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Encyclopedia > European Rapid Reaction Force
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Defence of the
European Union
Politics
High Representative
Javier Solana
Foreign and Security
Security and Defence
Defence Initiative
Petersberg tasks
Foreign relations
Defence bodies
Defence Agency
EUISS
Satellite Centre
Military Committee
Military Staff
Defence Procurement
Military Forces
Rapid Reaction Force
EUFOR
Battlegroups
Gendarmerie
Eurocorps
Deployments
Related Organisations
WEU
NATO

The European Union Rapid Reaction Force is a transnational[citation needed] military force managed by the European Union[citation needed] itself rather than any of its member states. Following the initial declaration in December 1999, the formal agreement founding the ERRF or EURRF was reached on November 22, 2004 and according to statements made by EU officials the first ERRF units will be deployable in 2007. 60,000 soldiers have been available since January, 1st of 2007 which are deployable for at least a year. Image File history File links Circle-question-red. ... Image File history File links Current_event_marker. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Many American politicians had long argued that Europes economic influence should be matched by an ability to project military power anywhere on the continent. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The Common Foreign and Security Policy, or CFSP, was established as the second of the three pillars of the European Union in the Maastricht treaty of 1992, and further defined and broadened in the Amsterdam Treaty of 1999. ... The European Union or EU is a supranational and international organization of 27 member states. ... The Common Foreign and Security Policy or CFSP was established as the second of the three pillars of the European Union in the Maastricht treaty of 1992, and further defined and broadened in the Amsterdam Treaty of 1997. ... Javier Solana Francisco Javier Solana Madariaga (born July 14, 1942 in Madrid, Spain) is the High Representative for the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) and the Secretary-General of both the Council of the European Union (EU) and the Western European Union (WEU). ... The Common Foreign and Security Policy, or CFSP, was established as the second of the three pillars of the European Union in the Maastricht treaty of 1992, and further defined and broadened in the Amsterdam Treaty of 1999. ... The European Security and Defence Policy or ESDP is a major element of the Common Foreign and Security Policy pillar of the European Union (EU). ... The European Defence Initiative is a proposal for enhanced European Union defence cooperation presented by France, Germany, Belgium and Luxembourg in Brussels on 29 April 2004. ... The European Security and Defence Policy or ESDP is considered a major element of the Common Foreign and Security Policy pillar of the European Union (EU). ... Foreign relations of the European Union Foreign relations of Austria Foreign relations of Belgium Foreign relations of Cyprus Foreign relations of the Czech Republic Foreign relations of Denmark Foreign relations of Estonia Foreign relations of Finland Foreign relations of France Foreign relations of Germany Foreign relations of Greece Foreign relations... The European Defence Agency (EDA), based in Brussels, Belgium, is an agency under the Council of the European Union. ... The European Union Institute for Security Studies (EUISS) came into being on July 20, 2001 as a replacement to the Western European Union Institute for Security Studies, and thus represents a part of the transfer of functions from the Western European Union (WEU) to the European Union EU, and more... The European Union Satellite Centre (EUSC) was set up in 2002 in order to replace the Western Union Satellite Centre and thus represents a part of the transfer of functions from the Western European Union (WEU) to the European Union EU, and more specifically to the Common Foreign and Security... We dont have an article called European Union Military Committee Start this article Search for European Union Military Committee in. ... More on the Council of the European Union; General Secretariat of the Council of the European Union; Private office; Departments attached to the Secretary-General/High Representative; See also Military of the European Union External links http://www. ... European defence procurement refers to the collective armaments purchasing polices of European nations. ... The European Union is not a state and does not have its own dedicated military forces. ... EUFOR former Commander General David Leakey. ... The European Union battlegroups is a project done in the context of the European Security and Defence Policy. ... The European Gendarmerie Force or EGF was launched by an agreement between five members of the European Union (France, Italy, Spain, Portugal and the Netherlands) and its purpose was the creation of a European intervention force which would have military police (gendarmerie) functions, and be specialized in crisis management. ... The badge of the Eurocorps Eurocorps is a force which consists of up to 60,000 soldiers drawn from the armies of Belgium, France, Germany, Luxembourg and Spain. ... The European Security and Defence Policy or ESDP is a major element of the Common Foreign and Security Policy pillar of the European Union (EU). ... Membership 10 member states 6 associate member states 5 observer countries 7 associate partner countries Formation - Signed Treaty of Brussels - 17 March 1948 The Western European Union (WEU) is a partially dormant European defence and security organization, established on the basis of the Treaty of Brussels of 1948 with the... NATO 2002 Summit in Prague. ... Year 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar). ... November 22 is the 326th day (327th on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... shelby was here 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ...


The ERRF is not a standing army (units will remain with their national armies when not deployed or on exercise), and national governments will retain the power to decide if their forces will take part in any particular operation. As a result the ERRF can in practice can be considered a "virtual army" which may or may not be ready for rapid redeployment.


The Petersberg tasks, which outline the duties of the ERRF, have been expanded from humanitarian, rescue, and peacekeeping and peacemaking to include 'joint disarmament operation', 'military advice and assistance tasks' and 'post-conflict stabilisation'. It also states that, "all these tasks may contribute to the fight against terrorism, including by supporting third countries in combating terrorism in their territories."[1] The European Security and Defence Policy or ESDP is considered a major element of the Common Foreign and Security Policy pillar of the European Union (EU). ...

Contents

Organization

Each unit will be composed of some 1500 troops in reinforced battalions. Also known as packets of force these units are believed to be the most flexible and efficient foundation upon which to base the ERRF. Contributions are expected from EU countries, mostly Britain, France, Germany, Italy and Spain. In the future, Poland might form its own unit. The remaining 19 present EU countries will contribute troops and may form multi-national units with a few hundred troops from three or four different countries. Typical examples of such a unit would be a Nordic Unit ( consisting of Danish, Swedish and Finnish troops ) or a Benelux Unit ( Dutch, Belgian and Luxembourgian troops ). In military terminology, a battalion consists of two to six companies typically commanded by a lieutenant colonel. ...


Recent Past

The ERRF has already completed its first mission (as per the December 1999 declaration of intent by EU members), known as "Operation Concordia". During the operation, European Union troops[citation needed] watched over growing civil unrest in Macedonia due to ethnic tensions between the Macedon majority and Albanian minority in the east of the country. These tensions have abated since the approval by the Macedonian Parliament of a set of legislative measures recognising the rights of the Albanian minority. In a sense the stirrings of nationalism in the Albanian community was a direct result of the 1999 Kosovo War and the subsequent quasi-independence enjoyed by Kosovar Albanians. The ERRF is acknowledged to have completed its mission successfully and a smaller follow-up mission which comprises assisting and training Macedonian police has recently begun.


Complement

In all, there is talk of a total 60-80,000 troops being involved,[citation needed] and the support system behind any 1500-member unit would be considerable. There are yet no firm numbers of air or naval forces to be involved, but these will be part of the ERRF as the need arises.


EU members have already selected troops for taking part in ERRF operations. Despite being at the orders of the EU,[citation needed] the ERRF would contain national forces who could only obey 'European' orders through explicit consent of 'national' military commanders, in the same way as the "double command" of the UNPROFOR. Pocket badge of the UNPROFOR The United Nations Protection Force, UNPROFOR, were the primary UN peacekeeping troops in Croatia and in Bosnia and Herzegovina during the Yugoslav wars. ...


The main raison d'être of the ERRF is to carry out peacekeeping and humanitarian tasks which European Union troops have shown themselves to be excellently trained at, albeit in the missions in which they have chosen. Most recently this was demonstrated in Iraq, where British, Italian, Polish and Spanish troops have had the most success in bringing rest to their respective areas, although whether this is on a long term basis remains to be seen as of 2006. It should be noted that this mission is compleletly independent of the EU and cannot be taken to 'prove' the possible effectiveness of the ERRF. 2006 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Relationship with NATO

Depending on opinions, NATO can be seen as occupying the "ecological niche" of the ERRF. The USA seems to favour a stronger NATO, where European countries would increase their defence spending, allowing European countries to strengthen their forces thereby becoming less reliant on US forces. This is backed by US proposals to withdraw tens of thousands of US troops from bases in Germany, Britain and Italy. NATO 2002 Summit in Prague. ...


A consequence of this would be the freeing up of US troops for offensive (possibly unilateral) operations, while, at the same time, deployment of the new European forces using NATO derived command elements (albeit only those NATO elements that are specifically European in nature and without US input) in projection operations may be conditional to US approval — a situation not well-perceived in most European capitals, although the downside is somewhat illusory as there is nothing to stop European nation states forces from acting unilaterally either should they so wish.[citation needed]


To illustrate, selective use of NATO depending on the national interest of the US has been seen in the past. For instance, as well as the decision to ignore NATO's invocation of Article 5 following the September 11, 2001 attacks — NATO troops featured minimally in Afghanistan (the Pentagon wanted complete control in conducting the war on its own terms) and were completely absent from the 2003 Iraq War. A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly...


Political consequences in Europe

The ERRF's primary tasking would be that of peacekeeping and humanitarian assistance, but may very well feature the use of force as an offensive tool in UN operations against brutal regimes - given sufficient building up of confidence in European capitals. While the ERRF is a body of the EU, it will in practice do the bidding of the major nation-states (who will contribute most of the troops and funding): France, Germany and Britain. Only a determined and unanimous coalition of smaller European countries could succeed in mobilising the ERRF against the wishes of these three heavy-weights. The ERRF will also serve as tangible evidence of the political weight of the EU, in combination to its economic weight — and will most certainly illustrate the European construction .


It is almost certain that the EU body with the greatest voice over the ERRF will be the European Council. The European Council is composed of the nation-states that will individually contribute to the ERRF, and so will expect to have control over its use; despite having currently 27 members, perhaps 5-6 will have the greatest influence in promoting or blocking any proposed ERRF action: Britain, France, Germany, Italy and possibly Spain and Poland. Should there be a foreign policy dispute between these Big Six, if sufficient support persists among the rest of the EU members, then an opt-out for the dissenting countries will probably apply, but great attempts will be made to prevent any public war of words between the major players. The European Council, informally called the European summit, is a meeting of the heads of state or government of the European Union, and the President of the European Commission. ...


See also

The European Union battlegroups is a project done in the context of the European Security and Defence Policy. ... The badge of the Eurocorps Eurocorps is a force which consists of up to 60,000 soldiers drawn from the armies of Belgium, France, Germany, Luxembourg and Spain. ... The European Gendarmerie Force or EGF was launched by an agreement between five members of the European Union (France, Italy, Spain, Portugal and the Netherlands) and its purpose was the creation of a European intervention force which would have military police (gendarmerie) functions, and be specialized in crisis management. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with European Rapid Reaction Force. ...

External links

  • Derek Brown, The Guardian, 11 April 2001, "The European Rapid Reaction Force"
  • European Commission, "ESDP: Commission proposes Rapid Reaction Facility to mobilise civilian crisis instruments", 11 April 2000
  • Foreign Policy Research Center report
  • The presentation of the Eurocorps-Foreign Legion concept with EU battle groups at the European Parliament in June 2003
  • Dr. Julian Lindley-French "Boosting Europe's military muscle - the build-up and future of the EU rapid reaction force"
  • Philip Butterworth-Hayes, Aerospace America February 2001, "The Rapid Reaction Force: What does it bode?"

  Results from FactBites:
 
European Rapid Reaction Force - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1570 words)
The ERRF is not a standing army (units will remain with their national armies when not deployed or on exercise), and national governments will retain the power to decide if their forces will take part in any particular operation.
Indeed, European governments may choose to deploy troops to any one of a number of conflicts in Africa upon the request of the UN and concern from the international community (typically France, for this sort of task).
The presentation of the Single European Regiment concept as an ERRF at the European Parliament in June 2003.
European Rapid Reaction Force - definition of European Rapid Reaction Force in Encyclopedia (1670 words)
The European Union Rapid Reaction Force is a proposed trans-national military force that would be responsible to the European Union itself rather than any of its constiuent nations.
The agreement founding the ERRF or EURRF was reached on November 22, 2004 and according to statements made by EU officials members of the outfit should be good-to-go by 2005.
It is undisputed that it was a shameful failure of European governments to act against genocide in their own backyard in the Yugoslav Civil War, as well as the Kosovo Crisis of just a few years later.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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