliefs in his or her country may be protected by another sovereign authority, a foreign country, or Church sanctuaries (as in medieval times). ... The term acquis (or sometimes acquis communautaire), deriving from French, is used in European Union law to refer to the total body of EU law accumulated so far. ... The Maastricht Treaty (formally, the Treaty of European Union, TEU) was signed on February 7, 1992 in Maastricht, Netherlands after final negotiations in December 1991 between the members of the European Community and entered into force on November 1, 1993 during the Delors Commission. ...


Additional competencies were assigned to the EU by the Maastricht Treaty to facilitate the freedom of movement of people by adopting common rules in civil matters, such as contract and family law. [54] The Maastricht Treaty also introduced the concept of citizenship of the European Union, which is complementary to national citizenship.[55] Citizenship of the Union was introduced by the Maastricht Treaty signed in 1992. ...


Amendments to these treaties by the Amsterdam Treaty added a new aim of the EU as the creation of an "area of Justice, Freedom and Security".[56] That treaty also made it easier to pass laws in the justice and home affairs area and more difficult for member states to veto them. It also increased the powers of the European Parliament in relation to Justice and Home affairs' measures, with decisions in certain matters coming to be decided by codecision. Recent legislation includes the European Arrest Warrant[57] and directives on family law.[58] Treaty of Amsterdam amending the Treaty of the European Union, the Treaties establishing the European Communities and certain related acts The Treaty of Amsterdam amending the Treaty of the European Union, the Treaties establishing the European Communities and certain related acts, commonly known as the Amsterdam Treaty, was signed on... The codecision procedure is the main legislative procedure by which law can be adopted in the European Community, the first of the three pillars of the European Union. ... The European Arrest Warrant (EAW) is an arrest warrant to allow the arrest of criminal suspects and their transfer for trial or detention which is valid throughout the states of the European Union (EU). ...


The EU has established agencies to co-ordinate its actions in the justice and home affairs area: Europol for co-operation of police forces,[59] Eurojust for co-operation between prosecutors,[60] and Frontex for co-operation between border control authorities.[61] The EU also operates the Schengen Information System[5] which provides a common database for police and immigration authorities. Europol (the name is a contraction of European Police Office) is the European Unions criminal intelligence agency. ... Eurojust (also spelled capitalised as EUROJUST) is a European Union body composed of national prosecutors, magistrates or police officers of equivalent competence from each of the European Unions member states. ... Location: Warsaw, Poland Formation: - Signed - Established October 26, 2004 May 1, 2005 Superseding pillar: European Communities Director: Ilkka Laitinen Official website: http://www. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...


Fundamental rights

The EU has developed a role in human rights protection. Prohibitions against sexual and nationality discrimination have a long standing in the treaties.[62] The Amsterdam Treaty supplemented these, by supporting further legislation against discrimination based on race, religion, disability, age and sexual orientation.[63] Using these powers the EU has enacted legislation on sexual discrimination in the work-place, age discrimination and racial discrimination.[64] All EU states have abolished capital punishment for all crimes and the EU has been a prominent campaigner for global abolition.[65] Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... The sign of the headquarters of the National Association Opposed To Woman Suffrage Sexism is commonly considered to be discrimination and/or hatred towards people based on their sex rather than their individual merits, but can also refer to any and all systemic differentiations based on the sex of the... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial quota... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial quota... Death penalty, death sentence, and execution redirect here. ...


Signing the 1950 European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) is a condition for EU membership, however the institutions of the EU are not covered by this. As the EU was not capable of signing the ECHR without a treaty change, the EU drew up the Charter of Fundamental Rights. The charter consolidated not only the rights of the ECHR but those of other UN and EU agreements, covering economic, political and social rights including "third generation" rights such as good governance and a clean environment. Although it was proclaimed in 2000, it has no legal force at present (2007). Under the Reform Treaty, the Charter would become legally binding and the EU would accede to the ECHR,[66] which would make the European Court of Human Rights, currently totally separate from the EU, the highest court in the EU for Human Rights, above the EU's Court of Justice. Even without joining, the Court of Justice and Court of Human Rights co-operate to ensure their case-law does not conflict, thus the Court of Justice already treats the ECHR as though it was part of EU law.[67] “ECHR” redirects here. ... The Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union is a document containing human rights provisions, solemnly proclaimed by the European Parliament, the Council of the European Union, and the European Commission in December 2000. ... European Court of Human Rights building in Strasbourg The European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR), often referred to informally as the Strasbourg Court, was created to systematise the hearing of human rights complaints against States Parties to the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, adopted by...


Foreign relations

Further information: Foreign relations of the European Union and Common Foreign and Security Policy
Javier Solana is the EU's High Representative in foreign policy
Javier Solana is the EU's High Representative in foreign policy

The foreign relations of the EU are primarily dealt with through the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP). Co-operation in international trade negotiations, under the Common Commercial Policy, dates back to the establishment of the Community in 1957.[68] The CFSP itself has its origins in the formation of European Political Co-operation in 1970.[69] European Political Co-operation was an informal consultation process between member states on foreign policy matters, with the aim of forming common policies. It was formally introduced into the then European Community by the Single European Act and subsequently renamed as the "Common Foreign and Security Policy" by the Maastricht Treaty.[69] Foreign relations of the European Union Foreign relations of Austria Foreign relations of Belgium Foreign relations of Cyprus Foreign relations of the Czech Republic Foreign relations of Denmark Foreign relations of Estonia Foreign relations of Finland Foreign relations of France Foreign relations of Germany Foreign relations of Greece Foreign relations... The Common Foreign and Security Policy, or CFSP, was established as the second of the three pillars of the European Union in the Maastricht treaty of 1992, and further defined and broadened in the Amsterdam Treaty of 1999. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2800 × 2100 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2800 × 2100 pixel, file size: 2. ... Javier Solana Madariaga (born July 14, 1942 in Madrid, Spain) is the High Representative for the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) and the Secretary-General of both the Council of the European Union (EU) and the Western European Union (WEU). ... The Common Foreign and Security Policy or CFSP was established as the second of the three pillars of the European Union in the Maastricht treaty of 1992, and further defined and broadened in the Amsterdam Treaty of 1997. ... The European political cooperation (EPC) was introduced informally in 1970 in response to the Davignon report and was formalised by the Single European Act with effect from 1987. ... The Single European Act (SEA) was the first major revision of the Treaty of Rome. ...


The Maastricht Treaty gives the Common Foreign and Security Policy the aims of promoting both the EU's own interests and those of the international community as a whole. This includes promoting international co-operation, respect for human rights, democracy and the rule of law.[70] Banners of the international community at the United Nations in Geneva The term international community is a political phrase that can refer to either: All the lands represented within the United Nations. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      The rule of law, in its most basic form, is the principle that no one is above the law. ...


The Amsterdam Treaty created the office of the High Representative for the Common Foreign and Security Policy (currently held by Javier Solana) to co-ordinate the EU's foreign policy.[71] The High Representative, in conjunction with the current Presidency, speaks on behalf of the EU in foreign policy matters and can have the task of articulating ambiguous policy positions created by disagreements among member states. The Common Foreign and Security Policy requires unanimity among the now 27 member states on the appropriate policy to follow on any particular policy. The unanimity and difficult issues treated under the CFSP makes disagreements, such as those which occurred over the war in Iraq,[72] not uncommon. The Common Foreign and Security Policy or CFSP was established as the second of the three pillars of the European Union in the Maastricht treaty of 1992, and further defined and broadened in the Amsterdam Treaty of 1997. ... Javier Solana Madariaga (born July 14, 1942 in Madrid, Spain) is the High Representative for the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) and the Secretary-General of both the Council of the European Union (EU) and the Western European Union (WEU). ... Presidency of the Council of the European Union refers to the responsibility of presiding over all aspects of the Council of the European Union, when exercised collectively by a government, on a pre-established rota of the member states, of the European Union. ...

The EU participates in all G8 summits (Heiligendamm, Germany)
The EU participates in all G8 summits (Heiligendamm, Germany)

Besides the emerging international policy of the European Union, the international influence of the EU is also felt through enlargement. The perceived benefits of becoming a member of the EU act as an incentive for both political and economic reform in states wishing to fulfil the EU's accession criteria, and are considered a major factor contributing to the reform of former Communist countries in Eastern Europe.[49] This influence on the internal affairs of other countries is generally referred to as "soft power", as opposed to military "hard power".[73] Finnish Prime Minister, Matti Vanhanen, cited the common foreign policy as a factor why Finland is, de facto, no longer a neutral country. It is not known if this view is shared by the leaders of the other neutral countries in the EU.[74] Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Group of Eight redirects here. ... Leaders of the 33rd G8 summit in Heiligendamm, Germany. ... The European Union (EU) was created by six founding states in 1957 (following the earlier establishment by the same six states of the European Coal and Steel Community in 1952) and has grown to 27 member states. ... The Prime Minister (Finnish Pääministeri, Swedish: Statsminister) is the head of government in Finland. ... Matti Taneli Vanhanen ( ) (born November 4, 1955, in Jyväskylä) is the current Prime Minister of Finland, as well as Chairman of the Centre Party. ... A neutral country takes no side in a war between other parties, and in return hopes to avoid being attacked by either of them. ...


Besides the CFSP, the Commission also has its own representation in international organisations. This is primarily through the European Commissioner for External Relations, who works alongside the High Representative. In the UN the EU has gained influence in areas such as aid due to its large contributions in that field (see below).[75] In the G8, the EU has rights of membership besides chairing/hosting summit meetings and is represented at meetings by the presidents of the Commission and the Council.[76] In the World Trade Organisation (WTO), where all 27 member states are represented, the EU as a body is represented by Trade Commissioner Peter Mandelson.[77] The external relations policy of the Barroso Commission is based on three key basic propositions on the EU’s role in the emerging world order. ... Group of Eight redirects here. ... WTO redirects here. ... The Commissioner for Trade is the member of the European Commission responsible for the European Unions external trade policy. ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ...


Humanitarian aid

Further information: ECHO (European Commission)
The EU is the largest contributor of aid in the world.
The EU is the largest contributor of aid in the world.

The European Community humanitarian aid office, or "ECHO", provides humanitarian aid from the EU to developing countries. In 2006 its budget amounted to 671 million euros, 48% of which went to the ACP countries.[78] Counting the EU's own contributions and those of its member states together, the EU is the largest aid donor in the world.[79] European Community Humanitarian aid Office (ECHO) is the European Commissions department for humanitarian aid. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... European Community Humanitarian aid Office (ECHO) is the European Commissions department for humanitarian aid. ... Humanitarian aid arriving by plane at Rinas Airport in Albania in the summer of 1999. ... ACP States The ACP States are the countries that are signatories of the Lomé Convention. ...


The EU's aid has previously been criticised by the eurosceptic think-tank Open Europe for being inefficient, mis-targeted and linked to economic objectives.[80] Furthermore, some charities have claimed European governments have inflated the amount they have spent on aid by incorrectly including money spent on debt relief, foreign students, and refugees. Under the de-inflated figures, the EU did not reach its internal aid target in 2006[81] and the EU would not reach the international target of 0.7% of GNP until 2015. However only a few countries have reached that target. In 2005 EU aid was 0.34% of the GNP which was higher than that of the United States and Japan.[82] The current commissioner for aid, Louis Michel, has called for aid to be delivered more rapidly, to greater effect, and on humanitarian principles.[79] This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Template:Push up GNP redirects here. ... Louis Michel Barroso Commission, 2004 to 2009 European Commissioner for Development & Humanitarian Aid is a member of the European Commission. ... Louis Michel Louis Michel (born September 2, 1947) was until July 2004 the Belgian foreign minister. ...


Military and defence

CFSP forces are peacekeeping in parts of the Balkans and Africa.
CFSP forces are peacekeeping in parts of the Balkans and Africa.

Member states are responsible for their own territorial defence. Many EU members are also members of NATO. The Western European Union (WEU) is a European security organisation related to the EU. In 1992, the WEU's relationship with the EU was defined, when the EU assigned it the "Petersberg tasks" (humanitarian missions such as peacekeeping and crisis management). These tasks were later transferred from the WEU to the EU by the Amsterdam Treaty; they formed part of the new CFSP and the European Security and Defence Policy. Elements of the WEU are currently being merged into the EU's CFSP, and the President of the WEU is currently CFSP High Representative.[83][84] The European Security and Defence Policy or ESDP is a major element of the Common Foreign and Security Policy pillar of the European Union (EU). ... The European Union is not a state and does not have its own dedicated military forces, although there are a number of multi-national military and peacekeeping forces which are ultimately under the command of the EU. An early attempt (1952) to form a European Defence Community failed, and no... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... The Common Foreign and Security Policy, or CFSP, was established as the second of the three pillars of the European Union in the Maastricht treaty of 1992, and further defined and broadened in the Amsterdam Treaty of 1999. ... Balkan redirects here. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... This article is about the military alliance. ...  â€¢  â€¢  â€¢ Membership 10 member states 6 associate member states 5 observer countries 7 associate partner countries Establishment Treaty of Brussels  -  Signed 17 March 1948  The Western European Union (WEU) is a partially dormant European defence and security organization, established on the basis of the Treaty of Brussels of 1948 with the... The European Security and Defence Policy or ESDP is considered a major element of the Common Foreign and Security Policy pillar of the European Union (EU). ... The European Security and Defence Policy or ESDP is a major element of the Common Foreign and Security Policy pillar of the European Union (EU). ...


Following the Kosovo War in 1999, the European Council agreed that "the Union must have the capacity for autonomous action, backed by credible military forces, the means to decide to use them, and the readiness to do so, in order to respond to international crises without prejudice to actions by NATO." To that end, a number of efforts were made to increase the EU's military capability, notably the Helsinki Headline Goal process. After much discussion, the most concrete result was the EU Battlegroups initiative, each of which is planned to be able to deploy quickly about 1500 men.[85] EU forces have been deployed on peacekeeping missions from Africa to the former Yugoslavia and the Middle East.[86] EU military operations are supported by a number of bodies, including the European Defence Agency, satellite centre and the military staff.[87] The term Kosovo War or Kosovo Conflict is often used to describe two sequential and at times parallel armed conflicts (a civil war followed by an international war) in the southern Serbian province called Kosovo (officially Kosovo and Metohia), part of the former Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... This article is about the European Union military capability. ... European Union battlegroups (EU BGs) are military forces of 1500 combat soldiers under the control of the European Union. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in the Latin alphabet, Југославија in Cyrillic; English: South Slavia, or literary The Land of South Slavs) describes three political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Agency of the European Union Location: Brussels, Belgium Formation - Signed - Established July 2004 Superseding pillar: Common Foreign and Security Policy Director: Kriegstreiber Javier Solana Website: eda. ... The European Union Satellite Centre (EUSC) was set up in 2002 in order to replace the Western Union Satellite Centre and thus represents a part of the transfer of functions from the Western European Union (WEU) to the European Union EU, and more specifically to the Common Foreign and Security... More on the Council of the European Union; General Secretariat of the Council of the European Union; Private office; Departments attached to the Secretary-General/High Representative; See also Military of the European Union External links http://www. ...


Economic policy

Further information: Economy of the European Union
163 of the world´s 500 largest corporations are headquartered in EU countries (Nokia, Finland)
163 of the world´s 500 largest corporations are headquartered in EU countries (Nokia, Finland)

Since its origin, the EU has established a single economic market across the territory of all its members. Currently a single currency is in use between the 15 members of the eurozone.[88][89] Considered as a single economy, the EU generated an estimated nominal gross domestic product (GDP)of US$16.6 trillion in 2007, amounting to 31% of the world's total economic output,[2] which makes it the largest economy in the world. It is also the largest exporter of goods,[90] the second largest importer,[91] and the biggest trading partner to several countries such as India, and China.[92][93][94] 163 of the top 500 largest corporations measured by revenue (Fortune Global 500) have their headquarters in the EU.[95] In May 2007 unemployment in the EU stood at 7%[96] while investment was at 21.4% of GDP, inflation at 2.2% of GDP and public deficit at -0.9% of GDP.[97] If it is considered as a single state, the economy of the European Unions twenty-seven member states is the worlds largest economy. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 835 KB) Summary Small part of Nokia corporate headquarters in Keilaniemi, Espoo, Finland (2003). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 835 KB) Summary Small part of Nokia corporate headquarters in Keilaniemi, Espoo, Finland (2003). ... The Fortune Global 500 is a ranking of the top 500 corporations worldwide as measured by revenue. ... The Eurozone (also called Euro Area, Eurosystem or Euroland) refers to the European Union member states that have adopted the euro currency union. ... GDP redirects here. ... USD redirects here. ... The Fortune Global 500 is a ranking of the top 500 corporations worldwide as measured by revenue. ...


Single market

Further information: Four Freedoms (European Union)

The Treaty of Rome originally created a European Economic Community. This outlined the staged development of a single market, starting with the introduction of a customs union between the signatories. This became the European Community, one part of the European Union, which still has a primary task of creating and maintaining the single market. In particular it seeks to guarantee four freedoms, which relate to ensuring the free movement of goods, capital, people and services within the area.[89] In European Union law, the Four Freedoms (sometimes the Four Liberties) are the free movement of goods, services, capital, and labour within the internal market of the European Union. ... A single market is a customs union with common policies on product regulation, and freedom of movement of all the four factors of production (land, enterprise, capital and labour). ... A customs union is a free trade area with a Common External Tariff. ... In European Union law, the Four Freedoms (sometimes the Four Liberties) are the free movement of goods, services, capital, and labour within the internal market of the European Union. ... A good or commodity in economics is any object or service that increases utility, directly or indirectly, not to be confused with good in a moral or ethical sense (see Utilitarianism and consequentialist ethical theory). ... Capital has a number of related meanings in economics, finance and accounting. ... This article is about a term used in economics. ...


The principle of free movement of goods ensures goods can be taken anywhere within the whole market without being subject to barriers or obstacles. This freedom has both an internal and external dimension. Internally, goods must not be subjected to customs duties, discriminatory taxes or measures restricting import quantities between member countries. Externally, goods entering the internal market will be granted freedom after paying the Common Customs Tariff.

The EU has introduced a standardised passport design with a varying national emblem at the centre
The EU has introduced a standardised passport design with a varying national emblem at the centre[98]

Free movement of capital is intended to permit movement of investments such as property purchases and buying of shares between countries.[99] Until the drive towards Economic and Monetary Union the development of the capital provisions had been slow. Post-Maastricht there has been a rapidly developing corpus of ECJ judgments regarding this initially neglected freedom. The free movement of capital is unique insofar as that it is granted equally to non-member countries.


The free movement of persons means citizens can move freely between member states to live, work, study or retire in another country. This required the lowering of administrative formalities and recognition of professional qualifications of other states.[100] Traditionally the economically active were granted a much greater level of freedom than others. The extension to the non-economically active was first recognised in 1999 when the concept of Community Citizenship was introduced to the EU. In addition to extending the scope of the free movement of persons, it also grants certain social and political rights to the citizens of the EU. Citizenship of the Union was introduced by the Maastricht Treaty signed in 1992. ...


The free movement of services and of establishment allows self-employed persons to move between member states in order to provide services on a temporary or permanent basis. Services account for between sixty and seventy percent of GDP, although legislation is not as developed as in other sectors. This has been addressed by the recently passed Directive on services in the internal market which aims to liberalise this area of the market.[101] According to the Treaty the provision of services is a residual freedom that only applies if no other freedom is being exercised. The Directive on services in the internal market (commonly referred to as the Bolkestein Directive) is an initiative of the European Commission aimed at creating a single market for services within the European Union. ...


The freedoms are not absolute in nature. Member states may interfere with their exercise on the specific grounds laid down in the Treaty, or can rely on the case law of the European Courts for more general justifications. For example, the Treaty allows member states to restrict movements that would pose a real threat to public policy or public security. In the absence of Community legislation it is for the member states to decide the scope of the exceptions. The European Courts will arbitrate as to whether the actions of the member state are proportionate and in conformity with Community law. The freedoms are extended to the non-member states of Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway via the European Economic Area.[22]Half the trade in the EU is covered by legislation harmonised by the EU.[102]  EFTA countries (except Switzerland)  EU countries Together these form the EEA. The European Economic Area (EEA) came into being on January 1, 1994 following an agreement between the European Free Trade Association (EFTA) and the European Union (EU). ...


Monetary union

Further information: Euro and Economic and Monetary Union of the European Union
The European Central Bank in Frankfurt governs Eurozone monetary policy.
The European Central Bank in Frankfurt governs Eurozone monetary policy.

A single currency for the EU has been an official objective since 1969 and work began in 1990 on Economic and Monetary Union. Nine years later the euro was launched in eleven of the then fifteen member states as an accounting currency, meaning that national currencies remained in use but with exchange rates locked to the euro. On 1 January 2002, euro notes and coins were issued and the national currencies were phased out. Eurozone membership increased to twelve in 2002 and now fifteen countries use the euro as their sole official currency. Slovenia adopted the Euro on the 1 January 2007, Cyprus and Malta on the 1 January 2008. All other EU members except Denmark and the United Kingdom have agreed to join as a condition of being members of the EU and dates for this will be set when economic conditions have been met. Public opinion in Denmark currently favours joining. Sweden has pointedly failed to take necessary economic steps. A number of other countries outside the EU, such as Montenegro, also use the euro unofficially.[24] The euro, and the monetary policies of those who have adopted it, are under the control of the European Central Bank (ECB).[103] There are twelve other currencies used in the EU.[88] For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ... For the concept in general, see economic and monetary union. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 491 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,157 × 2,631 pixels, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 491 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,157 × 2,631 pixels, file size: 1. ... Headquarters Coordinates , , Established 1 January 1998 President Jean-Claude Trichet Central Bank of Austria, Belgium, France, Finland, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Slovenia, Spain Currency Euro ISO 4217 Code EUR Reserves €43bn directly, €338bn through the Eurosystem (including gold deposits). ... For other uses, see Frankfurt (disambiguation). ... The Eurozone (also called Euro Area, Eurosystem or Euroland) refers to the European Union member states that have adopted the euro currency union. ... In economics, a monetary union is a situation where several countries have agreed to share a single currency (also known as a unitary or common currency) among them, for example, the East Caribbean dollar. ... For the concept in general, see economic and monetary union. ... For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ... The introduction of the euro took place principally between 31 December 1998, when the exchange rates between the euro and legacy currencies in the Eurozone became fixed, and early 2002, when euro notes and coins were introduced and the legacy currencies withdrawn. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... The Eurozone (also called Euro Area, Eurosystem or Euroland) refers to the European Union member states that have adopted the euro currency union. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the country in Europe. ... Headquarters Coordinates , , Established 1 January 1998 President Jean-Claude Trichet Central Bank of Austria, Belgium, France, Finland, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Slovenia, Spain Currency Euro ISO 4217 Code EUR Reserves €43bn directly, €338bn through the Eurosystem (including gold deposits). ... For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ...


The euro is designed to help build the single market by, for example: easing travel of citizens and goods, eliminating exchange rate problems, providing price transparency, creating a single financial market, price stability, low interest rates, having a currency used internationally and protected against shocks by the large amount of internal trade within the eurozone. It is also intended as a political symbol of integration and stimulus for more.[88] In recent years holdings of the euro have grown, and there is some speculation that if the eurozone continues to enlarge, and/or the U.S. dollar continues to fall, the euro could become the main world reserve currency.[104] Foreign exchange reserves (also called Forex reserves) in a strict sense are only the foreign currency deposits held by central banks and monetary authorities. ... USD redirects here. ... Percentage of global currencies A reserve currency (or anchor currency) is a currency which is held in significant quantities by many governments and institutions as part of their foreign exchange reserves. ...


Competition

Further information: European Community competition law and European Commissioner for Competition

The EU operates a competition policy intended to ensure undistorted competition within the single market.[105] The Commission as the competition regulator for the single market is responsible for antitrust issues, approving mergers, breaking up cartels, working for economic liberalisation and preventing state aid.[106] The European Commission, established following World War II, was the first Europe wide competition authority European Community competition law is one of the areas of authority of the European Union. ... The Commissioner for Competition is the member of the European Commission with responsibility for such matters as commercial competition, company mergers and anti-trust law. ... A competition regulator is a government agency, typically a statutory authority, which regulates competition laws, and may sometimes also regulate consumer protection laws. ... Antitrust redirects here. ... Acquisition redirects here. ... For the American pop-punk band, see Cartel (band). ... The liberal theory of economics is the theory of economics in classical liberalism developed in the Enlightenment, and believed to be first fully formulated by Adam Smith which advocates minimal interference by government in the economy. ... In economics, a subsidy is generally a monetary grant given by a government to lower the price faced by producers or consumers of a good, generally because it is considered to be in the public interest. ...


The Competition Commissioner, currently Neelie Kroes, is one of the most powerful positions in the Commission, notable in effecting trans-national corporations.[107] For example, in 2001 the Commission for the first time prevented a merger between two companies based in the United States which had already been approved by their national authority.[108] Another high profile case, European Union v. Microsoft, resulted in the Commission fining Microsoft over €777 million following nine years of legal action.[109] The Commissioner for Competition is the member of the European Commission with responsibility for such matters as commercial competition, company mergers and anti-trust law. ... Neelie Kroes Neelie Kroes (born 19 July 1941 in Rotterdam) is a Dutch politician, currently serving as European Commissioner for Competition. ... The European Union Microsoft antitrust case is a case brought by the European Union (EU) against Microsoft for alleged antitrust abuse. ... Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ...


In negotiations on the Treaty of Lisbon, French President Nicolas Sarkozy succeeded in removing the words "free and undistorted competition" from the treaties. However, the requirement is maintained in an annex and it is unclear whether this will have any practical effect on EU policy.[110] The President of France, known officially as the President of the Republic (Président de la République in French), is Frances elected Head of State. ... Nicolas Sarkozy at Paris, May 2005. ...


Budget

Further information: Budget of the European Union

The EU had an agreed budget of €116 billion for the year 2007, and €862 billion for the period 2007-2013;[111] this represents around 1% of the EU's combined GDP. By comparison, the UK's expenditure for 2004 was estimated to be €759 billion, and France was estimated to have spent €801 billion. In 1960, the then "EU" (EEC) budget was 0.03% of GDP.[112] The European Union (EU) has an independent parliament and civil service which is distinct from those of the 27 member states. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Possible meanings: European Economic Community, the former name of the European Community European Energy Community Extended Error Correction, see RAM parity Energy Efficiency Centre Energy Efficiency in Construction Engineering Education Centre Eurocontrol Experimental Centre European Egg Consortium Ford Electronic Engine Control Eurasian Economic Community English Electric Computers English Electric Company...


The largest single expenditure item is the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) at around 45% of the total budget. The second largest element is the regional policy, at 30%. Foreign policy consumes 8%, administration 6%, research 5%. The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is a system of European Union agricultural subsidies and programmes. ... The Regional policy of the European Union is a policy with the stated aim of improving the economic well-being of certain regions in the EU. Around one third of the EUs budget is devoted to this policy, the aim of which has been stated to be to remove...


Development policy

Agriculture

The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is one the oldest policies of the European Community and was one of its core aims.[113] The policy has the objectives of increasing agricultural production, providing certainty in food supplies, ensuring a high quality of life for farmers, stabilising markets and ensuring reasonable prices for consumers (article 33 of the Treaty of Rome).[26] It was, until recently, operated by a system of subsidies and market intervention. Until the 1990s the policy accounted for over 60% of the then European Community's annual budget, and still accounts for around 35%.[113] The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is a system of European Union agricultural subsidies and programmes. ... The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is a system of European Union agricultural subsidies and programmes. ... The European Community (EC) was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ...

EU farms are supported by the CAP, the largest budgetary expenditure (Vinyard in Spain).
EU farms are supported by the CAP, the largest budgetary expenditure (Vinyard in Spain).

The policy's price controls and market interventions led to considerable overproduction, resulting in so-called butter mountains and wine lakes. These were intervention stores of produce bought up by the Community to maintain minimum price levels. In order to dispose of surplus stores, they were often sold on the world market at prices considerably below Community guaranteed prices, or farmers were offered subsidies (amounting to the difference between the Community and world prices) to export their produce outside the Community. This system has been criticised for under-cutting farmers in the developing world.[114] The overproduction has also been criticised on environmental grounds in that it encourages environmentally unfriendly intensive farming methods.[114] Supporters of CAP say that the economic support which it gives to farmers provides them with a reasonable standard of living, in what would otherwise be an economically unviable way of life. However, the EU's small farmers only receive 8% of CAP's available subsidies.[114] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 516 pixelsFull resolution (1607 × 1036 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 516 pixelsFull resolution (1607 × 1036 pixel, file size: 1. ... The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is a system of European Union agricultural subsidies and programmes. ... The European Union (EU) has an independent parliament and civil service which is distinct from those of the 27 member states. ... // The creation of the EUs Common Agricultural Policy was the trigger for the creation of Europes intervention storage. ...


Since the beginning of the 1990s the CAP has been subject to a series of reforms. Initially these reforms included the introduction of Set-aside in 1988, where a proportion of farm land was deliberately withdrawn from production, milk quotas (by the McSharry reforms in 1992) and more recently, the 'de-coupling' (or disassociation) of the money farmers receive from the EU and the amount they produce (by the Fischler reforms in 2004). It is intended to move away from subsidy payments linked to specific produce, toward direct payments based on farm size. This is intended to have the effect of allowing the market to dictate production levels while maintaining agricultural income levels.[113] The most recent reform entailed the abolition of the EU's sugar regime which previously involved the carving up of the sugar market between member states and certain African-Caribbean nations with a privileged relationship with the EU.[115] Set-Aside in the EU, will be updated as i update my IPM from another editor (i also am doing an ipm and shall add it on here) 1. ...


Energy

Many EU members import oil and gas from Russia.

The EU has been a legislative power in the area of energy policy for most of its existence: this has its roots in the original European Coal and Steel Community. The introduction of a mandatory and comprehensive European energy policy was approved at the meeting of the European Council in October 2005, and the first draft policy was published in January 2007.[116] Although the European Union has legislated in the area of energy policy for many years, and evolved out of the European Coal and Steel Community, the concept of introducing a mandatory and comprehensive European energy policy was only approved at the meeting of the European Council on October 27, 2005... Image File history File links RF_NG_pipestoEU.gif‎ Source: http://www. ... Image File history File links RF_NG_pipestoEU.gif‎ Source: http://www. ... Members of the European Coal and Steel Community Flag of the European Coal and Steel Community The European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) was founded in 1951 (Treaty of Paris), by France, West Germany, Italy, Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to pool the steel and coal resources of its member... This article deals with the meeting of European Union leaders. ...


The Commission has five key points in its energy policy: increase competition in the internal market, encourage investment and boost interconnections between electricity grids; diversify energy resources with better systems to respond to a crisis; establish a new treaty framework for energy co-operation with Russia while improving relations with energy-rich states in Central Asia and North Africa; use existing energy supplies more efficiently while increasing use of renewable energy; and finally increase funding for new energy technologies.[116] 11kV/400V-230V transformer in an older suburb of Wellington, New Zealand Electricity distribution is the penultimate stage in the delivery (before retail) of electricity to end users. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ...


The EU currently imports 82% of its oil and 57% of its gas, making it the world's leading importer of these fuels.[117] There are concerns that the EU is largely dependent on other countries, primarily Russia, for its energy. This concern has grown following a series of clashes between Russia and its neighbours, threatening the flow of gas. As a result the EU is attempting to diversify its energy supply.[118] Petro redirects here. ... For other uses, see Natural gas (disambiguation). ... Wikinews has news related to: Russia cuts off gas supplies to Ukraine The dispute between Russian state-owned gas supplier Gazprom and Ukraine over natural gas prices started in March of 2005 (over the price of natural gas and prices for the transition of Gazproms gas to Europe). ...


Infrastructure

Further information: European Commissioner for Transport and European Commissioner for Enterprise and Industry
Infrastructure, such as the Oresund Bridge between Denmark and Sweden, is a priority to increase trade and mobility.

The EU is working to improve cross-border infrastructure within the EU, for example through the Trans-European Networks (TEN). Projects under TEN include the Channel Tunnel, LGV Est, the Fréjus Rail Tunnel, the Oresund Bridge and the Brenner Base Tunnel. In 2001 it was estimated that by 2010 the network would cover: 75,200 km of roads; 78,000 km of railways; 330 airports; 270 maritime harbours; and 210 internal harbours.[119][120] Jacques Barrot Barroso Commission, 2004 to 2009 The Commissioner for Transport is the member of the European Commission. ... Günter Verheugen Barroso Commission, 2004 to 2009 The Commissioner for Enterprise and Industry is Vice President of the European Commission. ... The Oresund Bridge (Danish Øresundsbroen, Swedish Öresundsbron, joint hybrid name Øresundsbron) is a combined two-track rail and four-lane road bridge across the Oresund strait. ... TEN re-directs here; for alternate uses, see Ten. ... The British terminal at Cheriton in west Folkestone, from the Pilgrims Way. ... The LGV Est européenne (sometimes referred to as TGV Est, or occasionally as TGV East in English) is an extension to the French high-speed TGV network, connecting Paris and Strasbourg. ... The Fréjus Rail Tunnel (also called Mont Cenis Tunnel) is a railroad tunnel of 13. ... The Oresund Bridge (Danish Øresundsbroen, Swedish Öresundsbron, joint hybrid name Øresundsbron) is a combined two-track rail and four-lane road bridge across the Oresund strait. ... The Brenner Base Tunnel (Italian: Galleria di base del Brennero; German: Brenner Basistunnel) is a proposed and currently much discussed project to build a 56 km long railway tunnel through the base of the Brenner massiv. ...


The developing European transport policies will increase the pressure on the environment in many regions by the increased transport network. In the pre-2004 EU members, the major problem in transport deals with congestion and pollution. After the recent enlargement, the new states that joined since 2004 added the problem of solving accessibility to the transport agenda.[121] The Polish road network in particular was in poor condition: at Poland's accession to the EU, 4,600 roads needed to be upgraded to EU standards, demanding approximately 17 billion euros.[122] Main article: Transport in Poland Polish motorway network as of September, 2006. ...


Another infrastructure project is the Galileo positioning system. Galileo is a proposed Global Navigation Satellite System, to be built by the EU and launched by the European Space Agency (ESA), and is to be operational by 2010. The Galileo project was launched to reduce the EU's dependency on the US-operated Global Positioning System, which will extend to nations outside the EU.[123] It has been criticised by some due to costs, delays, and the perception of redundancy due to the existing GPS system.[124] For the global navigation satellite system operated by Russia, see GLONASS. Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) is the standard generic term for satellite navigation systems that provide autonomous geo-spatial positioning with global coverage. ... ESA redirects here. ... GPS redirects here. ...


Regional development

Further information: Regional policy of the European Union
EU funds finance infrastructure such as this motorway Prague-Berlin (Lovosice), Czech Republic
EU funds finance infrastructure such as this motorway Prague-Berlin (Lovosice), Czech Republic

There are substantial economical disparities across the EU. Even corrected for purchasing power, the difference between the richest and poorest regions (NUT-2 and NUT-3 of the Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics) is about a factor of ten. On the high end Frankfurt has €68,751 PPP per capita, Paris €67,980, and Inner London €65,138, while Romania's Nord-Est has €5,070 PPP per capita and Bulgaria's Severozapaden has €5,502 PPP per capita.[125] Compared to the EU average, the United States GDP per capita is 35% higher and the Japanese GDP per capita is approximately 15% higher.[126] The Regional policy of the European Union is a policy with the stated aim of improving the economic well-being of certain regions in the EU. Around one third of the EUs budget is devoted to this policy, the aim of which has been stated to be to remove... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 449 pixelsFull resolution (2896 × 1624 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 449 pixelsFull resolution (2896 × 1624 pixel, file size: 2. ... Structural Funds and Cohesion Funds are funds allocated by the European Union for two related purposes, firstly support for the poorer regions of Europe, and, secondly, support for integrating European infrastructure especially in the transport sector. ... The Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS) is a geocode standard for referencing the administrative division of countries for statistical purposes. ... For other uses, see Frankfurt (disambiguation). ... PPP of GDP for the countries of the world (2003). ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Inner London is the name for the group of London boroughs which form the central part of Greater London and are surrounded by Outer London. ... Nord-Est (North East) is a development region in Romania. ...


There are a number of Structural Funds and Cohesion Funds to support development of underdeveloped regions of the EU. Such regions are primarily located in the new member states of eastern Europe.[127] Several funds provide emergency aid, support for candidate members to transform their country to conform to the EU's standard (Phare, ISPA, and SAPARD), and support to the former USSR Commonwealth of Independent States (TACIS). TACIS has now become part of the worldwide EuropeAid programme. The EU Seventh Framework Programme (FP7) sponsors research conducted by consortia from all EU members to work towards a single European Research Area.[128] Structural Funds and Cohesion Funds are funds allocated by the European Union for two related purposes, firstly support for the poorer regions of Europe, and, secondly, support for integrating European infrastructure especially in the transport sector. ... The Phare programme is one of the three pre-accession instruments financed by the European Union to assist the applicant countries of Central and Eastern Europe in their preparations for joining the European Union. ... Instrument for Structural Policies for Pre-Accession (ISPA) is one of the three financial instruments of the European Union (along with Phare and Sapard) to assist the candidate countries in the preparation for accession. ...  Member state  Associate member Headquarters Minsk, Belarus Working language Russian Type Commonwealth Membership 11 member states 1 associate member Leaders  -  Executive Secretary Sergei Lebedev Establishment December 21, 1991 Website http://cis. ... The EuropeAid Co-operation Office is an organization of the European Commission. ... The Seventh Framework Programme for research and technological development (FP7) is the European Unions chief instrument for funding research over the period 2007 to 2013. ... The European Research Area is a system of scientific research programmes integrating the European Unions scientific resources. ...


Environment

Further information: European Commissioner for the Environment and European Climate Change Programme
The Commission is trying to protect the Rospuda valley in Poland
The Commission is trying to protect the Rospuda valley in Poland

The first environmental policy of the European Community was launched in 1972. Since then it has addressed issues such as acid rain, the thinning of the ozone layer, air quality, noise pollution, waste and water pollution. The Water framework directive is an example of a water policy, aiming for rivers, lakes, ground and coastal waters to be of "good quality" by 2015. Wildlife is protected through the Natura 2000 programme and covers 30,000 sites throughout Europe.[129] In 2007, the Polish government sought to build a motorway through the Rospuda valley, but the Commission has been blocking construction as the valley is a wildlife area covered by the programme.[130] Stavros Dimas Barroso Commission, 2004 to 2009 The Commissioner for the Environment is the member of the European Commission responsible for protection of the European Unions environment. ... The European Climate Change Programme (ECCP) was launched in June 2000 by the European Unions European Commission. ... The Rospuda is a small river in northeastern Poland. ... The term acid rain is commonly used to mean the deposition of acidic components in rain, snow, fog, dew, or dry particles. ... The ozone layer is a layer in Earths atmosphere which contains relatively high concentrations of ozone (O3). ... An air quality measurement station in Edinburgh, Scotland The Air Quality Index (AQI) is a standardized indicator of the air quality in a given location. ... Noise pollution (or environmental noise in technical venues) is displeasing human or machine created sound that disrupts the environment. ... For other uses, see Waste (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... NATURA 2000 is a project by the European Union and each of its member states to protect the environment. ... The Rospuda is a small river in northeastern Poland. ...


The REACH regulation was a piece of EU legislation designed to ensure that 30,000 chemicals in daily use are tested for their safety.[131] In 2006, toxic waste spill off the coast of Côte d'Ivoire, from a European ship, prompted the Commission to look into legislation regarding toxic waste. With members such as Spain now having criminal laws against shipping toxic waste, the Commission proposed to create criminal sentences for "ecological crimes". Although the Commission's right to propose criminal law was contested, it was confirmed in this case by the Court of Justice.[132] Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) is a European Union regulation, regulation 2006/1907 of 18 December 2006. ... The 2006 Côte dIvoire toxic waste spill was a health crisis in Côte dIvoire in which a ship illegally dumped toxic waste in up to 12 sites around the countrys largest city, Abidjan, in August 2006. ...


In 2007, member states agreed that the EU is to use 20% renewable energy in the future and that is has to reduce carbon dioxide emissions in 2020 by at least 20% compared to 1990 levels.[133] This includes measures that in 2020, one-tenth of all cars and trucks in EU 27 should be running on biofuels. This is considered to be one of the most ambitious moves of an important industrialised region to fight global warming.[134] Renewable energy effectively utilizes natural resources such as sunlight, wind, tides and geothermal heat, which are naturally replenished. ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Top: Increasing atmospheric levels as measured in the atmosphere and ice cores. ... Bio-energy redirects here. ... Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ...


At the 2007 United Nations Climate Change Conference, dealing with the successor to the Kyoto Protocol, the EU has proposed at 50% cut in greenhouse gases by 2050.[135] The EU's attempts to cut its carbon footprint appear to have also been aided by an expansion of Europe's forests which, between 1990 and 2005, grew 10% in western Europe and 15% in Eastern Europe. During this period they soaked up 126 million metric tons of carbon dioxide, equivalent to 11% of EU emissions from human activities.[135] The 2007 United Nations Climate Change Conference will take place at the Bali International Conference Centre, Nusa Dua, in Bali, Indonesia, between December 3 and December 14, 2007 [1]. Representatives from over 180 countries will be attending, together with observers from intergovernmental and nongovernmental organizations. ... Opened for signature December 11, 1997 in Kyoto, Japan Entered into force February 16, 2005. ... Per capita greenhouse gas emissions A carbon footprint is a measure of the impact human activities have on the environment in terms of the amount of green house gases produced, measured in units of carbon dioxide.[1] It is meant to be useful for individuals and organizations to conceptualize their... This article is about a community of trees. ...


Education and research

Further information: Educational policies and initiatives of the European Union and Framework Programmes for Research and Technological Development
Renewable energy is one priority in transnational research activities such as the FP7.
Renewable energy is one priority in transnational research activities such as the FP7.

Education and science are areas where the EU's role is limited to supporting national governments. In education, the policy was mainly developed in the 1980s in programmes supporting exchanges and mobility. The most visible of these has been the ERASMUS programme, a university exchange programme which began in 1987. In its first 20 years it has supported international exchange opportunities for well over 1.5 million university and college students and has become a symbol of European student life.[136] There are now similar programmes for school pupils and teachers, for trainees in vocational education and training, and for adult learners in the Lifelong Learning Programme 2007–2013. These programmes are designed to encourage a wider knowledge of other countries and to spread good practices in the education and training fields across the EU.[137] Through its support of the Bologna process the EU is supporting comparable standards and compatible degrees across Europe. The Framework Programmes for Research and Technological Development, also called Framework Programmes or abbreviated FP, are funding programmes created by the European Union in order to support and encourage European research. ... Renewable energy effectively utilizes natural resources such as sunlight, wind, tides and geothermal heat, which are naturally replenished. ... The Seventh Framework Programme (abbreviated FP7) is the upcoming (2007-2013) Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development set up by the European Union (EU) in order to fund and promote European research and technological development. ... The ERASMUS programme was established in 1987 and forms a major part of the European Union Lifelong Learning Programme 2007–2013. ... The Lifelong Learning Programme 2007–2013 (previously referred to as the Integrated action programme in the field of lifelong learning or the Integrated programme) is the European Union programme for education and training. ... The purpose of the Bologna process (or Bologna accords) is to create the European higher education area by making academic degree standards and quality assurance standards more comparable and compatible throughout Europe. ...


Scientific development is facilitated through the EU's Framework Programmes, the first of which started in 1984. The aims of EU policy in this area are to co-ordinate and stimulate research. The independent European Research Council allocates EU funds to European or national research projects.[138] The Seventh Framework Programme (FP7) deals in a number of areas, for example energy where it aims to develop a diverse mix of renewable energy for the environment and to reduce dependence on imported fuels.[139] The Framework Programmes for Research and Technological Development, also called Framework Programmes or abbreviated FP, are funding programmes created by the European Union in order to support and encourage European research. ... The European Research Council is a proposed funding body for science in the European Union. ... The Seventh Framework Programme for research and technological development (FP7) is the European Unions chief instrument for funding research over the period 2007 to 2013. ... Renewable energy effectively utilizes natural resources such as sunlight, wind, tides and geothermal heat, which are naturally replenished. ...


Since January 2000 the European Commission has set its sights on a more ambitious objective, known as the European Research Area, and has extensively funded research in a few key areas. This has the support of all member states, and extends the existing financing structure of the frameworks. It aims to focus on co-ordination, sharing knowledge, ensuring mobility of researchers around Europe, improving conditions for researchers and encouraging links with business and industry as well as removing any legal and administrative barriers.[140] The EU is involved with six other countries to develop ITER, a fusion reactor which will be built in the EU at Cadarache. ITER builds on the previous project, Joint European Torus, which is currently the largest nuclear fusion reactor in the world.[141] The Commission foresees this technology to be generating energy in the EU by 2050.[116] It has observer status within CERN, there are various agreements with ESA and there is collaboration with ESO.[142] Theses organizations are not under the framework of the EU, but membership heavily overlaps between them. Berlaymont, the Commissions seat The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive branch of the European Union. ... The European Research Area is a system of scientific research programmes integrating the European Unions scientific resources. ... ITER is an international tokamak (magnetic confinement fusion) research/engineering project designed to prove the scientific and technological feasibility of a full-scale fusion power reactor. ... The deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion reaction is considered the most promising for producing sustainable fusion power. ... Core of CROCUS, a small nuclear reactor used for research at the EPFL in Switzerland. ... Location of Cadarache, France Cadarache in Bouches-du-Rhône, Provence-Alpes-Côte-dAzur, France is a research center for nuclear energy created in 1959 by the Commissariat à lÉnergie Atomique. ... Split image of JET with right side showing hot plasma during a shot. ... CERN logo The European Organization for Nuclear Research (French: ), commonly known as CERN (see Naming), pronounced (or in French), is the worlds largest particle physics laboratory, situated just northwest of Geneva on the border between France and Switzerland. ... ESA redirects here. ... The European Southern Observatory (ESO) is an international astronomical organisation, composed and supported by ten countries from the European Union plus Switzerland. ...


Demographics

Population of the 5 largest cities in the EU[143]
City City limits
(2006)
Density/km²
(city limits)
Urban area
(2005)
LUZ
(2001)
Berlin 3,410,000 3,815 3,761,000 4,935,524
London 7,512,400 4,761 9,332,000 11,624,807
Madrid 3,228,359 5,198 4,858,000 5,372,433
Paris 2,153,600 24,672 9,928,000 10,952,011
Rome 2,708,395 2,105 2,867,000 3,700,424

The combined population of all 27 member countries has been estimated at 495,128,529 in January 2007,[144] this in comparison to approximately 710 million Europeans on the continent as a whole. There is some increase in population expected, primarily due to net immigration, present in most European countries.[145][146] The demographics of the European Union show a highly populated, culturally diverse union of 27 member states. ... This list includes the most up-to-date official census figures or census estimates with regards to the population of the largest cities in the European Union. ... This is a list of all the urban areas of the European Union which have more than 750,000 inhabitants in 2005. ... // Eurostat, the European Unions statistical agency, has created the concept of Larger Urban Zone (LUZ) in an effort to harmonize definitions[1] of urbanization in the European Union. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... This article is about the Spanish capital. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... The population growth/decline of European countries The Demography of Europe refers to the changing number and composition of the population of Europe. ...


The EU's population is 7.3% of the world total, yet the EU covers just 3% of the earth's land, amounting to a population density of 114/km² (2006) making the EU one of the most densely populated regions of the world. One third of EU citizens live in cities of over a million people, rising to 80% living in urban areas generally.[147] The EU is home to more global cities than any other region in the world[148] and 16 cities with populations of over one million (using city proper figures). Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of SI unit of surface area square metre, one of the SI derived units. ... Population density by country, 2006 List of countries and dependencies by population density in inhabitants/km². The list includes sovereign states and self-governing dependent territories that are recognized by the United Nations. ... Cities with at least a million inhabitants in 2006 An urban area is an area with an increased density of human-created structures in comparison to the areas surrounding it. ... “World city” redirects here. ...


Besides many large cities, the EU also includes several densely populated regions that have no single core but have emerged from the connection of several cites and are now encompassing large metropolitan areas. The largest are Rhine-Ruhr having approximately 10.5 million inhabitants (Cologne, Dortmund, Düsseldorf et al.), Randstad approx. 7 million (Amsterdam, Rotterdam, The Hague, Utrecht et al.), Frankfurt Rhein-Main Region approx. 5.8 million (Frankfurt, Wiesbaden et al.), the Flemish diamond (urban area in between Antwerp, Brussels, Leuven and Ghent), approx. 5,5 million inhabitants, and the Upper Silesian Industrial Region approx. 3.5 million (Katowice, Sosnowiec et al.).[149] The Rhine-Ruhr Area in Germany ranks among the large metropolitan areas in the world, with 11,233,678 people. ... Cologne (German: , IPA: ; local dialect: Kölle ) is Germanys fourth-largest city after Berlin, Hamburg and Munich, and is the largest city both in the German Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia and within the Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Area, one of the major European metropolitan areas with more than... Dortmund is a city in Germany, located in the Bundesland of North Rhine-Westphalia, in the Ruhr area. ... Düsseldorf (IPA: ) is the capital city of the German Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia and one of the economic and cultural centres of Germany and western Europe. ... Schematic map of the Randstad. ... For other uses, see Amsterdam (disambiguation). ... Nickname: Motto: Sterker door strijd (Stronger through Struggle) Location of Rotterdam Coordinates: , Country Province Government  - Mayor Ivo Opstelten  - Aldermen Jeannette Baljeu Hamit Karakus Orhan Kaya Lucas Bolsius Jantine Kriens Dominic Schrijer Roelf de Boer Leonard Geluk Area [1]  - Total 319 km² (123. ... Hague redirects here. ... Utrecht ( (help· info)) is a municipality and the capital city of the Dutch province of Utrecht. ... Skyscrapers in Downtown Frankfurt The Frankfurt Rhine Main Area, often referred to as Rhine Main Area (German: Rhein-Main Gebiet) or Greater Frankfurt is a Metropolitan Area located in central western Germany, that encompasses parts of three federal states: Hesse, Rhineland-Palatinate and Bavaria. ... For other uses, see Frankfurt (disambiguation). ... Wiesbaden is a city in central Germany. ... The Flemish Diamond (in Dutch: Vlaamse Ruit) is a name of an area consisting of the central provinces of Flanders, Belgium. ... For other uses, see Antwerp (disambiguation). ... For other places with the same name, see Brussels (disambiguation). ... Geography Country Belgium Community Flemish Community Region Flemish Region Province Flemish Brabant Arrondissement Leuven Coordinates , , Area 56. ... This article is about the Belgian city. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Osiedle TysiÄ…clecia at night Coordinates: , Country Voivodeship Powiat city county Gmina Katowice Established 16th century City Rights 1865 Government  - Mayor Piotr Uszok Area  - City 164. ... Sielecki Castle Sosnowiec (pronounced: [sÉ”s:nÉ”vȋεʦ]) is a city located in the south of Poland, in a tributary of the Wisla (Vistula) river. ...


Languages

Languages (2006)[150]
Language L1 Total
English 13% 51%
German 18% 32%
French 12% 26%
Italian 13% 16%
Spanish 9% 15%
Polish 9% 10%
Romanian 7% 8%
Dutch 5% 6%
Greek 3% 3%
Swedish 2% 3%
Czech 2% 3%
Portuguese 2% 2%
Hungarian 2% 2%
Bulgarian 2% 2%
Other EU Languages ~6%
Minority Languages ~16%
L1: Native language
Total: EU citizens able to conduct conversation in this language

The EU has 23 official and working languages: Bulgarian, Czech, Danish, Dutch, English, Estonian, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Hungarian, Italian, Irish, Latvian, Lithuanian, Maltese, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian, Slovak, Slovenian, Spanish, and Swedish.[151] Important documents, such as legislation, are translated into every official language. The European Parliament provides translation into all languages for documents and its plenary sessions. Some institutions use only a handful of languages as internal working languages.[152] Language policy is the responsibility of member states, but EU institutions promote the learning of other languages.[153][154] Chameleon, a symbol of the multilingualism of the European Union. ... “Native Language” redirects here. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... A working language (also procedural language) is a language that is given a unique legal status in a supra-national company, society, state or other body or organization as its primal mean of communication. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Many countries have a language policy designed to favour or discourage the use of a particular language or set of languages. ...


German is the most widely spoken mother tongue (about 88.7 million people as of 2006), followed by English, French, and Italian. English is by far the most spoken foreign language at over half (51%) of the population, with German and French following. 56% of European citizens are able to engage in a conversation in a language other than their mother tongue.[150] Most official languages of the EU belong to the Indo-European language family, except Estonian, Finnish, and Hungarian, which belong to the Uralic language family, and Maltese, which is a Semitic language. Most EU official languages are written in the Latin alphabet except Bulgarian, written in Cyrillic, and Greek, written in the Greek alphabet.[155] Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ... A language family is a group of languages related by descent from a common proto-language. ... Geographical distribution of Samoyedic, Finnic, Ugric and Yukaghir languages  Yukaghir  Samoyedic  Ugric  Finnic The Uralic languages (pronounced: ) form a language family of about 30 languages spoken by approximately 20 million people. ... 14th century BC diplomatic letter in Akkadian, found in Tell Amarna. ... Abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz redirects here. ... The Cyrillic alphabet (pronounced also called azbuka, from the old name of the first two letters) is actually a family of alphabets, subsets of which are used by certain Slavic languages — Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Rusyn, Serbian, and Ukrainian—as well as many other languages of the former Soviet Union... This page contains special characters. ...


Besides the 23 official languages, there are about 150 regional and minority languages, spoken by up to 50 million people.[155] Of these, only the Spanish regional languages (Catalan, Basque and Galician) can be used in communication with the Council of the European Union, the Commission, the Economic and Social Committee, the European Parliament, the European Ombudsman and the Committee of the Regions.[156] Although EU programmes can support regional and minority languages, the protection of linguistic rights is a matter for the individual member states. A regional language is a language spoken in a part of a country, be it may be a small area, a federal state or province, or a wider area. ... A minority language is a language spoken by a minority of the population of a country. ... Catalan IPA: (català IPA: or []) is a Romance language, the national language of Andorra, and a co-official language in the Spanish autonomous communities of Balearic Islands, Catalonia and Valencia, and in the city of LAlguer in the Italian island of Sardinia. ... Basque (native name: euskara) is the language spoken by the Basque people who inhabit the Pyrenees in North-Central Spain and the adjoining region of South-Western France. ... Galician (Galician: galego, IPA: ) is a language of the Western Ibero-Romance branch, spoken in Galicia, an autonomous community with the constitutional status of historic nationality, located in northwestern Spain and small bordering zones in neighbouring autonomous communities of Asturias and Castilla y León. ... The European Ombudsman (or sometimes Euro-Ombudsman) is an ombudsman for the European Union. ... The Committee of the Regions (CoR) is an institution of the European Union created by the Treaty of Maastricht. ... Linguistic rights (or language rights or linguistic human rights) are the human and civil rights concerning the individual and collective right to chose the language or languages for communicating in the private or public sphere, regardless ethnicity or nationality or the number of the speakers of a language in a...


Besides the many regional languages, a broad variety of languages from other parts of the world are spoken by immigrant communities in the member states: Turkish, Maghrebi Arabic, Russian, Urdu, Bengali, Hindi, Tamil, Ukrainian, and Balkan languages are spoken in many parts of the EU. Many older immigrant communities are bilingual, being fluent in both the local (EU) language and in that of their ancestral community. Migrant languages have no formal status or recognition in the EU or in the EU countries, although from 2007 they are eligible for support from the language teaching section of the EU's Lifelong Learning Programme 2007–2013.[155] Immigration is the movement of people into one place from another. ... Maghrebi Arabic is a cover term for the dialects of Arabic spoken in the Maghreb, including Western Sahara, Morocco, Tunisia, Algeria, and Libya. ... Urdu ( , , trans. ... Bangla redirects here. ... Tamil ( ; IPA ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamils in India and Sri Lanka, with smaller communities of speakers in many other countries. ... Bilingual redirects here. ... The Lifelong Learning Programme 2007–2013 (previously referred to as the Integrated action programme in the field of lifelong learning or the Integrated programme) is the European Union programme for education and training. ...


Religion

Main article: Religion in the European Union

The EU is a secular body, with no formal connections to any religion and no mention of religion in any current or proposed treaty.[26] Discussion over the draft texts of the European Constitution and later the Treaty of Lisbon included proposals to mention Christianity and/or God in the preamble of the text, but the idea faced opposition and was dropped.[157] Religion in the European Union is diverse, although primarily Christian. ... This article concerns secularity, that is, being secular, in various senses. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... This article is about the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ...

Percentage of Europeans in each Member State who believe in some god.
Percentage of Europeans in each Member State who believe in some god.

Emphasis on Christianity stems from this being the dominant religion in Europe, and thus of the EU. It divides between Roman Catholicism, a wide range of Protestant churches (especially in northern Europe) and Eastern Orthodox (in south eastern Europe). Other religions such as Judaism and Islam are also represented in the EU population; in 2002 the EU had an estimated Jewish population of over a million[158] and a Muslim population in 2006 of 16 million people.[159] Predominant religious heritages in Europe  Roman Catholicism  Orthodox Christianity  Protestantism  Sunni Islam  Shia Islam  Judaism Religion in Europe has a rich and diverse religious history, and its various faiths have been a major influence on European art, culture, philosophy and law. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ... Orthodox icon of Pentecost. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... It has been suggested that Jewish population by cities and cityareas be merged into this article or section. ...


Findings by Eurostat, the EU statistics agency which monitors the religious beliefs of EU citizens as part of its Eurobarometer opinion polls, show that the majority of EU citizens have some form of belief system but that only 21% see it as important. There is increasing atheism or agnosticism among the general population in Europe, with falling church attendance and membership in many countries.[160] The 2005 Eurobarometer showed that of the European citizens (of the 25 members at that time), 52% believed in a god, 27% in some sort of spirit or life force and 18% had no form of belief. The countries where the fewest people reported a religious belief were the Czech Republic (19%) and Estonia (16%),[161] The most religious societies are those in Malta (95%; predominantly Roman Catholic), and Cyprus and Romania both with about 90% of citizens believing in a god. Across the EU, belief was higher among women, increased with age, those with religious upbringing, those with the lowest levels of formal education, those leaning towards right-wing politics, and those reflecting more upon philosophical and ethical issues.[161] Eurobarometer is a series of surveys regularly performed on behalf of the European Commission since 1973. ... Atheist redirects here. ... Agnosticism (Greek: α- a-, without + γνώσις gnōsis, knowledge; after Gnosticism) is the philosophical view that the truth value of certain claims — particularly metaphysical claims regarding theology, afterlife or the existence of God, gods, deities, or even ultimate reality — is unknown or, depending on the form of agnosticism, inherently unknowable due to... “Right wing” redirects here. ...


Cultural policy

Further information: Culture of Europe and Cultural policies of the European Union
Liverpool is one of the two European Capitals of Culture for 2008.
Liverpool is one of the two European Capitals of Culture for 2008.

EU culture is intertwined with the culture of Europe and its specific national heritages; policies affecting cultural matters are mainly set by individual member states. Cultural co-operation between member states has been a concern of the EU since its inclusion as a community competency in the Maastricht Treaty.[162] Actions taken in the cultural area by the EU include the Culture 2000 7-year programme,[162] the European Cultural Month event,[163] the Media Plus programme,[164] orchestras such as the European Union Youth Orchestra[165] and the European Capital of Culture programme – where one or more cities in the EU are selected for one year to assist the cultural development of that city.[166] In addition, the EU gives grants to cultural projects (totalling 233 in 2004) and has launched a Web portal dedicated to Europe and culture, responding to the European Council's expressed desire to see the Commission and the member states "promote the networking of cultural information to enable all citizens to access European cultural content by the most advanced technological means."[167] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Cultural cooperation in the European Union has become a community competency since its inclusion in 1992 in the Maastricht Treaty. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (884x689, 386 KB)Liverpool European Capital of Culture 2008 flag, flying in front of the Port of Liverpool building. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (884x689, 386 KB)Liverpool European Capital of Culture 2008 flag, flying in front of the Port of Liverpool building. ... For other uses, see Liverpool (disambiguation). ... The European Capital of Culture is a city designated by the European Union for a period of one year during which it is given a chance to showcase its cultural life and cultural development. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Maastricht Treaty (formally, the Treaty of European Union, TEU) was signed on February 7, 1992 in Maastricht, Netherlands after final negotiations in December 1991 between the members of the European Community and entered into force on November 1, 1993 during the Delors Commission. ... Culture 2000 is a 7-year European Union program, which has among its key objectives preserving and enhancing Europes cultural heritage. ... European Cultural Month is an event created by the European Union to promote culture. ... MEDIA Plus is a European Union programme designed to support the European Unions audio-visual industry. ... Being funded both directly by the European Union and directly by a number of EU member states the European Union Youth Orchestra (EUYO) is a success story of the European ideal bringing pleasure to musicians and audiences alike throughout Europe and the world. ... The European Capital of Culture is a city designated by the European Union for a period of one year during which it is given a chance to showcase its cultural life and cultural development. ...


Within the EU, supporters of European integration often appeal to a shared European historical/cultural heritage, typically including Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome, the feudalism of the Middle Ages, the Renaissance, the Age of Enlightenment, 19th century Liberalism and (sometimes) negative elements such as the World wars. European values are assumed to be grounded in this shared heritage.[168] European integration is the process of political and economic (and in some cases social and cultural) integration of European states into a tighter bloc. ... The term ancient Greece refers to the periods of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste Feudalism, a term first used in the early modern period (17th century), in its most classic sense refers to a Medieval European political system comprised of a set of reciprocal legal and military obligations among the... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... The Age of Enlightenment (French: ; Italian: ; German: ; Spanish: ; Swedish: ; Polish: ) was an eighteenth-century movement in Western philosophy. ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... A world war is a war affecting the majority of the worlds major nations. ...


Sport

Further information: Sport in Europe and Sport policies of the European Union
Spectator sports are popular in many EU member states (Camp Nou, Barcelona)
Spectator sports are popular in many EU member states (Camp Nou, Barcelona)

Sport is mainly the responsibility of individual states or other international organisations rather than that of the EU. However, some EU policies have had an impact on sport, such as the free movement of workers which was at the core of the Bosman ruling, which prohibited national football leagues from imposing quotas on foreign players with European citizenship.[169] Sport in Europe tends to be highly organised with many sports having professional leagues. ... The European Union plays a minor and mostly indirect policy role in sport, because (a) sport is normally considered to be outside the competences conferred by the member states to the European Union and (b) sport is in general organised internally, on a European continental level (which is not the... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1280x960, 277 KB) Summary Camp Nou, Source. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1280x960, 277 KB) Summary Camp Nou, Source. ... Camp Nou (Catalan for new field, often reversed in English to become Nou Camp) is a football stadium in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain. ... Location Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Barcelona (Catalan) Spanish name Barcelona Nickname Ciutat Comtal (City of Counts) Postal code 08001–08080 Area code 34 (Spain) + 93 (Barcelona) Website http://www. ... In football (soccer), the Bosman ruling is a 1995 European Court of Justice decision that allows professional football players in the European Union (EU) to move freely to another club at the end of their term of contract with their present team. ...


Under the proposed Treaty of Lisbon sports would be given a special status which would exempt this sector from much of the EU's economic rules. This followed lobbying by governing organisations such as the International Olympic Committee and FIFA, due to objections over the applications of free market principles to sport which led to an increasing gap between rich and poor clubs.[170] For other uses, see Treaty of Lisbon (disambiguation). ... Stamp The International Olympic Committee (French: Comité International Olympique) is an organization based in Lausanne, Switzerland, created by Pierre de Coubertin and Demetrios Vikelas on June 23, 1894. ... This article is about the international association football organization. ...


Several European sports associations are consulted in the formulation of the EU's sports policy, including FIBA, UEFA, EHF, IIHF, FIRA and CEV.[171] All EU member states and their respective national sport associations are participating in European sport organisations such as UEFA.[172] The International Basketball Federation (French: Fédération Internationale de Basketball), more commonly known by the French acronym FIBA (pronounced ), is an association of national organizations which governs international competition in basketball. ... The Union Européenne de Football Association or Union of European Football Associations in English, almost always referred to by the acronym UEFA (pronounced (you-AY-fuh) or (oo-Ay-fuh) or ), is the administrative and controlling body for European football. ... EHF logo The European Handball Federation, often referred to by the acronym EHF, is the administrative and controlling body for European team handball. ... The International Ice Hockey Federation (IIHF) was founded in 1908 as the Ligue Internationale de Hockey sur Glace and is the worldwide governing body for ice hockey and in-line hockey. ... The FIRA - Association Européenne de Rugby (FIRA–AER) was formed in 1999 to promote, develop, organise and administer the game of rugby in Europe under the authority of the International Rugby Board (the governing body of rugby union). ... CEV Logo Confédération Européenne de Volleyball (CEV) is the continental governing body for the sport of volleyball in Europe. ... The Union Européenne de Football Association or Union of European Football Associations in English, almost always referred to by the acronym UEFA (pronounced (you-AY-fuh) or (oo-Ay-fuh) or ), is the administrative and controlling body for European football. ...


See also

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The European Union is a unique geo-political entity covering a large portion of the European continent. ... The Treaty of Rome signing ceremony From prehistoric to modern times, the human History of Europe has been turbulent, cultured, and much-documented. ... This is a timeline of European Union history including the European Economic Community, its de facto successor. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The first moves towards the establishment of the Union came following the end of the Second World War. ... Out of the two newly founded communities, the European Economic Community (EEC) and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom), the former became the most important community. ... On 1 January 1973, Denmark, Ireland and the United Kingdom became the first countries to join the Communities. ... The European Union is a unique geo-political entity covering a large portion of the European continent. ... The Prodi Commission was the European Commission from 1999 to 2004. ... The Barroso Commission is the European Commission that has been in office since 22 November 2004 and is due to serve until 31 October 2009. ... Members of the European Coal and Steel Community Flag of the European Coal and Steel Community The European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) was founded in 1951 (Treaty of Paris), by France, West Germany, Italy, Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to pool the steel and coal resources of its member... The European Community (EC) was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... The European Atomic Energy Community, or EURATOM, is an international organization composed of the members of the European Union. ... The European Union or EU is a supranational and international organization of 27 member states. ... The European Union (EU) was created by six founding states in 1957 (following the earlier establishment by the same six states of the European Coal and Steel Community in 1952) and has grown to 27 member states. ... Eurojust (also spelled capitalised as EUROJUST) is a European Union body composed of national prosecutors, magistrates or police officers of equivalent competence from each of the European Unions member states. ... Europol (the name is a contraction of European Police Office) is the European Unions criminal intelligence agency. ... The Treaty of Maastricht which established the European Union, divided EU policies into three main areas, called pillars. ... The European Community (EC) was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... The Common Foreign and Security Policy, or CFSP, was established as the second of the three pillars of the European Union in the Maastricht treaty of 1992, and further defined and broadened in the Amsterdam Treaty of 1999. ... Police and Judicial Co-operation in Criminal Matters (PJC) is the third of the three pillars of the European Union, focusing on co-operation in law enforcement and combating racism. ... European integration is the process of political and economic (and in some cases social and cultural) integration of European states into a tighter bloc. ... The agencies of the European Union (or decentralised bodies of the European Union) are bodies which are distinct from the European Unions institutions, in that they have not been created by the treaties but rather by acts of secondary legislation, in order to accomplish a very specific task. ... Berlaymont, the Commissions seat The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive branch of the European Union. ... Established 1952 Presiding Country Portugal President Luís Amado President in Office José Sócrates Members 27 (at one time) Political parties 7, including: European Peoples Party Party of European Socialists Meeting place Justus Lipsius, Brussels, Belgium, European Union Web site http://www. ... Official emblem of the ECJ The Court of Justice of the European Communities, usually called the European Court of Justice (ECJ), is the highest court in the European Union (EU). ... Elections in the European Union gives information on election and election results in the European Union. ... The European Union (EU) was created by six founding states in 1957 (following the earlier establishment by the same six states of the European Coal and Steel Community in 1952) and has grown to 27 member states. ... This article deals with the meeting of European Union leaders. ... Foreign relations of the European Union Foreign relations of Austria Foreign relations of Belgium Foreign relations of Cyprus Foreign relations of the Czech Republic Foreign relations of Denmark Foreign relations of Estonia Foreign relations of Finland Foreign relations of France Foreign relations of Germany Foreign relations of Greece Foreign relations... Established 1952, as the Common Assembly President Hans-Gert Pöttering (EPP) Since 16 January 2007 Vice-Presidents 14 Rodi Kratsa-Tsagaropoulou (EPP) Alejo Vidal-Quadras (EPP) Gérard Onesta (Greens – EFA) Edward McMillan-Scott (ED) Mario Mauro (EPP) Miguel Angel Martínez Martínez (PES) Luigi Cocilovo (ALDE) Mechtild... A European political party, formally a political party at European level, sometimes informally (especially in academic circles) a Europarty, is a type of political party organization operating transnationally in Europe. ... The Law of the European Union is the unique legal system which operates alongside the laws of Member States of the European Union (EU). ... The term acquis (or sometimes acquis communautaire), deriving from French, is used in European Union law to refer to the total body of EU law accumulated so far. ... The European Commission, established following World War II, was the first Europe wide competition authority European Community competition law is one of the areas of authority of the European Union. ... It is proposed that this article be deleted, because of the following concern: There is no copyright law of the European Union at all If you can address this concern by improving, copyediting, sourcing, renaming or merging the page, please edit this page and do so. ... The Official Journal of the European Union is the gazette of record for the European Union. ...  member state with at least one opt-out  member state with a de facto opt-out  member state without opt-outs Currently, five European Union member states have (or will have) opt-outs from certain parts of the European Union structure, namely:  Denmark (four)  Ireland (two)  Poland (one)  Sweden (one... The European Union legislative procedure describes the way the European Union creates and enacts legislation across the community. ... For other uses, see Schengen. ... The Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union is a document containing human rights provisions, solemnly proclaimed by the European Parliament, the Council of the European Union, and the European Commission in December 2000. ... The treaties of the European Union are effectively its constitutional law, making up the EUs primary legislation. ... The Treaty of Rome signing ceremony Signatures in the Treaty The Treaty of Rome, signed by France, West Germany, Italy and Benelux (Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg) on March 25, 1957, established the European Economic Community (EEC). ... The Maastricht Treaty (formally, the Treaty of European Union, TEU) was signed on February 7, 1992 in Maastricht, Netherlands after final negotiations in December 1991 between the members of the European Community and entered into force on November 1, 1993 during the Delors Commission. ... Treaty of Amsterdam amending the Treaty of the European Union, the Treaties establishing the European Communities and certain related acts The Treaty of Amsterdam amending the Treaty of the European Union, the Treaties establishing the European Communities and certain related acts, commonly known as the Amsterdam Treaty, was signed on... Treaty of Nice The Treaty of Nice is a treaty adopted in Nice by the European Council to amend the two founding treaties of the European Union: the Treaty on European Union, or Maastricht Treaty, which introduced the Euro and the 3-pillar structure of the EU; the Treaty of... For other uses, see Treaty of Lisbon (disambiguation). ... This is a list of countries bordering the European Union and its predecessor the European Community both at its current geographical extent and after all previous rounds of enlargement. ...  Member states  Candidates Austria Poland Belgium Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Rep. ... This is a list of all the urban areas of the European Union which have more than 750,000 inhabitants in 2005. ... Austria Poland Belgium Bulgaria Cyprus Czech   Rep. ... Map of European Union in the world  European Union  Outermost regions  Overseas countries and territories Map of EU member states and candidate countries, with an inset showing the 7 outermost regions As of 2007 the European Union has 27 member states, most of which participate in all EU policy areas... This article is on the political entity. ... The European Union (EU) has an independent parliament and civil service which is distinct from those of the 27 member states. ... For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ... Freedom of movement for workers is a policy chapter of the acquis communotaire of the European Union. ... The European Investment Bank (the Banque Européenne dInvestissement) is the European Unions financing institution and was established under the Treaty of Rome (1957) to provide loan finance for capital investment furthering European Union policy objectives, in particular regional development, Trans-European Networks of transport, telecommunications and energy... The European Investment Fund, established in 1994, is a European Union agency for the provision of finance to SMEs (small and medium-sized enterprises). ... The Eurozone (also called Euro Area, Eurosystem or Euroland) refers to the European Union member states that have adopted the euro currency union. ... The Regional policy of the European Union is a policy with the stated aim of improving the economic well-being of certain regions in the EU. Around one third of the EUs budget is devoted to this policy, the aim of which has been stated to be to remove... The Galileo positioning system is a planned Global Navigation Satellite System, to be built by the European Union (EU) and European Space Agency (ESA). ... Cultural cooperation in the European Union has become a community competency since its inclusion in 1992 in the Maastricht Treaty. ... Citizenship of the Union was introduced by the Maastricht Treaty signed in 1992. ... The demographics of the European Union show a highly populated, culturally diverse union of 27 member states. ... The European Institute of Innovation and Technology (EIIT) is a proposal adopted on 22 February 2006 by the European Commission to the European Council intended to be a new flagship research university for excellence in higher education, research and innovation. ... Mass media are the means through which information is transmitted to a large audience. ... The Flag of Europe consists of a circle of twelve golden (yellow) stars on a blue background. ... 4th movement (European Union anthem) samples: Problems playing the files? See media help. ... Statistics in the European Union are collected by Eurostat. ... The agencies of the European Union (or decentralised bodies of the European Union) are bodies which are distinct from the European Unions institutions, in that they have not been created by the treaties but rather by acts of secondary legislation, in order to accomplish a very specific task. ... List of European Councils, by presidency, date, and location. ... The following is a List of European Union directives: // Intellectual property Harmonisation of certain aspects of copyright and related rights in the information society (2001/29/EC May 22, 2001) Criminal measures aimed at ensuring the enforcement of intellectual property rights (proposed) Enforcement of intellectual property rights (2004/48/EC... Austria Poland Belgium Bulgaria Cyprus Czech   Rep. ... A European political party, formally a political party at European level, sometimes informally (especially in academic circles) a Europarty, is a type of political party organization operating transnationally in Europe. ... Presidency of the Council of the European Union refers to the responsibility of presiding over all aspects of the Council of the European Union, when exercised collectively by a government, on a pre-established rota of the member states, of the European Union. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into List of tallest buildings in Europe#List of tallest buildings in the European Union. ... Supranationalism is a method of decision-making in international organizations, wherein power is held by independent appointed officials or by representatives elected by the legislatures or people of the member states. ... World empire redirects here. ... Supranationalism is a method of decision-making in international organizations, wherein power is held by independent appointed officials or by representatives elected by the legislatures or people of the member states. ... For theological federalism, see Covenant Theology. ... A confederation is an association of sovereign states or communities, usually created by treaty but often later adopting a common constitution. ... Intergovernmentalism is a theory of decision-making in international organizations, where power is possessed by the member-states and decisions are made by unanimity. ... Anti-nationalism is the idea that nationalism is undesirable or even dangerous in one form or another, and sometimes, though less often, the idea that all nationalism is dangerous and unfavourable in all cases. ... Puxi side of Shanghai, China. ... Mundialization is the name of one of the movements aiming at democratic globalization. ... In computer security, PaX is a patch for the Linux kernel that implements least privilege protections for memory pages. ... UN redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... IMF redirects here. ... World Bank Group logo The World Bank Group (WBG) is a family of five international organizations responsible for providing finance and advice to countries for the purposes of economic development and eliminating poverty. ... WTO redirects here. ... Headquarters Cairo, Egypt1 Official languages Arabic Membership 22 Arab states 2 observer states Leaders  -  Secretary General Amr Moussa (since 2001)  -  Council of the Arab League Sudan  -  Speaker of the Arab Parliament Nabih Berri Establishment  -  Alexandria Protocol March 22, 1945  Area  -  Total 13,953,041 (Western Sahara Included) = 13,687,041... Anthem Let Us All Unite and Celebrate Together [1] Administrative Centre Working languages Arabic English Spanish French Portuguese Swahili Membership 53 African states Leaders  -  Chairman Jakaya Kikwete  -  Jean Ping Establishment  -  as the OAU May 25, 1963   -  as the African Union July 9, 2002  Area  -  Total 29,757,900 km² (1st1... Pro Tempore Secretariat Brasília Official languages 4 Spanish Portuguese English Dutch Member states 12 Argentina Bolivia Brazil Chile Colombia Ecuador Guyana Paraguay Peru Suriname Uruguay Venezuela Leaders  -  President Rodrigo Borja  -  Tempore Secretary Jorge Taunay Filho Formation  -  Cuzco Declaration 8 December 2004  Area  -  Total 17,715,335 km² (1st2)  sq... Hymn The ASEAN Hymn Jakarta, Indonesia Membership 10 Southeast Asian states Leaders  -  Secretary General Ong Keng Yong Area  -  Total 4,497,4931 km²  Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character , sq mi  Population  -   estimate 566. ... Headquarters Washington, D.C. Official languages English, French, Portuguese, Spanish Membership 35 countries Leaders  -  Secretary General José Miguel Insulza Chile (since 26 May 2005) Establishment  -  Charter first signed 30 April 1948 in effect 1 December 1951  Website http://www. ... The United Nations General Assembly (GA, UNGA) is one of the five principal organs of the United Nations and the only one in which all member nations have equal representation. ... Established 1952, as the Common Assembly President Hans-Gert Pöttering (EPP) Since 16 January 2007 Vice-Presidents 14 Rodi Kratsa-Tsagaropoulou (EPP) Alejo Vidal-Quadras (EPP) Gérard Onesta (Greens – EFA) Edward McMillan-Scott (ED) Mario Mauro (EPP) Miguel Angel Martínez Martínez (PES) Luigi Cocilovo (ALDE) Mechtild... In the Arab League Summit of 2001-Amman, the Arab States have agreed to create the Arab League Parliament, and came up with a resolution to give the secretary general of the Arab League the power to start and create the Parliament. ... The Pan-African Parliament is the legislative body of the African Union; at present it exercises oversight, and has advisory and consultative powers. ... The Latin American Parliament (Parlatino), is a regional, permanent and unicameral organism, integrated from the national Parliaments of Latin America, elected democratically by means of universal suffrage in countries that ratified the corresponding Treaty of Institutionalization signed on the 16 November 1987 in Lima, Peru, and those whose States adhered... The Central American Parliament, also know by the abbreviation Parlacen (from the Spanish Parlamento Centroamericano) is a political institution devoted to the integration of the Central American countries. ... The Inter-Parliamentary Union is an international organization established in 1889 by William Randal Cremer (United Kingdom) and Frédéric Passy (France). ... The official logo of the ICC The International Criminal Court (ICC or ICCt)[1] was established in 2002 as a permanent tribunal to prosecute individuals for genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, and the crime of aggression, although it cannot currently exercise jurisdiction over the crime of aggression. ... The International Court of Justice (known colloquially as the World Court or ICJ; French: ) is the primary judicial organ of the United Nations. ... The Tribunal building in The Hague. ... The African Court of Justice will at some point in the future be merged with the African Court on Human and Peoples Rights and be the African Unions legal organ. ... The Central American Court of Justice was an international court established by five Central American states by a treaty signed December 20, 1907 at Washington, D.C. Categories: Law stubs ... The Caribbean Court of Justice (CCJ) is a regional Caribbean-based institution in Port-of-Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. ... Official emblem of the ECJ The Court of Justice of the European Communities, usually called the European Court of Justice (ECJ), is the highest court in the European Union (EU). ... European Court of Human Rights building in Strasbourg The European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR), often referred to informally as the Strasbourg Court, was created to systematise the hearing of human rights complaints against States Parties to the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, adopted by... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... International law deals with the relationships between states, or between persons or entities in different states. ... Conflict of laws, or private international law, or international private law is that branch of international law and interstate law that regulates all lawsuits involving a foreign law element, where a difference in result will occur depending on which laws are applied as the lex causae. ... Supranational law is a form of international law, based on the limitation of the rights of sovereign nations between one another. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court Opened for signature June 17, 1998[1] at Rome Entered into force July 1, 2002 Conditions for entry into force 60 ratifications Parties 99[2] The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (or Rome Statute) is the treaty which established the International... Opened for signature December 11, 1997 in Kyoto, Japan Entered into force February 16, 2005. ... The treaties of the European Union are effectively its constitutional law, making up the EUs primary legislation. ... The Law of the European Union is the unique legal system which operates alongside the laws of Member States of the European Union (EU). ... 1939–1941 semi-official emblem Anachronous world map in 1920–1945, showing the League of Nations and the world Capital Not applicable¹ Language(s) English, French and Spanish Political structure International organization Secretary-general  - 1920–1933 Sir James Eric Drummond  - 1933–1940 Joseph Avenol  - 1940–1946 Seán Lester Historical... The Permanent Court of International Justice, sometimes called World Court, was the international court of the League of Nations established in 1922. ... For the 1947 Soviet film about the trials, see Nuremberg Trials (film). ... The Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA), also known as the Hague Tribunal is an international organization based in The Hague in the Netherlands. ... World empire redirects here. ... A United Nations Parliamentary Assembly, or United Nations Peoples Assembly (UNPA), is a proposed addition to the United Nations System that eventually would allow for direct election of UN delegates by citizens of member states. ... Proposed Central Asian Union A Central Asian Union was proposed by Kazakhstan President Nursultan Nazarbaev on April 26, 2007, consisting of the five Central Asian republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. ... In 2004, a committee of the Australian Senate called for the formation of a Pacific Union to comprise the member-states of the Pacific Islands Forum, but with a common charter, institutions and currency. ... Map of the North American Economic and Security Community Hypothetical flag of the North American Union The Independent Task Force on North America was a project organized by the Council on Foreign Relations (U.S.), the Canadian Council of Chief Executives, and the Mexican Council on Foreign Relations. ... Federal Union is a British group launched in November 1938, to advocate a Federal Union of Europe as a post-war aim. ... The World Federalist Movement (WFM) is a global citizens movement with member and associated organizations around the globe. ... A global citizens movement refers to a number of organized and overlapping citizens groups who seek to influence public policy often with the hope of establishing global solidarity on an issue. ... World Union is a non-profit, non-political organisation founded on the 26th November 1958 in Pondicherry, inspired by Sri Aurobindos vision of carrying forward a movement for Human Unity, World Peace and Progress on a Spiritual Foundation. ...

References

  1. ^ a b Symbols of the EU. Europa (web portal). Retrieved on 2008-01-09.
  2. ^ a b c Report for Selected Country Groups and Subjects (European Union). World Economic Outlook Database, April 2007 Edition. International Monetary Fund (April 2007). Retrieved on 2007-09-15.; Report for Selected Countries and Subjects (United States). World Economic Outlook Database, April 2007 Edition. International Monetary Fund (April 2007). Retrieved on 2007-07-15.
  3. ^ The EU Single Market: Fewer barriers, more opportunities. Europa (web portal), European Commission. Retrieved on 2007-09-27. Activities of the European Union: Internal Market. Europa (web portal). Retrieved on 2007-06-29.
  4. ^ Farah, Paolo (2006). Five Years of China WTO Membership. EU and US Perspectives about China's Compliance with Transparency Commitments and the Transitional Review Mechanism. Social Science Research Network. Retrieved on 2007-01-25.
  5. ^ a b Abolition of internal borders and creation of a single EU external frontier. Europa (web portal) (2005). Retrieved on 2007-01-24.
  6. ^ The political consequences. European NAvigator. Retrieved on 2007-09-05.
  7. ^ Declaration of 9 May 1950. Europa (web portal). Retrieved on 2007-09-05.
  8. ^ a b A peaceful Europe - the beginnings of cooperation. Europa (web portal). Retrieved on 2007-06-25.
  9. ^ Merging the executives. European NAvigator. Retrieved on 2007-06-25.
  10. ^ The first enlargement. European NAvigator. Retrieved on 2007-06-25.
  11. ^ The new European Parliament. European NAvigator. Retrieved on 2007-06-25.
  12. ^ Negotiations for enlargement. European NAvigator. Retrieved on 2007-06-25.
  13. ^ A Europe without frontiers. Europa (web portal). Retrieved on 2007-06-25.
  14. ^ 1980-1989 The changing face of Europe - the fall of the Berlin Wall. Europa (web portal). Retrieved on 2007-06-25.
  15. ^ Treaty of Maastricht on European Union. Activities of the European Union. Europa (web portal). Retrieved on 2007-10-20.; Craig, Paul; Grainne De Burca , P. P. Craig (2006). EU Law: Text, Cases and Materials, 4th ed., Oxford: Oxford University Press, p15. ISBN 978-0-19-927389-8. 
  16. ^ a b A decade of further expansion. Europa (web portal). Retrieved on 2007-06-25.
  17. ^ a b Treaty of Lisbon at a glance. Europa (web portal). Retrieved on 2008-02-28.
  18. ^ European Countries. Europa (web portal). Retrieved on 2007-09-05.
  19. ^ European Commission - Enlargement - Candidate and Potential Candidate Countries. Europa (web portal). Retrieved on 2007-06-26.
  20. ^ EU/Kosovo Factsheet. European Union - Delegation of the European Commission to the United States. Retrieved on 2007-03-27.
  21. ^ Accession criteria (Copenhagen criteria). Europa (web portal). Retrieved on 2007-06-26.
  22. ^ a b European Commission. The European Economic Area (EEA). Europa (web portal). Retrieved on 2007-07-21.
  23. ^ The EU's relations with Switzerland. Europa (web portal). Retrieved on 2007-09-16.
  24. ^ a b European Commission. Use of the euro in the world. The euro outside the euro area. Europa (web portal). Retrieved on 2008-02-27.
  25. ^ EUR-Lex: Official Journal. Treaty of Amsterdam. Europa (web portal). Retrieved on 2007-06-29.
  26. ^ a b c EUR-Lex. Consolidated Treaties on European Union and establishing the European Community. Europa (web portal). Retrieved on 2007-06-25.
  27. ^ Where is the euro legal tender? (PDF). European Central Bank (2006). Retrieved on 2007-06-25.
  28. ^ Figure including the four French overseas departments (French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Réunion) which are an integral part of the EU, but excluding the French overseas collectivities and territories, which are not part of the EU.
  29. ^ European countries. Europa (web portal) (2007). Retrieved on 2007-06-29.
  30. ^ European Union. The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved on 2007-08-08.
  31. ^ Countries of the Earth. home.comcast.net (2006). Retrieved on 2007-08-08.
  32. ^ Humid Continental Climate. The physical environment. University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point (2007). Retrieved on 2007-06-29.
  33. ^ Sources of EU law. Europa (web portal). Retrieved on 2007-09-05.
  34. ^ a b EUR-Lex. European Community consolidated treaty, (article 249, provisions for making regulations). Europa (web portal). Retrieved on 2007-11-08.
  35. ^ According to the principle of direct Effect first invoked in the Court of Justice's decision in Van Gend en Loos v. Nederlanse Administratie Der Belastingen, Eur-Lex (European Court of Justice 1963).. See: Craig and de Búrca, ch. 5.
  36. ^ According to the principle of Supremacy as established by the ECJ in Case 6/64, Falminio Costa v. ENEL [1964] ECR 585. See Craig and de Búrca, ch. 7. See also: Factortame Ltd. v. Secretary of State for Transport (No. 2) [1991] 1 AC 603, Solange II (Re Wuensche Handelsgesellschaft, BVerfG decision of 22 Oct. 1986 [1987] 3 CMLR 225,265) and Frontini v. Ministero delle Finanze [1974] 2 CMLR 372; Raoul George Nicolo [1990] 1 CMLR 173.
  37. ^ Pillars of the European Union. Europa (web portal). Retrieved on 2007-06-27.
  38. ^ Institutions: The European Commission. Europa (web portal). Retrieved on 2007-06-25.
  39. ^ a b c Institutions: The Council of the European Union. Europa (web portal). Retrieved on 2007-06-25.
  40. ^ Institutions: The European Parliament. Europa (web portal). Retrieved on 2007-06-25.
  41. ^ See: Case 34/73, Variola v. Amministrazione delle Finanze [1973] ECR 981
  42. ^ To do otherwise would require the drafting of legislation which would have to cope with the frequently divergent legal systems and administrative systems of all of the now 27 member states. See Craig and de Búrca, p. 115
  43. ^ For a good example of this see Title IV of Part Three of the Treaty of Rome, Council Decision (2004/927/EC) of 22 December 2004 providing for certain areas covered by Title IV of Part Three of the Treaty establishing the European Community to be governed by the procedure laid down in Article 251 of that Treaty and the Protocol on Article 67 of the Treaty establishing the European Community attached to the Nice Treaty.
  44. ^ Decision-making in the European Union. Europa (web portal). Retrieved on 2007-09-18.
  45. ^ EUR-Lex. European Community consolidated treaty, (article 220, The court of Justice). Europa (web portal). Retrieved on 2007-11-08.
  46. ^ The Court of Justice of the European Communities. Europa (web portal). Retrieved on 2007-09-14.;The Court of First Instance. Europa (web portal). Retrieved on 2007-09-14.; Institutions: Court of Justice. Europa (web portal). Retrieved on 2007-06-25.
  47. ^ EUR-Lex. European Community consolidated treaty, (article 225 (1), The court of First Instance). Europa (web portal). Retrieved on 2007-11-08.
  48. ^ Smale, Alison (2006-06-19). Fighting EU 'enlargement fatigue'. International Herald Tribune. Retrieved on 2007-08-14.
  49. ^ a b EU enlargement - voices from the debate. British Foreign and Commonwealth Office. Retrieved on 2007-06-27.
  50. ^ Q&A: Turkey's EU entry talks. BBC News (2006-12-11). Retrieved on 2007-08-14.
  51. ^ FAQs on the EU, from the campaign trail. Sovereignty (2001). Retrieved on 2007-06-29.
  52. ^ EU leaders agree on reform treaty. BBC News (2007). Retrieved on 2007-06-27.
  53. ^ The Schengen acquis and its integration into the Union. Europa (web portal). Retrieved on 2007-09-01.
  54. ^ a b EUR-Lex. Maastricht Treaty. Europa (web portal). Retrieved on 2008-02-28.
  55. ^ EUR-Lex. European Community consolidated treaty, (article 17), European Citizenship). Europa (web portal). Retrieved on 2008-02-28.
  56. ^ EUR-Lex. Amsterdam treaty article 1 s.3 amending European Union consolidated treaty article 2, creating an area of freedom and justice). Europa (web portal). Retrieved on 2008-02-28.
  57. ^ European arrest warrant replaces extradition between EU Member States. Europa (web portal). Retrieved on 2007-09-04.
  58. ^ Council Regulation (EC) No 2201/2003 of 27 November 2003 concerning jurisdiction and the recognition and enforcement of judgements in matrimonial matters and the matters of parental responsibility.
  59. ^ European police office now in full swing. Europa (web portal). Retrieved on 2007-09-04.
  60. ^ Eurojust coordinating cross-border prosecutions at EU level. Europa (web portal). Retrieved on 2007-09-04.
  61. ^ Frontex. What is Frontex?. Europa (web portal). Retrieved on 2007-09-04.
  62. ^ EUR-Lex. European Community consolidated treaty, (articles 39 and 141), prohibition of national or sexual discrimination). Europa (web portal). Retrieved on 2008-02-28.
  63. ^ EUR-Lex. Amsterdam treaty article 2 s.7 amending European Community consolidated treaty article 13, combatting discrimination). Europa (web portal). Retrieved on 2008-02-28.
  64. ^ Council Directive 2000/43/EC of 29 June 2000 implementing the principle of equal treatment between persons irrespective of racial or ethnic origin (OJ L 180, 19.7.2000, p. 22–26); Council Directive 2000/78/EC of 27 November 2000 establishing a general framework for equal treatment in employment and occupation (OJ L 303, 2.12.2000, p. 16–22).
  65. ^ Launching the European Day against the Death Penalty. Europa (web portal) (2007-06-19). Retrieved on 2007-11-12.
  66. ^ Q&A: The Lisbon Treaty. BBC News (2007-10-19). Retrieved on 2007-11-12.
  67. ^ Juncker, Jean-Claude (2006). Council of Europe - European Union: "A sole ambition for the European continent" (PDF). Council of Europe. Retrieved on 2007-07-28.
  68. ^ Qualified-Majority Voting: Common commercial policy. Europa (web portal). Retrieved on 2007-09-03.
  69. ^ a b The European commission. European political co-operation (EPC). Europa Glossary. Europa (web portal). Retrieved on 2007-09-03.
  70. ^ EUR-Lex. European Union consolidated treaty, (article 11, common foreign policy). Europa (web portal). Retrieved on 2007-11-08.
  71. ^ Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) - Overview. Europa (web portal) (2002). Retrieved on 2007-06-26.
  72. ^ Divided EU agrees Iraq statement. Europa (web portal) (2003). Retrieved on 2007-06-26.
  73. ^ Bildt, Carl (2005). Europe must keep its 'soft power'. Financial Times on Centre for European Reform. Retrieved on 2007-06-26.
  74. ^ European Parliament (2006-07-05). Presentation of the programme of the Finnish presidency. Europa (web portal). Retrieved on 2007-08-13.
  75. ^ EU heading for single UN seat, UN official says. EU Observer (2007). Retrieved on 2007-06-26.
  76. ^ Delegation of the European Commission to Japan. EU and the G8. Europa (web portal). Retrieved on 2007-09-26.
  77. ^ European Commission. The EU and the world trade organisation. Europa (web portal). Retrieved on 2007-06-26.
  78. ^ European Commission (2006). DG for humanitarian aid - ECHO, financial report 2006 (PDF). Europa (web portal). Retrieved on 2007-08-13.
  79. ^ a b European Commission (2007-06-13). Commission calls for a European consensus to boost impact of humanitarian aid. Europa (web portal). Retrieved on 2007-08-13.
  80. ^ Mulvey, Stephen (2007-05-30). EU attacked for 'inefficient' aid. BBC News. Retrieved on 2007-08-13.
  81. ^ Taylor, Jerome (2007-05-11). EU accused of artificially inflating its aid figures. The Independent. Retrieved on 2007-08-13.
  82. ^ European Commission. Overviews of the European Union activities: Development. Europa (web portal). Retrieved on 2007-08-13.
  83. ^ European Commission. EU Security Police & the role of the European Commission. Europa (web portal). Retrieved on 2007-06-26.
  84. ^ European Commission. EU Security Police & the role of the European Commission: Chronology. Europa (web portal). Retrieved on 2007-06-26.
  85. ^ Council of the European Union. Military Capabilities. Europa (web portal). Retrieved on 2007-10-09.
  86. ^ Council of the European Union. EU security and defense Operations. Europa (web portal). Retrieved on 2007-06-26.
  87. ^ Council of the European Union. ESPD Structures. Europa (web portal). Retrieved on 2007-06-26.
  88. ^ a b c European Commission. The Euro: our currency. Europa (web portal). Retrieved on 2007-11-12.
  89. ^ a b The Single Market. Europa (web portal). Retrieved on 2007-06-27.
  90. ^ Rank Order - Exports. The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved on 2007-08-21.
  91. ^ Rank Order - Imports. The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved on 2007-08-21.
  92. ^ China now EU's biggest import market. People's Daily Online (2007-01-31). Retrieved on 2007-07-22.
  93. ^ EU now biggest trading partner of China. Chinese Embassy (2006-09-15). Retrieved on 2008-04-04.
  94. ^ India and the EU: strategic partners?. Centre for European Reform (February/March 2006). Retrieved on 2008-04-04.
  95. ^ Fortune Global 500: Countries. CNN Money (2007-07-23). Retrieved on 2007-08-24.
  96. ^ Euro area and EU 27 unemployment down to 7.0% (PDF). Europa (web portal) (2007-07-03). Retrieved on 2007-11-01.
  97. ^ Eur4. Report for Selected Country Groups and Subjects. International Monetary Fund (April 2007). Retrieved on 2007-11-29.
  98. ^ New-generation passports to appear in Lithuania starting New Years. Retrieved on 2008-03-17.
  99. ^ European Commission. A Single Market for Capital. Europa (web portal). Retrieved on 2007-06-27.
  100. ^ European Commission. Living and working in the Single Market. Europa (web portal). Retrieved on 2007-06-27.
  101. ^ European Commission. A Single Market for Services. Europa (web portal). Retrieved on 2007-06-27.
  102. ^ European Commission. A Single Market for goods. Europa (web portal). Retrieved on 2007-06-27.
  103. ^ ECB, ESCB and the Eurosystem. European Central Bank. Retrieved on 2007-09-15.
  104. ^ Menzie, Chinn; Jeffery Frankel (January 2006). "Will the Euro Eventually Surpass The Dollar As Leading International Reserve Currency?" (PDF). NBER. Retrieved on 2007-10-11. 
  105. ^ Article 3(1)(g) of the Treaty of Rome
  106. ^ European Commission. Competition: making markets work better. Europa (web portal) author=European Commission. Retrieved on 2007-11-12.
  107. ^ Lungescu, Oana (2004-07-23). Examining the EU executive. BBC News. Retrieved on 2007-09-18.
  108. ^ The Commission prohibits GE's acquisition of Honeywell. Europa (web portal) (2001-07-03). Retrieved on 2007-11-12.
  109. ^ Gow, David (2007-10-22). Microsoft caves in to European commission. The Guardian. Retrieved on 2007-11-12.
  110. ^ EU competition to remain in place. BBC News (2007-06-22). Retrieved on 2007-11-12.
  111. ^ European Commission. EU budget at a glance. Europa (web portal). Retrieved on 2007-11-06.
  112. ^ Will Europe Work?. Euro-know. Retrieved on 2008-02-29.
  113. ^ a b c Stead, David; Robert Whaples (eds) (2007-06-22). Common Agricultural Policy. EH.Net Encyclopedia. Retrieved on 2007-08-30.
  114. ^ a b c Jeffery, Simon (2007-06-26). The EU common agricultural policy. The Guardian. Retrieved on 2007-08-30.
  115. ^ Sugar: Commission proposes more market-, consumer- and trade-friendly regime. Europa (web portal) (2007-04-14). Retrieved on 2007-08-30.
  116. ^ a b c Q&A: EU energy plans. BBC News (2007-03-09). Retrieved on 2007-07-13.
  117. ^ 'Low-carbon economy' proposed for Europe. MSNBC. Retrieved on 2007-01-24.
  118. ^ European Parliament. Ukraine-Russia gas dispute – call for stronger EU energy policy. Europa (web portal). Retrieved on 2008-02-27.
  119. ^ European Commission (2003-10-01). The trans-European transport network: new guidelines and financial rules (PDF). Europa (web portal). Retrieved on 2007-08-15.
  120. ^ Mirea, Silvia. The trans-European transport network: new guidelines and financial rules. The Railway Journal. Retrieved on 2007-08-15.
  121. ^ White Paper on Transport. Euractiv (2004-09-22). Retrieved on 2007-08-15.
  122. ^ Transport – How Quickly will Polish Roads Improve After Accession. Urząd Komitetu Integracji Europejskiej (2003-05-29). Retrieved on 2007-08-15.
  123. ^ Barrot, Jacques. Jacques Barrot Home Page, Commission vice president for transport. Europa (web portal). Retrieved on 2007-07-21.
  124. ^ McKie, Robin (2007-07-15). Sat-nav rival could crash and burn. The Guardian. Retrieved on 2007-08-11.
  125. ^ Eurostat. Regional GDP per inhabitant in the EU 27 (PDF). Europa (web portal). Retrieved on 2007-03-01.
  126. ^ Eurostat (2006-12-18). GDP per capita in the Member States ranged from 48% to 251% of the EU25 average in 2005. Europa (web portal). Retrieved on 2007-07-13.
  127. ^ EU Structural and Cohesion Funds. Business 2000. Retrieved on 2007-06-27.
  128. ^ 7th Research Framework Programme (FP7). Euractiv (2004). Retrieved on 2007-06-27.
  129. ^ Dimas, Stavros (2007-03-23). Celebrating the Environmental Union. BBC News. Retrieved on 2007-08-15.
  130. ^ Easton, Adam (2007-07-31). Poland ends stand-off with EU over road plans. Financial Times. Retrieved on 2007-08-15.
  131. ^ EU chemicals directive agreed. RTÉ News And Current Affairs (2006-12-01). Retrieved on 2007-08-15.
  132. ^ Aldred, Jessica. EU sets 20% target for carbon cuts. guardian.co.uk. Retrieved on 2008-02-29.
  133. ^ Ames, Paul (2007-03-09). European Union agrees on ambitious plan to fight global warming. Discovery Channel, on Valcent Products website. Retrieved on 2007-03-09.
  134. ^ a b In Bali, EU Floats 50% Greenhouse Gas Cut. BusinessWeek (2007-12-04). Retrieved on 2007-12-07.
  135. ^ European Commission. The Erasmus programme celebrates its 20th anniversary. Europa (web portal). Retrieved on 2007-07-21.; Jean-Sébastien, Lefebvre (2007-01-22). Erasmus turns 20 - time to grow up?. Café Babel. Retrieved on 2007-08-10.
  136. ^ EACEA. About the Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency. Europa (web portal). Retrieved on 2007-07-21.; European Commission. Lifelong Learning Programme. Europa (web portal). Retrieved on 2007-07-21.
  137. ^ European Research Council. What is the ERC?. Europa (web portal). Retrieved on 2007-07-21.
  138. ^ European Commission. Energy. Europa (web portal). Retrieved on 2007-11-12.
  139. ^ European Commission. What is the European Research Area?. Europa (web portal). Retrieved on 2007-07-21.
  140. ^ Fusion for energy. ITER fusion research project. Europa (web portal). Retrieved on 2007-09-24.
  141. ^ Astronomical research collaborations. ESO. Retrieved on 2008-02-29.
  142. ^ LUZ figures all for 2001City Profiles List. Urban Audit. European Commission, Directorate-General Regional Policy, Unit D2 Urban Actions. Retrieved on 2008-02-06.
    Urban areas: all figures for 2005 (est.): Pays, villes d'Europe et du monde. InsInstitut National de la Statistiqueet des Études Économiques. Retrieved on 2008-02-06.
    City limits figures:
    London as at 1 July 2006: Mid-2006 Population Estimates (CSV). Office for National Statistics. Retrieved on 2008-02-06.
    Berlin as at September 2007: Bevölkerung Berlin. Statistische Ämter des Bundes und der Länder (German statistics office). Retrieved on 2008-02-06.
    Madrid as at 1 january 2007: Cifras de población. Instituto Nacional de Estadística (Spanish national statistics office). Retrieved on 2008-02-06.
    Paris as at 1 July 2005: Résultats des enquêtes annuelles de recensement de 2004 à 2007 pour les grandes villes. Institut National de la Statistique et des Études Économiques (French national institute for statistics). Retrieved on 2008-02-06.
    Rome as at 31 December 2007 Bilancio demografico Anno 2007. ISTAT (Italian national statistics office). Retrieved on 2008-02-06.
  143. ^ Eurostat. Total population. Europa (web portal). Retrieved on 2007-07-14.
  144. ^ Eurostat (2005-04-08). EU25 population rises until 2025, then falls (PDF). Europa (web portal). Retrieved on 2007-07-14.
  145. ^ Muenz, Rainer (2006). Europe: Population and Migration in 2005. Migration Information. Retrieved on 2007-07-14.
  146. ^ A densely populated area. Telsat Guide. Retrieved on 2007-07-22.
  147. ^ The World According to GaWC. Loughborough University. Retrieved on 2007-06-29.
  148. ^ Eurostat. Indicators for larger urban zones 1999 - 2003. Europa (web portal). Retrieved on 2007-01-25.
  149. ^ a b European Commission (2006). Special Eurobarometer 243: Europeans and their Languages (Survey) (PDF). Europa (web portal). Retrieved on 2007-02-03.
    European Commission (2006). Special Eurobarometer 243: Europeans and their Languages (Executive Summary) (PDF). Europa (web portal). Retrieved on 2007-02-03.
  150. ^ EUR-Lex (2006-12-12). Council Regulation (EC) No 1791/2006 of 20 November 2006. Official Journal of the European Union. Europa (web portal). Retrieved on 2007-02-02.
  151. ^ Languages and Europe. FAQ: Is every document generated by the EU translated into all the official languages?. Europa (web portal) (2004). Retrieved on 2007-02-03.
  152. ^ EUR-Lex (2004). Consolidated version of the Treaty establishing the European Community, Articles 149 to 150. Official Journal of the European Union. Europa (web portal). Retrieved on 2007-02-01.
  153. ^ European Parliament (2004). European Parliament Fact Sheets: 4.16.3. Language policy. Europa (web portal). Retrieved on 2007-02-03.
  154. ^ a b c European Commission (2004). Many tongues, one family. Languages in the European Union (PDF). Europa (web portal). Retrieved on 2007-02-03.
  155. ^ Mercator Newsletter - n. 29. Mercator Central (2006). Retrieved on 2007-02-01.
  156. ^ Castle, Stephen (2007-03-21). EU celebrates 50th birthday-with a row about religion. The Independent. Retrieved on 2008-03-04.
  157. ^ Jewish population figures may be unreliable. These estimates are taken from: Sergio DellaPergola. World Jewish Population (2002). American Jewish Year Book. The Jewish Agency for Israel. Retrieved on 2007-05-03.
  158. ^ In Europa leben gegen­wärtig knapp 53 millionen Muslime. Islam.de (2006-02-25). Retrieved on 2007-07-21.
  159. ^ Ford, Peter (2005-02-22). What place for God in Europe. USA Today. Retrieved on 2008-03-04.
  160. ^ a b Eurostat (2005). Eurobarometer 225: Social values, Science & Technology (PDF). Europa (web portal). Retrieved on 2007-07-21.
  161. ^ a b Bozoki, Andras. Cultural Policy and Politics in the European Union (PDF). IECOB, Institute for Central Eastern and Balkan Europe. Retrieved on 2007-07-13.
  162. ^ European Commission. European Culture Month. Europa (web portal). Retrieved on 2008-02-27.
  163. ^ European Commission (2007-07-05). Media programme. Europa (web portal). Retrieved on 2007-07-13.
  164. ^ An Overture to the European Union Youth Orchestra. The European Youth Orchestra. Retrieved on 2007-08-12.
  165. ^ European Commission. European Capitals of Culture. Europa (web portal). Retrieved on 2008-02-27.
  166. ^ Cultural heritage as a vehicle of cultural identity. Europa (web portal) (2006-05-03). Retrieved on 2008-03-04.
  167. ^ For example: Hans-Gert Poettering (2007-02-13). Priority is dialogue for partnership and tolerance. Inaugural speech by the new president of the European Parliament. Europa (web portal), European parliament. Retrieved on 2008-02-27.
  168. ^ Fordyce, Tom (2007-07-11). 10 years since Bosman. BBC News. Retrieved on 2007-07-13.
  169. ^ IOC, FIFA presidents welcomes new EU treaty, call it breakthrough to give sports more power. International Herald Tribune (2007-10-19). Retrieved on 2007-10-21.
  170. ^ Statement of European team sports (PDF). UEFA.com (2007-10-19). Retrieved on 2007-10-21.
  171. ^ UEFA. UEFA.com (2007-10-19). Retrieved on 2007-10-21.

Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Social Science Research Network (SSRN) is a website devoted to the promotion of scholarship in the fields of economics, finance, accounting, management and law. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Screenshot of ENA The European NAvigator (ENA) is an an educative platform providing a lot of information about the History of Europe and its institutions since 1945. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Screenshot of ENA The European NAvigator (ENA) is an an educative platform providing a lot of information about the History of Europe and its institutions since 1945. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Screenshot of ENA The European NAvigator (ENA) is an an educative platform providing a lot of information about the History of Europe and its institutions since 1945. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Screenshot of ENA The European NAvigator (ENA) is an an educative platform providing a lot of information about the History of Europe and its institutions since 1945. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Screenshot of ENA The European NAvigator (ENA) is an an educative platform providing a lot of information about the History of Europe and its institutions since 1945. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Berlaymont, the Commissions seat The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive branch of the European Union. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Berlaymont, the Commissions seat The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive branch of the European Union. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... EUR-Lex is a service on the official website of the European Union. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... EUR-Lex is a service on the official website of the European Union. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Headquarters Coordinates , , Established 1 January 1998 President Jean-Claude Trichet Central Bank of Austria, Belgium, France, Finland, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Slovenia, Spain Currency Euro ISO 4217 Code EUR Reserves €43bn directly, €338bn through the Eurosystem (including gold deposits). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A collectivité doutre-mer (in English Overseas Community) or COM, is an administrative division of France. ... The term Overseas territory (French: Territoire doutre-mer or TOM), is an administrative division of France and is currently only applied to the French Southern and Antarctic Lands. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The World Factbook (ISSN 1553-8133; also known as the CIA World Factbook)[2] is an annual publication of the Central Intelligence Agency of the United States with almanac-style information about the countries of the world. ... CIA redirects here. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point (also known as UW-Stevens Point or UWSP) is a public university located in Stevens Point, Wisconsin. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... EUR-Lex is a service on the official website of the European Union. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Law of the European Union is the unique legal system which operates alongside the laws of Member States of the European Union (EU). ... The Law of the European Union is the unique legal system which operates alongside the laws of Member States of the European Union (EU). ... The Factortame case was a landmark constitutional case in the United Kingdom, which confirmed the primacy of European Union law over English law. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... EUR-Lex is a service on the official website of the European Union. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... EUR-Lex is a service on the official website of the European Union. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The International Herald Tribune is a widely read English language international newspaper. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Foreign and Commonwealth Office, Whitehall, seen from St. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... EUR-Lex is a service on the official website of the European Union. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... EUR-Lex is a service on the official website of the European Union. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... EUR-Lex is a service on the official website of the European Union. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 331st day of the year (332nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Location: Warsaw, Poland Formation: - Signed - Established October 26, 2004 May 1, 2005 Superseding pillar: European Communities Director: Ilkka Laitinen Official website: http://www. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... EUR-Lex is a service on the official website of the European Union. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... EUR-Lex is a service on the official website of the European Union. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... is the 331st day of the year (332nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jean-Claude Juncker Jean-Claude Juncker (born December 9, 1954) is the Prime Minister and Finance Minister of Luxembourg, and until July 1, 2005, was president of the European Council, a position he also previously held in 1997. ... Anthem Ode to Joy (orchestral)  ten founding members joined subsequently observer at the Parliamentary Assembly observer at the Committee of Ministers  official candidate Seat Strasbourg, France Membership 47 European states 5 observers (Council) 3 observers (Assembly) Leaders  -  Secretary General Terry Davis  -  President of the Parliamentary Assembly Rene van der Linden... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... EUR-Lex is a service on the official website of the European Union. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...   (born July 15, 1949) is a Swedish politician and diplomat, currently serving as Minister for Foreign Affairs in the cabinet of Fredrik Reinfeldt. ... The Financial Times (FT) is a British international business newspaper. ... The Centre for European Reform is a London-based think tank devoted to improving the quality of the debate on the European Union. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Established 1952, as the Common Assembly President Hans-Gert Pöttering (EPP) Since 16 January 2007 Vice-Presidents 14 Rodi Kratsa-Tsagaropoulou (EPP) Alejo Vidal-Quadras (EPP) Gérard Onesta (Greens – EFA) Edward McMillan-Scott (ED) Mario Mauro (EPP) Miguel Angel Martínez Martínez (PES) Luigi Cocilovo (ALDE) Mechtild... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Berlaymont, the Commissions seat The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive branch of the European Union. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Berlaymont, the Commissions seat The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive branch of the European Union. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Berlaymont, the Commissions seat The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive branch of the European Union. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 164th day of the year (165th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see The Independent (disambiguation). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Berlaymont, the Commissions seat The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive branch of the European Union. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Berlaymont, the Commissions seat The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive branch of the European Union. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Berlaymont, the Commissions seat The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive branch of the European Union. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Established 1952 Presiding Country Portugal President Luís Amado President in Office José Sócrates Members 27 (at one time) Political parties 7, including: European Peoples Party Party of European Socialists Meeting place Justus Lipsius, Brussels, Belgium, European Union Web site http://www. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Established 1952 Presiding Country Portugal President Luís Amado President in Office José Sócrates Members 27 (at one time) Political parties 7, including: European Peoples Party Party of European Socialists Meeting place Justus Lipsius, Brussels, Belgium, European Union Web site http://www. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Established 1952 Presiding Country Portugal President Luís Amado President in Office José Sócrates Members 27 (at one time) Political parties 7, including: European Peoples Party Party of European Socialists Meeting place Justus Lipsius, Brussels, Belgium, European Union Web site http://www. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Berlaymont, the Commissions seat The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive branch of the European Union. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The World Factbook (ISSN 1553-8133; also known as the CIA World Factbook)[2] is an annual publication of the Central Intelligence Agency of the United States with almanac-style information about the countries of the world. ... CIA redirects here. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The World Factbook (ISSN 1553-8133; also known as the CIA World Factbook)[2] is an annual publication of the Central Intelligence Agency of the United States with almanac-style information about the countries of the world. ... CIA redirects here. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 203rd day of the year (204th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 204th day of the year (205th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 236th day of the year (237th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... IMF redirects here. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Berlaymont, the Commissions seat The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive branch of the European Union. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Berlaymont, the Commissions seat The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive branch of the European Union. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Berlaymont, the Commissions seat The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive branch of the European Union. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Berlaymont, the Commissions seat The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive branch of the European Union. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Headquarters Coordinates , , Established 1 January 1998 President Jean-Claude Trichet Central Bank of Austria, Belgium, France, Finland, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Slovenia, Spain Currency Euro ISO 4217 Code EUR Reserves €43bn directly, €338bn through the Eurosystem (including gold deposits). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) is a private, nonprofit, nonpartisan research organization dedicated to studying the science and empirics of economics, especially the American economy. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Berlaymont, the Commissions seat The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive branch of the European Union. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Berlaymont, the Commissions seat The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive branch of the European Union. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 204th day of the year (205th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Guardian. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Berlaymont, the Commissions seat The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive branch of the European Union. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... February 29 is a day added into a leap year of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Guardian. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the news website, see msnbc. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Established 1952, as the Common Assembly President Hans-Gert Pöttering (EPP) Since 16 January 2007 Vice-Presidents 14 Rodi Kratsa-Tsagaropoulou (EPP) Alejo Vidal-Quadras (EPP) Gérard Onesta (Greens – EFA) Edward McMillan-Scott (ED) Mario Mauro (EPP) Miguel Angel Martínez Martínez (PES) Luigi Cocilovo (ALDE) Mechtild... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Berlaymont, the Commissions seat The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive branch of the European Union. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Guardian. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Statistical Office of the European Communities (Eurostat) is the statistical arm of the European Commission, producing data for the European Union and promoting harmonisation of statistical methods across the member states. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Statistical Office of the European Communities (Eurostat) is the statistical arm of the European Commission, producing data for the European Union and promoting harmonisation of statistical methods across the member states. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Financial Times (FT) is a British international business newspaper. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Guardian. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... February 29 is a day added into a leap year of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Discovery Channel is a cable and satellite TV channel founded by John Hendricks which is distributed by Discovery Communications. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... BusinessWeek is a business magazine published by McGraw-Hill. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 338th day of the year (339th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Berlaymont, the Commissions seat The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive branch of the European Union. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Berlaymont, the Commissions seat The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive branch of the European Union. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The European Research Council is a proposed funding body for science in the European Union. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Berlaymont, the Commissions seat The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive branch of the European Union. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Berlaymont, the Commissions seat The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive branch of the European Union. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The European Southern Observatory (ESO) is an international astronomical organisation, composed and supported by ten countries from the European Union plus Switzerland. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... February 29 is a day added into a leap year of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Office for National Statistics logo The Office for National Statistics (ONS) is the United Kingdom government executive agency charged with the collection and publication of statistics related to the economy, population and society of the United Kingdom at national and local levels. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Statistical Office of the European Communities (Eurostat) is the statistical arm of the European Commission, producing data for the European Union and promoting harmonisation of statistical methods across the member states. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Statistical Office of the European Communities (Eurostat) is the statistical arm of the European Commission, producing data for the European Union and promoting harmonisation of statistical methods across the member states. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 203rd day of the year (204th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Statistical Office of the European Communities (Eurostat) is the statistical arm of the European Commission, producing data for the European Union and promoting harmonisation of statistical methods across the member states. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Berlaymont, the Commissions seat The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive branch of the European Union. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Berlaymont, the Commissions seat The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive branch of the European Union. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... EUR-Lex is a service on the official website of the European Union. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 346th day of the year (347th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Official Journal of the European Union is the gazette of record for the European Union. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... EUR-Lex is a service on the official website of the European Union. ... The Official Journal of the European Union is the gazette of record for the European Union. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Established 1952, as the Common Assembly President Hans-Gert Pöttering (EPP) Since 16 January 2007 Vice-Presidents 14 Rodi Kratsa-Tsagaropoulou (EPP) Alejo Vidal-Quadras (EPP) Gérard Onesta (Greens – EFA) Edward McMillan-Scott (ED) Mario Mauro (EPP) Miguel Angel Martínez Martínez (PES) Luigi Cocilovo (ALDE) Mechtild... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Berlaymont, the Commissions seat The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive branch of the European Union. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see The Independent (disambiguation). ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... USA Today is a national American daily newspaper published by the Gannett Company. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Statistical Office of the European Communities (Eurostat) is the statistical arm of the European Commission, producing data for the European Union and promoting harmonisation of statistical methods across the member states. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Berlaymont, the Commissions seat The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive branch of the European Union. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Berlaymont, the Commissions seat The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive branch of the European Union. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Berlaymont, the Commissions seat The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive branch of the European Union. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Hans-Gert Pöttering (often written as Poettering; born September 15, 1945 in Bersenbrück, Lower Saxony) is a German conservative politician (CDU), and has been President of the European Parliament since January 2007. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Established 1952, as the Common Assembly President Hans-Gert Pöttering (EPP) Since 16 January 2007 Vice-Presidents 14 Rodi Kratsa-Tsagaropoulou (EPP) Alejo Vidal-Quadras (EPP) Gérard Onesta (Greens – EFA) Edward McMillan-Scott (ED) Mario Mauro (EPP) Miguel Angel Martínez Martínez (PES) Luigi Cocilovo (ALDE) Mechtild... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The International Herald Tribune is a widely read English language international newspaper. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Craig, Paul; Gráinne de Búrca (2007). EU Law, Text, Cases and Materials, 4th ed., Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-927389-8. 
  • Steiner, Josephine; Lorna Woods; Christian Twigg-Flesner (2006). EU Law, 9th ed., Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-927959-3. 
  • Barnard, Catherine (2007). The Substantive Law of the EU: The Four Freedoms, 2nd ed., Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-929839-6. 
  • Jenson, Jane; Denis Saint-Martin (March 2003). Is Europe still sui generis? Signals from The White Paper on European Governance. Prepared for the Eighth Biennial International Conference, European Union Studies Association, 27-29 March 2003, Nashville, Tennessee (PDF). Eighth Biennial International Conference, European Union Studies Association. Retrieved on 2007-11-13.
  • The Economist Guide to the European Union (Profile Books 2005) ISBN 978-1-86197-930-8
  • Access to European Union: law, economics, policies by Nicholas Moussis (European Study Service, 2007 – 16th ed.) ISBN 978-2-930119-43-4
  • Europe Recast: A History of European Union by Desmond Dinan (Palgrave Macmillan, 2004) ISBN 978-0-333-98734-6
  • Understanding the European Union 3rd ed by John McCormick (Palgrave Macmillan, 2005) ISBN 978-1-4039-4451-1
  • The Institutions of the European Union edited by John Peterson, Michael Shackleton, 2nd edition (Oxford University Press, 2006) ISBN 0198700520
  • The Government and Politics of the European Union by Neill Nugent (Palgrave Macmillan, 2002) ISBN 978-0-333-98461-1
  • The European Union: A Very Short Introduction by John Pinder (Oxford, 2001) ISBN 978-0-19-285375-2
  • This Blessed Plot: Britain and Europe from Churchill to Blair by Hugo Young (Macmillan, 1998) ISBN 978-0-333-57992-3
  • The European Dream: How Europe's Vision of the Future Is Quietly Eclipsing the American Dream by Jeremy Rifkin (Jeremy P. Tarcher, 2004) ISBN 978-1-58542-345-3
  • The European Constitution and the Imperatives of Transnational DemocracyPDF (132 KB) by Hans Köchler, Singapore Yearbook of International Law, Vol. 9 (2005), Accessed January 25, 2007

Paul Craig (born 27 September 1951) is currently Professor of English Law at the University of Oxford and a Fellow of St Johns College. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Economist is an English-language weekly news and international affairs publication owned by The Economist Newspaper Ltd and edited in London. ... Bibliography Dinan, Desmond (1993). ... John McCormick is Professor of Political Science at Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis(IUPUI), and has been chair since July 2001. ... Hugo John Smelter Young (October 13, 1938 – September 22, 2003) was a British journalist and columnist and senior political commentator at The Guardian. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... Hans Köchler (born October 18, 1948 in Schwaz, Tyrol, Austria) is a professor of Philosophy at the University of Innsbruck, Austria. ... is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...

External links

Find more about European Union on Wikipedia's sister projects:
Dictionary definitions
Textbooks
Quotations
Source texts
Images and media
News stories
Learning resources

Government Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ...

  • Institutions
  • Commission
  • Council
  • Court of Justice
  • Parliament
  • Agencies
  • EUR-Lex – EU Laws

Overviews and data Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... EUR-Lex is a service on the official website of the European Union. ...

Maps The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is an international organization of those developed countries that accept the principles of representative democracy and a free market economy. ... The World Factbook (ISSN 1553-8133; also known as the CIA World Factbook)[2] is an annual publication of the Central Intelligence Agency of the United States with almanac-style information about the countries of the world. ... Screenshot of ENA The European NAvigator (ENA) is an an educative platform providing a lot of information about the History of Europe and its institutions since 1945. ...

  • European Union maps – on Europa
  • European Union – Satellite view at WikiMapia

Of the emerging democracies in central and eastern Europe, Czechia has one of the most developed industrialized economies. ... Tourism, petroleum transhipment, and offshore finance are the mainstays of the Netherlands Antillean economy, which is closely tied to the outside world. ... The United Kingdom has the fifth largest gross domestic product in the world in terms of market exchange rates and the sixth largest by purchasing power parity (PPP). ... A Special Administrative Region (SAR) of the Peoples Republic of China is an administrative division of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... The Quartet on the Middle East, sometimes called the Diplomatic Quartet or simply the Quartet, is a foursome of nations and international entities involved in mediating the peace process between Israel and the Palestinian People. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Palestine. ... “Palestinian government” redirects here. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1026x918, 132 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Deal or No Deal around the world ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Javier Solana Madariaga (born July 14, 1942 in Madrid, Spain) is the High Representative for the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) and the Secretary-General of both the Council of the European Union (EU) and the Western European Union (WEU). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... Sergey Lavrov. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Nations. ... UN redirects here. ... IPA pronunciation: This is a Korean name; the family name is Ban Ban Ki-moon (born June 13, 1944)[1] is a South Korean diplomat and the current Secretary-General of the United Nations. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Condoleezza Rice (born November 14, 1954) is the 66th United States Secretary of State, and the second in the administration of President George W. Bush to hold the office. ... For other people of the same name, see Tony Blair (disambiguation) Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born May 6, 1953)[1] is the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, First Lord of the Treasury, Minister for the Civil Service, Leader of the Labour Party, and Member of Parliament for the constituency...  Afghanistan  Bangladesh  Bhutan  India  Maldives  Nepal  Pakistan  Sri Lanka Headquarters Kathmandu, Nepal Statistics Area  - Total 7th if ranked 5,130,746 km² Population  - Total (2004)  - Density 1st if ranked 1,467,255,669 285. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
European Union - Guide to EU (769 words)
The European Union is the world's largest confederation of independent states, established under that name in 1992 by the Treaty on European Union (the Maastricht Treaty).
The European Commission embodies and upholds the general interest of the Union and is the driving force in the Union's institutional system.
The European Union (EU) is a union of twenty-five independent states based on the European Communities and founded to enhance political, economic and social co-operation.
European Union at AllExperts (6948 words)
Supporters of the European Union argue that the growth of the EU is a force for peace and democracy.
The European Communities are one of the three pillars of the European Union, being both the most important pillar and the only one to operate primarily through supranational institutions.
The European Council published estimations on 17 November 2005 that the economy of the European Union will have grown approximately 1.5% in 2005 (1.3% in the eurozone), and 2.3% 2006 (2.1% in the eurozone) surpassing earlier growth predictions.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m