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Encyclopedia > European Parliament

Louise Weiss (S) Hemicycle
Louise Weiss (S) Hemicycle
Espace Léopold (B) Hemicycle
Espace Léopold (B) Hemicycle
Established 1952, as the Common Assembly
President Hans-Gert Pöttering (EPP)
Since 16 January 2007
Vice-Presidents
Political groups
Committees
Last election June 2004 (785 MEPs)
Meeting place Strasbourg and Brussels
Secretariat Luxembourg and Brussels
Website europarl.europa.eu

The European Parliament (Europarl or EP) is the only directly elected parliamentary institution of the European Union (EU). Together with the Council of the European Union (the Council), it forms the bicameral legislative branch of the Union's institutions and has been described as one of the most powerful legislatures in the world.[1] The Parliament and Council form the highest legislative body within the Union. However their powers as such are limited to the competencies conferred upon the European Community by member states. Hence the institution has little control over policy areas held by the states and within the other two of the three pillars of the European Union. The Parliament is composed of 785 MEPs (Member of the European Parliament), who serve the second largest democratic electorate in the world (after India) and the largest trans-national democratic electorate in the world (342 million eligible voters in 2004).[2][3][4] Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 443 pixel Image in higher resolution (2878 × 1594 pixel, file size: 2. ... For other uses, see Strasburg. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 443 pixel Image in higher resolution (1600 × 886 pixel, file size: 1. ... For other places with the same name, see Brussels (disambiguation). ... The European Union is a unique geo-political entity covering a large portion of the European continent. ... The President of the European Parliament oversees all the activities of the European Parliament and its constituent bodies. ... Hans-Gert Pöttering (often written as Poettering; born September 15, 1945 in Bersenbrück, Lower Saxony) is a German conservative politician (CDU), and has been President of the European Parliament since January 2007. ... The European Peoples Party (EPP) is the largest transnational European political party. ... is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The President of the European Parliament oversees all the activities of the European Parliament and its constituent bodies. ... The President of the European Parliament oversees all the activities of the European Parliament and its constituent bodies. ... Rodi Kratsa-Tsagaropoulou (born April 15, 1953) is a Greek politician. ... The European Peoples Party (EPP) is the largest transnational European political party. ... Alejo Vidal-Quadras Roca (born May 20, 1945 in Barcelona) is a Spanish Member of the European Parliament, and a radiation physicist. ... The European Peoples Party (EPP) is the largest transnational European political party. ... Gérard Onesta (born 5 August 1960 in Albi) is a French politician and Member of the European Parliament for the South West of France. ... Edward H. C. McMillan-Scott (born August 15, 1949, Cambridge) is a British politician, Member of the European Parliament for the Yorkshire and the Humber region for the Conservative Party. ... For other uses, see European Democrats (disambiguation). ... Mario Mauro (born July 24, 1961 in San Giovanni Rotondo) is an Italian Member of the European Parliament and a teacher of History. ... The European Peoples Party (EPP) is the largest transnational European political party. ... Miguel Angel Martínez Martínez (born January 30, 1940 in Madrid) is a Spanish politician and Member of the European Parliament for the Spanish Socialist Workers Party, part of the Party of European Socialists. ... The Party of European Socialists (PES) is a European political party whose members are 33 social democratic, socialist and labour parties of the European Union member states as well as Norway. ... Luigi Cocilovo (born October 7, 1947 in Palermo) is an Italian Member of the European Parliament and a University researcher in Law. ... ALDE logo The Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe (French: Alliance des Démocrates et des Libéraux pour lEurope) is a Group in the European Parliament. ... Mechtild Rothe Mechtild Rothe (born on 10 August 1947 in Paderborn) is a German politician and Member of the European Parliament with the Social Democratic Party of Germany, part of the Socialist Group and sits on the European Parliaments Committee on Industry, Research and Energy. ... The Party of European Socialists (PES) is a European political party whose members are 33 social democratic, socialist and labour parties of the European Union member states as well as Norway. ... Luisa Morgantini (born November 5, 1940 in Villadossola) is an Italian Member of the European Parliament. ... Pierre Moscovici (born 16 September 1957 in Paris) is a French politician, a member of the Departmental Council of Doubs and a Member of the European Parliament for the East of France. ... The Party of European Socialists (PES) is a European political party whose members are 33 social democratic, socialist and labour parties of the European Union member states as well as Norway. ... Manuel António dos Santos is a Portuguese politician and Member of the European Parliament for the Socialist Party; part of the Party of European Socialists. ... The Party of European Socialists (PES) is a European political party whose members are 33 social democratic, socialist and labour parties of the European Union member states as well as Norway. ... Diana Paulette Wallis (born 28 June 1954) is a Member of the European Parliament for the Liberal Democrats for Yorkshire and the Humber since 1999. ... ALDE logo The Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe (French: Alliance des Démocrates et des Libéraux pour lEurope) is a Group in the European Parliament. ... Marek Maciej Siwiec Marek Maciej Siwiec (born on 13 March 1955 in Piekary Slaskie) is a Polish politician and Member of the European Parliament for the Greater Poland Voivodship with the Sojusz Lewicy Demokratycznej - Unia Pracy, part of the Socialist Group and sits on the European Parliaments Committee on... The Party of European Socialists (PES) is a European political party whose members are 33 social democratic, socialist and labour parties of the European Union member states as well as Norway. ... Adam Jerzy Bielan Adam Jerzy Bielan (born on 12 September 1974 in Gdansk - German: Danzig)) is a Polish politician and Member of the European Parliament for the MP & SW with the Prawo i Sprawiedliwosc, Treasurer of the Union for a Europe of Nations and sits on the European Parliaments... UEN logo The Union for Europe of the Nations is a nationalist and (mostly) euro-sceptic party grouping with seats in the European Parliament. ... Political Groups in the European Parliament combine the MEPs from European political parties, informal European political blocs, and independents, into powerful coalitions. ... Political Groups in the European Parliament combine the MEPs from European political parties, informal European political blocs, and independents, into powerful coalitions. ... The European Peoples Party (Christian Democrats) and European Democrats is a group in the European Parliament. ... The Party of European Socialists (PES) is a European political party whose members are 33 social democratic, socialist and labour parties of the European Union member states as well as Norway. ... ALDE logo The Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe (French: Alliance des Démocrates et des Libéraux pour lEurope) is a Group in the European Parliament. ... UEN logo The Union for Europe of the Nations is a nationalist and (mostly) euro-sceptic party grouping with seats in the European Parliament. ... Logo of the European Federation of Green Parties - EFA The European Greens – European Free Alliance (The Greens - European Free Alliance; Greens - EFA; French: Le Groupe Verts - Alliance libre européenne; Les Verts - ALE, German Fraktion der Grünen/Freie Europäische Allianz) is one of the parliamentary groups in the... GUE-NGL logo The European United Left–Nordic Green Left is a socialist and communist political grouping within the European Parliament. ... IND/DEM logo The Independence and Democracy (IND/DEM) group, formed July 20, 2004 is a euro-sceptic political group with 36 MEPs in the European Parliament. ... Non-Inscrits (English: Non-Attached; the English name is also official, but the French name is prevalent even in English texts) are Members of the European Parliament who do not sit in one of the political groups. ... The Standing Committees of the European Parliament are designed to aid the European Commission in initiating legislation. ... The Standing Committees of the European Parliament are designed to aid the European Commission in initiating legislation. ... The Committee on Budgets (BUDG) is a committee within the European Parliament. ... The Committee on Budgetary Control (CONT) is a committee of the European Parliament Categories: European Union stubs | Committees of the European Parliament ... The Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs (ECON) is a committee of the European Parliament. ... The Committee on Employment and Social Affairs (EMPL) is a committee of the European Parliament Categories: European Union stubs | Committees of the European Parliament ... The Committee on the Environment, Public Health and Food Safety (ENVI) is a committee within the European Parliament. ... The Committee on Industry, Research and Energy (ITRE) is a committee of the European Parliament. ... The Committee on the Internal Market and Consumer Protection (IMCO) is a committee of the European Parliament. ... The Committee on Transport and Tourism (TRAN) is a committee within the European Parliament. ... The Committee on Regional Development (REGI) is a committee within the European Parliament. ... The Committee on Agriculture and Rural Development (AGRI) is a committee of the European Parliament Categories: European Union-related stubs | Committees of the European Parliament ... The Committee on Fisheries (PECH) is a committee of the European Parliament Categories: European Union-related stubs | Committees of the European Parliament ... [[]]See Cult (disambiguation) if this is not what you were looking for. ... The Committee on Legal Affairs of the European Parliament is preparing many crucial decisions of the Europen Parliament. ... The Committee on Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs (LIBE) is a standing committee of the European Parliament. ... The Committee on Constitutional Affairs (AFCO) is a committee of the European Parliament. ... The Committee on Womens Rights and Gender Equality (FEMM) is a committee of the European Parliament. ... The Committee on Petitions (PETI) is a committee of the European Parliament. ... This article refers to the European Parliaments committee. ... The Subcommittee on Human Rights (DROI) is a subcommittee of the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the European Parliament. ... The Subcommittee on Security and Defence (SEDE) is a subcommittee of the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the European Parliament Categories: European Union-related stubs | Committee on Foreign Affairs (EU) ... The Committee on Development (Commission du développement, DEVE) is a standing committee of the European Parliament responsible for promoting, implementing and monitoring the development and cooperation policy of the European Union, notably talks with developing countries; aid to developing countries; and promotion of democratic values, good governance and human... The Committee on International Trade (INTA) is a committee of the European Parliament Categories: European Union-related stubs | Committees of the European Parliament ... Elections in the European Union gives information on election and election results in the European Union. ... Elections to the European Parliament were held from June 10, 2004 to June 13, 2004 in the 25 member states of the European Union, using varying election days according to local custom. ... A Member of the European Parliament (English abbreviation MEP)[1] is a member of the European Unions directly-elected legislative body, the European Parliament. ... It has been suggested that oneseat. ... For other uses, see Strasburg. ... For other places with the same name, see Brussels (disambiguation). ... The secretariat of the European Parliament is the administrative body of the European Parliament. ... The Old town, seen from the ground Luxembourg City, population 82,268 (2002), is the capital of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. ... For other places with the same name, see Brussels (disambiguation). ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Direct election is a term describing a system of choosing political officeholders in which the voters directly cast ballots for the person, persons or political party that they desire to see elected. ... Established 1952 Presiding Country Portugal President Luís Amado President in Office José Sócrates Members 27 (at one time) Political parties 7, including: European Peoples Party Party of European Socialists Meeting place Justus Lipsius, Brussels, Belgium, European Union Web site http://www. ... In government, bicameralism is the practice of having two legislative or parliamentary chambers. ... There are currently five institutions of the European Union which govern the Union. ... The European Community (EC) was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... Austria Poland Belgium Bulgaria Cyprus Czech   Rep. ... The Treaty of Maastricht which established the European Union, divided EU policies into three main areas, called pillars. ... A Member of the European Parliament (English abbreviation MEP)[1] is a member of the European Unions directly-elected legislative body, the European Parliament. ...


It has been directly elected every five years by universal suffrage since 1979. Although the European Parliament has legislative power that such bodies as those above do not possess, it does not have legislative initiative like most national parliaments. While it is the "first institution" of the European Union (mentioned first in the treaties, having ceremonial precedence over all authority at European level[5]), the Council has greater powers over legislation than the Parliament where codecision procedure (equal rights of amendment and rejection) does not apply. It has, however, had control over the EU budget since the 1970s and has a veto over the appointment of the European Commission.[6] Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Universal suffrage (also general suffrage or common suffrage) consists of the extension of the right to vote to all adults, without distinction as to race, sex, belief, intelligence, or economic or social status. ... Legislative initiative is the constitutionally defined power to propose law proposals (bills). ... The European Union legislative procedure describes the way the European Union creates and enacts legislation across the community. ... The European Union (EU) has an independent parliament and civil service which is distinct from those of the 25 member states. ... Berlaymont, the Commissions seat The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive branch of the European Union. ...


The European Parliament has two meeting places, namely the Immeuble Louise Weiss in Strasbourg, France, which serves for plenary sessions and is the official seat and the Espace Léopold complex in Brussels, Belgium, the smaller of the two, which serves for preparatory meetings and complementary, non-plenary sessions. The cost of having all MEPs and their staff moving several times a year from one place to another has been of concern to some. The Secretariat of the European Parliament, the Parliament's administrative body, is based in Luxembourg.[7][8] For other uses, see Strasburg. ... For other places with the same name, see Brussels (disambiguation). ... The secretariat of the European Parliament is the administrative body of the European Parliament. ...


The President of the European Parliament (its speaker) is currently Hans-Gert Pöttering (EPP), elected in January 2007. He presides over a multi-party chamber, the two largest groups being the European People's Party-European Democrats (EPP-ED) and the Party of European Socialists (PES). The last Union-wide elections were the 2004 Parliamentary Elections, however Romania and Bulgaria joined in 2007 and are electing their members this year (see European Parliament election, 2007); the next union-wide parliamentary elections are in 2009 (see European Parliament election, 2009). The President of the European Parliament oversees all the activities of the European Parliament and its constituent bodies. ... It has been suggested that Speakers of the House be merged into this article or section. ... Hans-Gert Pöttering (often written as Poettering; born September 15, 1945 in Bersenbrück, Lower Saxony) is a German conservative politician (CDU), and has been President of the European Parliament since January 2007. ... Logo of the European Peoples Party The European Peoples Party is a Christian democrat-conservative political party at European level founded in 1976. ... The European Peoples Party (Christian Democrats) and European Democrats is a group in the European Parliament. ... The Party of European Socialists (PES) is a European political party whose members are 33 social democratic, socialist and labour parties of the European Union member states as well as Norway. ... Elections to the European Parliament were held from June 10, 2004 to June 13, 2004 in the 25 member states of the European Union, using varying election days according to local custom. ... In early 2007, Bulgaria and Romania will elect their members of the European Parliament for the first time. ... Elections to the European Parliament will be held in June 2006 in the then–27 member states of the European Union, using varying election days according to local custom. ...

Contents

History

European Union

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
the European Union
Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The European Union or EU is a supranational and international organization of 27 member states. ...


Treaties
Rome · Maastricht (Pillars)
Amsterdam · Nice · Lisbon
Institutions
Commission

President José Manuel Barroso
Barroso Commission The treaties of the European Union are effectively its constitutional law, making up the EUs primary legislation. ... The Treaty of Rome signing ceremony Signatures in the Treaty The Treaty of Rome refers to the treaty which established the European Economic Community (EEC) and was signed by France, West Germany, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg on March 25, 1957. ... The Maastricht Treaty (formally, the Treaty of European Union, TEU) was signed on February 7, 1992 in Maastricht, Netherlands after final negotiations in December 1991 between the members of the European Community and entered into force on November 1, 1993 during the Delors Commission. ... The Treaty of Maastricht which established the European Union, divided EU policies into three main areas, called pillars. ... Treaty of Amsterdam amending the Treaty of the European Union, the Treaties establishing the European Communities and certain related acts The Treaty of Amsterdam amending the Treaty of the European Union, the Treaties establishing the European Communities and certain related acts, commonly known as the Amsterdam Treaty, was signed on... Treaty of Nice The Treaty of Nice is a treaty adopted in Nice by the European Council to amend the two founding treaties of the European Union: the Treaty on European Union, or Maastricht Treaty, which introduced the Euro and the 3-pillar structure of the EU; the Treaty of... The Treaty of Lisbon was signed on February 13, 1668, between Afonso VI of Portugal and Carlos II of Spain, by mediation of Charles II of England. ... There are currently five institutions of the European Union which govern the Union. ... Berlaymont, the Commissions seat The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive branch of the European Union. ... François-Xavier Ortoli, Romano Prodi, José Manuel Barroso and Jacques Delors The President of the European Commission is notionally the highest ranking unelected official within the European Union bureaucracy. ... José Manuel Durão Barroso, GCC (pronounced: IPA,  ) (born in Lisbon, March 23, 1956) is a Portuguese politician and the 11th President of the European Commission, being the first Portuguese to hold the post. ... The Barroso Commission is the European Commission that has been in office since 22 November 2004 and is due to serve until 31 October 2009. ...


Parliament

President Hans-Gert Pöttering
MEPs (2004-09 term) The President of the European Parliament oversees all the activities of the European Parliament and its constituent bodies. ... Hans-Gert Pöttering (often written as Poettering; born September 15, 1945 in Bersenbrück, Lower Saxony) is a German conservative politician (CDU), and has been President of the European Parliament since January 2007. ... A Member of the European Parliament (English abbreviation MEP)[1] is a member of the European Unions directly-elected legislative body, the European Parliament. ... This is a list giving breakdowns of the European Parliamentary session from 2004 to 2009. ...


Council

Presidency: Slovenia (Dimitrij Rupel)
High Representative · Voting Established 1952 Presiding Country Portugal President Luís Amado President in Office José Sócrates Members 27 (at one time) Political parties 7, including: European Peoples Party Party of European Socialists Meeting place Justus Lipsius, Brussels, Belgium, European Union Web site http://www. ... The Presidency of the Council of the European Union refers to the responsibility of presiding over all aspects of the Council of the European Union, when exercised collectively by a government, on a pre-established rota of the member states, of the European Union. ... Dimitrij Rupel (born April 7, 1946 in Ljubljana) is a liberal politician from Slovenia and current foreign minister of that country. ... The Common Foreign and Security Policy or CFSP was established as the second of the three pillars of the European Union in the Maastricht treaty of 1992, and further defined and broadened in the Amsterdam Treaty of 1997. ... The procedures for Voting in the Council of the European Union are described in the treaties of the EU. The Council of the European Union was instituted under this name in the Maastricht Treaty. ...


Other & Future Institutions

Court of Justice · Court of Auditors
Central Bank · European Council
There are currently five institutions of the European Union which govern the Union. ... There are currently five institutions of the European Union which govern the Union. ... Official emblem of the ECJ The Court of Justice of the European Communities, usually called the European Court of Justice (ECJ), is the highest court in the European Union (EU). ... The European Court of Auditors is one of five institutions of the European Union. ... This article deals with the meeting of European Union leaders. ...

Elections
Last election (2004) · 2007 by-election
Next election (2009) · Constituencies
Parties · Parliamentary groups
Related topics
States · Enlargement · Foreign relations
Law · EMU · Other bodies · Agencies

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Further information: History of the European Union

The Parliament, like the other institutions, was not designed in its current form when it first met on 1952-09-10. One of the oldest common institutions, it began as the "Common Assembly" of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC). It was a consultative assembly of 78 parliamentarians drawn from the national parliaments of member states (see dual mandate), having no legislative powers.[9][10] This change since its foundation was highlighted by Professor David Farrell of the University of Manchester;[1] Elections in the European Union gives information on election and election results in the European Union. ... Elections to the European Parliament were held from June 10, 2004 to June 13, 2004 in the 25 member states of the European Union, using varying election days according to local custom. ... In early 2007, Bulgaria and Romania will elect their members of the European Parliament for the first time. ... Elections to the European Parliament will be held in June 2006 in the then–27 member states of the European Union, using varying election days according to local custom. ... European Parliament electoral system is proportional representation. ... The European political party, or formally political party at European level, is a type of political party organization in the European Union, eligible to receive funding from the Union. ... // Origins of the EU History of the European Union European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) Euratom Single market. ... Austria Poland Belgium Bulgaria Cyprus Czech   Rep. ... The European Union (EU) was created by six founding states in 1957 (following the earlier establishment by the same six states of the European Coal and Steel Community in 1952) and has grown to 27 member states. ... Foreign relations of the European Union Foreign relations of Austria Foreign relations of Belgium Foreign relations of Cyprus Foreign relations of the Czech Republic Foreign relations of Denmark Foreign relations of Estonia Foreign relations of Finland Foreign relations of France Foreign relations of Germany Foreign relations of Greece Foreign relations... The Law of the European Union is the unique legal system which operates alongside the laws of Member States of the European Union (EU). ... For the concept in general, see economic and monetary union. ... There are currently five institutions of the European Union which govern the Union. ... The agencies of the European Union (or decentralised bodies of the European Union) are bodies which are distinct from the European Unions institutions, in that they have not been created by the treaties but rather by acts of secondary legislation, in order to accomplish a very specific task. ... Information on politics by country is available for every country, including both de jure and de facto independent states, inhabited dependent territories, as well as areas of special sovereignty. ... The European Union is a unique geo-political entity covering a large portion of the European continent. ... Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Members of the European Coal and Steel Community Flag of the European Coal and Steel Community The European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) was founded in 1951 (Treaty of Paris), by France, West Germany, Italy, Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to pool the steel and coal resources of its member... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a parliament. ... The House of Representatives Chamber of the Parliament of Australia in Canberra. ... To have a dual mandate is a term used for a person who has been elected to two different bodies with different competencies, for example being a member of both a national legislature, and of a local authority. ... Affiliations: Russell Group, EUA, N8 Group, NWUA, Worldwide Universities Network (WUN), Association of Commonwealth Universities Website: http://www. ...

For much of its life, the European Parliament could have been justly labelled a 'multi-lingual talking shop'. But this is no longer the case: the EP is now one of the most powerful legislatures in the world both in terms of its legislative and executive oversight powers.

Its development since its foundation is testament to the evolution of the Union's structures without one clear "master plan". Some such as Tom Reid of the Washington Post said of the Union, "nobody would have deliberately designed a government as complex and as redundant as the EU".[11] Even the Parliament's two seats, which have switched several times, is a result of various agreements or lack of agreements.[9] ... It has been suggested that oneseat. ...


Consultative assembly

The body was not mentioned in the original Schuman Declaration, it was instead proposed by Jean Monnet on the second day of negotiations as an institution which would counterbalance and monitor the executive while providing democratic legitimacy.[9] The wording of the ECSC Treaty demonstrated the leaders desire for more than a normal consultative assembly by using the term "representatives of the people" and allowed for direct election. Its early importance was highlighted when the Assembly was given the task of drawing up the draft treaty to establish a European Political Community. In this the "Ad Hoc" Assembly was established with extra members but after the failure of the proposed European Defence Community their project was dropped.[12] The Quai dOrsay, home of the French Foreign Office. ... Jean Omer Marie Gabriel Monnet (November 9, 1888 – March 16, 1979) is regarded by many as the architect of European Unity. ... The Treaty of Paris, signed on April 18, 1951 between Belgium, France, West Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands established the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), which subsequently became part of the European Union. ... The European Political Community was proposed in 1952 as a combination of the existing European Coal and Steel Community and the proposed European Defence Community (EDC). ... Ad hoc is a Latin phrase which means for this [purpose]. It generally signifies a solution that has been tailored to a specific purpose, such as a tailor-made suit, a handcrafted network protocol, and specific-purpose equation and things like that. ... The European Defence Community (EDC) was a plan proposed by René Pleven, the French prime minister at the time, in response to the American call for the rearmament of West Germany. ...


Despite this the European Economic Community and Euratom were established in 1958 by the Treaties of Rome. The Common Assembly was shared by all three communities (which had separate executives) and it renamed itself the "European Parliamentary Assembly". The three communities merged in 1967 and the body was renamed to the current "European Parliament" in 1962.[9] In 1970 the Parliament was granted power over areas the Community's budget, which were expanded to the whole budget in 1975.[13] The European Community (EC), most important of three European Communities, was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... The European Atomic Energy Community, or EURATOM, is an international organisation composed of the members of the European Union. ... The Treaty of Rome signing ceremony Signatures in the Treaty The Treaty of Rome refers to the treaty which established the European Economic Community (EEC) and was signed by France, West Germany, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg on March 25, 1957. ... The Merger Treaty, signed in Brussels on 8 April 1965 and in force since 1 July 1967, first gathered together the organizational structures of the then three European Communities (European Coal and Steel Community, European Economic Community and Euratom). ... The European Union (EU) has an independent parliament and civil service which is distinct from those of the 27 member states. ...


Under the Rome Treaties, the Parliament should have become elected. However the Council was required to agree a uniform voting system before hand, which it failed to do. The Parliament threatened to take the Council to the European Court of Justice leading to a compromise whereby the Council would agree to elections, but the issue of voting systems would be put off till a later date.[14] Official emblem of the ECJ The Court of Justice of the European Communities, usually called the European Court of Justice (ECJ), is the highest court in the European Union (EU). ...


Elected Parliament

In 1979, its members were directly elected for the first time. This set it apart from similar institutions such as those of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe or Pan-African Parliament which are appointed.[9][15][16] After that first election, the parliament held its first session on 11 July 1979, electing Simone Veil MEP as its President. Veil was also the first female President of the Parliament since it was formed as the Common Assembly.[17] Elections in the European Union gives information on election and election results in the European Union. ... Member-states in 1979. ... The Palace of Europe in Strasbourg The Council of Europe is an international organisation of 46 member states in the European region. ... The Pan-African Parliament is the legislative body of the African Union; at present it exercises oversight, and has advisory and consultative powers. ... is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... Simone Veil Simone Veil (born Simone Annie Jacob, July 13, 1927) is a French lawyer and politician who currently serves as a member of the Constitutional Council of France. ...

Former emblem used by the Parliament in this era
Former emblem used by the Parliament in this era

The Parliament quickly made use of its legitimacy. For example in 1984, inspired by its previous work on the Political Community, it drafted the "draft Treaty establishing the European Union" (also known as the 'Spinelli Plan' after its rapporteur Altiero Spinelli MEP). Although it was not adopted, many ideas were later implemented by other treaties.[18] Further more the Parliament began holding votes on proposed Commission Presidents from the 1980s, before it was given any formal right to veto.[19] Since the election the membership of the European Parliament has simply expanded whenever new nations have joined (the membership was also adjusted upwards in 1994 after German reunification). Following this the Treaty of Nice imposed a cap on the number of members to be elected, 732.[9] Altiero Spinelli (1907-1986) was an Italian citizen and lifelong advocate of European federalism. ... François-Xavier Ortoli, Romano Prodi, José Manuel Barroso and Jacques Delors The President of the European Commission is notionally the highest ranking unelected official within the European Union bureaucracy. ... This article is about the 1990 German reunification. ... Treaty of Nice The Treaty of Nice is a treaty adopted in Nice by the European Council to amend the two founding treaties of the European Union: the Treaty on European Union, or Maastricht Treaty, which introduced the Euro and the 3-pillar structure of the EU; the Treaty of...


Like the other institutions, the Parliament's seat was not yet fixed. The provisional arrangements placed Parliament in Strasbourg, while the Commission and Council had their seats in Brussels. In 1985 the Parliament, wishing to be closer to these institutions, built a second chamber in Brussels and moved some of its work there despite protests from some states. A final agreement was eventually reached by the European Council in 1992. It stated the Parliament would remain in Strasbourg but must also hold part sessions in Brussels. This two seat arrangement was contested by Parliament but was later enshrined in the Treaty of Amsterdam. To this day the institution's locations are a source of contention.[20] In strict legal language, the term seat defines the seat of a corporation or organisation as a legal entity, indicating where the headquarters of this entity are located. ... For other uses, see Strasburg. ... This article deals with the meeting of European Union leaders. ... The Amsterdam Treaty (in full: Treaty of Amsterdam amending the Treaty of the European Union, the Treaties establishing the European Communities and certain related acts) which was signed on October 2, 1997, and entered into force on May 1, 1999, made substantial changes to the Treaty on European Union which... It has been suggested that oneseat. ...


Recent history

The Parliament had been gaining more powers from successive treaties, namely through the extension of codecision procedure,[21] and in 1999, the Parliament forced the resignation of the Santer Commission.[22] The Parliament had refused to approve the Community budget over allegations of fraud and mis-management in the Commission. The two main parties took on a government-opposition dynamic for the first time during the crisis which ended in the Commission resigning en masse, the first of any forced resignation, in the face of an impending censure from the Parliament.[23] The codecision procedure is the main legislative procedure by which law can be adopted in the European Community, the first of the three pillars of the European Union. ... The Santer Commission was the European Commission that held office from 1995 until 15 March 1999. ... The European Union (EU) has an independent parliament and civil service which is distinct from those of the 27 member states. ...


In 2004, following the largest trans-national election in history, despite the European Council choosing a President from the largest political group (the EPP), the Parliament again exerted pressure on the Commission. During the Parliament's hearings of the proposed Commissioners MEPs raised doubts about some nominees with the Civil liberties committee rejecting Rocco Buttiglione from the post of Commissioner for Justice, Freedom and Security over his views on homosexuality. That was the first time the Parliament had ever voted against an incoming Commissioner and despite Barroso's insistence upon Buttiglione the Parliament forced Buttiglione to be withdrawn. A number of other Commissioners also had to be withdrawn or reassigned before Parliament allowed the Barroso Commission to take office.[24][25] This article deals with the meeting of European Union leaders. ... The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive of the European Union. ... The Committee on Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs (LIBE) is a standing committee of the European Parliament. ... Rocco Buttiglione. ... Franco Frattini Barroso Commission, 2004 to 2009 The Commissioner for Justice, Freedom, & Security is the member of the European Commission. ... Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ... The Barroso Commission is the European Commission that has been in office since 22 November 2004 and is due to serve until 31 October 2009. ...


In addition to the extension of codecision, the Parliament's democratic mandate has given it greater control over legislation against the other institutions. In voting on the Bolkestein directive in 2006, the Parliament voted by a large majority for over 400 amendments that changed the fundamental principle of the law. The Financial Times described it in the following terms:[26] The Directive on services in the internal market (commonly referred to as the Bolkestein Directive) is an initiative of the European Commission aimed at creating a single market for services within the European Union. ... The Financial Times (FT) is a British international business newspaper. ...

The European parliament has suddenly come into its own. It marks another shift in power between the three central EU institutions. Last week's vote suggests that the directly elected MEPs, in spite of their multitude of ideological, national and historical allegiances, have started to coalesce as a serious and effective EU institution, just as enlargement has greatly complicated negotiations inside both the Council and Commission.

In 2007, for the first time, Justice Commissioner Franco Frattini included Parliament in talks on the second Schengen Information System even though MEPs only needed to be consulted on parts of the package. After that experiment, Frattini indicated he would like to include Parliament in all justice and criminal matters, informally pre-empting the new powers they would gain in 2009 under the Treaty of Lisbon.[27] Franco Frattini Barroso Commission, 2004 to 2009 The Commissioner for Justice, Freedom, & Security is the member of the European Commission. ... Franco Frattini (born 14 March 1957) is an Italian politician, currently serving as European Commissioner for Justice, Freedom and Security. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... The Treaty of Lisbon was signed on February 13, 1668, between Afonso VI of Portugal and Carlos II of Spain, by mediation of Charles II of England. ...


Powers and functions

The Parliament and Council are essentially two chambers in the bicameral legislative branch of the European Union, with legislative power being officially distributed equally between both chambers. However there are some differences from national legislatures; for example, neither the Parliament nor Council have the power of legislative initiative. In Community matters, this is a power uniquely reserved for the European Commission (the executive). Meaning that while Parliament can amend and reject legislation, and make a proposal for legislation, it needs the Commission to draft a bill before anything can become law.[28] The European Community (EC) was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... Legislation (or statutory law) is law which has been promulgated (or enacted) by a legislature or other governing body. ...


The Parliament also has a great deal of indirect influence, through non-binding resolutions and committee hearings, as a "pan-European soapbox" with the ear of thousands of Brussels-based journalists. There is also an indirect effect on foreign policy; the Parliament must approve all development grants, including those overseas. For example, the support for post-war Iraq reconstruction, or incentives for the cessation of Iranian nuclear development, must be supported by the Parliament. Parliamentary support was also required for the transatlantic passenger data-sharing deal with the United States.[29] European Union law is the unique legal system which operates alongside the laws of Member States of the European Union (EU). ... The Committees of the European Parliament are designed to aid the European Commission in initiating legislation. ... A man soapboxing in Chinatown, San Francisco. ... The Parliaments Paul-Henri Spaak building, as seen from Justus Lipsius Brussels (Belgium) is considered to be the de facto capital of the European Union, having a long history of hosting the institutions of the European Union. ... The Common Foreign and Security Policy, or CFSP, was established as the second of the three pillars of the European Union in the Maastricht treaty of 1992, and further defined and broadened in the Amsterdam Treaty of 1999. ... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... This article is about Irans nuclear power program. ...


Legislative procedure

The Parliament's hemicycle (debating chamber) in Strasbourg
The Parliament's hemicycle (debating chamber) in Strasbourg

With each new treaty, the powers of the Parliament have expanded. Its powers have been primarily defined through the Union's legislative procedures. The method which has slowly become the dominant procedure (about three-quarters of policy areas) is the Codecision procedure, where powers are essentially equal between Parliament and Council.[30] Codecision provides an equal footing between the two bodies. Under the procedure, the Commission presents a proposal to Parliament and the Council. They then send amendments to the Council which can either adopt the text with those amendments or send back a "common position". That proposal may either be approved or further amendments may be tabled by the Parliament. If the Council does not approve these, then a "Conciliation Committee" is formed. The Committee is composed of the Council members plus an equal number of MEPs who seek to agree a common position. Once a position is agreed, it has to be approved by Parliament, again by an absolute majority.[31][30] In addition to codecision, the Parliament's mandate as the only directly democratic institution has given it leeway to have greater control over legislation than other institutions, for example over its changes to the Bolkestein directive in 2006.[26] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 900 pixel, file size: 899 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 900 pixel, file size: 899 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... The European Union legislative procedure describes the way the European Union creates and enacts legislation across the community. ... The codecision procedure is the main legislative procedure by which law can be adopted in the European Community, the first of the three pillars of the European Union. ... Absolute majority is a supermajoritarian voting requirement which is stricter than a simple majority. ...


Other procedures include: Cooperation, meaning the Council can overrule the Parliament if it is unanimous; Consultation, which require just consultation of the Parliament; and Assent procedure, where the Parliament has a veto. The Commission and Council, or just Commission, can also act completely independently of the Parliament, but the use of these procedures are very limited. The procedure also depends upon which type of institutional act is being used.[30] The strongest act is a regulation, an act or law which is directly applicable in its entirety. Then there are directives which bind members to certain goals which they must achieve. They do this through their own laws and hence have room to manoeuvre in deciding upon them. A decision is an instrument which is focused at a particular person/group and is directly applicable. Institutions may also issue recommendations and opinions which are merely non-binding, declarations.[32] There is a further document which does not follow normal procedures, this is a "written declaration" which is similar to an early day motion used in the Westminster system. It is a document proposed by up to five MEPs on a matter within the EU's activities used to launch a debate on that subject. Having been posted outside the entrance to the hemicycle, members can sign the declaration and if a majority do so it is forwarded to the President and announced to the plenary before being forwarded to the other institutions and formally noted in the minutes.[33] The Cooperation procedure was one of the legislative procedures of the European Community, the 1st of the three pillars of the European Union. ... The Consultation procedure is one of the legislative procedures of the European Community, the 1st of the three pillars of the European Union. ... The assent procedure is one of the legislative procedures of the European Community, the 1st of the Three pillars of the European Union. ... European Union law is the unique legal system which operates alongside the laws of Member States of the European Union (EU). ... An Act of Parliament or Act is law enacted by the parliament (see legislation). ... Statutory law is written law (as opposed to oral or customary law) set down by a legislature or other governing authority such as the executive branch of government in response to a perceived need to clarify the functioning of government, improve civil order, answer a public need, to codify existing... A directive is a legislative act of the European Union which requires member states to achieve a particular result without dictating the means of achieving that result. ... A European Union decision (defined in Article 249/EC) is one of the three binding instruments provide by secondary EU legislation. ... In European Union Law a recommendation Differs from regulations, directives and decisions, in that they are not binding for Member States. ... Early day motion is a phrase used in the Westminster system for motions tabled by Members of Parliament for debate on an early day. In practice, they are never debated but are mostly used for MPs to publicise and express support for their own pet projects. ... The Houses of Parliament, also known as the Palace of Westminster, in London. ...


Budget

The legislative branch officially holds the Union's budgetary authority, powers gained through the Budgetary Treaties of the 1970s. The EU's budget is divided into compulsory and non-compulsory spending. Compulsory spending is that resulting from EU treaties (including agriculture) and international agreements; the rest is non-compulsory. While the Council has the last word on compulsory spending, the Parliament has the last word on non-compulsory spending.[34][35] The treaties of the European Union are effectively its constitutional law, making up the EUs primary legislation. ... The European Union (EU) has an independent parliament and civil service which is distinct from those of the 27 member states. ... The treaties of the European Union are effectively its constitutional law, making up the EUs primary legislation. ...


The institutions draw up budget estimates and the Commission consolidates them into a draft budget. Both the Council and the Parliament can amend the budget with the Parliament adopting or rejecting the budget at its second reading. The signature of the Parliament's president is required before the budget becomes law.[34][35]


The Parliament is also responsible for discharging the implementation of previous budgets, on the basis of the annual report of the European Court of Auditors. It has refused to approve the budget only twice, in 1984 and in 1998. On the latter occasion it led to the resignation of the Santer Commission.[36][14] The European Court of Auditors is one of five institutions of the European Union. ... The Santer Commission was the European Commission that held office from 1995 until 15 March 1999. ...


Control of the executive

The President of the European Commission is proposed by the Council (in practice by the European Council) and that proposal has to be approved by the Parliament (by a simple majority), essentially giving the Parliament a veto, but not a right to propose, the head of the executive. Following the approval of the Commission President, the members of the Commission are proposed by the President in accord with the member-states. Each Commissioner comes before a relevant parliamentary committee hearing covering the proposed portfolio. They are then, as a body, approved or rejected by the Parliament.[37][19] In practice, the Parliament has never voted against a President or his Commission, but it did seem likely when the Barroso Commission was put forward. The resulting pressure forced the proposal to be withdrawn and changed to be more acceptable to parliament.[24] That pressure was seen as an important sign by some of the evolving nature of the Parliament and its ability to make the Commission accountable, rather than being a rubber stamp for candidates. Furthermore, in voting on the Commission, MEPs also voted along party lines, rather than national lines, despite frequent pressure from national governments on their MEPs. This cohesion and willingness to use the Parliament's power ensured greater attention from national leaders, other institutions and the public—who previously gave the lowest ever turnout for the Parliament's elections.[38] François-Xavier Ortoli, Romano Prodi, José Manuel Barroso and Jacques Delors The President of the European Commission is notionally the highest ranking unelected official within the European Union bureaucracy. ... This article deals with the meeting of European Union leaders. ...


The Parliament also has the power to censure the Commission if they have a two-thirds majority which will force the resignation of the entire Commission from office. As with approval, this power has never been used but it was threatened to the Santer Commission, who subsequently resigned of their own accord. There are a few other controls, such as: the requirement of Commission to submit reports to the Parliament and answer questions from MEPs; the requirement of the President-in-office of the European Council to present their programme at the start of their presidency; the right of MEPs to make proposals for legislation and policy to the Commission and Council; and the right to question members of those institutions (e.g. "Commission Question Time" every Tuesday).[37][19] Distinguish from slover, censer and censor. ... The Santer Commission was the European Commission that held office from 1995 until 15 March 1999. ... The Santer Commission was the European Commission that held office from 1995 until 15 March 1999. ... This article deals with the meeting of European Union leaders. ... Presidency of the Council of the European Union refers to the responsibility of presiding over all aspects of the Council of the European Union, when exercised collectively by a government, on a pre-established rota of the member states, of the European Union. ... For the British television programme, see Question Time (TV series). ...


Supervisory powers

The Parliament also has other powers of general supervision, mainly granted by the Maastricht Treaty.[39] The Parliament has the power to set up a Committee of Inquiry, for example over mad cow disease or CIA detention flights—the former led to the creation of the European veterinary agency. The Parliament can call other institutions to answer questions and if necessary to take them to court if they break EU law or treaties.[40] Further more it has powers over the appointment of the members of the Court of Auditors[41] and the president and executive board of the European Central Bank. The ECB president is also obliged to present an annual report to the parliament.[40] The Maastricht Treaty (formally, the Treaty of European Union, TEU) was signed on February 7, 1992 in Maastricht, Netherlands after final negotiations in December 1991 between the members of the European Community and entered into force on November 1, 1993 during the Delors Commission. ... The European Medicines Agency (EMEA) is a European agency for the evaluation of medicinal products. ... The European Court of Justice (ECJ) is formally known as the Court of Justice of the European Communities, i. ... The European Court of Auditors is one of five institutions of the European Union. ... Headquarters Coordinates , , Established 1 January 1998 President Jean-Claude Trichet Central Bank of Austria, Belgium, France, Finland, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Slovenia, Spain Currency Euro ISO 4217 Code EUR Reserves €43bn directly, €338bn through the Eurosystem (including gold deposits). ... This is a list of the Presidents of the European Central Bank since the establishment of the bank on June 1, 1998. ...


The European Ombudsman is elected by the Parliament, who deals with public complaints against all institutions.[40] Petitions can also be brought forward by any EU citizen on a matter within the EU's sphere of activities. The Committee on Petitions hears cases, some 1500 each year, sometimes presented by the citizen themselves at the Parliament. While the Parliament attempts to resolve the issue as a mediator they do resort to legal proceedings if it is necessary to resolve the citizens dispute.[42] The European Ombudsman (or sometimes Euro-Ombudsman) is an ombudsman for the European Union. ... Citizenship of the Union was introduced by the Maastricht Treaty signed in 1992. ... The Committee on Petitions (PETI) is a committee of the European Parliament. ...


Members

National apportionment of MEP seats
Flag of Germany Germany
99
Flag of France France
78
Flag of Italy Italy
78
Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom
78
Flag of Spain Spain
54
Flag of Poland Poland
54
Flag of Romania Romania
35
Flag of the Netherlands Netherlands
27
Flag of Belgium Belgium
24
Flag of the Czech Republic Czech Republic
24
Flag of Greece Greece
24
Flag of Hungary Hungary
24
Flag of Portugal Portugal
24
Flag of Sweden Sweden
19
Flag of Austria Austria
18
Flag of Bulgaria Bulgaria
18
Flag of Finland Finland
14
Flag of Denmark Denmark
14
Flag of Slovakia Slovakia
14
Flag of Ireland Ireland
13
Flag of Lithuania Lithuania
13
Flag of Latvia Latvia
9
Flag of Slovenia Slovenia
7
Flag of Cyprus Cyprus
6
Flag of Estonia Estonia
6
Flag of Luxembourg Luxembourg
6
Flag of Malta Malta
5

The parliamentarians are known in English as Members of the European Parliament (MEPs). They are elected every 5 years by universal adult suffrage and sit according to political allegiance, about a third are women. Prior to 1979 they were appointed by their national parliaments.[43][44] A Member of the European Parliament (English abbreviation MEP)[1] is a member of the European Unions directly-elected legislative body, the European Parliament. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Romania. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belgium_(civil). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Czech_Republic. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Hungary. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Portugal. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sweden. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Austria. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bulgaria. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Finland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Denmark. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Slovakia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ireland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Lithuania. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Latvia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Slovenia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cyprus. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Estonia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Luxembourg. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Malta. ... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a parliament. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Universal suffrage (also general suffrage or common suffrage) consists of the extension of the right to vote to all adults, without distinction as to race, sex, belief, intelligence, or economic or social status. ...


As states are allocated seats according to population, the total number of MEPs should be 732; however, since 1 January 2007 there are 785 MEPs. This is due to the accession of Romania and Bulgaria, as the allocation of seats does not take into account members that join mid-term. Under the existing rules the number of members would be reduced again to 732 following the 2009 election[43][45] however the rules are due to be changed under the Treaty of Lisbon. Instead, there would be 751 members, however the President would no longer be counted as a voting member once in office so in practice there would be 750 members.[46] In addition, the maximum number of seats allocated to a state would be lowered to ninety-six, from the current ninety-nine, and the minimum number of seats would be raised to six, from the current five. These seats are distributed according to "degressive proportionality", meaning that the larger the state, the more citizens that are represented per MEP. It is intended that the new system, including revising the seating well in advance of elections, can avoid political horse trading when the numbers have to be revised.[47] The apportionment of seats among member states in the European Parliament is not strictly in accordance with size of population. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Elections to the European Parliament will be held in June 2006 in the then–27 member states of the European Union, using varying election days according to local custom. ... For the lumberjack contest, see log rolling. ...


At present, members receive the same salary as members of their national parliament. However as of 2009 a new members statute will come into force which gives all members an equal pay of 7000 euro each, subject to a community tax and can also be taxed nationally. MEPs would retire at 63 and receive the whole of their pension from the Parliament. Travelling expenses would also be given based on actual cost rather than a flat rate as is the case now.[48] In addition to their pay, members are granted a number of privileges and immunities. To ensure their free movement to and from the Parliament they are accorded by their own states, the facilities accorded to senior officials travelling abroad and by other state governments the facilities of visiting foreign representatives. When in their own state they have all the immunities accorded to national parliamentarians, and in other states they have immunity from detention and legal proceedings. However immunity cannot be claimed when a member is found committing a criminal offence and the Parliament also has the right to strip a member of their immunity.[49] For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ... “Taxes” redirects here. ... Retirement is the point where a person stops employment completely. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Diplomatic immunity is a form of legal immunity and a policy held between governments, which ensures that diplomats are given safe passage and are considered not susceptible to lawsuit or prosecution under the host countrys laws (although they can be expelled). ... An official is someone who holds an office (function or mandate, regardless whether it carries an actual working space with it) in an organisation or government and participates in the exercise of authority (either his own or that of his superior and/or employer, public or legally private). ... This page is about negotiations; for the board game, see Diplomacy (game). ... Detention generally refers to a state or government holding a person in a particular area, either for interrogation, as punishment for a wrong, or as a precautionary measure while investigating a potential threat posed by that person. ... Criminal procedure refers to the legal process for adjudicating claims that someone has violated the criminal law. ...




Political groups

Main article: Political groups of the European Parliament
Group Leader(s) MEPs
  EPP-ED Joseph Daul 284
PES Martin Schulz 215
ALDE Graham Watson 103
UEN Brian Crowley
Cristiana Muscardini
44
G-EFA Monica Frassoni
Daniel Cohn-Bendit
42
GUE-NGL Francis Wurtz 41
ID Nigel Farage
Jens-Peter Bonde
24
Non-Inscrits MEPs without group 32 Source: European Parliament

MEPs in Parliament are organised into seven different parliamentary groups, including over thirty non-attached members known as non-inscrits. The two largest groups are the European People's Party-European Democrats (EPP-ED) and the Party of European Socialists (PES). These two groups have dominated the Parliament for much of its life, continuously holding between 50 and 70 percent of the seats together. No single group has ever held a majority in Parliament.[50] The European Peoples Party (Christian Democrats) and European Democrats is a group in the European Parliament. ... Joseph Daul (born 13 April 1947 in Strasbourg) is a French politician and Member of the European Parliament for the East of France. ... The Party of European Socialists (PES) is a European political party whose members are 33 social democratic, socialist and labour parties of the European Union member states as well as Norway. ... Martin Schulz Martin Schulz (born on 20 December 1955 in Hehlrath) is a German politician and Member of the European Parliament with the Social Democratic Party of Germany, Chairman of the Socialist Group and . ... ALDE logo The Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe (French: Alliance des Démocrates et des Libéraux pour lEurope) is a Group in the European Parliament. ... Graham Watson (born 23 March 1956) is a Member of the European Parliament for South West England for the Liberal Democrats. ... UEN logo The Union for Europe of the Nations is a nationalist and (mostly) euro-sceptic party grouping with seats in the European Parliament. ... Brian Crowley is an Irish politician and Member of the European Parliament for Ireland South. ... Cristiana Muscardini Cristiana Muscardini (born on 6 November 1948 in Cannobio (Verbania)) is a Italian politician and Member of the European Parliament for North-West with the Alleanza Nazionale, Co-president of the Union for a Europe of Nations and sits on the European Parliaments Committee on International Trade. ... Logo of the European Federation of Green Parties - EFA The European Greens – European Free Alliance (The Greens - European Free Alliance; Greens - EFA; French: Le Groupe Verts - Alliance libre européenne; Les Verts - ALE, German Fraktion der Grünen/Freie Europäische Allianz) is one of the parliamentary groups in the... Monica Frassoni is an Italian politician and Member of the European Parliament for the North West of Italy. ... Daniel Cohn-Bendit, Ash Wednesday 2004 at Biberach/Riss Daniel Marc Cohn-Bendit (born Montauban, France, April 4, 1945) is a European politician and was a leader of the student protesters during the May 1968 riots in France. ... GUE-NGL logo The European United Left–Nordic Green Left is a socialist and communist political grouping within the European Parliament. ... Francis Wurtz is a French Member of the European Parliament. ... IND/DEM logo The Independence and Democracy (IND/DEM) group, formed July 20, 2004 is a euro-sceptic political group with 36 MEPs in the European Parliament. ... Nigel Paul Farage (born 3 April 1964 in Farnborough, Kent) is a British politician, and leader of the eurosceptic United Kingdom Independence Party (Ukip). ... Jens-Peter Bonde Jens-Peter Bonde (born on 27 March 1948 in Åbenrå) is a Danish politician and Member of the European Parliament with the Junibevægelsen, Chairman of the Independence and Democracy and sits on the European Parliaments Committee on Constitutional Affairs. ... Non-Inscrits (English: Non-Attached; the English name is also official, but the French name is prevalent even in English texts) are Members of the European Parliament who do not sit in one of the political groups. ... Parliamentary group and parliamentary party are terms used to refer to the representation of a political party or electoral fusion of parties in a legislative assembly such as a parliament or in a city council. ... Non-Inscrits (English: Non-Attached; the English name is also official, but the French name is prevalent even in English texts) are Members of the European Parliament who do not sit in one of the political groups. ... The European Peoples Party (Christian Democrats) and European Democrats is a group in the European Parliament. ... The Party of European Socialists (PES) is a European political party whose members are 33 social democratic, socialist and labour parties of the European Union member states as well as Norway. ...


Groups are often based around a single European political party such as the socialist group. However they can, like the liberal group, include more than one European party as well as national parties and independents.[51] For a group to be recognised, it needs 20 MEPs from six different countries. Once recognised groups receive financial subsidies from the parliament and guaranteed seats on Committees, creating an incentive for the formation of groups. However some controversy occurred with the establishment of the Identity, Tradition, Sovereignty (ITS) due to its ideology; the members of the group are far-right, so there were concerns about public funds going towards such a group.[52] There were attempts to change the rules to block the formation of ITS, however that never came to fruition. They were, however, blocked from gaining leading positions on committees—a right that is meant to be afforded to all parties.[53] When this group engaged in infighting, causing the withdrawal of some members, its size fell below the recognisable limit causing its collapse.[54] A European political party, formally a political party at European level, sometimes informally (especially in academic circles) a Europarty, is a type of political party organization operating transnationally in Europe. ... The Party of European Socialists (PES) is a European political party whose members are 33 social democratic, socialist and labour parties of the European Union member states as well as Norway. ... ALDE logo The Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe (French: Alliance des Démocrates et des Libéraux pour lEurope) is a Group in the European Parliament. ... Group logo Identity, Tradition, Sovereignty (ITS) is a political group in the European Parliament composed of 23 members from European parties variously described as right-wing and nationalist. ...


Grand coalition

Given that the Parliament does not form the government in the traditional sense of a Parliamentary system, its politics have developed along more consensual lines rather than majority rule of competing parties and coalitions. Indeed for much of its life it has been dominated by a grand coalition of the People's Party and Socialist Party. The two major parties tend to co-operate to find a compromise between their two groups leading to proposals endorsed by huge majorities.[55] However there have been some occasions where real party politics have emerged, for example over the resignation of the Santer Commission;[23] A grand coalition is a coalition government in a parliamentary system where political parties representing a vast majority of the parliament unite in a coalition. ... The Santer Commission was the European Commission that held office from 1995 until 15 March 1999. ...


When the initial allegations against the Commission emerged, they were directed primarily against Édith Cresson and Manuel Marín, both socialist members. When the parliament was considering refusing to discharge the Community budget, President Jacques Santer stated that a no vote would be tantamount to a vote of no confidence. PES supported the Commission and saw the issue as an attempt by the EPP to discredit their party ahead of the 1999 elections. PES leader, Pauline Green MEP, attempted a vote of confidence and the EPP put forward counter motions. During this period the two parties took on similar roles to a government-opposition dynamic, with PES supporting the executive and EPP renouncing its previous coalition support and voting it down.[23] Politicisation such as this has been increasing, in 2007 Simon Hix of the London School of Economics noted that;[1] Édith Cresson (born on 27 January 1934 as Édith Campion in Boulogne-Billancourt, near Paris) is a French politician. ... Manuel Marín (born 1950) is a politician from Spain. ... The European Union (EU) has an independent parliament and civil service which is distinct from those of the 27 member states. ... François-Xavier Ortoli, Romano Prodi, José Manuel Barroso and Jacques Delors The President of the European Commission is notionally the highest ranking unelected official within the European Union bureaucracy. ... Jacques Santer (born May 18, 1937) is a politician from Luxembourg. ... A Motion of No Confidence, also called Motion of Non Confidence is a parliamentary motion traditionally put before a parliament by the opposition in the hope of defeating or embarrassing a government. ... Dame Pauline Green speaking at a co-operative meeting, 2005. ... Parliamentary opposition is a form of political opposition to a designated government, particularly in a Westminster-based parliamentary system. ... Mascot: Beaver Affiliations: University of London Russell Group EUA ACU CEMS APSIA Universities UK U8 Golden Triangle G5 Group Website: http://www. ...

Our work also shows that politics in the European Parliament is becoming increasingly based around party and ideology. Voting is increasingly split along left-right lines, and the cohesion of the party groups has risen dramatically, particularly in the fourth and fifth parliaments. So there are likely to be policy implications here too.

During the fifth term, 1999 to 2004, there was a break in the grand coalition resulting in in a centre-right coalition between the Liberal and People's parties.[56] This was reflected in the Presidency of the Parliament with the terms being shared between the EPP and the ELDR, rather than the EPP and PES.[57] In the following term the liberal group grew to hold 88 seats, the largest number of seats held by any third party in Parliament.[58]


Elections

Election results by European party, 1979 to 2004
Election results by European party, 1979 to 2004

Elections have taken place, directly in every member-state, every five years since 1979. As of 2004 there have been six. Occasionally, when a member joins mid-term, a by-election will be held to elect their members. This has happened four times, the last time was when Romania and Bulgaria joined in 2007 (see below). Elections take place across several days according to local custom and, aside from having to be proportional, the electoral system is chosen by the member-state. This includes allocation of sub-national constituencies; while most members have a national list, some, like the UK and France, divide their allocation between regions. Seats are allocated to member-states according to their population, with no state having more than 99, but no fewer than 5, in order to maintain proportionality.[59] Elections in the European Union gives information on election and election results in the European Union. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (982x608, 64 KB) European Parliament Seats 1979-2004 Lizenz: Public Domain from de:Bild:Ep1979-2004. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (982x608, 64 KB) European Parliament Seats 1979-2004 Lizenz: Public Domain from de:Bild:Ep1979-2004. ... A by-election or bye-election is a special election held to fill a political office when the incumbent has died or resigned. ... An electoral system is the system used to administer an election. ... European Parliament electoral system is proportional representation. ...


The most recent Union-wide elections to the European Parliament were the European elections of 2004, held in June of that year. They were the largest simultaneous transnational elections ever held anywhere in the world, since nearly 400 million citizens were eligible to vote. The proportion of MEPs elected in 2004 who were female was 30.2%; in 1979 it was just 16.5%. The next Union-wide elections will be in 2009. There are a number of proposals to "dress up" the next elections to attract greater public attention to them. These include most notably the idea of linking them more closely to the Commission presidency. This would be by having political parties running with candidates for the job, so the largest party would essentially be forming the government, as in the parliamentary system of government.[60][61][62] This was attempted in 2004, however only the European Green Party, which was the first true pan-European party to be established with a common campaign,[63] proposed a candidate for the post of President: Daniel Cohn-Bendit.[64] Meanwhile, the closest any other party had come was when the People's Party mentioned four or five people they'd like to be President.[65] It is hoped such changes would add legitimacy and counter the falling turnout[62] which has dropped consistently every year since the first election, and from 1999 it has been below 50%.[66] In 2007 both Bulgaria and Romania are electing their MEPs in by-elections, having joined at the beginning of 2007. The Bulgarian and Romanian elections saw the lowest ever turnout for a European election, just 28.6%[67] and 28.3%. respectively.[68] Elections to the European Parliament were held from June 10, 2004 to June 13, 2004 in the 25 member states of the European Union, using varying election days according to local custom. ... Elections to the European Parliament will be held in June 2006 in the then–27 member states of the European Union, using varying election days according to local custom. ... States currently utilizing parliamentary systems are denoted in red and orange—the former being constitutional monarchies where authority is vested in a parliament, the the latter being parliamentary republics whose parliaments are effectively supreme over a separate head of state. ... European Greens (or the European Green Party) is the name of the European Green Party, a political party at European level. ... Daniel Cohn-Bendit, Ash Wednesday 2004 at Biberach/Riss Daniel Marc Cohn-Bendit (born Montauban, France, April 4, 1945) is a European politician and was a leader of the student protesters during the May 1968 riots in France. ... In early 2007, Bulgaria and Romania will elect their members of the European Parliament for the first time. ...


Proceedings

The hemicycle in Brussels
The hemicycle in Brussels

Each year the activities of the Parliament cycle between committee weeks where reports are discussed in committees and interparliamentary delegations meet, political group weeks for members to discuss work within their political groups and session weeks where members spend 3½ days in Strasbourg for part-sessions. In addition six 2-day part-sessions are organised in Brussels throughout the year. Four weeks are allocated as constituency week to allow members to do exclusively constituency work. Finally there are no meetings planned during the summer weeks.[69] The Parliament has the power to meet without being convened by another authority. Its meetings are partly controlled by the treaties but are otherwise up to Parliament according to its own "Rules of Procedure" (the regulations governing the parliament).[70] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 1600 pixel, file size: 597 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 1600 pixel, file size: 597 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... For other uses, see Strasburg. ... For other places with the same name, see Brussels (disambiguation). ...


During sessions, members may speak after being called on by the President, with a time limit of one minute. Members of the Council or Commission may also attend and speak in debates.[71][72] Partly due to the need for translation, and the politics of consensus in the chamber, debates tend to be calmer and more polite than, say, the Westminster system.[73] Voting is conducted primarily by a show of hands, that may be checked on request by electronic voting.[74] Votes of MEPs are not recorded in either case however, that only occurs when there is a roll-call ballot. That is when each MEP in turn is called by name, in alphabetical order, to state their support or opposition. This is a historical system used when the Parliament was much smaller in membership and is rarely used now. Votes can also be a completely secret ballot (for example when the President is elected).[75] All recorded votes, along with minutes and legislation, are recorded in the Official Journal of the European Union and can be accessed online.[76] The Houses of Parliament, also known as the Palace of Westminster, in London. ... The Official Journal of the European Union is the gazette of record for the European Union. ...


Members are arranged in a hemicycle according to their political groups who are ordered mainly by left to right, but some smaller groups are placed towards the outer ring of the Parliament. All desks are equipped with microphones, headphones for translation and electronic voting equipment. The leaders of the groups sit on the front benches at the centre, and in the very centre is a podium for guest speakers. The remaining half of the circular chamber is primarily composed of the raised area where the President and staff sit. Further benches are provided between the sides of this area and the MEPs, these are taken up by the Council on the far left and the Commission on the far right. Both the Brussels and Strasbourg hemicycle roughly follow this layout with only minor differences.[77] With access to the chamber limited, entrance is controlled by ushers who aid MEPs in the chamber (for example in delivering documents). The ushers also act as a form of police in enforcing the President, for example in ejecting an MEP who is disrupting the session (although this is rare). The first head of protocol in the Parliament was French, so many of the duties in the Parliament are based on the French model first developed following the French Revolution. The 180 ushers are highly visible in the Parliament, dressed in black tails and wearing a silver chain, and are recruited in the same manner as the European civil service. The President is allocated a personal usher.[78] The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... Bandleader Vincent Lopez in white tie, early 1920s Evening dress (also known as full evening dress) or white tie is the most formal dress code that exists for civilians today. ... EPSO logo The European Personnel Selection Office (or EPSO) is a recruitment office for the European Unions institutions. ...


President and organisation

President Hans-Gert Pöttering
President Hans-Gert Pöttering

The President, currently Hans-Gert Pöttering MEP of the EPP, is essentially the speaker of the Parliament. He or she presides over the plenary when it is in session and the President's signature is required for all acts adopted by co-decision, including the EU budget. The President is also responsible for representing the Parliament externally, including in legal matters, and for the application of the rules of procedure. He or she is elected for two-and-a-half-year terms, meaning two elections per parliamentary term.[79][80] The President of the European Parliament oversees all the activities of the European Parliament and its constituent bodies. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1467 × 2200 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1467 × 2200 pixel, file size: 1. ... Hans-Gert Pöttering (often written as Poettering; born September 15, 1945 in Bersenbrück, Lower Saxony) is a German conservative politician (CDU), and has been President of the European Parliament since January 2007. ... It has been suggested that Speakers of the House be merged into this article or section. ...


In most countries, the protocol of the head of state comes before all others, however in the EU the Parliament is listed as the first institution, and hence the protocol of its President comes before any other European, or national, protocol. The gifts given to numerous visiting dignitaries depends upon the President. President Josep Borrell MEP of Spain gave his counterparts a crystal cup created by an artist from Barcelona which had engraved upon it parts of the Charter of Fundamental Rights among other things.[5] For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ... Josep Borrell Josep Borrell Fontelles (born April 24, 1947) is a Spanish politician. ... The Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union is a document containing human rights provisions, solemnly proclaimed by the European Parliament, the Council of the European Union, and the European Commission in December 2000. ...


A number of notable figures have been President of the Parliament and its predecessors. The first President was Paul-Henri Spaak MEP, one of the founding fathers of the Union. Other founding fathers include Alcide de Gasperi MEP and Robert Schuman MEP. The two female Presidents were Simone Veil MEP in 1979 (first President of the elected Parliament) and Nicole Fontaine MEP in 1999, both Frenchwomen.[81] Paul-Henri Charles Spaak   listen? (January 25, 1899 - July 31, 1972) was a Belgian Socialist politician and statesman. ... The Founding Fathers of the European Union are a number of men who have been recognised as making a major contribution to the development of the European unity and what is now the European Union. ... Alcide De Gasperi (3 April 1881 – 19 August 1954) was an Italian statesman and politician. ... For others with the same name see Robert Schumann (disambiguation). ... Simone Veil Simone Veil (born Simone Annie Jacob, July 13, 1927) is a French lawyer and politician who currently serves as a member of the Constitutional Council of France. ... Nicole Fontaine (born 16 January 1942) is a French politician and Member of the European Parliament for the ÃŽle-de-France. ...


During the election of a President, the plenary is presided over by the oldest member of the Parliament. In 2004 and 2007 this was Giovanni Berlinguer MEP. While the oldest member is in the chair, they hold all the powers of the President, but the only business that may be addressed is the election of the President.[82] Giovanni Berlinguer (IPA ), Cavaliere di Gran Croce OMRI[1] (born July 9, 1924), is an Italian politician and Professor of Social Medicine. ...


Below the President, there are 14 Vice-Presidents who chair debates when the President is not in the chamber. There are a number of other bodies and posts responsible for the running of parliament besides these speakers. The two main bodies are the Bureau, which is responsible for budgetary and administration issues, and the Conference of Presidents which is a governing body composed of the presidents of each of the parliament's political groups. Looking after the financial and administrative interests of members are six Quaestors. The President of the European Parliament oversees all the activities of the European Parliament and its constituent bodies. ... The Bureau of the European Parliament is responsible for matters relating to the budget, administration, organisation and staff. ... The Conference of Presidents consists of the President of Parliament and the chairmen of the political groups (who may arrange to be represented by a member of their group) The Conference of Presidents meets approximately twice a month. ... Five Quaestors in the European Parliament look after the interests of Members of the European Parliament. ...


Committees and delegations

Main article: Committees of the European Parliament
A Committee room in the Parliament
A Committee room in the Parliament

The Parliament has 20 Standing Committees consisting of 28 to 86 MEPs each (reflecting the political makeup of the whole Parliament) including a chair, a bureau and secretariat. They meet twice a month in public to draw up, amend to adopt legislative proposals and reports to be presented to the plenary.[83] The rapporteurs for a committee are supposed to present the view of the committee, although notably this has not always been the case. In the events leading to the resignation of the Santer Commission, the rapporteur went against the Budgetary Control Committee's narrow vote to discharge the budget, and urged the Parliament to reject it.[23] The Committees of the European Parliament are designed to aid the European Commission in initiating legislation. ... A standing committee is a subunit of a political or deliberative body established in a permanent fashion to aid the parent assembly in accomplishing its duties. ... A chair or seat is also a seat of office, authority, or dignity, such as the chairperson of a committee, or a professorship at a college or university, or the individual that presides over business proceedings. ... Rapporteur (derived from French) is used in international and European legal and political contexts to refer to a person appointed by a deliberative body to investigate an issue or a situation, and report back to that body. ... The Committee on Budgetary Control (CONT) is a committee of the European Parliament Categories: European Union stubs | Committees of the European Parliament ...


Committees can also set up sub-committees (e.g. the Subcommittee on Human Rights) and temporary committees to deal with a specific topic (e.g. on extraordinary rendition). The chairs of the Committees co-ordinate their work through the "Conference of Committee Chairmen".[83] When co-decision was introduced it increased the Parliaments powers in a number of areas, but most notably those covered by the Committee on the Environment, Public Health and Food Safety. Previously this committee was considered by MEPs as a "Cinderella committee", however as it gained a new importance, it became more professional and rigorous attracting more and more attention to its work.[14] The Subcommittee on Human Rights (DROI) is a subcommittee of the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the European Parliament. ... Extraordinary rendition and irregular rendition are terms used to describe the extrajudicial transfer of a person from one state to another with the intent of legally torturing them outside of the jurisdiction of a state which prohibits it. ... The Committees of the European Parliament are designed to aid the European Commission in initiating legislation. ... The Committee on the Environment, Public Health and Food Safety (ENVI) is a committee within the European Parliament. ... Gustave Dorés illustration for Cendrillon Cinderella (French: Cendrillon) is a popular fairy tale embodying a classic folk tale myth-element of unjust oppression/triumphant reward. ...


Delegations of the Parliament are formed in a similar manner and are responsible for relations with Parliaments outside the EU. There are 34 delegations made up of around 15 MEPs, chairpersons of the delegations also cooperate in a conference like the committee chairs do. They include "Interparliamentary delegations" (maintain relations with Parliament outside the EU), "joint parliamentary committees" (maintaining relations with parliaments of states which are candidates or associates of the EU), the delegation to the ACP EU Joint Parliamentary Assembly and the delegation to the Euro-Mediterranean Parliamentary Assembly.[83] MEPs also participate in other international activities such as the Euro-Latin American Parliamentary Assembly, the Transatlantic Legislators' Dialogue and through election observation in third countries.[84] The Committees of the European Parliament are designed to aid the European Commission in initiating legislation. ... ACP English Logo The ACP-EU Joint Parliamentary Assembly was created out of a common desire to bring together the elected representatives of the European Community - the Members of the European Parliament - and the elected representatives of the African, Caribbean and Pacific states (ACP countries) that have signed the Cotonou... Herr Hans-Gert Pöttering, president of the European Parliament at the opening of the plenary session of the Euromed parliamentary assembly in Tunis 17th March 2007. ... Euro-Latin American Parliamentary Assembly Categories: | ... Taking the existing interparliamentary relationship as its basis, the Transatlantic Legislators Dialogue (TLD) aims to strengthen and enhance the level of political discourse between European and American legislators. ... Election monitoring is the observing of an election by non-partisan, usually international observers. ...


Translation and interpreting

Interpreting booths in the hemicycle simultaneously translate debates between 23 languages
Interpreting booths in the hemicycle simultaneously translate debates between 23 languages

Speakers in the European Parliament are entitled to speak in any of the EU's 23 official languages, ranging from English and French to Maltese and Swedish. Simultaneous interpreting is offered in all plenary sessions, and all final texts of legislation are translated. With twenty-three languages, the European Parliament is the most multilingual parliament in the world[85] and the biggest employer of interpreters in the world (employing 350 full time and 400 free-lancers when there is higher demand).[86] Citizens may also address the Parliament in Basque, Catalan/Valencian and Galician.[87] Chameleon, a symbol of the multilingualism of the European Union. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Basque (native name: euskara) is the language spoken by the Basque people who inhabit the Pyrenees in North-Central Spain and the adjoining region of South-Western France. ... Catalan IPA: (català IPA: or []) is a Romance language, the national language of Andorra, and a co-official language in the Spanish autonomous communities of Balearic Islands, Catalonia and Valencia, and in the city of LAlguer in the Italian island of Sardinia. ... Galician (Galician: galego, IPA: ) is a language of the Western Ibero-Romance branch, spoken in Galicia, an autonomous community with the constitutional status of historic nationality, located in northwestern Spain and small bordering zones in neighbouring autonomous communities of Asturias and Castilla y León. ...


Usually a language is translated from a foreign tongue into a translator's native tongue. Due to the large number of languages, some being minor ones, since 1995 translation is sometimes done the opposite way, out of a translator's native tongue (the "retour" system). In addition, a speech in a minor language may be translated via a third language for lack of interpreters ("relay" interpreting) —for example, when translating Estonian into Maltese.[86] Interpreters need to be proficient in two other Union languages besides their native language. Due to the complexity of the issues, translation is not word for word. Instead, interpreters have to convey the political meaning of a speech, regardless of their own views. This requires detailed understanding of the politics and terms of the Parliament, involving a great deal of preparation beforehand (e.g. reading the documents in question). Difficulty can often arise when MEPs use colourful language, jokes and word play or speak too fast.[86]


While some see speaking their native language as an important part of their identity, and can speak more fluently in debates, the translation and the cost of it has been criticised by some. A 2006 report by Alexander Stubb MEP highlighted that by only using English, French and German costs could be reduced from 118,000 per day (for 21 languages then—Romanian and Bulgarian having not yet been included) to €8,900 per day.[88] Although many see the ideal single language as being English due to its widespread usage, there is a campaign to make French the single tongue for all legal texts, due to its more precise legal language, overcoming ambiguity between translations of legislation. Although this would not directly affect translation in the plenary, it would shift the balance towards French when discussing draft legislation.[89] Alexander Stubb Alexander Stubb (born on 1 April 1968 in Helsinki) is a Finnish politician and Member of the European Parliament with the National Coalition Party, part of the European Peoples Party and sits on the European Parliaments Committee on Budgetary Control and its Committee on Constitutional Affairs. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ...


Seat

Main articles: Location of European Union institutions, Espace Léopold, and Seat of the European Parliament in Strasbourg
The cost of two seats has been a cause of controversy (the Strasbourg building)
The cost of two seats has been a cause of controversy (the Strasbourg building)

The Parliament is based in three different cities with numerous buildings. A protocol attached to the Treaty of Amsterdam requires that 12 plenary sessions be held in Strasbourg (none in August but two in September), which is the Parliament's official seat, while extra part sessions as well as committee meetings are held in Brussels. Luxembourg hosts the Secretariat of the European Parliament.[7] It has been suggested that oneseat. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 3072 pixel, file size: 851 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Work by Rama File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 3072 pixel, file size: 851 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Work by Rama File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Amsterdam Treaty (in full: Treaty of Amsterdam amending the Treaty of the European Union, the Treaties establishing the European Communities and certain related acts) which was signed on October 2, 1997, and entered into force on May 1, 1999, made substantial changes to the Treaty on European Union which... For other uses, see Strasburg. ... For other places with the same name, see Brussels (disambiguation). ... The secretariat of the European Parliament is the administrative body of the European Parliament. ...


The Strasbourg seat is seen as a symbol of reconciliation between France and Germany (Strasbourg having been fought over by the two countries in the past). However it is questioned over the cost of having two seats for the parliament. While Strasbourg is the official seat, and sits alongside the Council of Europe (with which the "mutual cooperation" is being continuously "fostered"[90]), Brussels is home to nearly all other major EU institutions, with the majority of Parliament's work already being carried out there. Therefore despite Strasbourg being the main seat, it is the one most questioned, although some do believe Strasbourg should be the single capital.[91] Anthem Ode to Joy (orchestral)  ten founding members joined subsequently observer at the Parliamentary Assembly observer at the Committee of Ministers  official candidate Seat Strasbourg, France Membership 47 European states 5 observers (Council) 3 observers (Assembly) Leaders  -  Secretary General Terry Davis  -  President of the Parliamentary Assembly Rene van der Linden... The Parliaments Paul-Henri Spaak building, as seen from Justus Lipsius Brussels (Belgium) is considered to be the de facto capital of the European Union, having a long history of hosting the institutions of the European Union. ...


Critics have described the two-seat arrangement as a "travelling circus",[92] and there is a strong movement to establish Brussels as the sole seat. This is due to the fact that the other political institutions (the Commission, Council and European Council) are located there, and hence Brussels is treated as the 'capital' of the EU. This movement has received strong backing through numerous figures, including the Commission First-Vice President who stated that "something that was once a very positive symbol of the EU reuniting France and Germany has now become a negative symbol—of wasting money, bureaucracy and the insanity of the Brussels institutions".[8] The Green party has also noted the environmental cost in a study led by Jean Lambert MEP and Caroline Lucas MEP; in addition to the extra 200 million euro spent on the extra seat, there are over 20,268 tonnes of additional carbon dioxide, undermining any environmental stance of the institution and the Union.[92] The campaign is further backed by a million-strong online petition started by Cecilia Malmström MEP.[93] In 2006 there were allegations of irregularity in the charges made by the city of Strasbourg on buildings the Parliament rented which harmed the city's image further.[94] A poll of MEPs also found 89% of the respondents (39%) wanting a single seat, and 81% preferring Brussels.[95] Another, more academic, survey found 68% support.[1] However the Parliament, the only assembly in the world with more than one seat, does not have the right to choose its own meeting place, this is left up to the Council with the possibility of a change being vetoed by one state.[96] Notably France, which has not been affected by any campaigning, with French President Nicolas Sarkozy stating that its seat is "non-negotiable".[97] Not to be confused with capitol. ... European Greens (or the European Green Party) is the name of the European Green Party, a political party at European level. ... Categories: MEP stubs | Green politicians | Members of the European Parliament from the United Kingdom ... Caroline Lucas Dr Caroline Patricia Lucas MEP (born 9 December 1960) is an English politician, and Member of the European Parliament for the South East England region. ... Cecilia Malmström Cecilia Malmström (born 15 May 1968 in Stockholm) is a Swedish politician and Member of the European Parliament. ... The President of France, known officially as the President of the Republic (Président de la République in French), is Frances elected Head of State. ... Nicolas Sarkozy at Paris, May 2005. ...


Future of the Parliament

The Treaty of Lisbon, signed on 2007-12-13, largely retains the reforms outlined in the rejected Constitutional Treaty.[98] Overall, powers would be increased. For example, nearly all policy areas would fall under co-decision procedure (now called the "ordinary legislative procedure") meaning that the Parliament would have practically equal powers to those of the Council (now officially the Council of Ministers). In the remaining minority of areas in which the powers remain unequal, the Council must consult the Parliament and/or seek its approval on the legislation. The Parliament also gains greater powers over the entirety of the EU budget, not just non-compulsory expenditure, through the ordinary legislative procedure. In terms of the composition of the Parliament there would be little change, however the minimum number of seats would be increased from 5 to 6 and the maximum number would be reduced from 99 to 96. There would also be basic rules on the distribution of seats in the Parliament, rather than them being negotiated at each enlargement. Decisions about the composition of the Parliament are currently made by the Council, this would remain so but the decision would be made based on a proposal from the Parliament itself.[99][100] The Treaty of Lisbon was signed on February 13, 1668, between Afonso VI of Portugal and Carlos II of Spain, by mediation of Charles II of England. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe The constitutional treaty as signed in Rome on 29 October 2004 by representatives of the EU member states The Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe (TCE), commonly referred to as the European Constitution, was an unimplemented...


The European Council would be bound to take into account the latest elections when proposing the Commission President, something that they willingly did after the 2004 election. As currently, the Parliament's consent is needed for the President to take office, however the Treaty of Lisbon now uses the word "elect" rather than "approve" to refer to this procedure. This is an area however in which the Council of Ministers plays no part.[99][100] It will remain to be seen whether calling it an election will spur political groups to use their power and mandate to force their own candidates upon the European Council in the same way as, for example, the British House of Commons does in its relation to their Queen. There have been suggestions that the parliament's political groups may propose their own candidates before the 2009 election.[61][101] No major party proposed a candidate in 2004 with the fractious nature of the European-level parties being, in part, why a single candidate has not been proposed. However there are plans to strengthen the political parties before the elections[65][62] and the European Green Party, the first to have a common campaign, did manage to put forward a candidate.[64] In 2007, Franco Frattini indicated he would like to act as though the treaty was already in force, in respects to the Parliament's powers over justice and criminal matters, in order to inject more democracy and ensure the Parliament had over sight on forthcoming legislation Frattini did not wish to delay until 2009.[27] Type Lower House Speaker Michael Martin, (Non-affiliated) since October 23, 2000 Leader Harriet Harman, (Labour) since June 28, 2007 Shadow Leader Theresa May, (Conservative) since May 5, 2005 Members 659 Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist Party Sinn Féin... This article is about the monarchy of the United Kingdom, one of sixteen that share a common monarch; for information about this constitutional relationship, see Commonwealth realm; for information on the reigning monarch, see Elizabeth II. For information about other Commonwealth realm monarchies, as well as other relevant articles, see... European Greens (or the European Green Party) is the name of the European Green Party, a political party at European level. ... Franco Frattini (born 14 March 1957) is an Italian politician, currently serving as European Commissioner for Justice, Freedom and Security. ...


In addition to the institutional reforms brought by the Treaty of Lisbon, in 2007 the President set up the Special working group on parliamentary reform to improve the efficiency and image of the Parliament. Some ideas include livening up the plenary sessions and a State of the Union debate.[102] One of the group's key reform ideas, extra debates on topical issues, was rejected by MEPs[103] causing liberal leader Graham Watson MEP to withdraw from the reform group.[104] However MEPs did back a proposal for greater use of the European symbols, following their rejection in the Treaty of Lisbon. It was suggested the Parliament take the avant-garde in using the symbols as it had done in adopting the flag in 1983, which was three years before the Communities as a whole.[105][106] An interim report was presented in September 2007 and proposed cutting down time allocated for guest speakers and non-legislative documents. In 2006, 92 "own initiative" reports (commenting rather than legislating) were tables and 22% of debating time was spent debating such reports, while only 18% was spent on legislative bills. The group is due to produce a final report in 2008, and put the recommendations into practice by the 2009 elections[102] however Watson has stated that he doubts the left-right coalition in Parliament can pass the proposals due to opposition from more conservative members. Other members such as the co-chair of ID, Jens-Peter Bonde MEP, had wanted more radical proposals. Bonde did however vote for the report, stating that "it is psychologically important to show that we want to become a more political parliament."[104] Alternative meanings in State of the Union (disambiguation) The State of the Union Address is an annual event in which the President of the United States reports on the status of the country, normally to a joint session of the U.S. Congress (the House of Representatives and the Senate). ... ALDE logo The Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe (French: Alliance des Démocrates et des Libéraux pour lEurope) is a Group in the European Parliament. ... Graham Watson (born 23 March 1956) is a Member of the European Parliament for South West England for the Liberal Democrats. ... The Council of Europe (COE) has developed a series of European symbols for the continent of Europe, and these have since been shared with the European Union (EU). ... A work similar to Marcel Duchamps Fountain Avant garde (written avant-garde) is a French phrase, one of many French phrases used by English speakers. ... IND/DEM logo The Independence and Democracy (IND/DEM) group, formed July 20, 2004 is a euro-sceptic political group with 36 MEPs in the European Parliament. ... Jens-Peter Bonde Jens-Peter Bonde (born on 27 March 1948 in Åbenrå) is a Danish politician and Member of the European Parliament with the Junibevægelsen, Chairman of the Independence and Democracy and sits on the European Parliaments Committee on Constitutional Affairs. ...


See also

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The Bureau of the European Parliament is responsible for matters relating to the budget, administration, organisation and staff. ... The Committees of the European Parliament are designed to aid the European Commission in initiating legislation. ... In the European Union, the Conference of Presidents of the European Parliament consists of the President of Parliament and the chairmen of the political groups (who may arrange to be represented by a member of their group). ... A Member of the European Parliament (English abbreviation MEP)[1] is a member of the European Unions directly-elected legislative body, the European Parliament. ... The President of the European Parliament oversees all the activities of the European Parliament and its constituent bodies. ... Hans-Gert Pöttering (often written as Poettering; born September 15, 1945 in Bersenbrück, Lower Saxony) is a German conservative politician (CDU), and has been President of the European Parliament since January 2007. ... Five Quaestors in the European Parliament look after the interests of Members of the European Parliament. ... The secretariat of the European Parliament is the administrative body of the European Parliament. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The European Assizes was a one-time assembly of the European Parliament and the national parliaments of the member states of the European Union in Rome in 1990. ... The Santer Commission was the European Commission that held office from 1995 until 15 March 1999. ... The Barroso Commission is the European Commission that has been in office since 22 November 2004 and is due to serve until 31 October 2009. ... A European political party, formally a political party at European level, sometimes informally (especially in academic circles) a Europarty, is a type of political party organization operating transnationally in Europe. ... Elections in the European Union gives information on election and election results in the European Union. ... Member-states in 1979. ... The 1984 European Parliamentary Elections were held in June across all 10 current European Community member-states. ... The 1989 European Parliamentary Elections were held in June across all 12 current European Community member-states. ... The 1994 European Parliamentary Elections were held in June across all 12 current European Union member-states. ... The 1999 election was the first election for the European Parliament after the enlargement of the European Union with Austria, Finland and Sweden. ... Elections to the European Parliament were held from June 10, 2004 to June 13, 2004 in the 25 member states of the European Union, using varying election days according to local custom. ... Elections to the European Parliament will be held in June 2006 in the then–27 member states of the European Union, using varying election days according to local custom. ... The apportionment of seats among member states in the European Parliament is not strictly in accordance with size of population. ... European Parliament electoral system is proportional representation. ... This is a list giving breakdowns of the European Parliamentary session from 2004 to 2009. ... The Parliaments Paul-Henri Spaak building, as seen from Justus Lipsius Brussels (Belgium) is considered to be the de facto capital of the European Union, having a long history of hosting the institutions of the European Union. ... The Model European Communities Project (MECP) is a yearly political simulation organised by the European Schools. ... The Sakharov Prize for Freedom of Thought, named after Soviet scientist and dissident Andrei Sakharov, was established in December 1985 by the European Parliament as a means to honour individuals or organizations who had dedicated their lives to the defence of human rights and freedoms. ... Europe by Satellite Europe by Satellite The European Union’s TV Information service Europe by Satellite (EbS) was launched in 1995 and provides TV and radio stations with EU related pictures and sound in more than 21 languages. ...

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Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 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Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Margot Wallström Margot Wallström (born September 28, 1954), is Swedish politician, Social Democrat, and currently First Vice President and Institutional Relations and Communication Strategy Commissioner of the European Commission. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Screenshot of ENA The European NAvigator (ENA) is an an educative platform providing a lot of information about the History of Europe and its institutions since 1945. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The European Peoples Party (EPP) is the largest transnational European political party. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... It has been suggested that Penguin Modern Poets, Penguin Great Ideas be merged into this article or section. ... Screenshot of ENA The European NAvigator (ENA) is an an educative platform providing a lot of information about the History of Europe and its institutions since 1945. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Screenshot of ENA The European NAvigator (ENA) is an an educative platform providing a lot of information about the History of Europe and its institutions since 1945. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Manchester University Press is the university press of the University of Manchester, England. ... Anthem Ode to Joy (orchestral)  ten founding members joined subsequently observer at the Parliamentary Assembly observer at the Committee of Ministers  official candidate Seat Strasbourg, France Membership 47 European states 5 observers (Council) 3 observers (Assembly) Leaders  -  Secretary General Terry Davis  -  President of the Parliamentary Assembly Rene van der Linden... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Pan-African Parliament is the legislative body of the African Union; at present it exercises oversight, and has advisory and consultative powers. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Screenshot of ENA The European NAvigator (ENA) is an an educative platform providing a lot of information about the History of Europe and its institutions since 1945. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Screenshot of ENA The European NAvigator (ENA) is an an educative platform providing a lot of information about the History of Europe and its institutions since 1945. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Screenshot of ENA The European NAvigator (ENA) is an an educative platform providing a lot of information about the History of Europe and its institutions since 1945. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The University of Pittsburgh, commonly referred to as Pitt, is a state-related, doctoral/research university in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 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Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Rowman & Littlefield Publishers Inc. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Centre for European Reform is a London-based think tank devoted to improving the quality of the debate on the European Union. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Screenshot of ENA The European NAvigator (ENA) is an an educative platform providing a lot of information about the History of Europe and its institutions since 1945. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The headquarters of the Cambridge University Press, in Trumpington Street, Cambridge. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The International Herald Tribune is a widely read English language international newspaper. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the German international broadcaster. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Guardian. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the German international broadcaster. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) will be a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (common) era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) will be a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (common) era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The International Herald Tribune is a widely read English language international newspaper. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Southeast European Times is a news website for southeastern Europe. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 330th day of the year (331st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) will be a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (common) era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The International Herald Tribune is a widely read English language international newspaper. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Anthem Ode to Joy (orchestral)  ten founding members joined subsequently observer at the Parliamentary Assembly observer at the Committee of Ministers  official candidate Seat Strasbourg, France Membership 47 European states 5 observers (Council) 3 observers (Assembly) Leaders  -  Secretary General Terry Davis  -  President of the Parliamentary Assembly Rene van der Linden... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Cecilia Malmström Cecilia Malmström (born 15 May 1968 in Stockholm) is a Swedish politician and Member of the European Parliament. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 164th day of the year (165th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article deals with the meeting of European Union leaders. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Federal Union is a British group launched in November 1938, to advocate a Federal Union of Europe as a post-war aim. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 239th day of the year (240th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Anthem Ode to Joy (orchestral)  ten founding members joined subsequently observer at the Parliamentary Assembly observer at the Committee of Ministers  official candidate Seat Strasbourg, France Membership 47 European states 5 observers (Council) 3 observers (Assembly) Leaders  -  Secretary General Terry Davis  -  President of the Parliamentary Assembly Rene van der Linden... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Attwool, Elspeth (2000). To the Power of Ten: UK Liberal Democrats in the European Parliament (Centre for Reform Papers). Centre for Reform. ISBN 978-1902622170. 
  • Butler, David; Martin Westlake (2005). British Politics and European Election. London: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-1403935854. 
  • Farrell, David; Roger Scully (2007). Representing Europe's Citizens?: Electoral Institutions and the Failure of Parliamentary Representation. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0199285020. 
  • Gazzola, Michele (2006). "Managing Multilingualism in the European Union: Language Policy Evaluation for the European Parliament". Language Policy 5 (4): p. 393-417. Netherlands: Springer.
  • Hix, Simon; Abdul Noury, Serard Roland (2007). Democratic Politics in the European Parliament (Themes in European Governance). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521694605. 
  • Hoskyns, Catherine; Michael Newman (2000). Democratizing the European Union: Issues for the twenty-first Century (Perspectives on Democratization. Manchester University Press. ISBN 978-0719056666. 
  • Corbett, Richard; [|Jacobs, Francis] & Shackleton, Michael (2007), The European Parliament (7 ed.), London: John Harper Publishing, ISBN 978-0955114472, <http://www.johnharperpublishing.co.uk/pp007.shtml>
  • Judge, David; David Earnshaw (2003). The European Parliament (European Union). London: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0333598740. 
  • Kreppel, Amie (2001). The European Parliament and Supranational Party System: A Study in Institutional Development (Cambridge Studies in Comparative Politics). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521000796. 
  • Van der Laan, Lousewies (2003). The Case For a Stronger European Parliament. London: Centre for European Reform. ISBN 1901229491. 
  • Lodge, Juliet (200-04-18). The 2004 Elections to the European Parliament. London: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-1403935182. 
  • Maier, Michaela (2006). Campaigning in Europe, Campaigning for Europe: Political Parties, Campaigns, Mass Media and the European Parliament Elections 2004 (Medien). Lit Verlag. ISBN 978-3825893224. 
  • Rittberger, Berthold (2007). Building Europe's Parliament: Democratic Representation Beyond the Nation State. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0199231997. 
  • Schmitter, Philippe (2000). How to Democratize the EU … and Why Bother? (Governance in Europe). Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. ISBN 978-0847699056. 
  • Scully, Rodger (2005). Becoming European?: Attitudes, Behaviour, and Socialization in the European Parliament. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0199284320. 
  • Smith, Julie (1999). Europe's Elected Parliament (Contemporary European Studies). London: Continuum International Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0333598740. 
  • Steuenberg, Bernard; Jacques Thomassen (2002). The European Parliament on the Move: Toward Parliamentary Democracy in Europe (Governance in Europe). Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. ISBN 978-0742501263. 
  • Watson, Graham (2004). EU've Got Mail!: Liberal Letters from the European Parliament. Baghot Publishing. ISBN 978-0954574512. 

Elspeth Attwooll (born 1 February 1943) is a British Liberal Democrat politician. ... The Centre for European Reform is a London-based think tank devoted to improving the quality of the debate on the European Union. ... Dr. David Butler (born 17 October 1924) is a Social Scientist and Psephologist. ... Macmillan Publishers Ltd, also known as The Macmillan Group, is a privately-held international publishing company owned by Georg von Holtzbrinck Publishing Group. ... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... The headquarters of the Cambridge University Press, in Trumpington Street, Cambridge. ... Manchester University Press is the university press of the University of Manchester, England. ... Note: this article concerns the contemporary MEP. For the 17th century poet, see Richard Corbett (poet). ... Professor David Judge is a British political scientist currently based at the University of Strathclyde, where he is head of the Department of Government. ... Macmillan Publishers Ltd, also known as The Macmillan Group, is a privately-held international publishing company owned by Georg von Holtzbrinck Publishing Group. ... The headquarters of the Cambridge University Press, in Trumpington Street, Cambridge. ... Lousewies van der Laan is a dutch politician for the left liberal Democrats 66 party. ... The Centre for European Reform is a London-based think tank devoted to improving the quality of the debate on the European Union. ... Macmillan Publishers Ltd, also known as The Macmillan Group, is a privately-held international publishing company owned by Georg von Holtzbrinck Publishing Group. ... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... Rowman & Littlefield Publishers Inc. ... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Rowman & Littlefield Publishers Inc. ... Graham Watson (born 23 March 1956) is a Member of the European Parliament for South West England for the Liberal Democrats. ...

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Coordinates: 48°35′51″N 7°46′09″E / 48.597512, 7.769092 Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ... Parliament of Europe may refer to: the European Parliament, an institution of the European Union the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe, an institution of the Council of Europe Category: ... This is an alphabetical list of the sovereign states of the world, including both de jure and de facto independent states. ... The National Assembly of the Republic of Belarus is the bicameral parliament that governs the Eastern Europe country of Belarus. ... The Belgian Federal Parliament is a bicameral parliament, it consists of two chambers. ... Type Unicameral Houses Βουλή των Αντιπροσώπων; Temsilciler Meclisi President Demetris Christofias, AKEL since 2006 Members 59 (56 + 3 observers) Political groups (as of elections) AKEL, DISY, DIKO, EDEK, Evroko, Green Party, Meeting place Web site www. ... The Folketing [], or Folketinget, is the name of the national parliament of Denmark. ... The Riigikogu is the legislative assembly of Estonia. ... The Bundestag (Federal Diet) is the parliament of Germany. ... The Hellenic Parliament (Greek: Βουλή των Ελλήνων; transliterated Vouli ton Ellinon; literally Council of the Greeks) is the parliament of Greece, located in Syntagma Square in Athens. ... The National Assembly of Hungary (Országgyűlés) is the national parliament of Hungary. ... The Alþing, commonly Anglicized as Althing (Modern Icelandic Alþingi; Old Norse Alþing) is the national parliament: literally, the all-thing of Iceland. ... Saeima building in Riga The Saeima is the parliament of the Republic of Latvia. ... The Seimas is the Lithuanian parliament. ... The Parliament of the Macedonia, the Assembly (Sobranie), has 120 members, elected for a four year term, by proportional representation. ... The Parliament of Malta, the House of Representatives (Il-Kamra tar-Rappreżentanti), has 65 members, elected for a five year term in 13 5-seat constituencies with a possibility of rewarding bonus members for the popular largest party which doesnt succeed in getting absolute majority in parliament. ... Parliament building // Structure Chairman of the Parliament - LUPU Marian Deputy Chairmen of the Parliament Standing Bureau The working body of the Parliament - the Standing Bureau - is formed taking into consideration the proportional representation of the factions in the Legislative body. ... The Parliament of the Republic of Montenegro (Serbian: SkupÅ¡tina Republike Crne Gore) is the legislature of Montenegro. ... The Storting main building The Storting, or Stortinget, (the Great Assembly), is the parliament of Norway, and is located in Oslo. ... The Sejm building in Warsaw. ... The parliament of Serbia is known as the National Assembly of the Republic of Serbia (Serbian: Народна скупштина Републике Србије). The current Speaker of the National Assembly is Predrag Marković (G17 Plus). ... The Slovenian Parliament (Slovenian: ) is the legislative body of Slovenia. ... Type Bicameral Houses El Senado de España Congreso de los Diputados President of the Senate Francisco Javier Rojo García, PSOE PSE-EE since 2004 President of the Congress Manuel Marín González, PSOE since 2004 Members 609 259 senators 350 deputies Political groups (as of 2004 elections... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine (Ukrainian: ; English: Supreme Council) is the official name of Ukraines unicameral parliament. ... The English parliament in front of the King, c. ... The parliament of Scotland, officially the Estates of Parliament, was the legislature of the independent Kingdom of Scotland. ... This article is about the pre-1972 Parliament of Northern Ireland. ... Established 1999 by the Government of Wales Act 1998 Presiding Officer Lord Elis-Thomas AM (Plaid) Since May 12, 1999 Deputy Presiding Officer Rosemary Butler AM (Lab) Leader of the House Carwyn Jones AM (Lab) Chief Executive and Clerk to the Assembly Claire Clancy Political parties 6 Welsh Labour (26... World map of dependent territories. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Types of administrative and/or political territories include: A legally administered territory, which is a non-sovereign geographic area that has come under the authority of another government. ... The Peoples Assembly of Abkhazia is the legislature of the internationally unrecognised Republic of Abkhazia. ... The Lagting, or Lagtinget, is the parliament of Ã…land, an autonomous, demilitarised and unilingually Swedish territory of Finland. ... The Verkhovna Rada of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea (Ukrainian: ; Russian: ; Crimean Tatar: ; English: ) is the official name of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, Ukraines parliament. ... Assembly of Kosovo (Serbian Скупштина Косова; Albanian Kuvendi i Kosovës) is the highest provisional self-government and representative and law making institution of Kosovo. ... The parliament of Nagorno Karabakh, the National Assembly (Azgayin Zhoghov), has 33 members, elected for a five year term in single seat constituencies. ... The National Assembly of the Republika Srpska (Serbian: Народна Скупштина Републике Српске / Narodna SkupÅ¡tina Republike Srpske) is the legislative body of the Republika Srpska, one of two entities of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... The Supreme Council of the Transnistrian Moldovan Republic (Russian: Верховный Совет Приднестровской Молдавской Республики, Verkhovny Soviet Pridniestrovskoy Moldavskoy Respubliki) is the parliament of Transnistria. ...  Southwest Asia in most contexts. ... The borders of the continents are the limits of the several continents of the Earth, as defined by various geographical, cultural, and political criteria. ...  The North American plate, shown in brown The North American Plate is a tectonic plate covering most of North America, extending eastward to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and westward to the Cherskiy Range in East Siberia. ...  The African plate, shown in pinkish-orange The African Plate is a tectonic plate covering the continent of Africa and extending westward to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. ... The list of unrecognized countries enumerates those geo-political entities which lack general diplomatic recognition, but wish to be recognized as sovereign states. ... The European Union is a unique geo-political entity covering a large portion of the European continent. ... The Treaty of Rome signing ceremony From prehistoric to modern times, the human History of Europe has been turbulent, cultured, and much-documented. ... This is a timeline of European Union history including the European Economic Community, its de facto successor. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The first moves towards the establishment of the Union came following the end of the Second World War. ... Out of the two newly founded communities, the European Economic Community (EEC) and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom), the former became the most important community. ... On 1 January 1973, Denmark, Ireland and the United Kingdom became the first countries to join the Communities. ... The European Union is a unique geo-political entity covering a large portion of the European continent. ... The Prodi Commission was the European Commission from 1999 to 2004. ... The Barroso Commission is the European Commission that has been in office since 22 November 2004 and is due to serve until 31 October 2009. ... Members of the European Coal and Steel Community Flag of the European Coal and Steel Community The European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) was founded in 1951 (Treaty of Paris), by France, West Germany, Italy, Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to pool the steel and coal resources of its member... The European Community (EC) was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... The European Atomic Energy Community, or EURATOM, is an international organization composed of the members of the European Union. ... The European Union or EU is a supranational and international organization of 27 member states. ... The European Union (EU) was created by six founding states in 1957 (following the earlier establishment by the same six states of the European Coal and Steel Community in 1952) and has grown to 27 member states. ... Eurojust (also spelled capitalised as EUROJUST) is a European Union body composed of national prosecutors, magistrates or police officers of equivalent competence from each of the European Unions member states. ... Europol (the name is a contraction of European Police Office) is the European Unions criminal intelligence agency. ... The Treaty of Maastricht which established the European Union, divided EU policies into three main areas, called pillars. ... The European Community (EC) was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... The Common Foreign and Security Policy, or CFSP, was established as the second of the three pillars of the European Union in the Maastricht treaty of 1992, and further defined and broadened in the Amsterdam Treaty of 1999. ... Police and Judicial Co-operation in Criminal Matters (PJC) is the third of the three pillars of the European Union, focusing on co-operation in law enforcement and combating racism. ... European integration is the process of political and economic (and in some cases social and cultural) integration of European states into a tighter bloc. ... The agencies of the European Union (or decentralised bodies of the European Union) are bodies which are distinct from the European Unions institutions, in that they have not been created by the treaties but rather by acts of secondary legislation, in order to accomplish a very specific task. ... Berlaymont, the Commissions seat The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive branch of the European Union. ... Established 1952 Presiding Country Portugal President Luís Amado President in Office José Sócrates Members 27 (at one time) Political parties 7, including: European Peoples Party Party of European Socialists Meeting place Justus Lipsius, Brussels, Belgium, European Union Web site http://www. ... Official emblem of the ECJ The Court of Justice of the European Communities, usually called the European Court of Justice (ECJ), is the highest court in the European Union (EU). ... Elections in the European Union gives information on election and election results in the European Union. ... The European Union (EU) was created by six founding states in 1957 (following the earlier establishment by the same six states of the European Coal and Steel Community in 1952) and has grown to 27 member states. ... This article deals with the meeting of European Union leaders. ... Foreign relations of the European Union Foreign relations of Austria Foreign relations of Belgium Foreign relations of Cyprus Foreign relations of the Czech Republic Foreign relations of Denmark Foreign relations of Estonia Foreign relations of Finland Foreign relations of France Foreign relations of Germany Foreign relations of Greece Foreign relations... A European political party, formally a political party at European level, sometimes informally (especially in academic circles) a Europarty, is a type of political party organization operating transnationally in Europe. ... The Law of the European Union is the unique legal system which operates alongside the laws of Member States of the European Union (EU). ... The term acquis (or sometimes acquis communautaire), deriving from French, is used in European Union law to refer to the total body of EU law accumulated so far. ... The European Commission, established following World War II, was the first Europe wide competition authority European Community competition law is one of the areas of authority of the European Union. ... It is proposed that this article be deleted, because of the following concern: There is no copyright law of the European Union at all If you can address this concern by improving, copyediting, sourcing, renaming or merging the page, please edit this page and do so. ... The Official Journal of the European Union is the gazette of record for the European Union. ...  member state with at least one opt-out  member state with a de facto opt-out  member state without opt-outs Currently, five European Union member states have (or will have) opt-outs from certain parts of the European Union structure, namely:  Denmark (four)  Ireland (two)  Poland (one)  Sweden (one... The European Union legislative procedure describes the way the European Union creates and enacts legislation across the community. ... The treaties of the European Union are effectively its constitutional law, making up the EUs primary legislation. ... The Treaty of Rome signing ceremony Signatures in the Treaty The Treaty of Rome, signed by France, West Germany, Italy and Benelux (Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg) on March 25, 1957, established the European Economic Community (EEC). ... The Maastricht Treaty (formally, the Treaty of European Union, TEU) was signed on February 7, 1992 in Maastricht, Netherlands after final negotiations in December 1991 between the members of the European Community and entered into force on November 1, 1993 during the Delors Commission. ... Treaty of Amsterdam amending the Treaty of the European Union, the Treaties establishing the European Communities and certain related acts The Treaty of Amsterdam amending the Treaty of the European Union, the Treaties establishing the European Communities and certain related acts, commonly known as the Amsterdam Treaty, was signed on... Treaty of Nice The Treaty of Nice is a treaty adopted in Nice by the European Council to amend the two founding treaties of the European Union: the Treaty on European Union, or Maastricht Treaty, which introduced the Euro and the 3-pillar structure of the EU; the Treaty of... The Treaty of Lisbon was signed on February 13, 1668, between Afonso VI of Portugal and Carlos II of Spain, by mediation of Charles II of England. ... This is a list of countries bordering the European Union and its predecessor the European Community both at its current geographical extent and after all previous rounds of enlargement. ...  Member states  Candidates Austria Poland Belgium Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Rep. ... This is a list of all the urban areas of the European Union which have more than 750,000 inhabitants in 2005. ... Austria Poland Belgium Bulgaria Cyprus Czech   Rep. ...  Implementing countries  Implementing through partnership with a signatory state  Members implementing from 21 December 2007 (overland borders and seaports) and 29 March 2008 (airports)  Members (not yet implemented)  Expressed interest in joining A monument to the Agreement in Schengen A typical Schengen border crossing without any border control post, just... Map of European Union in the world  European Union  Outermost regions  Overseas countries and territories Map of EU member states and candidate countries, with an inset showing the 7 outermost regions As of 2007 the European Union has 27 member states, most of which participate in all EU policy areas... This article is on the political entity. ... The European Union (EU) has an independent parliament and civil service which is distinct from those of the 27 member states. ... For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ... Freedom of movement for workers is a policy chapter of the acquis communotaire of the European Union. ... The European Investment Bank (the Banque Européenne dInvestissement) is the European Unions financing institution and was established under the Treaty of Rome (1957) to provide loan finance for capital investment furthering European Union policy objectives, in particular regional development, Trans-European Networks of transport, telecommunications and energy... The European Investment Fund, established in 1994, is a European Union agency for the provision of finance to SMEs (small and medium-sized enterprises). ... The Eurozone (also called Euro Area, Eurosystem or Euroland) refers to the European Union member states that have adopted the euro currency union. ... The Regional policy of the European Union is a policy with the stated aim of improving the economic well-being of certain regions in the EU. Around one third of the EUs budget is devoted to this policy, the aim of which has been stated to be to remove... The Galileo positioning system is a planned Global Navigation Satellite System, to be built by the European Union (EU) and European Space Agency (ESA). ... Cultural cooperation in the European Union has become a community competency since its inclusion in 1992 in the Maastricht Treaty. ... Citizenship of the Union was introduced by the Maastricht Treaty signed in 1992. ... The demographics of the European Union show a highly populated, culturally diverse union of 27 member states. ... The European Institute of Innovation and Technology (EIIT) is a proposal adopted on 22 February 2006 by the European Commission to the European Council intended to be a new flagship research university for excellence in higher education, research and innovation. ... Mass media are the means through which information is transmitted to a large audience. ... The Flag of Europe consists of a circle of twelve golden (yellow) stars on a blue background. ... 4th movement (European Union anthem) samples: Problems playing the files? See media help. ... Statistics in the European Union are collected by Eurostat. ... The agencies of the European Union (or decentralised bodies of the European Union) are bodies which are distinct from the European Unions institutions, in that they have not been created by the treaties but rather by acts of secondary legislation, in order to accomplish a very specific task. ... List of European Councils, by presidency, date, and location. ... The following is a List of European Union directives: // Intellectual property Harmonisation of certain aspects of copyright and related rights in the information society (2001/29/EC May 22, 2001) Criminal measures aimed at ensuring the enforcement of intellectual property rights (proposed) Enforcement of intellectual property rights (2004/48/EC... Austria Poland Belgium Bulgaria Cyprus Czech   Rep. ... A European political party, formally a political party at European level, sometimes informally (especially in academic circles) a Europarty, is a type of political party organization operating transnationally in Europe. ... Presidency of the Council of the European Union refers to the responsibility of presiding over all aspects of the Council of the European Union, when exercised collectively by a government, on a pre-established rota of the member states, of the European Union. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into List of tallest buildings in Europe#List of tallest buildings in the European Union. ... Supranationalism is a method of decision-making in international organizations, wherein power is held by independent appointed officials or by representatives elected by the legislatures or people of the member states. ... It has been suggested that World Federation be merged into this article or section. ... Supranationalism is a method of decision-making in international organizations, wherein power is held by independent appointed officials or by representatives elected by the legislatures or people of the member states. ... For theological federalism, see Covenant Theology. ... A confederation is an association of sovereign states or communities, usually created by treaty but often later adopting a common constitution. ... Intergovernmentalism is a theory of decision-making in international organizations, where power is possessed by the member-states and decisions are made by unanimity. ... Anti-nationalism is the idea that nationalism is undesirable or even dangerous in one form or another, and sometimes, though less often, the idea that all nationalism is dangerous and unfavourable in all cases. ... The rise of multinational corporations and outsourcing have played a crucial part in globalization. ... Mundialization is the name of one of the movements aiming at democratic globalization. ... In computer security, PaX is a patch for the Linux kernel that implements least privilege protections for memory pages. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... IMF redirects here. ... World Bank Group logo The World Bank Group (WBG) is a family of five international organizations responsible for providing finance and advice to countries for the purposes of economic development and eliminating poverty. ... WTO redirects here. ... Anthem Let Us All Unite and Celebrate Together [1] Administrative Centre Largest city Cairo, Egypt Working languages Arabic English French Portuguese Swahili Membership 53 African states Leaders  -  Chairman John Kufuor  -  Alpha Oumar Konaré Establishment  -  as the OAU May 25, 1963   -  as the African Union July 9, 2002  Area  -  Total 29... Pro Tempore Secretariat Brasília Official languages 4 Spanish Portuguese English Dutch Member states 12 Argentina Bolivia Brazil Chile Colombia Ecuador Guyana Paraguay Peru Suriname Uruguay Venezuela Leaders  -  President Rodrigo Borja  -  Tempore Secretary Jorge Taunay Filho Formation  -  Cuzco Declaration 8 December 2004  Area  -  Total 17,715,335 km² (1st2)  sq... Hymn The ASEAN Hymn Jakarta, Indonesia Membership 10 Southeast Asian states Leaders  -  Secretary General Ong Keng Yong Area  -  Total 4,497,4931 km²  Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character , sq mi  Population  -   estimate 566. ... Headquarters Washington, D.C. Official languages English, French, Spanish, Portuguese Membership 35 countries Leaders  -  Secretary General José Miguel Insulza (since 26 May 2005) Establishment  -  Charter first signed 30 April 1948 in effect 1 December 1951  Website http://www. ... The United Nations General Assembly (GA, UNGA) is one of the five principal organs of the United Nations and the only one in which all member nations have equal representation. ... The Pan-African Parliament is the legislative body of the African Union; at present it exercises oversight, and has advisory and consultative powers. ... The Latin American Parliament (Parlatino), is a regional, permanent and unicameral organism, integrated from the national Parliaments of Latin America, elected democratically by means of universal suffrage in countries that ratified the corresponding Treaty of Institutionalization signed on the 16 November 1987 in Lima, Peru, and those whose States adhered... The Central American Parliament, also know by the abbreviation Parlacen (from the Spanish Parlamento Centroamericano) is a political institution devoted to the integration of the Central American countries. ... The Inter-Parliamentary Union is an international organization established in 1889 by William Randal Cremer (United Kingdom) and Frédéric Passy (France). ... The official logo of the ICC The International Criminal Court (ICC or ICCt)[1] was established in 2002 as a permanent tribunal to prosecute individuals for genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, and the crime of aggression, although it cannot currently exercise jurisdiction over the crime of aggression. ... The International Court of Justice (known colloquially as the World Court or ICJ; French: ) is the primary judicial organ of the United Nations. ... The Tribunal building in The Hague. ... The African Court of Justice will at some point in the future be merged with the African Court on Human and Peoples Rights and be the African Unions legal organ. ... The Central American Court of Justice was an international court established by five Central American states by a treaty signed December 20, 1907 at Washington, D.C. Categories: Law stubs ... The Caribbean Court of Justice (CCJ) is a regional Caribbean-based institution in Port-of-Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. ... Official emblem of the ECJ The Court of Justice of the European Communities, usually called the European Court of Justice (ECJ), is the highest court in the European Union (EU). ... European Court of Human Rights building in Strasbourg The European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR), often referred to informally as the Strasbourg Court, was created to systematise the hearing of human rights complaints against States Parties to the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, adopted by... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... International law deals with the relationships between states, or between persons or entities in different states. ... Conflict of laws, or private international law, or international private law is that branch of international law and interstate law that regulates all lawsuits involving a foreign law element, where a difference in result will occur depending on which laws are applied as the lex causae. ... Supranational law is a form of international law, based on the limitation of the rights of sovereign nations between one another. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court Opened for signature June 17, 1998[1] at Rome Entered into force July 1, 2002 Conditions for entry into force 60 ratifications Parties 99[2] The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (or Rome Statute) is the treaty which established the International... Kyoto Protocol Opened for signature December 11, 1997 in Kyoto, Japan Entered into force February 16, 2005. ... The treaties of the European Union are effectively its constitutional law, making up the EUs primary legislation. ... The Law of the European Union is the unique legal system which operates alongside the laws of Member States of the European Union (EU). ... 1939–1941 semi-official emblem Anachronous world map in 1920–1945, showing the League of Nations and the world Capital Not applicable¹ Language(s) English, French and Spanish Political structure International organisation Secretary-general  - 1920–1933 Sir James Eric Drummond  - 1933–1940 Joseph Avenol  - 1940–1946 Seán Lester Historical... The Permanent Court of International Justice, sometimes called World Court, was the international court of the League of Nations established in 1922. ... For the 1947 Soviet film about the trials, see Nuremberg Trials (film). ... The Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA), also known as the Hague Tribunal is an international organization based in The Hague in the Netherlands. ... It has been suggested that World Federation be merged into this article or section. ... A United Nations Parliamentary Assembly, or United Nations Peoples Assembly (UNPA), is a proposed addition to the United Nations System that eventually would allow for direct election of UN delegates by citizens of member states. ... Proposed Central Asian Union A Central Asian Union was proposed by Kazakhstan President Nursultan Nazarbaev on April 26, 2007, consisting of the five Central Asian republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. ... In 2004, a committee of the Australian Senate called for the formation of a Pacific Union to comprise the member-states of the Pacific Islands Forum, but with a common charter, institutions and currency. ... The United States of Europe (sometimes abbreviated U.S.E. or USE) is a name given to several similar speculative scenarios of the unification of Europe, as a single nation and a single federation of states, similar to the United States of America, both as projected by writers of speculative... Federal Union is a British group launched in November 1938, to advocate a Federal Union of Europe as a post-war aim. ... The World Federalist Movement (WFM) is a global citizens movement with member and associated organizations around the globe. ... A global citizens movement refers to a number of organized and overlapping citizens groups who seek to influence public policy often with the hope of establishing global solidarity on an issue. ... World Union is a non-profit, non-political organisation founded on the 26th November 1958 in Pondicherry, inspired by Sri Aurobindos vision of carrying forward a movement for Human Unity, World Peace and Progress on a Spiritual Foundation. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
European Parliament blocks patent agreement | OUT-LAW.COM (603 words)
The proposal for a European Patent Litigation Agreement would commit its signatory states to an integrated judicial system for patent disputes, including uniform rules of procedure and a common appeal court.
The European Parliament debated the agreement in October and though MEPs obtained concessions from McCreevy, they still failed to back the plan.
The Parliament asked its Legal Service to analyse how the EPLA would fit with existing rights, obligations, laws and treaties that make up the 'acquis communautaire', the essence of the European Union.
Ep050706En - FFII (853 words)
Strasbourg, 6 July 2005 -- The European Parliament today decided by a large majority (729 members (of which 689 signed that day's attendance register), 680 votes, 648 in favour, 14 against, 18 abstaining [*]) to reject the directive "on the patentability of computer implemented inventions", also known as the software patent directive.
I also hope that it will encourage the Council and Commission to model after the European Parliament in terms of transparency and the ability of stakeholders to participate in the decision-making process irrespective of their size.
Currently, Parliament is supposed to have 732 members, but this is often less due to not yet replaced outgoing members.
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