FACTOID # 5: Minnesota and Connecticut are both in the top 5 in saving money and total tax burden per capita.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > European Theatre of World War II
Animation of the WWII European Theatre.

The European Theatre was an area of heavy fighting across Europe, during World War II, from 1 September 1939 to 8 May 1945. Allied forces fought the Axis powers in three theatres: the Eastern Front, the Western Front and the Mediterranean Theatre. Image File history File links Second_world_war_europe_animation_small. ... Image File history File links Second_world_war_europe_animation_small. ... World map showing Europe A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is one of the seven traditional continents of the Earth. ... Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom France Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Charles de Gaulle Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian... September 1 is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... May 8 is the 128th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (129th in leap years). ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ... The Allies of World War II were the countries officially opposed to the Axis Powers during the Second World War. ... Area under Axis control over the course of the war shown in black The Axis Powers were those states opposed to the Allies during the Second World War. ... In warfare, a theater or theatre is normally used to define a specific geographic area within which armed conflict occurs. ... Combatants Soviet Union1 Poland Germany1 Italy (to 1943) Romania Finland (to 1944) Hungary Commanders Aleksei Antonov Ivan Konev Rodion Malinovsky Kirill Meretskov Ivan Petrov Alexander Rodimtsev Konstantin Rokossovsky Pavel Rotmistrov Semyon Timoshenko Fyodor Tolbukhin Aleksandr Vasilevsky Nikolai Vatutin Kliment Voroshilov Andrei Yeremenko Matvei Zakharov Georgy Zhukov Fedor von Bock Ernst... During World War II, the Western Front was the theater of fighting west of Germany, encompassing France, Britain, Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, and Denmark. ... The Mediterranean region. ...

Contents

Preceding events

After Germany was defeated in World War I, the Treaty of Versailles placed punitive conditions on the country, including significant financial reparations, the loss of territory (some only temperarily), and war guilt clauses. While Germany ended up actually paying only a small amount of the reparations, many Germans blamed their country's post-war economic collapse and hyperinflation on the treaty's conditions. These resentments contributed to the political instability which made it possible for Adolf Hitler and his National Socialist Party to come to power, with Hitler's appointment as Chancellor of Germany. This article lacks information on the importance of the subject matter. ... The immediate Causes of World War II are generally held to be the German invasion of Poland, and the Japanese attacks on China, the United States, and the British and Dutch colonies. ... Combatants Allied Powers: Russian Empire France British Empire Italy United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary German Empire Ottoman Empire Bulgaria Commanders Nicholas II Aleksei Brusilov Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Ferdinand Foch Herbert Henry Asquith Douglas Haig John Jellicoe Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna Armando Diaz Woodrow Wilson John Pershing Franz... The Treaty of Versailles (1919) was the peace treaty which officially ended World War I between the Allied and Central Powers and the German Empire. ... Certain figures in this article use scientific notation for readability. ... Hitler redirects here. ... The (German: Nazional- socialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (NSDAP) [National Socialist German Workers Party]); generally known in English as the Nazi Party, was a political party in Germany between 1920 and 1945. ... The head of government of Germany is called Chancellor (German: Kanzler or Bundeskanzler meaning federal chancellor). ...

Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini.
Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini.

Meanwhile, in Italy fascist leader Benito Mussolini came to power in 1923, after his March on Rome had turned the country into a fascist state. Both leaders and parties had a strong sense of nationalism with them, and turned their respective countries into totalitarian and repressive states. Image File history File links Hitlermusso. ... Image File history File links Hitlermusso. ... Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler (April 20, 1889 – April 30, 1945, standard German pronunciation in the IPA) was the Führer (leader) of the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazi Party) and of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945. ... Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (July 29, 1883 – April 28, 1945) was the prime minister and dictator of Italy from 1922 until 1943, when he was overthrown. ... Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (July 29, 1883 – April 28, 1945) was the prime minister and dictator of Italy from 1922 until 1943, when he was overthrown. ... 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution. ... The concept of Totalitarianism is a typology or ideal-type used by some political scientists to encapsulate the characteristics of a number of twentieth century regimes that mobilized entire populations in support of the state or an ideology. ... Political repression is the oppression or persecution of an individual or group for political reasons, particularly for the purpose of restricting or preventing their ability to take part in the political life of society. ...


After Hitler took Germany out of the League of Nations, Mussolini and Hitler formed the Rome-Berlin axis, under a treaty known as the Pact of Steel. Later, Japan would also join. Japan and Germany had already signed the Anti-Comintern Pact in 1939. Other smaller powers also later joined the axis. Hitler redirects here. ... The League of Nations was an international organization founded after the Paris Peace Conference, 1919. ... The Pact of Steel was an agreement between Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany signed on May 22, 1939. ... The Anti-Comintern Pact was concluded between Nazi Germany and Japan on November 25, 1936. ...


Outbreak of war in Europe

German troops parade through Warsaw, Poland in October 1939.
German troops parade through Warsaw, Poland in October 1939.

Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union were sworn enemies, but following the Munich Agreement, which effectively handed Czechoslovakia, the only remaining democracy in Central Europe and a French and Soviet ally, over to Germany, political realities allowed the Soviet Union to sign a non-aggression pact (the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact) including a secret clause partitioning Poland, the Baltic Republics and Finland between the two. Download high resolution version (1285x812, 152 KB)German troops parade through Warsaw, Poland on October 5, 1939. ... Download high resolution version (1285x812, 152 KB)German troops parade through Warsaw, Poland on October 5, 1939. ... Warsaw (Polish: , , in full The Capital City of Warsaw, Polish: Miasto StoÅ‚eczne Warszawa) is the capital of Poland and its largest city. ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Chamberlain holds the paper containing the resolution to commit to peaceful methods signed by both Hitler and himself on his return from Germany in September 1938. ... A non-aggression pact is an international treaty between two or more states, agreeing to avoid war or armed conflict between them even if they find themselves fighting third countries, or even if one is fighting allies of the other. ... Molotov signs the German-Soviet non-aggression pact. ... It has been suggested that Baltic Republics be merged into this article or section. ...

Edward Rydz-Śmigły, Polish Commander in Chief.
Edward Rydz-Śmigły, Polish Commander in Chief.

Full-scale war in Europe began on September 1, 1939, when Nazi Germany invaded Poland, to which both Britain and France had pledged guarantees. On 3 September 1939, Britain and France declared war on Germany and British troops were sent to France, however neither French nor British troops gave any significant assistance to the Poles during the entire Invasion of Poland, and the German-French border, excepting the Saar Offensive, remained calm. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Edward Rydz-Śmigły. ... September 1 is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... September 3 is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Western betrayal is a popular term in several Central European nations (including Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Romania, the Baltic States) which refers to the foreign policy of several Western countries during the period from the Treaty of Versailles in 1919 through World War II and to the Cold War... Combatants Poland Germany Soviet Union Slovakia Commanders Edward Rydz-ÅšmigÅ‚y Fedor von Bock (Army Group North) Gerd von Rundstedt (Army Group South) Mikhail Kovalov (Belorussian Front) Semyon Timoshenko (Ukrainian Front) Ferdinand ÄŒatloÅ¡ (Field Army Bernolak) Strength Poland: 39 divisions 16 brigades 4,300 guns 880 tanks 400 aircraft Total... The French attack on Saarland was a French sortie into the Saarland in the early stages of World War II. The purpose of the attack was to assist Poland, which was then under attack. ...


On September 17, the Soviet Union invaded Poland from the east and hours after that, the Polish government evacuated the country for Romania. Poland fell within 5 weeks, with her last large operational units surrendering on October 5 after the Battle of Kock. As the Polish September Campaign ended, Hitler offered to the United Kingdom and France peace on the basis of recognition in the new situation in east Europe. On October 12, he got a negative answer from the United Kingdom. September 17 is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years). ... The Government of the Polish Republic in exile maintained a continuous existence in exile from the time of the German occupation of Poland in September 1939 until the end of the Communist rule in Poland in 1990. ... The Romanian Bridgehead (Polish Przedmoście rumuńskie) was an area in South-Eastern Poland, nowadays located in Ukraine. ... October 5 is the 278th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (279th in Leap years). ... The Battle of Kock was the final battle of the Polish September Campaign at the beginning of World War II. It took place from October 2nd through October 5th, 1939, near the town of Kock, Poland. ... October 12 is the 285th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (286th in leap years). ...


Poland however had not capitulated and Polish government in exile continued to command a large army and the world's largest resistance network, contributing to the defeat of Nazi Germany. The Government of the Polish Republic in exile maintained a continuous existence from the time of the German occupation of Poland in September 1939 until the end of the Communist rule in Poland in 1990. ... Poland: First to Fight (poster, 1939). ...


Despite the quick campaign in the east, along the Franco-German frontier the war settled into a quiet period. This relatively non-confrontational period between the major powers lasted until May 10, 1940, and was known as the Phony War. May 10 is the 130th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (131st in leap years). ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1940 calendar). ... British Ministry of Home Security Poster of a type that was common during the Phony War The Phony War , or in Winston Churchills words the Twilight War, was a phase in early World War II marked by few military operations in Continental Europe, in the months following the German...


Germany assumes dominance in northern Europe

Several other countries, however, were drawn into the conflict at this time. By September 28, 1939, the three Baltic Republics felt they had no choice but to permit Soviet bases and troops on their territory. The Baltic Republics were ocupied by the Soviet army in June, 1940, and finally annexed to the Soviet Union in August, 1940. September 28 is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... It has been suggested that Baltic Republics be merged into this article or section. ... This term is generally used for the Soviet occupation of the Baltic states (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania) in the first phases of World War II. // History of the occupation Before the beginning of World War II Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union signed an ostensible non-aggression treaty known as...


The Soviet Union offered a similar treaty to Finland at the same time, but Finland rejected it and was invaded by the Soviets on November 30. This began the Winter War. After over three months of hard fighting, and heavy losses, the Soviet Union gave up the attempted invasion. In the Moscow Peace Treaty, March 12, 1940, Finland ceded 10% of her territory. The Finns were embittered over having lost more land in the peace than on the battle fields, and over the perceived lack of world sympathy. November 30 is the 334th day (335th on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 31 days remaining. ... Combatants Finland Soviet Union Commanders Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim Kliment Voroshilov, later Semyon Timoshenko Strength 250,000 men 30 tanks 130 aircraft[1][2] 1,000,000 men 3,000 tanks 3,800 aircraft[3][4] Casualties 26,662 dead 39,886 wounded 1,000 captured[5] 126,875 dead... Areas ceded by Finland to the Soviet Union The Moscow Peace Treaty was signed by Finland and the Soviet Union on March 12, 1940. ... March 12 is the 71st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (72nd in leap years). ...


On April 9 1940 Germany commenced Weserübung to seize and occupy Denmark and Norway, ostensibly as a defensive maneuver against a planned (and openly discussed) Franco-British occupation of those countries aimed at controlling export of Swedish iron ore and the Northern Atlantic. After the failed British campaign in Norway, Finland and Sweden were physically cut off from the West. As a consequence, Germany put pressure on neutral Sweden to permit transition of military goods and soldiers on leave. Germany's presence proximate to northernmost Finland, and its Nickel mines, were perceived as an improvement of the strategic situation by the Finns. April 9 is the 99th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (100th in leap years). ... Operation Weserübung was the German codename for Nazi Germanys assault on Denmark and Norway during World War II and the opening operation of the Norwegian Campaign. ... Headquarters of the Schalburgkorps, a Danish SS unit, after 1943. ... The Swedish iron ore was an important theme in the World War II debate. ... Look up Atlantic Ocean in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Allied campaign in Norway took place from April 1940 until early June 1940. ... The term Western World or the West can have multiple meanings depending on its context. ... A neutral country takes no side in a war between other parties, and in return hopes to avoid being attacked by either of them. ... The Finnish nickel deposits were found in the Petsamo area at Barents Sea, which until the Paris Peace Treaties, 1947, was the northernmost part of Finland. ...


War comes to the west

On May 10 the Phony War ended with a sweeping German invasion of Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg, that bypassed French fortifications along the Maginot Line. After overrunning these countries Germany turned against France, entering the country through the Ardennes on May 13 -the French had made the fatal mistake of leaving this area almost totally undefended, believing its terrain to be impassable for tanks. Most Allied forces were in Flanders, anticipating a re-run of the World War I Schlieffen Plan, and were cut off from the French heartland. As a result of this, and also the superior German communications, the Battle of France was shorter than virtually all prewar Allied thought could have conceived. It lasted six weeks, including the Luftwaffe bombing of Paris June 3rd, after which France surrendered. In order to further the humiliation of the French people, Hitler arranged for the surrender document to be signed in the same railway coach where the German surrender had been signed in 1918. The surrender divided France into two parts; the Northern part occupied by Nazi Germany, and a southern part under French control, based at Vichy and referred to as Vichy France. Many French soldiers, as well as those of other occupied countries, escaped to Britain. The General de Gaulle proclaimed himself the legitimate leader of Free French forces and vowed to continue to fight. On 10 June Italy also declared war. May 10 is the 130th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (131st in leap years). ... British Ministry of Home Security Poster of a type that was common during the Phony War The Phony War , or in Winston Churchills words the Twilight War, was a phase in early World War II marked by few military operations in Continental Europe, in the months following the German... The Maginot Line (IPA: [maÊ’ino], named after French minister of defence André Maginot) was a line of concrete fortifications, tank obstacles, machine gun posts and other defenses which France constructed along its borders with Germany and with Italy, in the light of experience from World War I, and... The Ardennes (pronounced ar-DEN) (Dutch: Ardennen) is a region of extensive forests and rolling hill country, primarily in Belgium and Luxembourg, but stretching into France (lending its name to the Ardennes département and the Champagne-Ardenne région). ... May 13 is the 133rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (134th in leap years). ... Flanders (Dutch: ) has several main meanings: the social, cultural and linguistical, scientific and educational, economical and political community of the Flemings; some prefer to call this the Flemish community (others refer to this as the Flemish nation) which is, with over 6 million inhabitants, the majority of all Belgians; a... Combatants Allied Powers: Russian Empire France British Empire Italy United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary German Empire Ottoman Empire Bulgaria Commanders Nicholas II Aleksei Brusilov Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Ferdinand Foch Herbert Henry Asquith Douglas Haig John Jellicoe Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna Armando Diaz Woodrow Wilson John Pershing Franz... Alfred Graf von Schlieffen The Schlieffen Plan was the German General Staffs overall strategic plan for victory on the Western Front against France, and was executed to near victory in the first month of World War I; however, a French counterattack on the outskirts of Paris, the Battle of... Combatants France United Kingdom Canada Czechoslovakia Poland Belgium Netherlands Luxembourg Germany Italy Commanders Maurice Gamelin, Maxime Weygand (French) Lord Gort (British Expeditionary Force) H.G. Winkelman (Dutch) Gerd von Rundstedt (Army Group A) Fedor von Bock (Army Group B) Wilhelm von Leeb (Army Group C) H.R.H. Umberto di... This does not cite its references or sources. ... June 3 is the 154th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (155th in leap years), with 211 days remaining. ... Year 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... The Opera in Vichy. ... For other uses, see Vichy (disambiguation). ... Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle ( ) (22 November 1890 – 9 November 1970), in France commonly referred to as Général de Gaulle, was a French military leader and statesman. ... The Free French Forces (Forces Françaises Libres in French) were French fighters who decided to go on fighting against Germany after the Fall of France and German occupation and to fight against Vichy France in World War II. General Charles de Gaulle was a member of the French Cabinet...


Vyacheslav Molotov, the Prime Minister of the USSR which was tied with Soviet-German non-aggression treaty, congratulated the Germans: “We hand over the most cordial congratulations by the Soviet government on the occasion of splendid success of German Wehrmacht. Guderian's tanks broke through to the sea near Aberville, powered by Soviet fuel, the German bombs, that razed Rotterdam to the ground, were filled with Soviet pyroxylin, and bullet cases, which hit the British soldiers retreating from Dunkirk, were cast of Soviet cupronickel alloy...” [1] For other uses, see Molotov (disambiguation). ... Molotov signs the German-Soviet non-aggression pact. ... General Heinz Guderian Heinz Wilhelm Guderian (17 June 1888-14 May 1954) was a military theorist and General of the German Army during the Second World War. ... Rotterdam Location Coat of arms The coat of arms reads Sterker door Strijd, i. ... Collodion is a solution of nitrocellulose in ether or acetone, sometimes with the addition of alcohols. ... Carnival in Dunkirk. ...


Later, on April 24, 1941, the USSR gave full diplomatic recognition to the Vichy government situated in the non-occupied zone in France.[1]


Thus, the fall of France left Britain and its Empire to stand alone. The British Prime Minister, Neville Chamberlain, resigned during the battle and was replaced by Winston Churchill. Fortunately for Britain, much of its army escaped capture from the northern French port of Dunkirk, where thousands of tiny civilian boats were used to ferry troops from the beaches to the waiting warships. There is much debate over whether German Panzer divisions could have defeated these soldiers alone if they had pressed forward, since the tank divisions were overextended and would require extensive refitting; in any case, Hitler elected to follow the advice of air minister Herman Goering and allow the Luftwaffe alone to attack the Allied forces until German Infantry was able to advance, giving the British a window for the evacuation. Later, many of the evacuated troops would form an important part of the army that landed at Normandy on D-Day. Arthur Neville Chamberlain (18 March 1869 – 9 November 1940) was a Conservative British politician and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1937 to 1940. ... Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG, OM, CH, TD, FRS, PC (Can) (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was an English statesman, soldier, and author, best known as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom during the Second World War. ... French troops rescued by a British merchant ship at Dunkirk Operation Dynamo (or Dunkirk Evacuation or just Dunkirk) was the name given to the World War II mass evacuation of Allied soldiers from May 26 to June 4, 1940, during the Battle of Dunkirk. ... Location within France For the battleship, see Dunkerque Dunkirk (French: Dunkerque; Dutch: Duinkerke; German: Dünkirchen) is a harbour city and a commune in the northernmost part of France, in the département of Nord, 10 km from the Belgian border. ... Hermann Göring Hermann Wilhelm Göring (also spelled Hermann Goering in English) (January 12, 1893–October 15, 1946) was a prominent and early member of the Nazi party, founder of the Gestapo, and one of the main architects of Nazi Germany. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Flag of Normandy Normandy (in French: Normandie, and in Norman: Normaundie) is a geographical region in northern France. ... Land on Normandy In military parlance, D-Day is a term often used to denote the day on which a combat attack or operation is to be initiated. ...


The British rejected several covert German attempts to negotiate a peace. Germany massed their air force in northern France to prepare the way for a possible invasion, codenamed Operation Seelöwe (Sea Lion), deeming that air superiority was essential for the invasion. The operations of the Luftwaffe against the Royal Air Force became known as the Battle of Britain. Initially the Luftwaffe concentrated on destroying the RAF on the ground and in the air. They later switched to bombing major British cities in the Blitz, in an attempt to draw RAF fighters out and defeat them. Neither approach was successful in reducing the RAF to the point where air superiority could be obtained, and plans for an invasion were suspended. Operation Sealion (Unternehmen Seelöwe in German) was a World War II German plan to invade Britain. ... The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the air force branch of the British Armed Forces. ... Combatants United Kingdom Germany Commanders Hugh Dowding Hermann Göring Albert Kesselring Strength initially 700; grew to nearly 1000 by the end of the Battle. ... Heinkel He 111 German bomber over the Surrey Docks, Southwark, London (German propaganda photomontage) The Blitz was the sustained bombing of the United Kingdom by Nazi Germany between 7 September 1940 and 16 May 1941. ...

St Paul's Cathedral during the bombing of London.
St Paul's Cathedral during the bombing of London.

During the Blitz, all of Britain's major industrial cites were heavily bombed. London suffered particularly, being bombed each night for several months. Other targets included Birmingham and Coventry, and strategically important cities, such as the naval base at Plymouth and the port of Kingston upon Hull. With no land forces in direct conflict in Europe, the war in the air attracted worldwide attention even as sea units fought the Battle of the Atlantic and a number of British commando raids hit targets in occupied Europe. Churchill famously said of the RAF personnel who fought in the battle: "Never in the field of human conflict has so much been owed by so many to so few". Image File history File links Photo of St. ... Image File history File links Photo of St. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... This article is about the city in England. ... The Precinct in Coventry city centre. ... Plymouth is a city in the southwest of England, or alternatively the Westcountry, and is situated within the traditional county of Devon. ... Hull or Kingston upon Hull is a British city situated on the north bank of the Humber estuary. ... The Second Battle of the Atlantic was the longest continuous military campaign of World War II, running from 1939 right through to the defeat of Nazi Germany in 1945, and was at its height from mid-1940 through to about the end of 1943. ... In military science, the term commando can refer to an individual, a military unit or a raiding style of military operation. ...


The war in the air

The air war in the European Theatre generally dates from 1939, but - for the United States - it dates from July 4, 1942 when the US deployed US Army Air Forces units to England to join the assault on Germany. The Air offensive officially came to an end on June 5, 1944, and was replaced by aerial participation in the ground offensives that started on June 6, 1944. From that day forward, all aerial offensives for USAAF units were coordinated with the ground offensives. For the United States holiday, the Fourth of July, see Independence Day (United States). ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... June 5 is the 156th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (157th in leap years), with 209 days remaining. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1944 calendar). ... June 6 is the 157th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (158th in leap years), with 208 days remaining // 1508 - Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, is defeated in Friulia by Venetian forces; he is forced to sign a three-year truce and cede several territories to Venice 1513... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1944 calendar). ...


Prewar doctrine had held that waves of bombers hitting enemy cities would cause mass panic and the rapid collapse of the enemy. As a result, the Royal Air Force had built up a large strategic bomber force. By way of contrast, Nazi German air force doctrine was almost totally dedicated to supporting the army. Therefore, German bombers were smaller than their British equivalents, and Germany never developed a four engined heavy bomber equivalent to the Lancaster, B-17 or B-24. The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the air force branch of the British Armed Forces. ... The Avro Lancaster was a four-engine World War II bomber aircraft made initially by Avro for the Royal Air Force (RAF). ... The Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress is an American four-engine heavy bomber aircraft developed for the U.S. Army Air Corps (USAAC). ... The Consolidated B-24 Liberator was an American bomber that was produced in greater numbers than any other American combat aircraft during the World War II and was used by most of the Allied air forces during the war. ...

Fire storm in Hamburg.
Fire storm in Hamburg.

The main concentration of German raids on British cities was from autumn 1940 until spring 1941. After that a large proportion of the strength of the Luftwaffe was diverted to the war against the Soviet Union. German raids continued on a smaller scale for the rest of the war, and later the V1 Flying Bomb and V-2 ballistic missile were both used against Britain. However, the balance of bomb tonnage being dropped shifted greatly in favour of the RAF as Bomber Command gained in strength. By 1942, Bomber Command could put 1,000 bombers over one German city. From 1942 onwards, the efforts of Bomber Command were supplemented by the Eighth Air Force of the United States Army Air Forces. Bomber Command raided by night and the US forces by day. On February 14, 1945, a raid on Dresden produced one of the most devastating fires in history. A firestorm was created in the city, and between 25,000–35,000 people were killed. Only the raid on Hamburg (July 24, 1943), the firebombing of Tokyo and the nuclear attacks on Hiroshima (August 6, 1945) and Nagasaki (August 9, 1945) killed more people through a single attack. Image File history File links Firestorm due to the Bombing of hamburg in WW2 Source: [www. ... Image File history File links Firestorm due to the Bombing of hamburg in WW2 Source: [www. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1940 calendar). ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... The Vergeltungswaffe 1 Fi 103 / FZG-76 (V-1), known as the Flying bomb, Buzz bomb or Doodlebug, was the first modern guided missile used in wartime and the first cruise missile. ... For other uses, see V2. ... Bomber Command badge RAF Bomber Command was the organisation that controlled the RAFs bomber forces. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... The Eighth Air Force is a numbered air force (NAF) of the major command (MAJCOM) of Air Combat Command of the United States Air Force and it is headquartered at Barksdale Air Force Base, Louisiana. ... The United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) was a part of the U.S. Army during World War II. The direct precursor to the U.S. Air Force, the USAAF formally existed between 1941 and 1947. ... February 14 is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ... The bombing of Dresden led by the British Royal Air Force (RAF) and involving the United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) between February 13 and February 15, 1945 remains one of the more controversial Allied actions of World War II. Historian Frederick Taylor says: The destruction of Dresden has an... The large port city of Hamburg was very heavily bombed many times by the Royal Air Force (RAF) and the United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) during World War II. During one of the attacks in July 1943 a firestorm was created that caused many thousands of casualties. ... July 24 is the 205th day (206th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 160 days remaining. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1943 calendar). ... B-29 bombers were used to drop hundreds of thousands of tons of explosives onto Japanese cities during the war. ... For other uses, see Hiroshima (disambiguation). ... August 6 is the 218th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (219th in leap years), with 147 days remaining. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ... Nagasaki (Japanese: 長崎市, Nagasaki-shi  , long peninsula) is the capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture in Japan. ... August 9 is the 221st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (222nd in leap years), with 144 days remaining. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ...


The Mediterranean and Balkans

Italy had invaded Albania on April 7, 1939 and had officially annexed it. Mussolini's regime declared war on Britain and France on June 11, 1940, and invaded Greece on October 28. However, Italian forces were unable to match the Nazi successes in northwest Europe. The Mediterranean region. ... Combatants Germany Italy Bulgaria Albania Greece United Kingdom Australia New Zealand Yugoslavia Commanders Maximilian von Weichs Giovanni Messe Alexander Papagos Henry Maitland Wilson The Balkans Campaign was the Italian and German invasion of Greece and Yugoslavia during World War II. It began with Italys annexation of Albania in April... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... June 11 is the 162nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (163rd in leap years), with 203 days remaining. ... October 28 is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 64 days remaining. ...


The Italian Regia Aeronautica began the long and unsuccessful siege of Malta on June 12. Even the surrender of France did not greatly assist the Axis forces. The naval Battle of the Mediterranean was a disaster for the Italian Regia Marina and the Vichy French navy, which were effectively destroyed as fighting forces by the Royal Navy and the Royal Australian Navy during 1940, most notably in the attack on Mers-el-Kebir (July 3) and the Battle of Taranto (November 11). The Regia Aeronautica (meaning Royal Air Force) was the Italian air force from 1923 until World War II. // A brief history At the beginning of the twentieth century, Italy was at the forefront of aerial warfare: during the colonization of Libya in 1911, it made the first reconnaissance flight in... The Island of Malta The Siege of Malta was a significant military event in the Mediterranean Theatre of World War II that occurred between 1940 and 1943 on the island of Malta. ... June 12 is the 163rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (164th in leap years), with 202 days remaining. ... Combatants Allied Nations Axis Powers The Naval Battle of the Mediterranean was waged during World War II, to attack and keep open the respective supply lines of Allied and Axis armies, and to destroy the opposing sides ability to wage war at sea. ... The Italian Regia Marina (literally: Royal Navy) dates from the proclamation of the Kingdom of Italy in 1861 after Italian unification. ... The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore the Senior Service). ... The Royal Australian Navy (RAN) is the naval branch of the Australian Defence Force. ... Combatants United Kingdom France Commanders James Somerville Marcel-Bruno Gensoul Strength 3 battleships, 1 carrier, 2 cruisers, 11 destroyers 4 battleships, 6 destroyers, 1 seaplane tender Casualties — 1 battleship sunk 2 battleships damaged 1,297 killed The Destruction of the French Fleet at Mers-el-Kebir, French North Africa (now... July 3 is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 181 days remaining. ... Combatants United Kingdom Italy Commanders Lumley Lyster Inigo Campioni Strength 21 bombers 6 battleships Casualties 2 bombers destroyed 1 battleship sunk 2 battleships damaged 1 cruiser damaged The naval Battle of Taranto took place on the night of 11 November – 12 November 1840 during World War II. The Royal Navy... November 11 is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 50 days remaining. ...


Not only did the Italians fail to conquer Greece, but under the supervision of Greece's dictator, Prime Minister Ioannis Metaxas, the Greeks successfully counterattacked into Albania, from November 14. The Prime Minister of Greece (Πρωθυπουργός in Greek) is the head of government of the Hellenic Republic and the leader of the Greek cabinet. ... Ioannis Metaxas (Greek Ιωάννης Μεταξάς, April 12, 1871 – January 29, 1941) was a Greek General and the Prime Minister of Greece from 1936 until his death in 1941. ... November 14 is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 47 days remaining until the end of the year. ...


The Kingdom of Yugoslavia, lacking true leadership of a king and instead ruled by a regency headed by Prince Pavle Karađorđević, signed the Tripartite Treaty on March 25, 1941. The regency did this because they were promised by Hitler that if they joined and let the Axis attack Greece through their territory Yugoslavia would be given areas of Northern Greece including Salonika. However, soon afterwards, after public demonstrations, a March 27 coup d'état was made by Army General Dušan Simović which took control away from the regency and distanced Yugoslavia from the fascists. Motto: One nation, one king, one country Anthem: Medley of Bože pravde, Lijepa naÅ¡a domovino, and Naprej zastava slave Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croato-Slovenian (see: Serbo-Croat and Slovenian) [1] Government Value specified for government_type does not comply King  - 1918-1921 Peter I  - 1921-1934 Alexander... Prince Pavle of Yugoslavia (April 27, 1893, Saint Petersburg, Russia - September 14, 1976, Paris, France) of the Royal House of Karadjordjevic was regent of Yugoslavia for his nephew King Peter II. He took the regency on October 9, 1934 after King Alexanders assassination in Marseille and ruled the country... The Karađorđević Serbian ruling dynasty is descended from Karađorđe. ... The Tripartite Pact, also called the Three-Power Pact, was signed in Berlin on September 27, 1940 by representatives of Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy and Japan. ... March 25 is the 84th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (85th in leap years). ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... The White Tower The Arch of Galerius Map showing the Thessaloníki prefecture Thessaloníki (Θεσσαλονίκη) is the second-largest city of Greece and is the principal city and the capital of the Greek region of Macedonia. ... March 27 is the 86th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (87th in leap years). ... A coup d’état (pronounced ), or simply coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government through unconstitutional means by a part of the state establishment — mostly replacing just the high-level figures. ...


The imminent Greek victory over Italy prompted German intervention. On April 6, 1941 German forces, supported by the Italians, Hungarians and the Bulgarians, engaged in combat with the Greeks and simultaneously invaded Yugoslavia. British, Australian and New Zealand forces were hastily dispatched from Egypt to Greece, but the Allies lacked a co-ordinated strategy, were comprehensively beaten and evacuated to Crete. Advancing rapidly, Axis forces captured Athens, Greece's capital on April 27, 1941 effectively placing most of the country under occupation. April 6 is the 96th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (97th in leap years). ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... For the famous World War II battle, see: Battle of Crete For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ... Nickname: City of Athena or Cradle of Democracy Location of the city of Athens (red dot) within the Prefecture of Athens and Periphery of Attica Coordinates: Country Greece Peripheries Attica Prefecture Athens Founded circa 2000 BC Mayor Nikitas Kaklamanis Area    - City 38. ... April 27 is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 248 days remaining. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ...


After the mainland was conquered, Germany invaded Crete in what is known as the Battle of Crete (May 20-June 1, 1941). Instead of an amphibious assault as expected, the Germans mounted a large airborne invasion. The paratroopers (Fallschirmjäger) were so badly mauled in the process that an airborne operation was never again attempted by Germany during the war. However, the Germans eventually prevailed on Crete. Most of the Allied forces were evacuated to Egypt — joining King George II of Greece and the exiled Greek government of Emmanouil Tsouderos — on June 1, 1941. Combatants Greece United Kingdom New Zealand Australia Germany Italy Commanders Bernard Freyberg Kurt Student Strength United Kingdom: 15,000 Greece: 11,000 Australia: 7,100 New Zealand: 6,700 Total: 40,000 (10,000 without fighting capability. ... May 20 is the 140th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (141st in leap years). ... June 1 is the 152nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (153rd in leap years), with 213 days remaining. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... A DUKW (commonly DUCK), during World War II Propeller on a French VAB An amphibian or amphibious vehicle, is a vehicle that, like an amphibian, can move on land as well as on water. ... Fallschirmjäger photo taken from The Hague, Bezuidenhout during the invasion of the Low Countries, morning of May 10, 1940 , often rendered Fallschirmjager in English, is the German word for paratrooper. ... George II (Greek: Γεώργιος [Geōrgios]; 20 July 1890 — 1 April 1947), King of the Hellenes (Greece) ruled from 1922-1924 and 1935-1947. ... This article should appear in one or more categories. ... June 1 is the 152nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (153rd in leap years), with 213 days remaining. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ...


Once the Balkans were secure, the largest land operation in history was launched, when Germany attacked the Soviet Union. Nevertheless, the postponement of this invasion due to the Balkans would later prove fatal for Nazi Germany.


The Eastern Front

Main article: Eastern Front (WWII)

On June 22, 1941, Germany launched an invasion against the Soviet Union, code-named Operation Barbarossa. The leader of the USSR, Josef Stalin, had been warned repeatedly by outside sources and his own intelligence network of the impending invasion, but he ignored the warnings due to conflicting information presented to him by the Soviet intelligence. Moreover, on the very night of the invasion Soviet troops received a directive undersigned by Marshal Timoshenko and General of the Army Georgi Zhukov that commanded: "do not answer to any provocations" and "do not undertake any actions without specific orders". The early weeks of the invasion were devastating for the Soviet Army. Enormous numbers of Soviet troops were encircled in pockets and fell into Nazi German hands. In addition to German troops, a few Italian, Hungarian and Romanian troops were also involved in the campaign. Finland also sent troops, but oddly, the Finns initially declared neutrality, however with both German and Soviet troops on her soil, Finland was well prepared for to join forces with Nazi Germany when the Soviet Union attacked on June 25. The following conflict from 1941-1944 is sometimes referred to as the Continuation War, as in the continuation of the Winter War. The Eastern Front was the theatre of combat between Nazi Germany and its allies against the Soviet Union during World War II. It was somewhat separate from the other theatres of the war, not only geographically, but also for its scale and ferocity. ... June 22 is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 192 days remaining. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... Combatants Germany Romania Finland Italy Hungary Slovakia Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler General (later MareÅŸal) Ion Antonescu Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim Joseph Stalin Strength ~ 3. ... (Russian, in full: Ио́сиф Виссарио́нович Ста́лин [Iosif Vissarionovich Stalin]; December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953) was the leader of the Soviet Union from the mid-1920s to his death in 1953 and General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1922-1953... Marshal (also sometimes spelled marshall in American English, but not in British English) is a word used in several official titles of various branches of society. ... There are several people called Timoshenko: Semyon Timoshenko Stephen Timoshenko Yulia Timoshenko This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... General of the Army, or less formally five-star general, is historically the second most senior rank in the United States Army. ... Marshal of the Soviet Union Georgi Zhukov Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov (Russian: Гео́ргий Константи́нович Жу́ков) (December 1, 1896 - June 18, 1974), Soviet military commander and... June 25 is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 189 days remaining. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1944 calendar). ... Combatants  Finland Germany  Soviet Union Commanders Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim Strength 250,000 (total 530,000) Finns[1] + 100,000 (total 220,000) Germans 650,000 (total ???) [2] Casualties 58,715 dead or missing 158,000 wounded 1,500 civilian casualties[3] 200,000 dead or missing 385,000 wounded... Combatants Finland Soviet Union Commanders Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim Kliment Voroshilov, later Semyon Timoshenko Strength 250,000 men 30 tanks 130 aircraft[1][2] 1,000,000 men 3,000 tanks 3,800 aircraft[3][4] Casualties 26,662 dead 39,886 wounded 1,000 captured[5] 126,875 dead...


Operation Barbarossa suffered from several fundamental flaws. The most serious of these was the logistical situation of the attack. The sheer vastness of the distances in the Soviet Union meant that Nazi Germany could only advance so far before outrunning their supply chains. By the time the German attack froze to a halt before Moscow on December 5, 1941, it literally could not go any further. There simply were not enough supplies reaching the front to conduct proper defensive operations, let alone a proper offence. The timetable that Barbarossa was planned to assumed that the Soviets would collapse before the Russian winter hit. The failure of that to happen also fatally affected Nazi German plans. Had Hitler not invaded Greece earlier in the year, the invasion would have proceeded at that time, and the Soviet Union might have collapsed. December 5 is the 339th day (340th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ...


During their long retreat, the Soviets employed a scorched earth policy. They burnt crops and destroyed utilities as they withdrew before Germany. That helped to contribute to the logistical problems that Germany experienced. More importantly for them, the Soviets also succeeded in a massive and unprecedented removal of their industry from the threatened war zone to protected areas in the East. A scorched earth policy is a military tactic which involves destroying anything that might be useful to the enemy while advancing through or withdrawing from an area. ...


The extension of the campaign beyond the length that Germany expected meant that the German Army suffered hundreds of thousands of casualties in the bitter cold of the Russian winter, and from the counterattacks of Soviet units.


Even with their advance having ground to a halt due to a lack of supplies and the onset of winter, Germany had conquered a vast amount of territory, including two-fifths of the Soviet economy. Dislodging them proved difficult and eventually cost the Soviet Union dearly.


A few months after the invasion began, German troops laid siege to Leningrad (known as the Siege of Leningrad) from the North by Finnish forces, and from the South by the German Wehrmacht. Finland's C-in-C Mannerheim had halted at the River Svir and refrained from attacking the city. Hitler had ordered that the city of Leningrad must "vanish from the surface of the earth", with its entire population exterminated. Rather than storming the city, the Wehrmacht was ordered to blockade Leningrad so as to starve the city to death, while attacking it with bombers and artillery. About one million civilians died in the Leningrad siege - 800,000 by starvation. It lasted 506 days. During the winter, the only way into the city was across Lake Ladoga, between the German and Finnish lines. Combatants Germany Spanish Blue Division Soviet Union Commanders Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb Georg von Küchler Kliment Voroshilov Georgy Zhukov Strength 725,000 930,000 Casualties Unknown 300,000 military, 16,470 civilians from bombings and an estimated 1 million civilians from starvation The Siege of Leningrad (Russian: блокада Ленинграда (transliteration: blokada... This article is about the Finnish statesman and Commander-in-Chief. ... The river Svir (Свирь, Finnish: Syväri) connects Lake Onega with Lake Ladoga in Russia, thus connecting the two largest lakes of Europe, and is considered the southern border of East Karelia. ... Map of lake Ladoga Towpath Bridge between Lake Ladoga and Lake Onega (from a photograph taken ca. ...

The "Big Three" Allied leaders. From left to right: Winston Churchill (UK), Franklin Roosevelt (USA), and Joseph Stalin (USSR).
The "Big Three" Allied leaders. From left to right: Winston Churchill (UK), Franklin Roosevelt (USA), and Joseph Stalin (USSR).

After enduring the winter of 1941-1942, the German army prepared for further offensive operations. One of the major problems faced by the Nazi war machine in World War II was a shortage of oil. For this reason, Germany decided to give up on Moscow for the time being, and the summer offensive of 1942 decided to focus on the war in the south, with the target being the oil fields of the Caucasus. In a major blunder, Hitler split Army Group South into two subgroups, Army Group A which would attack the Caucasus and army group B which would advance towards the city of Stalingrad (now Volgograd). New version of photograph of Churchill, Roosevelt, and Stalin at the Yalta Conference. ... New version of photograph of Churchill, Roosevelt, and Stalin at the Yalta Conference. ... Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG, OM, CH, TD, FRS, PC (Can) (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was an English statesman, soldier, and author, best known as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom during the Second World War. ... Franklin Delano Roosevelt (January 30, 1882–April 12, 1945), often referred to as FDR, was the 32nd (1933–1945) President of the United States. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Operation Blue(German: Fall Blau) was the German Wehrmachts codename for the 1942 summer offensive. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... The Ethnolinguistic patchwork of the modern Caucasus - CIA map Russia Georgia Azerbaijan (Azer. ... Stalingrad is the former name of two cities: Volgograd, Russia Karviná-Nové Město, near Ostrava, Czech Republic Other uses: The Battle of Stalingrad (a major turning-point of World War II and arguably the bloodiest battle in human history) Stalingrad (German film set during the above battle) Stalingrad... Volgograd (Russian: ), formerly called Tsaritsyn (Russian: ) (1598–1925) and Stalingrad (Russian: ) (1925–1961) is a city in and the administrative center of Volgograd Oblast, Russia. ...


Indecision by Hitler, dissent among the higher ranked Nazi German officers, and extended supply lines combined in a prolonged battle in the streets of Stalingrad. Germany eventually occupied over 90% of the city, but in an attempt to defeat the remaining Soviet defenders almost all Germans in the area were funneled into the ruins of the city. Months of bitter hand-to-hand combat in the ruins of the city depleted the German forces, leaving only weak Romanian and Hungarian forces to guard the flanks of the Stalingrad army group. In Operation Uranus, the Soviets easily defeated these minor axis forces as they performed an encirclement operation. The German troops remaining in the city were trapped - cut off from their supply lines and starving, they were ordered by Hitler to fight to the last man, and they displayed incredible fortitude and bravery under unbearable conditions. The eastern front at the time of Operation Uranus. ...


Starved of food, fuel and ammunition, the pocket was gradually reduced, with the last portion surrendering on February 2nd 1943. In a cynical attempt to prevent the surrender, Hitler promoted Friedrich Paulus, Commander of 6th Army to Field Marshal, because no German of that rank had ever surrendered. Heavy losses affected both sides in the Battle of Stalingrad, one of the bloodiest battles in history. An estimated 1.5 million people perished in this battle, including 100,000 civilians. Friedrich Paulus. ... Note: This article is about the military usage of the word marshal. For other usages, see the end of this article. ... Combatants Germany Italy Romania Hungary Croatia Soviet Union Commanders Friedrich Paulus #, Erich von Manstein Hermann Hoth Vasiliy Chuikov Aleksandr Vasilyevskiy Strength German Sixth Army German Fourth Panzer Army German SS 9th Anti-Aircraft Division Romanian Third Army Romanian Fourth Army Hungarian Second Army Italian Eighth Army Unknown number of Germans...


After Stalingrad, the initiative had passed from Germany but had not yet been seized by the Soviets. A desperate counterattack in the spring of 1943 by the forces of von Manstein temporarily halted the Soviet advance, and lead to the largest tank battle in history, at Kursk. Kursk was the last major offensive by the German Army on the eastern front. The Soviets had intelligence of what was to come and prepared massive defences in huge depth in the Kursk salient. They stopped the German armoured thrusts after a maximum penetration of 17 miles. After Kursk the Red Army never ceased being on the offensive until Berlin was captured in May 1945. Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Erich von Manstein, Hans von Kluge, Hermann Hoth Walther Model Georgiy Zhukov, Konstantin Rokossovskiy, Nikolay Vatutin Strength 800,000 infantry, 2,700 tanks, 2,000 aircraft 1,300,000 infantry, 3,600 tanks, 2,400 aircraft Casualties 500,000 dead, wounded, or captured 900 tanks... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ...


The Soviets bore the brunt of World War II; the second front in Europe did not begin until D-Day, apart from the invasion of Italy. More Soviet citizens died during World War II than those of all other countries combined. Approximately 27 million Soviets, among them more than 20 million civilians, were killed in the Nazi German invasion of the Soviet Union. Civilians were rounded up and burned or shot in many cities conquered by the Nazis. Since the Nazis considered Slavs to be "subhuman", this was ethnically targeted mass murder.


About seven million Red Army troops died facing the Germans and their allies in the Eastern Front. The Axis forces themselves suffered about four million deaths, whether by combat or by wounds, disease, starvation or exposure; another several hundred thousand were seized as POWs and died in Soviet gulags.


It would be wrong however to say the Soviets fought alone. Supply convoys sailed to Soviet ports at great risk. Allied activities may have tied up only a few divisions in actual fighting, but many more were forced to guard lonely coasts against raids that never came or to man antiaircraft guns throughout Europe. It should also be mentioned that the Soviets took virtually no part in the great naval campaigns of the war, had a very limited effect on the strategic bombing offensive, and contributed very little to the defeat of Japan. Virtually their entire armed forces fought against German forces in the western regions.


It is possible, that if Hitler had not held such high goals for Germany, he might have defeated the Soviets. For instance, if Hitler had concentrated on taking Moscow, he would have succeeded in driving a fatal wedge into the heart of the Soviet Union. However, when the opportunity presented itself, Hitler transferred troops to help capture Kiev, which held no military value. Later, he tried to capture the oil in the Caucasus, and he might have, if he had not continually switched troops to where they were not needed. Incredibly, Hitler had wanted to capture all of the Soviet territory to the Ural mountains, a million square miles (2,600,000 km²) of land area. In truth, the German army could afford only to capture and hold one major area: Ukraine and the Caucasus, Moscow and central Russia, or Leningrad and northern Russia. Barbarossa proved to be Hitler's grave. See also Prague Offensive. Location Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted. ... The Ethnolinguistic patchwork of the modern Caucasus - CIA map Russia Georgia Azerbaijan (Azer. ... Location Position of Moscow in Europe Government Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 1,081 km² Population  - City (2005)    - Density 10,415,400   8537. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... Combatants Germany Romania Finland Italy Hungary Slovakia Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler General (later MareÅŸal) Ion Antonescu Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim Joseph Stalin Strength ~ 3. ... The Eastern Front at the time of the Prague Offensive. ...


Allied invasion of Italy

Successes in the North African desert left the Allies in complete control of the Mediterranean's southern shore and using this as a springboard Allied Forces Headquarters AFHQ started to plan an attack into what Winston Churchill referred to as the "soft underbelly" of Europe. Artillery being landed during the invasion of mainland Italy at Salerno, September 1943. ... Allied Forces Headquarters was the headquarters that controlled all Allied forces in the Mediterranean theatre from late 1943 to the end of the war. ... Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG, OM, CH, TD, FRS, PC (Can) (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was an English statesman, soldier, and author, best known as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom during the Second World War. ...


The Allies first action was the capture of the island of Sicily, called Operation Husky, on 10 July 1943. This brought to the fire a growing dissatisfaction with Mussolini. He was deposed on July 25, 1943, by the Fascist Grand Council, and placed under house arrest in an isolated mountain resort. His replacement, General Pietro Badoglio, negotiated an armistice with the Allies on September 8, 1943. Nazi Germany moved quickly into the confused situation, disarmed Italian formations and prepared to defend Italy on their own. Sicily (Sicilia in Italian, Latin, Sicilian and Spanish, Σικελία in Greek) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,700 km² and 5 million inhabitants. ... Husky was also the codename of Australian military support to Sierra Leone ending in February 2003. ... July 10 is the 191st day (192nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 174 days remaining. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1943 calendar). ... July 25 is the 206th day (207th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 159 days remaining. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1943 calendar). ... Pietro Badoglio (September 28, 1871 - November 1, 1956) was an Italian soldier and politician. ... September 8 is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years). ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1943 calendar). ...


Allied troops landed in mainland Italy on September 3, 1943, crossing from Sicily. Further landings were made at Salerno and Taranto on September 9. For more information see: Allied invasion of Italy. This led to Italy, already angry at Mussolini, to join the Western Allies. September 3 is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1943 calendar). ... Operation Avalanche was the codename for the landings near the port of Salerno, executed on 9 September 1943, part of the Allied invasion of Italy. ... Operation Slapstick was a part of the Allied invasion of Italy during World War II on 9 September 1943. ... September 9 is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years). ... This article covers the invasion of mainland Italy by the World War II Allies in September 1943 during the Italian Campaign. ...


A German commando raid led by Otto Skorzeny rescued Mussolini and installed him as the head of the Italian Social Republic, a Nazi puppet state in northern Italy. He continued in this role until he was captured and lynched by mobs on April 28, 1945, as the Allied forces closed in on Milan. Otto Skorzeny Otto Skorzeny (Vienna, June 12, 1908 - Madrid, July 5, 1975) was an Obersturmbannführer in the German Waffen-SS during World War II. He is best-known as the commando leader who rescued Benito Mussolini from imprisonment after his overthrow. ... War flag of the Italian Social Republic. ... A puppet state is a state whose government, though notionally of the same culture as the governed people - owes its existence (or other major debt) to being installed, supported or controlled by a more powerful entity, typically a foreign power. ... Lynch mob redirects here. ... April 28 is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 247 days remaining. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ... Milano redirects here. ...


Germany had built a number of defensive lines through the mountains; the main one was called the Winter Line. The Allies came up against this in the winter of 1943 and were unable to break through. Amphibious landings at Anzio were made in an attempt to bypass the line: however the landing forces were contained by the Germans, and the Gustav Line (the core part of the Winter Line defenses) remained intact. Finally the line was broken in May 1944 in the fourth major attempt in four months to open the road to Rome dominated by strategically positioned historic Benedictine Abbey at Monte Cassino. The Winter Line was a series of German military fortifications in Italy, constructed during World War II by Organisation Todt. ... Combatants British Empire, United States Germany Commanders John P. Lucas Albert Kesselring Strength 50,000 soldiers 5,000 vehicles 100,000 soldiers Casualties 29,200 combat casualties (4,400 killed, 18,000 wounded, 6,800 prisoners or missing) 27,500 (5,500 killed, 17,500 wounded, and 4,500 prisoners... Anzio (2003 pop. ... Combatants United States United Kingdom Poland New Zealand India Free France Morocco Brazil and others Nazi Germany Commanders Harold Alexander Albert Kesselring Frido von Senger Strength 105,000 80,000 Casualties 54,000 20,000 The Battle of Monte Cassino (also known as the Battle for Rome and the Battle...


The Allies finally entered Rome on June 4, 1944, two days before the landings in Normandy. Germany regrouped at the Gothic Line further north. After a landing in southern France in August, 1944 to threaten the German flank, on September 10, 1944 British Commonwealth forces started the attack on the line. The offensive by Allied and some Italian forces continued until Germany surrendered in Italy on April 29, 1945 two days after Mussolini's capture. Nickname: The Eternal City Motto: SPQR: Senatus PopulusQue Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area    - City 1285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban... June 4 is the 155th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (156th in leap years), with 210 days remaining. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1944 calendar). ... German defensive positions in Northern Italy 1944 370th Infantry Regiment walking toward the mountains at north of Prato - april 1945 The Gothic Line, also known as Linea Gotica, formed Field Marshal Albert Kesselrings last line of defence along the summits of the Apennines during the fighting retreat of Nazi... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1944 calendar). ... September 10 is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years). ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1944 calendar). ... April 29 is the 119th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (120th in leap years). ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ...


Allied liberation of France

Main article: Western Front (WWII)#1944 – 1945

Simultaneously with the fall of Rome came the long-awaited invasion of France. Operation Overlord put troops ashore in Normandy on June 6, 1944. A long grinding campaign two months long followed as American, British and Canadian forces were slowly built up in the bridgehead, and German forces slowly worn down. When the breakout finally did come it was spectacular, with American forces under Patton racing across France to Nazi Germany's border. The German forces that had been fighting in Normandy were trapped in the Falaise pocket. During World War II, the Western Front was the theater of fighting west of Germany, encompassing France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxemberg, and Denmark. ... Combatants United States United Kingdom Canada Free France Poland Germany Commanders Dwight Eisenhower (Supreme Allied Commander) Bernard Montgomery (land) Bertram Ramsay (sea) Trafford Leigh-Mallory (air) Omar Bradley (US 1st Army) Miles Dempsey (UK 2nd Army) Harry Crerar (Canadian 1st Army) Gerd von Rundstedt (OB WEST) Erwin Rommel (Heeresgruppe B... Flag of Normandy Normandy (in French: Normandie, and in Norman: Normaundie) is a geographical region in northern France. ... June 6 is the 157th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (158th in leap years), with 208 days remaining // 1508 - Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, is defeated in Friulia by Venetian forces; he is forced to sign a three-year truce and cede several territories to Venice 1513... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1944 calendar). ... During World War II, the Falaise pocket (also known as the Chambois pocket, Chambois-Montcormel pocket, Falaise-Chambois pocket) was the area between the four cities of Trun-Argentan_Vimoutiers_Chambois near Falaise, France, in which United States 12th Army Group encircled and destroyed the German Seventh Army. ...

General Charles de Gaulle, leader of the Free French in opposition to Pétain's Vichy regime.
General Charles de Gaulle, leader of the Free French in opposition to Pétain's Vichy regime.

Incessant bombing of Germany's infrastructure and cities caused tremendous casualties and disruption. Internally, Hitler survived a number of assassination attempts. The most serious was the July 20 Plot, occurring on July 20, 1944. Orchestrated by Claus von Stauffenberg and involving among others Erwin Rommel and Alfred Delp, the plot had intended to place a time bomb in a position to kill Hitler but a number of unscheduled factors led to its failure. Hitler was only slightly injured. Charles De Gaulle (used with permission) this picture was used with permission of who ? Anthère File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Charles De Gaulle (used with permission) this picture was used with permission of who ? Anthère File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Claus von Stauffenberg The July 20 Plot was a failed coup détat and attempt to assassinate Adolf Hitler. ... July 20 is the 201st day (202nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 164 days remaining. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1944 calendar). ... Claus von Stauffenberg Claus Philipp Maria Graf Schenk von Stauffenberg (15 November 1907 – 21 July 1944) was a German aristocrat and army colonel during World War II. He was one of the leading figures of the July 20 Plot to assassinate Adolf Hitler. ... Erwin Johannes Eugen Rommel ( ) (15 November 1891 – 14 October 1944) was one of the most distinguished German field marshals of World War II. He was the commander of the Deutsches Afrika Korps and also became known by the nickname The Desert Fox (Wüstenfuchs,  ) for the skillful military campaigns he... Alfred Delp Alfred Delp (born 15 September 1907 in Mannheim; died 2 February 1945 in Berlin) was a German priest who took part in the resistance to the Nazi régime in Germany. ... Hitler redirects here. ...


Operation Overlord was complemented by an invasion of southern France on August 15, 1944 codenamed Operation Dragoon. By September, 1944 three Allied Army Groups were in line against German formations in the west. There was optimism that the war in Europe might be over by the end of 1944. Combatants United States United Kingdom Canada Free France Poland Germany Commanders Dwight Eisenhower (Supreme Allied Commander) Bernard Montgomery (land) Bertram Ramsay (sea) Trafford Leigh-Mallory (air) Omar Bradley (US 1st Army) Miles Dempsey (UK 2nd Army) Harry Crerar (Canadian 1st Army) Gerd von Rundstedt (OB WEST) Erwin Rommel (Heeresgruppe B... August 15 is the 227th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (228th in leap years), with 138 days remaining. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1944 calendar). ... Combatants United States1 Free France, United Kingdom Germany Commanders Jacob L. Devers Johannes Blaskowitz Strength 250,000 (approx) 230,000 (approx) Casualties 4,500 American, 4,500+ French 125,000+ (approx) Monument to the landings of Allied troops under General Patch on the beach of St Tropez, France. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1944 calendar). ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1944 calendar). ...


An attempt was made to force the situation with Operation Market Garden (September 17 - September 24, 1944). The Allies attempted to capture bridges with an airborne assault, to open the way into Nazi Germany and liberate the northern Netherlands. Since heavier German forces than intelligence had predicted were present, the British 1st Airborne Division was almost completely destroyed. Combatants United Kingdom United States Poland Germany Commanders Bernard Montgomery Gerd von Rundstedt Strength XXX Corps, 35,000 airborne 20,000 Casualties 17,000 casualties 8,000 casualties Operation Market Garden (September 17-September 25, 1944) was an Allied military operation in World War II. Its tactical objectives were to... September 17 is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years). ... September 24 is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1944 calendar). ... The British 1st Airborne Division was a military unit that fought in World War II. It suffered terrible casualties, especially in Operation Market Garden. ...


The cold winter of 1944 combined with a poor situation for the Allies led to a stagnant situation on the western front. The Americans continued to grind away at the defenders in the Battle of Hurtgen Forest (September 13, 1944 - February 10, 1945). As long as Germany stayed on the defence, the Allies were hard-pressed to advance rapidly. Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1944 calendar). ... Combatants United States Germany Commanders Courtney Hodges Walther Model Strength 120,000 unknown Casualties 33,000 dead and wounded 12,000 dead - number of wounded and captured not exactly known The Battle of Hurtgen Forest (German: Schlacht im Hürtgenwald) is the name given to the series of fierce battles... September 13 is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years). ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1944 calendar). ... February 10 is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ...


That changed when Germany mounted a major counteroffensive on December 16, 1944. The Ardennes offensive, also called the Battle of the Bulge, drove back and surrounded some American units. The Allied forces were eventually successful in driving back Germany, in what turned out to be their last major advance of the war. The battle officially ended on January 27, 1945. December 16 is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1944 calendar). ... Combatants United States United Kingdom Germany Commanders Dwight Eisenhower Omar Bradley George Patton Bernard Montgomery Walther Model Gerd von Rundstedt Adolf Hitler Strength Dec 16 - start of the Battle: about 83,000 men; 242 Sherman tanks, 182 tank destroyers, and 394 pieces of corps and divisional artillery. ... January 27 is the 27th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ...


The final obstacle to the Allies was the River Rhine. It was crossed in April, 1945, and the way lay open to the heart of Germany. The last German forces in the west were encircled in the Ruhr. The Rhine canyon (Ruinaulta) in Graubünden in Switzerland Length 1. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ... For the conurbation see Ruhr Area. ...


End of the war in Europe

Mussolini, having been rescued by German paratroopers from his prison, tried to flee Italy to Switzerland with a German anti-air battalion. However, partisans recognized him and he was executed, along with his mistress, and their bodies were strung up in Milan and kicked around in the streets. The raising of the Red Flag over the Reichstag in Berlin, May 1945. ...


Hitler, learning of Mussolini's death, realized that the end had finally come. He remained in Berlin, even as it was encircled and slowly taken by the Soviets. On April 30, 1945, Adolf Hitler, with his wife of one day, Eva Braun, committed suicide to avoid capture. In his will Hitler appointed Karl Dönitz the new German Chancellor, but Germany lasted only 7 days longer, surrendering unconditionally on May 8, 1945. April 30 is the 120th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (121st in leap years), with 245 days remaining. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ... Karl Dönitz (IPA pronunciation:  ); September 16, 1891–December 24, 1980) was a German naval leader, famous for his command of the Kriegsmarine during World War II and for his twenty-day term as President of Germany after Adolf Hitlers suicide. ... May 8 is the 128th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (129th in leap years). ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ...


References

  • Churchill, Winston (1948–1953), The Second World War, 6 vols.
  • Keegan, John (1989). The Second World War, Hutchinson. ISBN 0-09-174011-8.
  • Lee, Loyd E. ed. World War II in Europe, Africa, and the Americas, with General Sources: A Handbook of Literature and Research (1997)
  • Murray, Williamson and Millett, Allan R. (2000). A War to Be Won: Fighting the Second World War, Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-00163-X.
  • Overy, Richard (1995). Why the Allies Won Pimlico. ISBN 0-7126-7453-5.
  • Smith, J. Douglas and Richard Jensen. (2002) World War II on the Web: A Guide to the Very Best Sites
  • Weinberg, Gerhard L. (2005). A World at Arms: A Global History of World War II, Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-44317-2.
  1. ^ http://home.pacific.net.au/~andy/bs/bs1-2.htm

See also



The European-African-Middle Eastern Campaign Medal is a miliary decoration of the United States armed forces which was first created in 1942 by Executive Order of President Franklin Roosevelt. ... The European Theater of Operations, or ETO, was the term used by the United States in World War II to refer to most United States military activity in Europe north of the Mediterranean coast. ... The Mediterranean Theater of Operations (MTO) was originally called North African Theater of Operations (NATO) and is an American term for the conflict that took place between the Allies and Axis powers in North Africa and Italy during World War II. It begins with American troops, part of the Allied...

Campaigns and theatres of World War II
European Theatre
Poland | Phony War | Denmark & Norway | France & Benelux countries | Britain
Eastern Front 1941-45 | Continuation War | Western Front 1944-45
Asian and Pacific Theatres
China | Pacific Ocean | South-East Asia | South West Pacific | Manchuria 1945
The Mediterranean, Africa and Middle East
Mediterranean Sea | East Africa | North Africa | West Africa | Balkans
Middle East | Madagascar | Italy
Other
Atlantic Ocean | Strategic bombing | Attacks on North America | Arctic | Antarctica | Caribbean Sea | Attacks on Australia
Contemporary wars
Chinese Civil War | Soviet-Japanese Border War | Winter War
French-Thai War | Anglo-Iraqi War | Greek Civil War | Sino-Japanese War | Lapland War | Ecuadorian-Peruvian War
World War II
v  d  e
Participants Theatres Main events Specific articles

The Allies
United Kingdom
Soviet Union
United States
Republic of China
Poland
France (after June 16, 1940: Free France)
Netherlands
Belgium
Canada
Norway
Greece
Yugoslavia
Czechoslovakia
India
Australia
El Salvador
New Zealand
South Africa
Egypt
Philippines
Brazil
Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom France Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Charles de Gaulle Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Allies of World War II were the countries officially opposed to the Axis Powers during the Second World War. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Soviet_Union. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Republic_of_China. ... Combatants Republic of China Empire of Japan Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Mao Tse-Tung, Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang, Zhu De, He Yingqin Hideki Tojo, Matsui Iwane, Jiro Minami, Kesago Nakajima, Toshizo Nishio, Yasuji Okamura. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland_(bordered). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_France. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Free_France_1940-1944. ... The military history of France during World War II covers the period from 1939 until 1940, which witnessed French military participation under the Third Republic, and the period from 1940 until 1945, which was marked by colonial struggles between Vichy France and the Free French Forces under Charles de Gaulle... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belgium. ... Image File history File links Canadian_Red_Ensign_1921. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Norway. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece_(1828-1978). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_SFR_Yugoslavia. ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in Latin, Југославија in Cyrillic, English: Land of the South Slavs) describes four political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Czechoslovakia_(bordered). ... Image File history File links Imperial-India-Blue-Ensign. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Australia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_El_Salvador. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_New_Zealand. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Africa_1928-1994. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Egypt_1922. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Philippines. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Brazil. ...


more...
The Allies of World War II were the countries officially opposed to the Axis Powers during the Second World War. ...


The Axis
Germany
Japan
Italy
Vichy France
Hungary
Bulgaria
Romania
Finland
Croatia
Slovakia
Thailand
Area under Axis control over the course of the war shown in black The Axis Powers were those states opposed to the Allies during the Second World War. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_1933. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan_-_variant. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy_(1861-1946)_crowned. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_France. ... For other uses, see Vichy (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Hungary_1940. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bulgaria_(1878-1944). ... Image File history File links Romania_flag. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Finland_(bordered). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Croatia_Ustasa. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_First_Slovak_Republic_1939-1945_bordered. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Thailand. ...


more... Area under Axis control over the course of the war shown in black The Axis Powers were those states opposed to the Allies during the Second World War. ...

Prelude
Causes
in Europe
in Asia This article lacks information on the importance of the subject matter. ... This article is concerned with the events that preceded World War II in Asia. ...


Main theatres
Europe
Eastern Europe
China
Africa
Middle East
Mediterranean
Asia and the Pacific
• Atlantic Combatants Soviet Union1 Poland Germany1 Italy (to 1943) Romania Finland (to 1944) Hungary Commanders Aleksei Antonov Ivan Konev Rodion Malinovsky Kirill Meretskov Ivan Petrov Alexander Rodimtsev Konstantin Rokossovsky Pavel Rotmistrov Semyon Timoshenko Fyodor Tolbukhin Aleksandr Vasilevsky Nikolai Vatutin Kliment Voroshilov Andrei Yeremenko Matvei Zakharov Georgy Zhukov Fedor von Bock Ernst... During World War II, the North African Campaign, also known as the Desert War, took place in the North African desert from September 13, 1940 to May 13, 1943. ... The Middle East Theatre of World War II is defined largely by reference to the British Middle East Command, which controlled Allied forces in both Southwest Asia and eastern North Africa. ... The Mediterranean region. ... Combatants Republic of China U.S.A. (from 1941) U.K. (from 1941) Australia (1941) Netherlands (1941) New Zealand (1941) Canada (1941) U.S.S.R. (from 1945) Empire of Japan Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Winston Churchill, Josef Stalin (from 1945) Hideki Tojo The Pacific War was... Combatants Royal Navy Royal Canadian Navy United States Navy Kriegsmarine Regia Marina (until 1943) Commanders Sir Percy Noble Sir Max K. Horton Percy W. Nelles Leonard W. Murray Ernest J. King Erich Raeder Karl Dönitz Casualties 30,248 merchant sailors 3,500 merchant vessels 175 warships 28,000 sailors...


General timeline
Timeline This is a timeline of events in World War II. // German soldiers supposedly destroying a Polish border checkpoint. ...

1939
Invasion of Poland
Winter War
Combatants Poland Germany Soviet Union Slovakia Commanders Edward Rydz-Śmigły Fedor von Bock (Army Group North) Gerd von Rundstedt (Army Group South) Mikhail Kovalov (Belorussian Front) Semyon Timoshenko (Ukrainian Front) Ferdinand Čatloš (Field Army Bernolak) Strength Poland: 39 divisions 16 brigades 4,300 guns 880 tanks 400 aircraft Total... Combatants Finland Soviet Union Commanders Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim Kliment Voroshilov, later Semyon Timoshenko Strength 250,000 men 30 tanks 130 aircraft[1][2] 1,000,000 men 3,000 tanks 3,800 aircraft[3][4] Casualties 26,662 dead 39,886 wounded 1,000 captured[5] 126,875 dead...


1940
Invasion of Denmark/Norway
Battle of France
Battle of Britain
Operation Weserübung was the German codename for Nazi Germanys assault on Denmark and Norway during World War II and the opening operation of the Norwegian Campaign. ... Combatants France United Kingdom Canada Czechoslovakia Poland Belgium Netherlands Luxembourg Germany Italy Commanders Maurice Gamelin, Maxime Weygand (French) Lord Gort (British Expeditionary Force) H.G. Winkelman (Dutch) Gerd von Rundstedt (Army Group A) Fedor von Bock (Army Group B) Wilhelm von Leeb (Army Group C) H.R.H. Umberto di... Combatants United Kingdom Germany Commanders Hugh Dowding Hermann Göring Albert Kesselring Strength initially 700; grew to nearly 1000 by the end of the Battle. ...


1941
Invasion of the Soviet Union
Battle of Moscow
Attack on Pearl Harbor
Combatants Germany Romania Finland Italy Hungary Slovakia Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler General (later MareÅŸal) Ion Antonescu Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim Joseph Stalin Strength ~ 3. ... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Fedor von Bock Georgi Zhukov Strength ~ 1,500,000 ~ 1,500,000 Casualties 250,000 700,000 The Battle of Moscow refers to the defense of the Soviet capital of Moscow and the subsequent counter-offensive against the German army, between October 1941 and January... Combatants United States Empire of Japan Commanders Husband Kimmel (USN), Walter Short (USA) Chuichi Nagumo (IJN), Mitsuo Fuchida (IJNAS) (1st aerial wave), Shigekazu Shimazaki (IJNAS) (2nd aerial wave) Strength 8 battleships, 8 cruisers, 29 destroyers, 9 submarines, ~50 other ships, ~390 planes 6 aircraft carriers, 9 destroyers, 2 battleships, 2...


1942
Battle of Midway
Battle of Stalingrad
Second Battle of El Alamein
Combatants United States Empire of Japan Commanders Chester W. Nimitz, Frank J. Fletcher, Raymond A. Spruance Isoroku Yamamoto, Chuichi Nagumo, Tamon Yamaguchi † Strength 3 carriers, ~50 support ships, 233 carrier aircraft, 127 land-based aircraft 4 carriers, 7 battleships, ~150 support ships, 248 carrier aircraft, 16 floatplanes Casualties 1 carrier... Combatants Germany Italy Romania Hungary Croatia Soviet Union Commanders Friedrich Paulus #, Erich von Manstein Hermann Hoth Vasiliy Chuikov Aleksandr Vasilyevskiy Strength German Sixth Army German Fourth Panzer Army German SS 9th Anti-Aircraft Division Romanian Third Army Romanian Fourth Army Hungarian Second Army Italian Eighth Army Unknown number of Germans... Combatants British 8th Army German Panzer Army Africa Commanders Bernard Montgomery Erwin Rommel Strength 250,000 men 1,030 tanks 900 guns 530 aircraft 90,000 men 500 tanks 500 guns 350 aircraft Casualties 13,500 dead and wounded 13,000 dead 46,000 wounded or captured The Second Battle...


1943
Battle of Kursk
Guadalcanal campaign
Invasion of Italy
Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Erich von Manstein, Hans von Kluge, Hermann Hoth Walther Model Georgiy Zhukov, Konstantin Rokossovskiy, Nikolay Vatutin Strength 800,000 infantry, 2,700 tanks, 2,000 aircraft 1,300,000 infantry, 3,600 tanks, 2,400 aircraft Casualties 500,000 dead, wounded, or captured 900 tanks... Combatants United States Australia New Zealand United Kingdom Tonga[1] Solomon Islands[2] Empire of Japan Commanders Robert Ghormley William Halsey, Jr. ... This article covers the invasion of mainland Italy by the World War II Allies in September 1943 during the Italian Campaign. ...


1944
Battle of Normandy
Operation Bagration
Battle of Leyte Gulf
Combatants United States United Kingdom Canada Free France Poland Germany Commanders Dwight Eisenhower (Supreme Allied Commander) Bernard Montgomery (land) Bertram Ramsay (sea) Trafford Leigh-Mallory (air) Omar Bradley (US 1st Army) Miles Dempsey (UK 2nd Army) Harry Crerar (Canadian 1st Army) Gerd von Rundstedt (OB WEST) Erwin Rommel (Heeresgruppe B... Combatants Axis Soviet Union Commanders Ernst Busch Walther Model Ferdinand Schörner Konstantin Rokossovski Georgy Zhukov Aleksandr Vasilevsky Strength 800,000 1,700,000 Casualties (Soviet est. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ...


1945
Battle of Iwo Jima
Battle of Okinawa
Battle of Berlin
End in Europe
Hiroshima and Nagasaki
Surrender of Japan
Combatants United States Empire of Japan Commanders Holland Smith Tadamichi Kuribayashi â€  Strength 110,000 22,000 Casualties 6,140 killed 17,913 wounded[1] 21,000 killed 1,083 captured The Battle of Iwo Jima was fought by the United States of America and the Empire of Japan during February... Combatants United States United Kingdom Canada New Zealand Australia Empire of Japan Commanders Simon B. Buckner, Jr. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The raising of the Red Flag over the Reichstag in Berlin, May 1945. ... The Fat Man mushroom cloud resulting from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rises 18 km (11 mi, 60,000 ft) into the air from the hypocenter. ... The surrender of Japan in August 1945 brought World War II to a close. ...


more... USS Lexington explodes during the Battle of the Coral Sea. ...

Blitzkrieg
Cryptography
Equipment
Home Front
Military engagements
Production
Resistance
Technology
The defining characteristic of what is commonly known as Blitzkrieg is that it is a highly mobile form of mechanized warfare. ... Cryptography was used extensively during World War II, with a plethora of code and cipher systems fielded by the nations involved. ... // Aircraft List of aircraft of World War II List of World War II military aircraft of Germany List of aircraft of the Armée de lAir, World War II List of aircraft of the USAAF, World War II List of aircraft of the Royal Air Force, World War II... Publicity photo of American machine tool worker in Texas. ... USS Lexington explodes during the Battle of the Coral Sea. ... Resistance during World War II occurred in every occupied country by a variety of means, ranging from non-cooperation, disinformation and propaganda to hiding crashed pilots and even to outright warfare and the recapturing of towns. ... Technology during World War II played a crucial role in determining the outcome of the war. ...


Civilian impact and atrocities
Nanking Massacre
Holocaust
Siege of Leningrad
Dutch famine of 1944
Hiroshima and Nagasaki
Strategic bombings
Comfort women
Allied war crimes
German war crimes
Japanese war crimes
The references in this article would be clearer with a different and/or consistent style of citation, footnoting or external linking. ... This article is becoming very long. ... Combatants Germany Spanish Blue Division Soviet Union Commanders Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb Georg von Küchler Kliment Voroshilov Georgy Zhukov Strength 725,000 930,000 Casualties Unknown 300,000 military, 16,470 civilians from bombings and an estimated 1 million civilians from starvation The Siege of Leningrad (Russian: блокада Ленинграда (transliteration: blokada... After the landing of the Allied Forces on D-Day, conditions grew worse in the Nazi occupied Netherlands. ... The Fat Man mushroom cloud resulting from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rises 18 km (11 mi, 60,000 ft) into the air from the hypocenter. ... Strategic Bombing during World War II was unlike anything the world had previously witnessed. ... Comfort women ) or military comfort women ) is a euphemism for women who were forced to work as sex slaves in military brothels in Japanese-occupied countries during World War II. The majority of the women were Korean and Chinese. ... Allied war crimes were violations of the laws of war committed by the Allies of World War II against civilian populations or the soldiers of the Axis Armed Forces. ... Germany committed war crimes in both World War I and World War II. The most notable of these is the Holocaust, where millions of people, about half of which were Jews, were murdered. ... Japanese war crimes occurred during the period of Japanese imperialism, from the late 19th century until 1945. ...


Aftermath
Effects
Casualties
Expulsion of Germans
Cold War Note: This section was copied from the article World War II and removed from that article in order to reduce the size of the article. ... Piechart showing percentage of military and civilian deaths by alliance during World War II. World War II was the single deadliest conflict the world has ever seen, causing many tens of millions of deaths. ... Germans expelled from the Sudetenland // The expulsion of Germans after World War II refers to the escape and mass deportation of people considered Germans (Reichsdeutsche and some Volksdeutsche) from various European states and territories during 1945 and in the first three years after World War II 1946-48. ... The Cold War was the period of conflict, tension and competition between the United States and the Soviet Union and their allies from the mid 1940s until the early 1990s. ...

See also

• Category:World War II
Topics
Conferences
Total war
WWII in contemporary culture
Military awards of World War II
Attacks on North America
Comparative military ranks of World War II // Military engagements For military topics (land, naval, and air engagements as well as campaigns, operations, defensive lines and sieges), please see List of military engagements of World War II. Political and social aspects of the war Causes of World War II Appeasement Occupation of Denmark Netherlands in World War II... List of World War II conferences of the Allied forces In total Churchill attended 14 meetings, Roosevelt 12, Stalin 5. ... Total war is an unqualified, all-out war conducted without scruple or limitation. ... The influence of World War II has been profound and diverse, having an impact on many parts of life. ... Military awards of World War II were presented by most of the combatants. ... Attacks on North America during World War II by the Axis Powers were rare, mainly due to the continents geographical separation from the central theaters of conflict in Europe and Asia. ... The following table shows comparative officer ranks of major Allied and Axis powers during World War II. For modern ranks refer to Comparative military ranks. ...

More information on World War II
 World War II from Wiktionary
 WWII Textbooks from Wikibooks
 WWII Quotations from Wikiquote
 WWII Source texts from Wikisource
 WWII Images/media from Commons
 WWII News stories from Wikinews

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m