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Encyclopedia > European Space Agency
European Space Agency
Owner
Established 1975
Headquarters Paris, France
Primary spaceport Guiana Space Centre
Administrator Jean-Jacques Dordain
Budget 2.9 ($4.260) bn (2007)
Official language(s) None, de facto English, French and German[1]
Website www.esa.int

The European Space Agency (ESA), established in 1975, is an intergovernmental organisation dedicated to the exploration of space, currently with 17 member states. Headquartered in Paris, ESA has a staff of close to 2,000 with an annual budget of about €2.9 billion in 2007. ESA is a TLA that can stand for European Space Agency Entertainment Software Association Ecological Society of America electrostatic self-assembly Epsilon Sigma Alpha International, a womens service organization. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... A spaceport is a site for launching spacecraft, by analogy with airport for aircraft. ... The now-decommissioned Ariane 4 launch site The Guiana Space Centre (French: Centre Spatial Guyanais or CSG) is a French spaceport near Kourou in French Guiana. ... This article is about business administration. ... Jean-Jacques Dordain is the current European Space Agencys Director General since 2003. ... For the rental car company, see Budget Rent a Car. ... For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ... An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... A website (alternatively, web site or Web site) is a collection of Web pages, images, videos or other digital assets that is hosted on one or more web servers, usually accessible via the Internet. ... Intergovernmentalism is a theory of decision-making in international organizations, where power is possessed by the member-states and decisions are made by unanimity. ... Space exploration is the use of astronomy and space technology to explore outer space. ... This article is about the capital of France. ...


ESA's main spaceport is the Guiana Space Centre in Kourou, a site made available by France. It is close to the equator, hence commercially important orbits are easier to access. ESA became the market leader in commercial space launches in the 1990s. In recent years, ESA has also established itself as a major player in space exploration. A spaceport is a site for launching spacecraft, by analogy with airport for aircraft. ... The now-decommissioned Ariane 4 launch site The Guiana Space Centre (French: Centre Spatial Guyanais or CSG) is a French spaceport near Kourou in French Guiana. ... Kourou is a town and commune in French Guiana. ... World map showing the equator in red For other uses, see Equator (disambiguation). ...


ESA science missions are based at ESTEC in Noordwijk, Netherlands, Earth Observation missions at ESRIN in Frascati, Italy, ESA Mission Control (ESOC) is in Darmstadt, Germany, and the European Astronaut Centre (EAC), that trains astronauts for future missions is situated in Cologne, Germany. The European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESTEC) is ESAs main technology development and test centre for spacecraft and space technology. ... For other uses, see Noordwijk (disambiguation). ... Located in Frascati, Italy, the ESA Centre for Earth Observation (known as ESRIN) is one of the five specialised centres of the European Space Agency (ESA) located across Europe. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Centre in Darmstadt, Germany The European Space Operations Centre (ESOC) is responsible for controlling ESA satellites and space probes. ... For other uses, see Darmstadt (disambiguation). ... The European Astronaut Centre (EAC) is a center of the European Space Agency and home of the European Astronaut Corps. ... Cologne (German: , IPA: ; local dialect: Kölle ) is Germanys fourth-largest city after Berlin, Hamburg and Munich, and is the largest city both in the German Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia and within the Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Area, one of the major European metropolitan areas with more than...

Contents

History

Foundation

After the Second World War, many European scientists had left Western Europe in order to work either in the US or the Soviet Union. Although the 1950s boom made it possible for Western European countries to invest in research and specifically in space related activities, Western European scientists realised solely national projects would not be able to compete with the two main superpowers. In 1958, only months after the Sputnik shock, Edoardo Amaldi and Pierre Auger, two prominent members of the western European scientific community at that time, met to discuss the foundation of a common western European space agency. The meeting was attended by scientific representatives from eight countries, including Harrie Massey (UK). Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... A current understanding of Western Europe. ... Sputnik 1 The Sputnik crisis was a turn point of the Cold War that began on October 4, 1957 when the Soviet Union launched the Sputnik 1 satellite. ... Edoardo Amaldi (5 September 1908 - 5 December 1989) was an Italian physicist. ... Pierre Victor Auger (May 14, 1899 – December 25, 1993) was a French physicist, born in Paris. ... Sir Harrie Stewart Wilson Massey (16 May 1908 - 27 November 1983) was a highly accomplished and influential mathematical physicist who worked primarily in the fields of atomic and atmospheric physics. ...


The Western European nations decided to have two different agencies, one concerned with developing a launch system ELDO (European Launch Development Organisation) and the precursor of the European Space Agency, and ESRO (European Space Research Organisation) that was established on March 20, 1964 by an agreement signed on June 14, 1962. From 1968 to 1972, ESRO celebrated its first successes. Seven research satellites were brought into orbit, all by US launch systems. The European Launcher Development Organisation (ELDO) was a multinational consortium formed in the 1960s to build an indigenous European space launch vehicle. ... The European Space Agency (ESA) is an inter-governmental organisation dedicated to exploration of space and its exploitation. ... is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

GEOS-ESA, a satellite studying the Earth's magnetosphere, launched in 1977, an example of early ESA space research activity.

ESRO's successor organisation ESTEC (European Space Research and Technology Centre, based in Noordwijk, the Netherlands) is still a part of ESA, though ESA itself is a much bigger organisation today. ESA in its current form was founded in 1975, when ESRO was merged with ELDO. ESA had 10 founding members: Belgium, Germany, Denmark, France, United Kingdom, Italy, the Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland and Spain.[2] ESA launched its first major scientific mission in 1975, Cos-B, a space probe monitoring gamma-ray emissions in the universe. The European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESTEC) is ESAs main technology development and test centre for spacecraft and space technology. ... For other uses, see Noordwijk (disambiguation). ... The European Launcher Development Organisation (ELDO) was a multinational consortium formed in the 1960s to build an indigenous European space launch vehicle. ... COS-B Cos-B was a satellite mission to study gamma-ray emissions from stars and other objects. ...


End of space race

Beginning in the 1970s, when the space race between the US and the Soviet Union had cooled down and space budgets were cut dramatically in both superpowers, ESA established itself as a forerunner in space exploration. ESA joined NASA and the UK in the IUE, the world's first high-orbit telescope, which was launched in 1978 and operated very successfully for 18 years. A number of successful Earth-orbit projects followed, and in 1986 ESA began Giotto, its first deep-space mission, to study the Comets Halley and Grigg-Skejllerup. Hipparcos, a star-mapping mission, was launched in 1989 and in the 1990s SOHO, Ulysses and the Hubble Space Telescope were all jointly carried out with NASA. Recent scientific missions in cooperation with NASA include the Cassini-Huygens space probe, to which ESA contributed by building the Titan landing module Huygens. For a list of key events, see Timeline of space exploration. ... Superpowers redirects here. ... International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) was an astronomical observatory satellite primarily designed to take ultraviolet spectra. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In this artists concept, Giotto points its white high-gain antenna dish towards earth with the ring of solar cells facing the sun. ... Comet Halley, officially designated 1P/Halley, more generally known as Halleys Comet after Edmond Halley, is a comet that can be seen every 75-76 years. ... Comet Grigg-Skjellerup (formally designated 26P/Grigg-Skjellerup) is a periodic comet. ... Hipparcos (for High Precision Parallax Collecting Satellite) was an astrometry mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) dedicated to the measurement of stellar parallax and the proper motions of stars. ... The Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) is a spacecraft that was launched on an Atlas IIAS launch vehicle on 2 December 1995 to study the Sun, and began normal operations in May 1996. ... Ulysses spacecraft Ulysses is an unmanned probe designed to study the Sun at all latitudes. ... The Hubble Space Telescope (HST; also known colloquially as the Hubble or just Hubble) is a space telescope that was carried into Earth orbit by the Space Shuttle in April 1990. ... Cassini-Huygens is a joint NASA/ESA/ASI unmanned space mission intended to study Saturn and its moons. ... Titan (, from Ancient Greek Τῑτάν) or Saturn VI is the largest moon of Saturn and the only moon known to have a dense atmosphere. ... The Huygens probe, supplied by the European Space Agency (ESA) and named after the Dutch 17th century astronomer Christiaan Huygens, is an atmospheric entry probe carried to Saturns moon Titan as part of the Cassini-Huygens mission. ...

Launch of an Ariane 1 in Kourou in 1979

As the successor of ELDO, ESA has also constructed rockets for unmanned scientific and commercial payloads. Ariane 1, launched in 1979, brought mostly commercial payloads into orbit from 1984 onward. The next two developments of the Ariane rocket were intermediate stages in the development of a more advanced launch system, the Ariane 4, which operated between 1988 and 2003 and established ESA as the world leader in commercial space launches in the 1990s. Its successor, the Ariane 5 rocket, has established itself within the heavily competitive commercial space launch market after its first flight which ended in failure in 1997 and prospectively will reach 25 successful launches by 2006. Image File history File links Ariane-1. ... Image File history File links Ariane-1. ... Ariane I is the first version of the Ariane launcher family. ... Kourou is a town and commune in French Guiana. ... The European Launcher Development Organisation (ELDO) was a multinational consortium formed in the 1960s to build an indigenous European space launch vehicle. ... Ariane I is the first version of the Ariane launcher family. ... Ariane 42P rocket with the TOPEX/Poseidon satellite (Kourou, August 10, 1992) (NASA) Ariane 4 was an expendable launch system, designed by the European Space Agency and manufactured and marketed by its subsidiary Arianespace. ... Ariane 5 is a European expendable launch system designed to deliver payloads into geostationary transfer orbit or low Earth orbit. ...


The beginning of the new millennium saw ESA become, along with agencies like NASA, JAXA, and Roscosmos, one of the major participants in scientific space research. While ESA had relied on cooperation with NASA in previous decades, especially the 1990s, changed circumstances (such as tough legal restrictions on information sharing by the United States military) led to decisions to rely more on itself and on cooperation with Russia. A recent press issue thus stated: For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ... The Japan Aerospace eXploration Agency (JAXA) is Japans aerospace agency. ... The Russian Federal Space Agency (Russian: Федеральное космическое агентство) (commonly known as Roskosmos), formerly the Russian Aviation and Space Agency (RKA; in Russian: Российское авиационно-космическое агентство, commonly known as Rosaviakosmos) is the government agency responsible for Russias space science programme and general aerospace research. ... The United States Armed Forces are the overall unified military forces of the United States. ...

Russia is ESA's first partner in its efforts to ensure long-term access to space. There is a framework agreement between ESA and the government of the Russian Federation on cooperation and partnership in the exploration and use of outer space for peaceful purposes, and cooperation is already under way in two different areas of launcher activity that will bring benefits to both partners.[3]

Most notable for its new self-confidence are ESA's own recent successful missions Smart-1, a probe testing cutting-edge new space propulsion technology, the Mars Express mission as well as the development of the Ariane 5 rocket. SMART-1. ... Concept model of the Mars Express spacecraft Main Engine Thrust for braking manouevre on Venus Express. ... Ariane 5 is a European expendable launch system designed to deliver payloads into geostationary transfer orbit or low Earth orbit. ...


ESA maintains its scientific and research projects mainly for astronomy-space missions such as Corot, launched on 27 December 2006, a milestone in the search for extrasolar planets. COROT (COnvection ROtation and planetary Transits) is a space mission approved and led by the French Space Agency (CNES) in conjunction with the European Space Agency. ... December 27 is the 361st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (362nd in leap years). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Infrared Image of a possible extrasolar planet (lower left) in the Constellation Taurus, taken by the Hubble Space Telescope. ...


Goals and aims

Mission

Since the Cold War ended with the fall of the Soviet Union's "iron curtain," space agencies around the world had to refocus and revise their visions and goals. In an interview with JAXA, the Japanese national space agency, Jean-Jacques Dordain ESA's Director General (since 2003) outlined briefly the European Space Agency's mission:[4] For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... For the fall of the Iron Curtain, see Revolutions of 1989. ... Space agency can refer to: NASA, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Canadian Space Agency China National Space Administration Korea Aerospace Research Institute European Space Agency Iranian Space Agency Italian Space Agency Indian Space Research Organisation Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency Russian Aviation and Space Agency Soviet space program (historical) National... The Japan Aerospace eXploration Agency (JAXA) is Japans aerospace agency. ... Jean-Jacques Dordain is the current European Space Agencys Director General since 2003. ...

Today space activities are pursued for the benefit of citizens, and citizens are asking for a better quality of life on earth. They want greater security and economic wealth, but they also want to pursue their dreams, to increase their knowledge, and they want younger people to be attracted to the pursuit of science and technology.

I think that space can do all of this: it can produce a higher quality of life, better security, more economic wealth, and also fulfil our citizens' dreams and thirst for knowledge, and attract the young generation. This is the reason space exploration is an integral part of overall space activities. It has always been so, and it will be even more important in the future.

ESA has ambitious space plans that may be divided into three broad categories. First, ESA will maintain its scientific and research projects (e.g. tests and developments of new propulsion systems), try to find ways to reduce costs for its rocket fleet while enhancing its capacities, honour its commitments regarding the ISS and engage in further space exploration like the Venus Express mission that was launched in late 2005. The second category has many parallels to NASA's plans and consists of astronomy-space missions such as the Planck Surveyor studying the cosmic microwave background (2008), the Herschel space observatory (2008), and the Darwin interferometer. ISS redirects here. ... Space exploration is the use of astronomy and space technology to explore outer space. ... Venus Express is the first Venus exploration mission of the European Space Agency. ... WMAP image, unrelated to Planck The Planck Surveyor is the third Medium-Sized Mission (M3) of ESAs Horizon 2000 Scientific Programme. ... The Herschel Space Observatory is a mission of the European Space Agency. ... Darwin is a proposed European Space Agency (ESA) mission designed to directly detect Earth-like planets orbiting nearby stars, and search for evidence of life on these planets. ...


While the projects described above are more or less similar in their structure and aim as NASA's and other space agencies' plans, the ESA's Mars project is different. The Aurora Programme lays out a time table for future missions to Mars, however in contrast to NASA's plans there is no emphasis on manned or unmanned lunar missions, it rather includes several flagship missions designed to develop and test technology needed for a manned European Mars mission currently planned for 2030. Among these flagship missions is ExoMars, a mission involving a Mars rover. Until 2005 ExoMars was planned to be a joint mission between NASA and ESA, however obstacles such as American technology law that prohibits sharing of classified space technology information led to ESA deciding to go for it alone. The mission is currently planned to launch in 2013. An even more ambitious Mars project is the Mars Sample Return Mission, that is planned as a follow-up mission to ExoMars. It will involve the first time a probe will return of samples from another planet, making it necessary to construct an ascent module that is capable of starting into Mars orbit and dock with the original probe. This article is about the planet. ... The Aurora Programme is a programme of the European Space Agency established in 2001 with the primary objectives of creating, and then implementing, a European long-term plan for exploration of the Solar System using robotic spacecraft and human spaceflight. ... This article is about the planet. ... This article is about Earths moon. ... This article is about the planet. ... ExoMars model at ILA 2006 (Berlin) ExoMars. ... A Mars Rover is an unmanned land vehicle for exploration of the planet Mars. ... ExoMars model at ILA 2006 (Berlin) ExoMars. ... This article is about the planet. ... The Mars Return Sample Mission is a joint project between NASA and ESA to collect rock and dust samples from Mars and to return them to Earth for analysis. ... ExoMars model at ILA 2006 (Berlin) ExoMars. ...


Among the actions for returning the investment to society, they have developed the SCOS 2000 satellite control centre, and they allow the use of it free of charge to any European firm. This is a Computer Program developed by the ESA and its contractors able to control the satellites. ...


To increase the human value of the participating countries, ESA also develops collaborative training programmes for students, young graduates and Post Doctorals. Some countries have their own bilateral agreements with ESA like the Portuguese trainees or the Spanish Trainees programmes. The return of the trainees to their respective country aims to stimulate their national space industry. The Portuguese Trainees is a program that allows for young graduate from Portugal to have a traineeship in one of the European Space Agencys establishments, in fields related to the space science and engineering. ...


In October 2007, ESA announced candidate projects for Cosmic Vision 2015-2025, blueprint of the future scientiific program, including Laplace Jupiter probe, Tandem Saturn/Titan/Enceladus probe, Cross-Scale near-Earth space environment study, Marco Polo asteroid sample return mission, Dune and SPACE dark-energy study, Plato new planet finder, SPICA infrared telescope, and XEUS X-ray telescope.[5] The Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 is ESAs roadmap for scientific space based missions. ... XEUS is the X-ray Evolving Universe Spectroscopy space observatory that is being developed by the European Space Agency as a successor to the successful XMM-Newton X-ray satellite telescope. ...


Member countries and structure

     ESA member countries     ECS states     signed Cooperation Agreement
     ESA member countries     ECS states     signed Cooperation Agreement

ESA comprises the national space organisations and other entities of seventeen countries that participate to varying degrees in the mandatory (23% of total expenditures or €667 million in 2005) and optional space programs (72% of total expenditures or €2138 million in 2005):[6][7]


According to the Resolution 8, Annex 1, of the Convention for the establishment of the European Space Agency.[8] all meetings of the agency are held in English, French and German, with translation provided in these three languages. All official documents are available in English and French with all documents concerning the ESA-Council being available in German, as well. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


Enlargement

Nations who want to become a full member of ESA do so in three stages. First a Cooperation Agreement is signed between the country and ESA. In this stage the country has very limited financial responsibilities. If a country wants to cooperate more fully with ESA it signs a European Cooperating State (ECS) Agreement. The ECS agreement makes companies based in the country eligible for participation in ESA procurements. The country can also participate in all ESA programmes, except for the Basic Technology Research Programme. While the financial contribution of the country concerned increases, it is still much lower that that of a full member state (see below). The agreement is normally followed by a Plan for European Cooperating states (or PECS Charter). This is a five year program of basic research and development activities aimed at improving the nations' space industry capacity. At the end of the five year period the country can either begin negotiatons to become a full member state or sign a new PECS Charter.[9] ESA is likely to expand quite rapidly in the coming years. Many countries which joined the EU in both 2004 and 2007 have started to cooperate with ESA on various levels:

  • The Czech Republic is set to become a full member of ESA. Full membership has been approved by the ESA governing council but still awaits Czech parliamentary ratification.[10] The Czech Republic has been an ECS state since 24.11.2003.[11]
  • Hungary has been an ECS state since 5.11.2003.[12]
  • Romania has been an ECS state since 17.2.2006.[13]
  • Poland has been an ECS state since 27.4.2006.[14]
  • Estonia has signed a Cooperation Agreement with ESA on 26 June 2007.[15]
  • Slovenia has signed a Cooperation Agreement with ESA on 27 May 2008. [16][17][18]

Budget

Paris headquarters
Paris headquarters
The ESA control room in Darmstadt, Germany
The ESA control room in Darmstadt, Germany

The budget of ESA was announced as €2.977 billion for 2005 (a ten percent increase on 2004) and for 2006 is estimated at €2.904 billion.[19] A large part of ESA's budget is invested in ESA's launch vehicles that are currently the most expensive part of ESA's activities (Twenty-two percent of the budget goes into launch vehicles; human space flight is second in budget expenditures). In 2005, the three largest contributors, together funding two thirds of ESA's budget, are France (29.3%), Germany (22.7%) and Italy (14.2%).[20] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 684 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (728 × 638 pixel, file size: 121 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description: France Paris ESA ESA Headquarters Date: 2005-03-01 photographer: de:User:Dantor File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 684 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (728 × 638 pixel, file size: 121 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description: France Paris ESA ESA Headquarters Date: 2005-03-01 photographer: de:User:Dantor File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Darmstadt (disambiguation). ...


An important ministerial conference approved nearly all of ESA's budget requests in December 2005. The budget for the mandatory ESA programme, parts of the optional programme (i.e. optional for ESA's member states such as the ISS involvement) as well as important projects such as Aurora or the EU-backed Galileo navigation system have been approved. No decision has been reached with regard to ESA's involvement in the Russian Kliper project, a feasibility study worth €50 million was not approved.[19] ESA's budget will stay at about the same, however inflation-adjusted, level as 2005 throughout the next 5 years. The Aurora Programme is a programme of the European Space Agency established in 2001 with the primary objectives of creating, and then implementing, a European long-term plan for exploration of the Solar System using robotic spacecraft and human spaceflight. ... The Galileo positioning system is a planned Global Navigation Satellite System, to be built by the European Union (EU) and European Space Agency (ESA). ... Russian media coverage of Kliper spacecraft - Russias Channel One TV network. ...

Member country Mandatory
Contr.
Optional
Contr.
Total
(€ mill.)
Total (%)
Flag of France France 15.63% 31.55% 778.8 27.97%
Flag of Germany Germany 23.41% 21.45% 614.8 22.08%
Flag of Italy Italy 12.88% 14.59% 397.9 14.29%
Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom 16.93% 5.91% 239.3 8.59%
Flag of Belgium Belgium 2.83% 7.37% 167.4 6.34%
Flag of Spain Spain 6.87% 5.76% 169.0 6.07%
Flag of Switzerland Switzerland 3.40% 3.49% 97.3 3.49%
Flag of the Netherlands Netherlands 4.43% 2.87% 90.9 3.26%
Flag of Sweden Sweden 2.61% 2.11% 62.5 2.25%
Flag of Austria Austria 2.26% 0.87% 33.7 1.21%
Flag of Norway Norway 1.70% 1.02% 33.2 1.19%
Flag of Denmark Denmark 1.82% 0.78% 28.8 1.03%
Flag of Finland Finland 1.37% 0.54% 20.7 0.74%
Flag of Ireland Ireland 0.95% 0.30% 12.8 0.46%
Flag of Portugal Portugal 1.40% 0.21% 12.7 0.45%
Flag of Greece Greece 1.50% 0.12% 12.5 0.43%
Flag of Luxembourg Luxembourg 0.21% 0.13% 4.2 0.15%
  • Note that 5% of ESA's budget comes from third party sources. E.g. Canada.

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belgium_(civil). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Switzerland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sweden. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Austria. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Norway. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Denmark. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Finland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ireland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Portugal. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Luxembourg. ...

Locations

This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Centre in Darmstadt, Germany The European Space Operations Centre (ESOC) is responsible for controlling ESA satellites and space probes. ... For other uses, see Darmstadt (disambiguation). ... The Guiana Space Centre (French: Centre Spatial Guyanais) is a French/European spaceport near Kourou in French Guiana. ... Kourou is a town and commune in French Guiana. ... The European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESTEC) is ESAs main technology development and test centre for spacecraft and space technology. ... For other uses, see Noordwijk (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Netherlands (disambiguation). ... Located in Frascati, Italy, the ESA Centre for Earth Observation (known as ESRIN) is one of the five specialised centres of the European Space Agency (ESA) located across Europe. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The European Astronaut Centre (EAC) is a center of the European Space Agency and home of the European Astronaut Corps. ... Cologne (German: , IPA: ; local dialect: Kölle ) is Germanys fourth-largest city after Berlin, Hamburg and Munich, and is the largest city both in the German Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia and within the Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Area, one of the major European metropolitan areas with more than... The Villafranca Satellite Tracking Station at Villafranca del Castillo, near Madrid, Spain, is part of the ESAs ESTRACK ground station network. ... This article is about the Spanish capital. ... The European Space Operations Centre (ESOC) operates a number of ground-based space-tracking stations for the European Space Agency (ESA) known as the European Space Tracking (ESTRACK) network. ...

Launch vehicle fleet

ESA has made great progress towards its goal of having a complete fleet of launch vehicles in service, competing in all sectors of the launch market. ESA's fleet will soon consist of three major rocket designs, Ariane 5, Soyuz and Vega. Rocket launches are carried out by Arianespace, a CNES subsidiary (a minority share is held by EADS as well), at CNES's spaceport in French Guiana. Because many communication satellites have equatorial orbits, launches from French Guiana are able to take larger payloads into space than from other northern spaceports. In addition, equatorial launches give spacecrafts an extra 'push' of nearly 500 m/s due to the higher rotation velocity of someone standing on the equator than near the Earth's axis where rotation velocity approaches nil. Ariane 5 is a European expendable launch system designed to deliver payloads into geostationary transfer orbit or low Earth orbit. ... Soyuz rocket on launch pad. ... Vega (ESA) Vega is a planned expendable launch system developed jointly by the Italian Space Agency and the European Space Agency since 1998, with the first launch planned for 2006. ... Founded in 1980, Arianespace SA undertakes the production, operation and marketing of the Ariane 4 and Ariane 5 rocket launchers as part of the Ariane programme. ... For other uses, see Eads. ... A spaceport is a site for launching spacecraft, by analogy with airport for aircraft. ...


Ariane 5

The Ariane 5 rocket is the primary launcher of the ESA. Its maximum estimated payload is 6–10 metric tons to GTO and up to 21 metric tons to LEO. The launch craft has been in service since 1997 and replaced the Ariane 4. The Ariane rocket exists in several specifications, the heaviest one of these is the Ariane 5 ECA that failed during its first test flight in 2002, but has since made ten consecutive successful flights.[22] Ariane 5 is a European expendable launch system designed to deliver payloads into geostationary transfer orbit or low Earth orbit. ... Ariane 5 is a European expendable launch system designed to deliver payloads into geostationary transfer orbit or low Earth orbit. ... In military aircraft or space exploration, the payload is the carrying capacity of an aircraft or space ship, including as cargo, munitions, scientific instruments or experiments, or external fuel, although internal fuel is usually not included. ... A geostationary transfer orbit (GTO) is a Hohmann transfer orbit around the Earth between a low Earth orbit (LEO) and a geostationary orbit (GEO). ... A low Earth orbit (LEO) is an orbit in which objects such as satellites are below intermediate circular orbit (ICO) and far below geostationary orbit, but typically around 350 - 1400 km above the Earths surface. ... Ariane 42P rocket with the TOPEX/Poseidon satellite (Kourou, August 10, 1992) (NASA) Ariane 4 was an expendable launch system, designed by the European Space Agency and manufactured and marketed by its subsidiary Arianespace. ... Ariane 5 mock-up Ariane 5 is a European expendable launch system designed to deliver satellites into geostationary transfer orbit and to send payloads to Low Earth orbit. ...


ESA's Ariane 1, 2, 3 and 4 launchers (the latter of which was ESA's long time workhorse) have been retired. Ariane is a feminine name. ... Ariane I is the first version of the Ariane launcher family. ... The Ariane 2 and Ariane 3 were expendable launch systems in the Ariane family designed by the European Space Agency. ... The Ariane 2 and Ariane 3 were expendable launch systems in the Ariane family designed by the European Space Agency. ... Ariane 42P rocket with the TOPEX/Poseidon satellite (Kourou, August 10, 1992) (NASA) Ariane 4 was an expendable launch system, designed by the European Space Agency and manufactured and marketed by its subsidiary Arianespace. ...


Soyuz launch vehicle

Soyuz is a Russian medium payload (ca. 3 metric tons to GTO) launcher to be brought into ESA service in 2007.[23] ESA has entered into a €340 million joint venture with the Russian Federal Space Agency over the use of the Soyuz launcher.[24] Under the agreement, the Russian agency will manufacture Soyuz rocket parts for ESA, which will then be shipped to French Guiana for assembly. ESA benefits because it gains a medium payloads launcher, complementing its fleet while saving on development costs. In addition, the Soyuz rocket—which has been the Russian's space launch workhorse for some 40 years—is proven technology with a good safety record, which ESA might be happy to use for launching humans into space. Soyuz rocket on launch pad. ... In military aircraft or space exploration, the payload is the carrying capacity of an aircraft or space ship, including as cargo, munitions, scientific instruments or experiments, or external fuel, although internal fuel is usually not included. ... A geostationary transfer orbit (GTO) is a Hohmann transfer orbit around the Earth between a low Earth orbit (LEO) and a geostationary orbit (GEO). ... The Russian Federal Space Agency (Russian: Федеральное космическое агентство России, commonly known as Roskosmos) or RKA, formerly the Russian Aviation and Space Agency (Russian: Российское авиационно-космическое агентство, commonly known as Rosaviakosmos), is the government agency responsible for Russias space science programme and general aerospace research. ... In military aircraft or space exploration, the payload is the carrying capacity of an aircraft or space ship, including as cargo, munitions, scientific instruments or experiments, or external fuel, although internal fuel is usually not included. ...


Russia also benefits in that it will get access to the Kourou launch site. Launching from Kourou rather than Baikonur will allow the Russians to almost double the Soyuz payload (3.0 tonnes vs. 1.7 tonnes), because of Kourou's closer proximity to the equator. Both agencies benefit from the long term strategic cooperation that in addition will be used to jointly develop future technology. It is perhaps worth noting that France (ESA's largest contributor) has historically had good relations with Russia,[chronology source needed] which contributed to reaching the agreement.[25] Map showing Baikonurs location in Kazakhstan. ...


Vega

Vega is ESA's small payload (ca. 1.5 metric tons to 700 km orbit) launcher; its first launch is planned for 2008. The leading ESA's member state for the Vega Programme is Italy contributing 65% of the costs. Vega itself has been designed to be a body launcher with three solid propulsion stages and an additional liquid propulsion upper module to place the cargo into the exact orbit intended. For a small-cargo rocket it is remarkable that Vega will be able to place multiple payloads into orbit. Its first and main stage (P80) is a direct modification of Ariane 5 EAP (Solid boosters) developed by the CNES, the French space agency. Vega (ESA) Vega is a planned expendable launch system developed jointly by the Italian Space Agency and the European Space Agency since 1998, with the first launch planned for 2006. ... A liquid rocket engine has fuel and oxidizer in liquid form, as opposed to a solid rocket or hybrid rocket or gaseous propellant. ... In military aircraft or space exploration, the payload is the carrying capacity of an aircraft or space ship, including as cargo, munitions, scientific instruments or experiments, or external fuel, although internal fuel is usually not included. ...


See also:[26]


Human space flight

History

Ulf Merbold became the first ESA astronaut to fly into space.
Ulf Merbold became the first ESA astronaut to fly into space.

At the time ESA was formed, its main goals did not encompass human space flight, rather it considered itself to be primarily a scientific research organisation for unmanned space exploration in contrast to its American and Soviet counterparts. It is therefore not surprising that the first non-Soviet European in space was not an ESA astronaut on a European space craft: It was Czechoslovak Vladimir Remek who in 1978 became the first non-Soviet European in space (the first European in space being Yuri Gagarin of the Soviet Union) — on a Soviet Soyuz spacecraft, followed by the Pole Mirosław Hermaszewski and East German Sigmund Jähn in the same year. This Soviet cooperation programme, known as Intercosmos, primarily involved the participation of Eastern bloc countries, however in 1982, Jean-Loup Chrétien became the first western European on a flight to the Soviet Salyut 7 space station. Ulf Dietrich Merbold (born June 20, 1941) was the first West German and second German astronaut. ... Czechoslovakia (Czech: Československo, Slovak: Česko-Slovensko/before 1990 Československo) was a country in Central Europe that existed from 1918 until 1992 (except for the World War II period). ... Categories: MEP stubs | 1948 births | Czech astronauts | Communists | Members of the European Parliament from the Czech Republic ... “Gagarin” redirects here. ... Soviet redirects here. ... Soyuz (Russian: Союз, pronounced sah-YOUS, meaning union) is a series of spacecraft designed by Sergey Korolyov for the Soviet Unions space program. ... MirosÅ‚aw Hermaszewski (born September 15, 1941), was a Polish astronaut, the first citizen of Poland to make a spaceflight onboard the Soyuz 30 spacecraft. ... For the historical eastern German provinces, see Historical Eastern Germany East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR), German Deutsche Demokratische Republik (DDR), was a Communist Party-led state that existed from 1949 to 1990 in the former Soviet occupation zone of Germany. ... Sigmund Werner Paul Jähn (born February 13, 1937) was the first German cosmonaut. ... Soviet redirects here. ... East German postage stamp The Intercosmos program was a program by the Soviet Union to allow fellow Socialist nations to participate in space exploration. ... A map of the Eastern Bloc 1948-1989. ... Spationaut Jean-Loup Chrétien Jean-Loup J.M. Chrétien, retired Général de Brigade (brigadier general) of the Armée de lAir (French air force), spationaut on several Franco-Soviet space missions, and former NASA mission specialist. ... Soviet redirects here. ... Salyut 7 was launched on April 19, 1982, the last of the Salyut space station program. ...


Because Chrétien did not officially fly into space as an ESA astronaut, but rather as a member of the French CNES astronaut corps, the German Ulf Merbold is considered the first ESA astronaut to fly into space. He participated in the STS-9 Space Shuttle mission that included the first use of the European built Spacelab in 1983. STS-9 marked the beginning of an extensive ESA/NASA joint partnership that included dozens of space flights of ESA astronauts in the following years. Beside paying for seats on the Space Shuttle, ESA continued its human space flight cooperation with the Soviet Union and later Russia, including numerous visits to Mir. This article is about the space agency. ... Ulf Dietrich Merbold (born June 20, 1941) was the first West German and second German astronaut. ... For the American instrumental rock band, see Sound Tribe Sector 9. ... Spacelab in payload bay during STS-90 Spacelab is a microgravity laboratory flown into space on the Space Shuttle. ... This article is about the space vehicle. ... For other uses, see Mir (disambiguation). ...


During the latter half of the 1980s, European human space flights changed from being the exception to routine and therefore, in 1990, the European Astronaut Centre in Cologne, Germany was established. It selects and trains prospective astronauts and is responsible for the coordination with international partners especially with regards to the International Space Station. As of 2006, the ESA astronaut corps officially includes 12 members, including nationals from all the large Western European countries except the United Kingdom. The European Astronaut Centre (EAC) is a center of the European Space Agency and home of the European Astronaut Corps. ... Cologne (German: , IPA: ; local dialect: Kölle ) is Germanys fourth-largest city after Berlin, Hamburg and Munich, and is the largest city both in the German Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia and within the Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Area, one of the major European metropolitan areas with more than... ISS redirects here. ...


On April 3, 2008, ESA director general Jean-Jacques Dordain announced that recruiting for a new class of European astronauts will start in the near future.[27] is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... Jean-Jacques Dordain is the current European Space Agencys Director General since 2003. ...


Astronaut Corps

See also: European Astronaut Corps

The astronauts of the European Space Agency are: The European Astronaut Corps is the group of astronauts of ESA who are currently considered as active. ...

¹ retired now
² have visited Mir
³ have visited the International Space Station

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Jean-Francois Clervoy Jean-François André Clervoy (born 19 November 1958) is a French spationaut an a veteran of three NASA space shuttle missions. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belgium_(civil). ... Frank De Winne is a Belgian astronaut of the European Space Agency. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ... Pedro Francisco Duque (born 14 March 1963) is a Spanish astronaut and a veteran of two space missions. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Reinhold Ewald (born December 18, 1956) is a German physicist and astronaut. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Léopold Eyharts - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... Umberto Guidoni (born in Rome, 18 August 1954) is an Italian astronaut and politician. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sweden. ... Arne Christer Fuglesang (born March 18, 1957) is the first and only Swedish astronaut. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands. ... André Kuipers (born October 5, 1958, in Amsterdam) is the second Dutch astronaut (the first one being Wubbo Ockels) to engage on a space flight, on April 18, 2004. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... Paolo Angelo Nespoli (April 6, 1957) is an Italian astronaut. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Switzerland. ... Claude Nicollier in a picture from ESA website. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Philippe Perrin (Colonel, French Air Force) is (accurate at January 2005) a former CNES and European Space Agency astronaut. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Thomas Reiter Thomas Reiter (born May 23, 1958 in Frankfurt, Germany) is an astronaut with the European Space Agency and is a colonel in the Luftwaffe. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Hans Wilhelm Schlegel (born 3 August 1951) is a German astronaut and a veteran of one NASA space shuttle mission. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Gerhard Paul Julius Thiele (born September 2, 1953) is a former German astronaut. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... Roberto Vittori (October 15, 1964 - ) is an ESA astronaut from Viterbo, Italy. ... For other uses, see Mir (disambiguation). ... ISS redirects here. ...

Manned launch vehicles

Artist's impression of the Hermes Shuttle

In the 1980s France pressed for an independent European manned launch vehicle. Around 1978 it was decided to pursue a reusable spacecraft model and starting in November 1987 a project to create a mini-shuttle by the name of Hermes was introduced. The craft itself was modelled comparable to the first proposals of the Space Shuttle and consisted of a small reusable spaceship that would carry 3 to 5 astronauts and 3 to 4 metric tons of payload for scientific experiments. With a total maximum weight of 21 metric tons it would have been launched on the Ariane 5 rocket, which was being developed at that time. It was planned solely for use in Low-Earth orbit space flights. The planning and pre-development phase concluded in 1991; however, the production phase was never fully implemented because at that time the political landscape had changed significantly. With the fall of the Soviet Union ESA looked forward to cooperation with Russia to build a next-generation human space vehicle. Thus the Hermes program was cancelled in 1995 after about 3 billion dollars had been spent. Artists impression of Hermes Shuttle Image: ESA File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Artists impression of Hermes Shuttle Image: ESA File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Artists impression of the Hermes Shuttle A cutaway view of the Hermes Shuttle Hermes was a proposed mini-shuttle designed by the European Space Agency which was superficially similar to the US X-20. ... Artists impression of the Hermes Shuttle A cutaway view of the Hermes Shuttle Hermes was a proposed mini-shuttle designed by the European Space Agency which was superficially similar to the US X-20. ... This article is about the space vehicle. ... Ariane 5 is a European expendable launch system designed to deliver payloads into geostationary transfer orbit or low Earth orbit. ... A low Earth orbit (LEO) is generally defined as an orbit within the locus extending from the Earth’s surface up to an altitude of 2,000 km. ... Artists impression of the Hermes Shuttle A cutaway view of the Hermes Shuttle Hermes was a proposed mini-shuttle designed by the European Space Agency which was superficially similar to the US X-20. ...


In the 21st century ESA started new programs in order to create its own manned spacecraft, most notable among its various projects and proposals is Hopper, whose prototype by EADS, called Phoenix, has already been tested. While projects such as Hopper are neither concrete nor to be realised within the next decade, other possibilities for human spaceflight in cooperation with the Russian Space Agency have emerged. Following talks with the Russian Space Agency in 2004 and June 2005,[28] a cooperation between ESA and the Russian Space Agency was announced to jointly work on the Russian-designed Kliper, a reusable spacecraft that would be available for space travel beyond mere LEO (e.g. the moon or even Mars). It was speculated that Europe would finance part of it. However, a €50 million participation study for Kliper, which was expected to be approved in December 2005, was finally not approved by the ESA member states. The Russian state tender for the Kliper project was subsequently cancelled in the summer of 2006. Hopper is a proposed European Space Agency orbital craft. ... For other uses, see Eads. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Hopper (spacecraft). ... Hopper is a proposed European Space Agency orbital craft. ... The Russian Federal Space Agency, formerly the Russian Aviation and Space Agency (RKA) (in Russian: Российское авиационно-космическое агентство) is the government agency responsible for Russias space science program and general aerospace research. ... The Russian Federal Space Agency, formerly the Russian Aviation and Space Agency (RKA) (in Russian: Российское авиационно-космическое агентство) is the government agency responsible for Russias space science program and general aerospace research. ... The Russian Federal Space Agency, formerly the Russian Aviation and Space Agency (RKA) (in Russian: Российское авиационно-космическое агентство) is the government agency responsible for Russias space science program and general aerospace research. ... Russian media coverage of Kliper spacecraft - Russias Channel One TV network. ... Russian media coverage of Kliper spacecraft - Russias Channel One TV network. ... Russian media coverage of Kliper spacecraft - Russias Channel One TV network. ...


In June 2006 ESA member states granted 15 million to the Crew Space Transportation System (CSTS) study, a two-year study to design a spacecraft capable of going beyond Low-Earth orbit based on the current Soyuz design. This project is pursued with Roskosmos instead of the previously cancelled Kliper proposal. A decision on the actual implementation and construction of the CSTS spacecraft is contemplated for 2008, with the major design decisions being made before the summer of 2007. For the trade union, see Confederation of Cameroon Trade Unions CSTS or ACTS (Crew Space Transportation System and Advanced Crew Transportation System respectively) is a crew transportation system which is jointly studied by the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Russian Space Agency (Roskosmos) with the objective to design a... Soyuz is Russian for Union. Depending on the context, Soyuz may also refer to either of the following: The originally Soviet (now Russian) Soyuz program of human spaceflight The Soyuz spacecraft, used in that program The Soyuz launch vehicle that is used to launch those and other spacecraft This is... The Russian Federal Space Agency, formerly the Russian Aviation and Space Agency (RKA) (Федеральное космическое агентство in Russian: Российское авиационно-космическое агентство) is the government agency responsible for Russias space science program and general aerospace research. ... Russian media coverage of Kliper spacecraft - Russias Channel One TV network. ...


Cooperation with other organisations

European Union

ESA is not an agency or body of the European Union (EU), and has non-EU countries such as Switzerland and Norway as members. There are however ties between the two, with various agreements in place and being worked on, to define the legal status of ESA with regard to the EU.[29] There are common goals between ESA and the EU, and ESA has an EU liaison office in Brussels. On certain projects, the EU and ESA cooperate, such as the upcoming Galileo sattelite navigation system. The EU's new Treaty of Lisbon would makes space policy an area for voting in the European Council. This might lead to a more united stance on space policy, and strengthen ties between the EU and ESA. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... For other uses, see Treaty of Lisbon (disambiguation). ... This article deals with the meeting of European Union leaders. ...


National space organisations of member countries

  • The Centre National d'Études Spatiales (CNES) (National Centre for Space Study) is the French government space agency (administratively, a "public establishment of industrial and commercial character"). Its headquarters are in central Paris. CNES is the main participant on the Ariane project. Indeed CNES designed and tested all Ariane family rockets (mainly from its centre in Evry near Paris)
  • The British National Space Centre (BNSC) is a partnership of the UK government departments which are active in space. Through the BNSC the partners provide delegates to represent the UK on the various ESA governing bodies. Each partner funds its own programme.
  • The Italian Space Agency (Agenzia Spaziale Italiana or ASI) was founded in 1988 to promote, coordinate and conduct space activities in Italy. Operating under the Ministry of the Universities and of Scientific and Technological Research, the agency cooperates with numerous entities active in space technology and with the president of the Council of Ministers. Internationally, the ASI provides Italy's delegation to the Council of the European Space Agency and to its subordinate bodies.
  • The German Aerospace Center (DLR) (German: Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e. V.) is the national research centre for aviation and space flight of the Federal Republic of Germany and of other member states in the Helmholtz Association. Its extensive research and development projects are included in national and international cooperative programmes. In addition to its research projects, the centre is the assigned space agency of Germany bestowing headquarters of German space flight activities and its associates.
  • The Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial (INTA) (Spanish:National Technical Institute for Aerospace) is the spacial agency for Spain.

This article is about the space agency. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... The British National Space Centre (or BNSC) is a voluntary partnership between eleven UK government departments and research councils. ... The Italian Space Agency (Italian: Agenzia Spaziale Italiana; ASI) was founded in 1988 to promote, coordinate, and conduct space activities in Italy. ... DLR Helicopter The German Aerospace Center (DLR) (German: ) is the national research center for aviation and space flight of the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Space Agency. ... The Helmholtz Association (German: Helmholtz-Gesellschaft) is the largest scientific organisation in Germany. ... The Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial (INTA) is the space agency of Spain. ...

Canada

Since January 1, 1979, Canada has had the special status of a Cooperating State within ESA. By virtue of this accord, the Canadian Space Agency takes part in ESA's deliberative bodies and decision-making and also in ESA's programmes and activities. Canadian firms can bid for and receive contracts to work on programmes. The accord has a provision ensuring a fair industrial return to Canada. is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... The Canadian Space Agency (CSA or, in French, lAgence spatiale canadienne, ASC) is the Canadian government space agency responsible for Canadas space program. ...


Russia

ESA has entered into a major joint venture with Russia in the form of the CSTS. For the trade union, see Confederation of Cameroon Trade Unions CSTS or ACTS (Crew Space Transportation System and Advanced Crew Transportation System respectively) is a crew transportation system which is jointly studied by the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Russian Space Agency (Roskosmos) with the objective to design a...


China

Since China has started to invest more money into space activities, the Chinese Space Agency has sought international partnerships. ESA is, beside the Russian Space Agency, one of its most important partners. Recently the two space agencies cooperated in the development of the Double Star Mission. The China National Space Administration (中国国家航天局) is the civilian agency within the Peoples Republic of China which is responsible for national space policy within the space program of China. ... The Russian Federal Space Agency, formerly the Russian Aviation and Space Agency (RKA) (in Russian: Российское авиационно-космическое агентство) is the government agency responsible for Russias space science program and general aerospace research. ... For other uses of the term double star, see double star (disambiguation). ...


International Space Station

ISS module Columbus at Kennedy Space Center
ISS module Columbus at Kennedy Space Center

With regard to the International Space Station (ISS) ESA is not represented by all of its member states: 5 of the 17 countries have opted out either because of concerns about the expense of the project or lack of interest. ESA is taking part in the construction and operation of the ISS with contributions such as Columbus, a science laboratory module that was brought into orbit by NASA's STS-122 Space Shuttle mission and the Cupola observatory module that was completed in July 2005 by Alenia Spazio for ESA. The current estimates for the ISS are approaching €100 billion in total (development, construction and 10 years of maintaining the station) of which ESA has committed to paying €8 billion.[30] About 90% of the costs of ESA's ISS share will be contributed by Germany (41%), France (28%) and Italy (20%). German ESA astronaut Thomas Reiter was the first long-term ISS crew member. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 768 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1168 × 912 pixel, file size: 130 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 768 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1168 × 912 pixel, file size: 130 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Computer generated model of Columbus on the station Columbus at Kennedy Space Center Columbus is a science laboratory designed to be a part of the International Space Station (ISS). ... ISS redirects here. ... ISS redirects here. ... Computer generated model of Columbus on the station Columbus at Kennedy Space Center Columbus is a science laboratory designed to be a part of the International Space Station (ISS). ... STS-122 is the next NASA Space Shuttle mission to the International Space Station (ISS). ... This article is about the space vehicle. ... ISS Cupola (NASA) View from inside of the Cupola ISS Cupola as viewed from the floor of the International Space Station Center The Cupola is a ESA-built observatory module of the International Space Station (ISS) that will provide astronauts with direct viewing for robotic operations and Space Shuttle payload... Alenia Aeronautica (formerly Aeritalia) is an aerospace engineering corporation in Italy, a subisidary of Finmeccanica. ... Thomas Reiter Thomas Reiter (born May 23, 1958 in Frankfurt, Germany) is an astronaut with the European Space Agency and is a colonel in the Luftwaffe. ...


As of 2008, the spacecraft establishing supply links to the ISS are the Progress, Soyuz and Space Shuttle. ESA has developed the Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV) for ISS resupply. Each ATV has a cargo capacity of 7,667 kilograms (16,900 lb).[31] The first ATV, Jules Verne, was launched on 9 March 2008 and on 3 April 2008 successfully docked with the ISS. This manoeuvre, considered a major technical feat, involved using automated systems to allow the ATV to track the ISS, moving at 27,000km/h, and attach itself with an accuracy of 2 cm. No other spacefaring nations or space agencies currently possess this automatic rendezvous and docking capability, considered key to future space exploration. With the Space Shuttle reaching its retirement age in 2010, until NASA has a replacement for it such as COTS (the CEV is not expected to make its first operational manned flight before 2012) the ATV together with Progress, Soyuz and the Japanese transporter HTV (which will be ready in 2009) will be the only links between Earth and the ISS. ISS Progress cargo spacecraft The Progress is a Russian expendable freighter spacecraft. ... Soyuz (Russian: Союз, pronounced sah-YOUS, meaning union) is a series of spacecraft designed by Sergey Korolyov for the Soviet Unions space program. ... This article is about the space vehicle. ... ATV vs Apollo vs Progress The Automated Transfer Vehicle or ATV is an expendable, unmanned resupply spacecraft developed by the European Space Agency (ESA). ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ... t/Space CXV approaches ISS (t/Space) Commercial Orbital Transportation Services is a NASA program to coordinate the commercial delivery of crew and cargo to the International Space Station. ... CEV with lunar lander CEV during a landing on earth CEV rocket, the Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) (right) along side the heavy-lift Cargo Launch Vehicle (CaLV) rocket. ... H-II Transfer Vehicle (Courtesy of JAXA) The H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV) is an unmanned spacecraft on which the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, JAXA has been working since 1997 to resupply the Kibo Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) on the International Space Station, and the rest of the station, if...


See also

  • List of projects of the European Space Agency

A spaceport is a site for launching spacecraft, by analogy with airport for aircraft. ... The now-decommissioned Ariane 4 launch site The Guiana Space Centre (French: Centre Spatial Guyanais or CSG) is a French spaceport near Kourou in French Guiana. ... Esrange, the European Space and Sounding Rocket Range, is a rocket range and research center located outside the town of Kiruna in northern Sweden at 67°5338 N and 21°0625 E. It is a base for atmospheric research with balloons, investigation of the aurora borealis, and rocket... Image File history File links Ariane-1. ... The Aurora Programme is a programme of the European Space Agency established in 2001 with the primary objectives of creating, and then implementing, a European long-term plan for exploration of the Solar System using robotic spacecraft and human spaceflight. ... The introduction of this article does not provide enough context for readers unfamiliar with the subject to understand later content. ... EUMETSAT is an intergovernmental organisation created through an international convention agreed by a current total of 20 European Member States: Austria, Belgium, Croatia, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, and the United Kingdom. ... European Space Camp Rocket 2005 European Space Camp (ESC) is a summer camp for youths aged 17-20, which focuses on giving a hands-on experience into the field of rocket science. ... Founded in 1980, Arianespace SA undertakes the production, operation and marketing of the Ariane 4 and Ariane 5 rocket launchers as part of the Ariane programme. ... The Eddington mission was a European Space Agency project that would have searched for Earth-like planets by 2008. ... CryoSat was an ESA satellite that was launched October 8, 2005. ... ATV vs Apollo vs Progress The Automated Transfer Vehicle or ATV is an expendable, unmanned resupply spacecraft developed by the European Space Agency (ESA). ... Cluster satellite FM2 The Cluster mission is an European Space Agency (ESA) unmanned space mission mission to study the Earths magnetosphere using four identical spacecraft flying in a tetrahedral formation. ... Computer generated model of Columbus on the station Columbus at Kennedy Space Center Columbus is a science laboratory designed to be a part of the International Space Station (ISS). ... Corot is a space mission of the French Space Agency (CNES) and the European Space Agency, with a launch planned in 2006. ... Model of Envisat The Envisat (Environmental Satellite) satellite is an Earth-observing satellite built by the European Space Agency. ... European Remote-Sensing satellite (ERS) was the European Space Agencys first Earth-observing satellite. ... GIOVE is the name for each satellite in a set of four being built to validate the Galileo positioning system in orbit. ... GIOVE, or Galileo In-Orbit Validation Element is the name for each satellite in a set of two being built to test technology for the Galileo positioning system in orbit. ... The Galileo positioning system is a planned Global Navigation Satellite System, to be built by the European Union (EU) and European Space Agency (ESA). ... The Hubble Space Telescope (HST; also known colloquially as the Hubble or just Hubble) is a space telescope that was carried into Earth orbit by the Space Shuttle in April 1990. ... This article is about the concept of integrals in calculus. ... Concept model of the Mars Express spacecraft Main Engine Thrust for braking manouevre on Venus Express. ... MetOp is a series of polar orbiting meteorological satellites operated by the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites. ... Conceptual drawing of the Rosetta orbiter and Philae lander Rosetta is a European Space Agency-led unmanned space mission launched in 2004 intended to study the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. ... The Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) is a spacecraft that was launched on an Atlas IIAS launch vehicle on 2 December 1995 to study the Sun, and began normal operations in May 1996. ... Ulysses spacecraft Ulysses is an unmanned probe designed to study the Sun at all latitudes. ... This article is about XMM-Newton. ... Venus Express is the first Venus exploration mission of the European Space Agency. ... ADM-Aeolus or briefly Atmospheric Dynamics Mission Aeolus is an ESA satellite that is due for launch in 2007. ... BepiColombo is a joint Cornerstone mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) to the planet Mercury. ... Chandrayaan I (Sanskrit चंद्रयान-1), which literally means Moon Craft, is an unmanned lunar mission by the Indian Space Research Organization. ... CryoSat was an ESA satellite that was launched October 8, 2005. ... Don Quijote is a proposed space probe under consideration by the European Space Agency, which would study the effects of impacting a spacecraft into an asteroid. ... ExoMars model at ILA 2006 (Berlin) ExoMars. ... The Galileo positioning system is a planned Global Navigation Satellite System, to be built by the European Union (EU) and European Space Agency (ESA). ... Gaia is a European Space Agency (ESA) astrometry space mission, and a successor to the ESA Hipparcos mission. ... ... The Herschel Space Observatory is a mission of the European Space Agency. ... Part of KEOs logo at www. ... The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a planned space infrared observatory, intended to be a significant improvement on the aging Hubble Space Telescope. ... LISA Pathfinder is the revised name for SMART-2, an ESA space probe to be launched in 2008. ... WMAP image, unrelated to Planck The Planck Surveyor is the third Medium-Sized Mission (M3) of ESAs Horizon 2000 Scientific Programme. ... For the trade union, see Confederation of Cameroon Trade Unions CSTS or ACTS (Crew Space Transportation System and Advanced Crew Transportation System respectively) is a crew transportation system which is jointly studied by the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Russian Space Agency (Roskosmos) with the objective to design a... The Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 is ESAs roadmap for scientific space based missions. ... XEUS is the X-ray Evolving Universe Spectroscopy space observatory that is being developed by the European Space Agency as a successor to the successful XMM-Newton X-ray satellite telescope. ... The Darwin Mission is a proposed European Space Agency (ESA) program designed to directly detect Earth-like planets orbiting nearby stars, and search for evidence of life on these planets. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Hopper (spacecraft). ... The Future Launchers Preparatory Programme (FLPP) is a European Space Agency (ESA) program that began in February 2004. ... The IXV (Intermediate eXperimental Vehicle) is a project of the European Space Agency. ... The Mars Return Sample Mission is a joint project between NASA and ESA to collect rock and dust samples from Mars and to return them to Earth for analysis. ... The Solar Orbiter is a Sun-observing satellite, in development by the European Space Agency. ...

References

  1. ^ http://esamultimedia.esa.int/docs/SP1271En_final.pdf
  2. ^ ESA Portal - Press Releases - ESA turns 30! A successful track record for Europe in space
  3. ^ ESA website article on cooperation (especially with Russia). [1]
  4. ^ Interview with Jean-Jacques Dordain by Jaxa in 2005. [2]
  5. ^ "Cosmic Vision 2015-2025: and the candidate missions are...". Retrieved on 2008-04-03.
  6. ^ http://www.esa.int/esapub/annuals/annual05/ESA_AR2005.pdf ESA annual budget for 2005
  7. ^ Following its ratification of the ESA Convention, Luxembourg has become ESA's 17th Member State with effect from 30 June 2005.
  8. ^ CONVENTION for the establishment of a European Space Agency, Annex 1 Resolution 8 page 116
  9. ^ PECS: General Overview
  10. ^ Radio Praha: Czech Republic becomes first post-communist state to join European Space Agency
  11. ^ ESA: Czech Republic becomes second ESA European Cooperating State
  12. ^ ESA: Hungary and the Czech Republic sign ECS agreements with ESA
  13. ^ ESA: Romania becomes third ESA European Cooperating State
  14. ^ ESA: Poland becomes the fourth ESA European Cooperating State
  15. ^ ESA: Estonia signs Cooperation Agreement with ESA
  16. ^ Slovenian government comunication office: Slovenian Government and ESA Sign Cooperation Agreement
  17. ^ Slovenia Times: Cooperating With ESA
  18. ^ ESA: Slovenia signs Cooperation Agreement with ESA
  19. ^ a b ESA Portal - ESA and the EU
  20. ^ Figures regarding the ESA budget and the three biggest contributors to it. [3]
  21. ^ http://www.esa.int/SPECIALS/ESAC/SEM0EOTLWFE_0.html
  22. ^ Information on Ariane 5 provided by ESA. [4]
  23. ^ Article by ESA on the launch date of Soyuz from French Guiana. [5]
  24. ^ ESA information on the cooperation with Russia on the Soyuz spacecraft. [6].
  25. ^ EuroNews report about the joint venture
  26. ^ ESA's Vega BrochurePDF (122 KiB)
  27. ^ Spaceflight Now | ATV Mission Report | Europe's new cargo freighter safely docks to space station
  28. ^ Article in the Guardian from May 22, 2005 [7]
  29. ^ ESA information on its relationship to the EU. [8]
  30. ^ ESA website on the International Space Station and its share of the costs. [9]
  31. ^ "Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV) Utilisation Relevant Data Rev. 1.2". ESA ERASMUS User Centre.

2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to...

Further reading

  • Bonnet, Roger; Manno, Vittorio (1994). International Cooperation in Space: The Example of the European Space Agency (Frontiers of Space). Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-45835-4.
  • Johnson, Nicholas (1993). Space technologies and space science activities of member states of the European Space Agency. OCLC 29768749 .
  • Peeters, Walter (2000). Space Marketing: A European Perspective (Space Technology Library). ISBN 0-7923-6744-8.
  • Zabusky, Stacia (1995 and 2001). Launching Europe: An Ethnography of European Cooperation in Space Science. ISBN B00005OBX2.
  • Harvey, Brian (2003). Europe's Space Programme: To Ariane and Beyond. ISBN 1-85233-722-2.

The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
This is a timeline of first orbital launches by nationality. ... Soviet Soyuz rockets like the one pictured above were the first reliable means to transport objects into Earth orbit. ...

 
 

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