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Encyclopedia > European Commission
Berlaymont, the Commission's seat

The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive branch of the European Union. The body is responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the Union's treaties and the general day-to-day running of the Union.[1] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2816 × 2112 pixel, file size: 4. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2816 × 2112 pixel, file size: 4. ... The Berlaymont building is an important governmental building in Brussels, Belgium. ... In political science and constitutional law, the executive is the branch of government responsible for the day-to-day management of the state. ... The Treaties of the European Union are effectively the basic constitutional texts of the Union. ...


The Commission operates in the method of cabinet government, with 27 Commissioners. There is one Commissioner per member state, however Commissioners are bound to represent the interests of the EU as a whole rather than their home state. One of the 27 is the Commission President (currently José Manuel Barroso) appointed by the European Council with the approval of the European Parliament. The present Barroso Commission took office in late 2004 and should be serving a five-year term.[1] Cabinet government refers to any government in which most executive power is invested in a cabinet - often the members act with collective responsibility. ... The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive of the European Union. ... Austria Poland Belgium Bulgaria Cyprus Czech   Rep. ... François-Xavier Ortoli, Romano Prodi, José Manuel Barroso and Jacques Delors The President of the European Commission is notionally the highest ranking unelected official within the European Union bureaucracy. ... José Manuel Durão Barroso, GCC (pronounced  ) (born in Porto, March 23, 1956) is a Portuguese politician and the 11th President of the European Commission, being the first Portuguese person to hold the post. ... This article deals with the meeting of European Union leaders. ... Established 1952, as the Common Assembly President Hans-Gert Pöttering (EPP) Since 16 January 2007 Vice-Presidents 14 Rodi Kratsa-Tsagaropoulou (EPP) Alejo Vidal-Quadras (EPP) Gérard Onesta (Greens – EFA) Edward McMillan-Scott (ED) Mario Mauro (EPP) Miguel Angel Martínez Martínez (PES) Luigi Cocilovo (ALDE) Mechtild... The Barroso Commission is the European Commission that has been in office since 22 November 2004 and is due to serve until 31 October 2009. ...


The term "Commission" can mean either the college of Commissioners mentioned above, or the larger institution; including the administrative body of about 25,000 European civil servants who are divided into departments called Directorates-General. It is primarily based in the Berlaymont building of Brussels and its internal working languages are English, French and German.[1] There are currently five institutions of the European Union which govern the Union. ... The European Civil Service is the civil service serving the institutions of the European Union. ... In the European Union, a Directorate-General covers a specific policy area, and is headed by a Commissioner and a Director-General. ... The Berlaymont building is an important governmental building in Brussels, Belgium. ... This article is about the settlement itself. ... A working language (also procedural language) is a language that is given a unique legal status in a supra-national company, society, state or other body or organization as its primal mean of communication. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...

European Union

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
the European Union
Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The European Union or EU is a supranational and international organization of 27 member states. ...


Treaties
Rome · Maastricht (Pillars)
Amsterdam · Nice · Lisbon
Institutions
Commission

President José Manuel Barroso
Barroso Commission The Treaties of the European Union are effectively the basic constitutional texts of the Union. ... The Treaty of Rome signing ceremony Signatures in the Treaty The Treaty of Rome refers to the treaty which established the European Economic Community (EEC) and was signed by France, West Germany, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg on March 25, 1957. ... The Maastricht Treaty (formally, the Treaty of European Union, TEU) was signed on February 7, 1992 in Maastricht, Netherlands after final negotiations in December 1991 between the members of the European Community and entered into force on November 1, 1993 during the Delors Commission. ... The Treaty of Maastricht which established the European Union, divided EU policies into three main areas, called pillars. ... Treaty of Amsterdam amending the Treaty of the European Union, the Treaties establishing the European Communities and certain related acts The Treaty of Amsterdam amending the Treaty of the European Union, the Treaties establishing the European Communities and certain related acts, commonly known as the Amsterdam Treaty, was signed on... Treaty of Nice The Treaty of Nice is a treaty adopted in Nice by the European Council to amend the two founding treaties of the European Union: the Treaty on European Union, or Maastricht Treaty, which introduced the Euro and the 3-pillar structure of the EU; the Treaty of... For other uses, see Treaty of Lisbon (disambiguation). ... There are currently five institutions of the European Union which govern the Union. ... François-Xavier Ortoli, Romano Prodi, José Manuel Barroso and Jacques Delors The President of the European Commission is notionally the highest ranking unelected official within the European Union bureaucracy. ... José Manuel Durão Barroso, GCC (pronounced  ) (born in Porto, March 23, 1956) is a Portuguese politician and the 11th President of the European Commission, being the first Portuguese person to hold the post. ... The Barroso Commission is the European Commission that has been in office since 22 November 2004 and is due to serve until 31 October 2009. ...


Parliament

President Hans-Gert Pöttering
MEPs (2004-09 term) Established 1952, as the Common Assembly President Hans-Gert Pöttering (EPP) Since 16 January 2007 Vice-Presidents 14 Rodi Kratsa-Tsagaropoulou (EPP) Alejo Vidal-Quadras (EPP) Gérard Onesta (Greens – EFA) Edward McMillan-Scott (ED) Mario Mauro (EPP) Miguel Angel Martínez Martínez (PES) Luigi Cocilovo (ALDE) Mechtild... The President of the European Parliament oversees all the activities of the European Parliament and its constituent bodies. ... Hans-Gert Pöttering (often written as Poettering; born September 15, 1945 in Bersenbrück, Lower Saxony) is a German conservative politician (CDU,European Peoples Party), and has been President of the European Parliament since January 2007. ... A Member of the European Parliament (English abbreviation MEP)[1] is a member of the European Unions directly-elected legislative body, the European Parliament. ... This is a list giving breakdowns of the European Parliamentary session from 2004 to 2009. ...


Council

Presidency: Slovenia (Janez Janša)
High Representative · Voting Established 1952 Presiding Country Portugal President Luís Amado President in Office José Sócrates Members 27 (at one time) Political parties 7, including: European Peoples Party Party of European Socialists Meeting place Justus Lipsius, Brussels, Belgium, European Union Web site http://www. ... The Presidency of the Council of the European Union refers to the responsibility of presiding over all aspects of the Council of the European Union, when exercised collectively by a government, on a pre-established rota of the member states, of the European Union. ... Janez JanÅ¡a (born September 17, 1958 as Ivan JanÅ¡a) in Ljubljana is a Slovenian politician and head of the Slovenian Democratic Party since 1995. ... Javier Solana, the current High Representative, with Condoleezza Rice The High Representative for the Common Foreign and Security Policy is the main co-ordinator of the Common Foreign and Security Policy within the European Union. ... The procedures for Voting in the Council of the European Union are described in the treaties of the EU. The Council of the European Union was instituted under this name in the Maastricht Treaty. ...


Other & Future Institutions

Court of Justice · Court of Auditors
Central Bank · European Council
There are currently five institutions of the European Union which govern the Union. ... There are currently five institutions of the European Union which govern the Union. ... Official emblem of the ECJ The Court of Justice of the European Communities, usually called the European Court of Justice (ECJ), is the highest court in the European Union (EU). ... The European Court of Auditors is one of five institutions of the European Union. ... This article deals with the meeting of European Union leaders. ...

Elections
Last election (2004) · 2007 by-election
Next election (2009) · Constituencies
Parties · Parliamentary groups
Related topics
States · Enlargement · Foreign relations
Law · EMU · Other bodies · Agencies

Other countries · Atlas
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Contents

Elections in the European Union gives information on election and election results in the European Union. ... Elections to the European Parliament were held from June 10, 2004 to June 13, 2004 in the 25 member states of the European Union, using varying election days according to local custom. ... In early 2007, Bulgaria and Romania will elect their members of the European Parliament for the first time. ... Elections to the European Parliament will be held in June 2006 in the then–27 member states of the European Union, using varying election days according to local custom. ... European Parliament electoral system is proportional representation. ... A European political party, formally a political party at European level, sometimes informally (especially in academic circles) a Europarty, is a type of political party organization operating transnationally in Europe. ... // Origins of the EU History of the European Union European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) Euratom Single market. ... Austria Poland Belgium Bulgaria Cyprus Czech   Rep. ... The European Union (EU) was created by six founding states in 1957 (following the earlier establishment by the same six states of the European Coal and Steel Community in 1952) and has grown to 27 member states. ... Foreign relations of the European Union Foreign relations of Austria Foreign relations of Belgium Foreign relations of Cyprus Foreign relations of the Czech Republic Foreign relations of Denmark Foreign relations of Estonia Foreign relations of Finland Foreign relations of France Foreign relations of Germany Foreign relations of Greece Foreign relations... The Law of the European Union is the unique legal system which operates alongside the laws of Member States of the European Union (EU). ... For the concept in general, see economic and monetary union. ... There are currently five institutions of the European Union which govern the Union. ... The agencies of the European Union (or decentralised bodies of the European Union) are bodies which are distinct from the European Unions institutions, in that they have not been created by the treaties but rather by acts of secondary legislation, in order to accomplish a very specific task. ... Information on politics by country is available for every country, including both de jure and de facto independent states, inhabited dependent territories, as well as areas of special sovereignty. ...

History

Main article: History of the European Union

Originating in 1951 as the High Authority, the Commission has undergone numerous changes in power and composition under eleven Presidents.[2] The European Union is a unique geo-political entity covering a large portion of the European continent. ...


Establishment

The first Commission originated in 1951 as the nine-member "High Authority" under President Jean Monnet. The Authority was the supranational administrative executive of the new European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC). In 1958 the Treaties of Rome established two new communities alongside the ECSC: the European Economic Community (EEC) and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). However the executives were called "Commissions" rather than "High Authorities".[2] The reason for the change in name was the new relationship between the executive and the Council. Some states such as France expressed reservations over the power of the High Authority and wished to limit it giving more power to the Council rather than the new executives.[3] Jean Omer Marie Gabriel Monnet (November 9, 1888 – March 16, 1979) is regarded by many as the architect of European Unity. ... Supranationalism is a method of decision-making in international organizations, where power is held by independent appointed officials or by representatives elected by the legislatures or people of the member states. ... Members of the European Coal and Steel Community Flag of the European Coal and Steel Community The European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) was founded in 1951 (Treaty of Paris), by France, West Germany, Italy, Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to pool the steel and coal resources of its member... The Treaty of Rome signing ceremony Signatures in the Treaty The Treaty of Rome refers to the treaty which established the European Economic Community (EEC) and was signed by France, West Germany, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg on March 25, 1957. ... The European Community (EC), most important of three European Communities, was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... The European Atomic Energy Community, or EURATOM, is an international organization composed of the members of the European Union. ... Established 1952 Presiding Country Portugal President Luís Amado President in Office José Sócrates Members 27 (at one time) Political parties 7, including: European Peoples Party Party of European Socialists Meeting place Justus Lipsius, Brussels, Belgium, European Union Web site http://www. ...


Walter Hallstein led the first Commission of the EEC, holding the first formal meeting on 16 January 1958 at the Castle of the Valley of the Duchess. It achieved agreement on a contentious cereal price accord as well as making a positive impression upon third countries when it made its international debut at the Kennedy Round of GATT negotiations.[4] Hallstein notably began the consolidation of European law and started to have a notable impact on national legislation. Little heed was taken of his administration at first but, with help from the European Court of Justice, his Commission stamped its authority solidly enough to allow future Commissions to be taken more seriously.[5] However, in 1965 the Hallstein Commission triggered the "empty chair" crisis with controversial proposals for the Common Agricultural Policy that were unacceptable to France. Although the institutional crisis was solved the following year, it cost Hallstein the presidency despite otherwise being viewed as the most 'dynamic' leader until Jacques Delors.[4] Walter Hallstein (17 November 1901 – 29 March 1982) was a German politician and professor. ... The Hallstein Commission is the European Commission that held office from January 7, 1958 to 1967. ... is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jan. ... A frontal view on the castle. ... The Kennedy round was the sixth session of GATT trade negotiations held in 1964-1967 in Geneva, Switzerland. ... General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (usually abbreviated GATT) functions as the foundation of the WTO trading system, and remains in force, although the 1995 Agreement contains an updated version of it to replace the original 1947 one. ... The Law of the European Union is the unique legal system which operates alongside the laws of Member States of the European Union (EU). ... Official emblem of the ECJ The Court of Justice of the European Communities, usually called the European Court of Justice (ECJ), is the highest court in the European Union (EU). ... The Hallstein Commission is the European Commission that held office from January 7, 1958 to 1967. ... The Hallstein Commission is the European Commission that held office from January 7, 1958 to 1967. ... The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is a system of European Union agricultural subsidies and programmes. ... Jacques Lucien Jean Delors (born July 20, 1925 in Paris) is a French economist and politician, the only person who served two terms as President of the European Commission (between 1985 and 1995). ...


Early development

The three bodies co-existed until 1 July 1967 where, by means of the Merger Treaty, they were combined into a single administration under President Jean Rey.[2] Due to the merger the Rey Commission saw a temporary increase to fourteen members, although all future Commissions were reduced back down to nine following the formula of one member for small states and two for larger states.[6] The Rey Commission completed the Community's customs union in 1968 and campaigned for a more powerful, elected, European Parliament.[7] Despite Rey being the first President of the combined communities, Hallstein is seen as the first President of the modern Commission.[2] is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... The Merger Treaty, signed in Brussels on 8 April 1965 and in force since 1 July 1967, first gathered together the organizational structures of the then three European Communities (European Coal and Steel Community, European Economic Community and Euratom). ... Jean Rey Jean Rey (July 15, 1902 – May 19, 1983) was a Belgian lawyer and Liberal politician who became President of the European Commission. ... The Rey Commission is the European Commission that held office from 1967 to 1970. ... A customs union is a free trade area with a Common External Tariff. ... Established 1952, as the Common Assembly President Hans-Gert Pöttering (EPP) Since 16 January 2007 Vice-Presidents 14 Rodi Kratsa-Tsagaropoulou (EPP) Alejo Vidal-Quadras (EPP) Gérard Onesta (Greens – EFA) Edward McMillan-Scott (ED) Mario Mauro (EPP) Miguel Angel Martínez Martínez (PES) Luigi Cocilovo (ALDE) Mechtild...


The Malfatti and Mansholt Commissions followed with work on monetary co-operation and the first enlargement to the north in 1973.[8][9] With that enlargement the Commission's membership increased to thirteen under the Ortoli Commission (the United Kingdom as a large member was granted two Commissioners), which dealt with the enlarged community during economic and international instability at that time.[6][10] The external representation of the Community took a step forward when President Roy Jenkins became the first President to attend a G8 summit on behalf of the Community.[11] Following the Jenkins Commission, Gaston Thorn's Commission oversaw the Community's enlargement to the south, in addition to beginning work on the Single European Act.[12] The Malfatti Commission is the European Commission that held office from 1970 to March 21, 1972. ... The Mansholt Commission is the European Commission that held office from March 22, 1972 to January 5, 1973. ... The European Union (EU) was created by six founding states in 1957 (following the earlier establishment by the same six states of the European Coal and Steel Community in 1952) and has grown to 27 member states. ... The Ortoli Commission is the European Commission that held office from January 6, 1973 to 1977. ... Roy Harris Jenkins, Baron Jenkins of Hillhead, OM, PC (November 11, 1920 – January 5, 2003) was a British politician and a prominent Labour Member of Parliament in the 1960s and 1970s, and founding member of the Social Democratic Party (SDP). ... Group of Eight redirects here. ... The Jenkins Commission is the European Commission that held office from 1977 to 6 January 1981. ... Gaston Egmond Thorn (September 3, 1928 – August 26, 2007) was a Luxembourg politician who served in a number of high-profile positions, both domestically and internationally. ... The Thorn Commission was the European Commission that held office from 6 January 1981 until 5 January 1985. ... The Single European Act (SEA) was the first major revision of the Treaty of Rome. ...


Delors and Santer

One of the most successful Commissions was that headed by Jacques Delors (the Delors Commission), with later Presidents failing to meet the same success. Delors was credited with giving the Community a sense of direction and dynamism.[13] Delors and his team are also considered as the "founding fathers of the euro".[14] The International Herald Tribune noted the work of Delors at the end of his second term in 1992: "Mr. Delors rescued the European Community from the doldrums. He arrived when Europessimism was at its worst. Although he was a little-known former French finance minister, he breathed life and hope into the EC and into the dispirited Brussels Commission. In his first term, from 1985 to 1988, he rallied Europe to the call of the single market, and when appointed to a second term he began urging Europeans toward the far more ambitious goals of economic, monetary and political union."[15] Jacques Lucien Jean Delors (born July 20, 1925 in Paris) is a French economist and politician, the only person who served two terms as President of the European Commission (between 1985 and 1995). ... Third Delors Commission The Delors Commission was the European Commission that held office from 1985 until 1995, which consists of three terms. ... Founding Fathers are persons instrumental not only in the establishment (founding) of a political institution, but also in the origination of the idea of the institution. ... For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ... The International Herald Tribune is a widely read English language international newspaper. ...


The successor to Delors was Jacques Santer. However the entire Santer Commission was forced to resign in 1999 by the Parliament following allegations of fraud. That was the first time Commission had been forced to resigned en masse and represented a shift towards the Parliament.[16] However the Santer Commission did carry out work on the Amsterdam Treaty and the euro.[17] Jacques Santer (born May 18, 1937) is a politician from Luxembourg. ... The Santer Commission was the European Commission that held office from 1995 until 15 March 1999. ... Treaty of Amsterdam amending the Treaty of the European Union, the Treaties establishing the European Communities and certain related acts The Treaty of Amsterdam amending the Treaty of the European Union, the Treaties establishing the European Communities and certain related acts, commonly known as the Amsterdam Treaty, was signed on...


Recent Commissions

Following Santer, Romano Prodi took office. The Amsterdam Treaty had increased the Commission's powers and Prodi was dubbed by the press as something akin to a Prime Minister.[18][19] Powers were strengthened again with the Nice Treaty in 2001 giving the President more power over the composition of their Commission.[2] Prodi redirects here. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... The Treaty of Nice is a treaty adopted in Nice by the European Council to amend the two founding treaties of the European Union: the Treaty on European Union, or Maastricht Treaty, which introduced the Euro and the 3-pillar structure of the EU; the Treaty of Rome, which established...


In 2004 José Manuel Barroso became President, however the Parliament once again asserted itself in objecting to the proposed membership of the Barroso Commission. Due to the opposition Barroso was forced to reshuffle his team before taking office.[20] The Barroso Commission was also the first full Commission since the enlargement in 2004 to 25 members and hence the number of Commissioners at the end of the Prodi Commission had reached 30. As a result of the increase in states, the Amsterdam Treaty triggered a reduction in Commissioners to one Commissioner per state, rather than two for the larger states.[6] José Manuel Durão Barroso, GCC (pronounced  ) (born in Porto, March 23, 1956) is a Portuguese politician and the 11th President of the European Commission, being the first Portuguese person to hold the post. ... The Barroso Commission is the European Commission that has been in office since 22 November 2004 and is due to serve until 31 October 2009. ...


Powers and functions

Incumbent President Barroso

The Commission was set up from the start to act as an independent supranational authority separate from governments; it has been described as "the only body paid to think European".[21] The members are proposed by their member state governments, one from each, however they are bound to act independently – neutral from other influences such as those governments which appointed them. This is in contrast to the Council, which represents governments, and the Parliament, which represents citizens.[1] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 472 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1448 × 1840 pixel, file size: 394 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 472 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1448 × 1840 pixel, file size: 394 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... The Barroso Commission is the European Commission that has been in office since 22 November 2004 and is due to serve until 31 October 2009. ... Established 1952 Presiding Country Portugal President Luís Amado President in Office José Sócrates Members 27 (at one time) Political parties 7, including: European Peoples Party Party of European Socialists Meeting place Justus Lipsius, Brussels, Belgium, European Union Web site http://www. ... Established 1952, as the Common Assembly President Hans-Gert Pöttering (EPP) Since 16 January 2007 Vice-Presidents 14 Rodi Kratsa-Tsagaropoulou (EPP) Alejo Vidal-Quadras (EPP) Gérard Onesta (Greens – EFA) Edward McMillan-Scott (ED) Mario Mauro (EPP) Miguel Angel Martínez Martínez (PES) Luigi Cocilovo (ALDE) Mechtild... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ...


Executive power

Executive power of the Union is held by the Council: it confers on the Commission such powers for it to exercise. However, the Council may withdraw these powers, exercise them directly, or impose conditions on their use.[22][23] Powers are outlined in Articles 211–219 of the EC treaty[24] and are more restricted than most national executives, in part due to the Commission's lack of power over areas like foreign policy – that power is held by the European Council, which some analyses have described as another executive.[25] The Common Foreign and Security Policy, or CFSP, was established as the second of the three pillars of the European Union in the Maastricht treaty of 1992, and further defined and broadened in the Amsterdam Treaty of 1999. ... This article deals with the meeting of European Union leaders. ...


Considering that under the Lisbon Treaty the European Council would become a formal institution with the power of appointing the Commission, it could be said that the two bodies hold the executive power of the Union (the European Council also holds individual national executive powers). However, it is the Commission which currently holds executive powers over the European Community.[26][25] The governmental powers of the Commission have been such that some such as former Belgian Prime Minister Guy Verhofstadt have suggested changing its name to the "European Government", calling the present name of commission: "ridiculous".[27] The Treaty of Lisbon is either: A 1668 treaty between Portugal and Spain. ... The European Community (EC) was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... For the government in parliamentary systems, see Executive (government) A government is a body that has the power to make and the authority to enforce rules and laws within a civil, corporate, religious, academic, or other organization or group . ... This is a list of Prime Ministers of Belgium, known regionally as: Premier Ministre in French, Eerste Minister in Dutch, and Premierminister in German. ... Guy Verhofstadt (help· info) (born April 11, 1953) is a Belgian politician, municipal councillor in Ghent and current Prime Minister of Belgium. ...


Legislative initiative

The Commission differs from the other institutions in that it alone has legislative initiative in the 'pillars' of the European Union, meaning only the Commission can make formal proposals for legislation – bills cannot formally originate in the legislative branch. It shares this right with the Council over the CFSP pillar, but has no right over Police and Judicial Co-operation in Criminal Matters. In the Community however, Council and Parliament are able to request legislation; in most cases the Commission initiates the basis of these proposals, this monopoly is designed to ensure coordinated and coherent drafting of Union law.[28][29] This monopoly has been challenged by some who claim the Parliament should also have the right, with most national parliaments holding the right in some respects.[30] Under the Lisbon Treaty, EU citizens would also be able to request the Commission to legislate in an area via a petition carrying one million signatures, but it would not be binding.[31] Legislative initiative is the constitutionally defined power to propose law proposals (bills). ... A bill is a proposed new law introduced within a legislature that has not been ratified, adopted, or received assent. ... The Common Foreign and Security Policy, or CFSP, was established as the second of the three pillars of the European Union in the Maastricht treaty of 1992, and further defined and broadened in the Amsterdam Treaty of 1999. ... Police and Judicial Co-operation in Criminal Matters (PJC) is the third of the three pillars of the European Union, focusing on co-operation in law enforcement and combating racism. ... The Law of the European Union is the unique legal system which operates alongside the laws of Member States of the European Union (EU). ...


The Commission's powers in proposing law have usually centred on economic regulation. It has put forward a large number of regulations based on a "precautionary principle". This means that pre-emptive regulation takes place if there is a credible hazard to the environment or human health: for example on tackling climate change and restricting genetically modified organisms. This is opposed to weighting regulations for their effect on the effect on the economy. Thus, the Commission have produced stricter regulations than other countries. Due to the size of the European market this has made the Commission the de facto regulator of the global market.[32] The precautionary principle is a moral and political principle which states that if an action or policy might cause severe or irreversible harm to the public, in the absence of a scientific consensus that harm would not ensue, the burden of proof falls on those who would advocate taking the... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 450,000 years For current global climate change, see Global warming. ... A genetically modified organism is an organism whose genetic material has been deliberately altered. ...


Recently the Commission has moved into creating European criminal law. In 2006, a toxic waste spill off the coast of Côte d'Ivoire, from a European ship, prompted the Commission to look into legislation against toxic waste. Some EU states at that time did not even have a crime against shipping toxic waste leading to the Commissioners Franco Frattini and Stavros Dimas to put forward the idea of "ecological crimes". Their right to propose criminal law was challenged in the European Court of Justice but upheld. As of 2007, the only other criminal law proposals which have been brought forward are on the intellectual property rights directive,[33] and on an amendment to the 2002 counter-terrorism framework decision, outlawing terrorism‑related incitement, recruitment (especially via the internet) and training.[34] The Law of the European Union is the unique legal system which operates alongside the laws of Member States of the European Union (EU). ... The 2006 Côte dIvoire toxic waste spill was a health crisis in Côte dIvoire in which a ship illegally dumped toxic waste in up to 12 sites around the countrys largest city, Abidjan, in August 2006. ... Franco Frattini (born 14 March 1957) is an Italian politician, currently serving as European Commissioner for Justice, Freedom and Security. ... Stavros Dimas Stavros Dimas (Σταύρος Δήμας) (born 30 April 1941) is a Greek politician, currently serving as European Commissioner for the Environment. ... Official emblem of the ECJ The Court of Justice of the European Communities, usually called the European Court of Justice (ECJ), is the highest court in the European Union (EU). ...


Enforcement

Once legislation is passed by the Council and Parliament, it is the Commission's responsibility to ensure it is implemented. It does this through the member states or through its agencies. In adopting the necessary technical measures, the Commission is assisted by committees made up of representatives of member states (a process known in jargon as "comitology").[35] Furthermore, the Commission is responsible for the implementation of the EU budget; ensuring, along with the Court of Auditors, that EU funds are correctly spent. The agencies of the European Union (or decentralised bodies of the European Union) are bodies which are distinct from the European Unions institutions, in that they have not been created by the treaties but rather by acts of secondary legislation, in order to accomplish a very specific task. ... Comitology is the study of comity: the informal and voluntary recognition by courts of one jurisdiction of the laws and judicial decisions of another. ... The European Union (EU) has an independent parliament and civil service which is distinct from those of the 25 member states. ... The European Court of Auditors is one of five institutions of the European Union. ...


In particular the Commission has a duty to ensure the treaties and law are upheld, potentially by taking member states or other institutions to the Court of Justice in a dispute. In this role it is known informally as the "guardian of the treaties".[36] Finally, the Commission provides some external representation for the Union, alongside the member states and the Common Foreign and Security Policy, representing the Union in bodies such as the World Trade Organisation. It is also usual for the President to attend meetings of the G8.[36] Official emblem of the ECJ The Court of Justice of the European Communities, usually called the European Court of Justice (ECJ), is the highest court in the European Union (EU). ... Foreign relations of the European Union Foreign relations of Austria Foreign relations of Belgium Foreign relations of Cyprus Foreign relations of the Czech Republic Foreign relations of Denmark Foreign relations of Estonia Foreign relations of Finland Foreign relations of France Foreign relations of Germany Foreign relations of Greece Foreign relations... The Common Foreign and Security Policy, or CFSP, was established as the second of the three pillars of the European Union in the Maastricht treaty of 1992, and further defined and broadened in the Amsterdam Treaty of 1999. ... For other uses of the initials WTO, see WTO (disambiguation). ... Group of Eight redirects here. ...


College

The Commission is composed of a college of "Commissioners", 27 members in all, including the President and vice-presidents. Even though each member is appointed by a national government, one per state, they do not represent their state in the Commission[37] (however in practice they do occasionally press for their national interest[38]). Once proposed, the President delegates portfolios between each of the members. The power of a Commissioner largely depends upon their portfolio. For example, while the Culture Commissioner isn't a very important figure, the Competition Commissioner is a powerful position with global reach.[37] Before the Commission can assume office, the college as a whole must be approved by the Parliament.[1] Commissioners are supported by their personal cabinet who give them political guidance, while the Civil Service (the DGs, see below) deal with technical preparation.[39] The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive of the European Union. ... Ján Figeľ Barroso Commission, 2004 to 2009 European Commissioner for Education, Training, Culture is a member of the European Commission responsible for policies in education and training, youth, sport, civil society, culture, translation, interpretation and relations with the Office for Official Publications of the European Communities. ... The Commissioner for Competition is the member of the European Commission with responsibility for such matters as commercial competition, company mergers and anti-trust law. ... The European Civil Service is the civil service serving the institutions of the European Union. ...


Appointment

Floor 13 of the Berlaymont, Commission's meeting room
Floor 13 of the Berlaymont, Commission's meeting room

The President of the Commission is first nominated by the European Council; that nominee is then officially elected by the European Parliament. The candidate selected by the Council has often been a leading national politician but this is not a requirement. In 2004, the proposed Constitution had included a provision that the choice of President must take into account the latest Parliamentary elections. That provision was not in force in the nomination in 2004, but the centre-right parties of the EU pressured for a candidate from their own ranks. In the end, a right-wing candidate was chosen: José Manuel Barroso of the European People's Party.[40] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (642 × 856 pixel, file size: 391 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (642 × 856 pixel, file size: 391 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... François-Xavier Ortoli, Romano Prodi, José Manuel Barroso and Jacques Delors The President of the European Commission is notionally the highest ranking unelected official within the European Union bureaucracy. ... Established 1952, as the Common Assembly President Hans-Gert Pöttering (EPP) Since 16 January 2007 Vice-Presidents 14 Rodi Kratsa-Tsagaropoulou (EPP) Alejo Vidal-Quadras (EPP) Gérard Onesta (Greens – EFA) Edward McMillan-Scott (ED) Mario Mauro (EPP) Miguel Angel Martínez Martínez (PES) Luigi Cocilovo (ALDE) Mechtild... Elections in the European Union gives information on election and election results in the European Union. ... José Manuel Durão Barroso, GCC (pronounced  ) (born in Porto, March 23, 1956) is a Portuguese politician and the 11th President of the European Commission, being the first Portuguese person to hold the post. ... The European Peoples Party (EPP) is the largest transnational European political party. ...


There are further criteria influencing the choice of the Council, these include: which area of Europe the candidate comes from, favoured as Southern Europe in 2004; the candidate's political influence, credible yet not overpowering members; language, proficiency in French considered necessary by France; and degree of integration, their state being a member of both the eurozone and the Schengen Agreement.[41][42][43] The Eurozone (less frequently called the Euro Area or Euroland) refers to a currency union among the European Union member states that have adopted the euro as their sole official currency. ... For other uses, see Schengen. ...


In 2004, this system produced a number of candidates[44] and was thus criticised by some MEPs: following the drawn-out selection, the ALDE group leader Graham Watson described the procedure as a "Justus Lipsius carpet market" producing only the "lowest common denominator"; while Green-EFA co-leader Daniel Cohn-Bendit asked Barroso after his first speech "If you are the best candidate, why were you not the first?"[45][46] ALDE logo The Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe (French: Alliance des Démocrates et des Libéraux pour lEurope, Dutch: Alliantie van Liberalen en Democraten voor Europa) is a Group in the European Parliament. ... Graham Watson (born 23 March 1956) is a Member of the European Parliament for South West England for the Liberal Democrats. ... The Justus Lipsius building is the headquarters of the Council of the European Union in Brussels. ... Logo of the European Federation of Green Parties - EFA The European Greens – European Free Alliance (The Greens - European Free Alliance; Greens - EFA; French: Le Groupe Verts - Alliance libre européenne; Les Verts - ALE, German Fraktion der Grünen/Freie Europäische Allianz) is one of the parliamentary groups in the... Daniel Cohn-Bendit, Ash Wednesday 2004 at Biberach/Riss Daniel Marc Cohn-Bendit (born Montauban, France, April 4, 1945) is a European politician and was a leader of the student protesters during the May 1968 riots in France. ...


Following their appointment, the President appoints a number of Vice-Presidents among the Commissioners. At present there are five, with Margot Wallström as the current "First" Vice President. For the most part, the position grants little extra power to Vice-Presidents, except the first Vice-President who stands in for the President when he is away.[37] Margot Wallström First-Vice-President, 2004 to 2009 A Vice President of the European Commission is a position given to a Commissioner in addition to their usual portfolio. ... The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive of the European Union. ... Margot Wallström Margot Wallström (born September 28, 1954), is Swedish politician, Social Democrat, and currently First Vice President and Institutional Relations and Communication Strategy Commissioner of the European Commission. ...


Political styles

The present Commission, the Barroso Commission, took office in late 2004 after being delayed by objections from the Parliament which forced a reshuffle. In 2007 the Commission increased from 25 to 27 members with the accession of Romania and Bulgaria who each appointed their own Commissioners. With the increasing size of the Commission, President Barroso has adopted a more Presidential style of control over the college, which has earned him some criticism.[47] The Barroso Commission is the European Commission that has been in office since 22 November 2004 and is due to serve until 31 October 2009. ...


However, despite Barroso being a more presidential and high profile figure than his predecessors, the Commission has begun to lose ground to the larger member states as countries such as France, the UK and Germany seek to sideline its role. This may increase with the creation of the President of the European Council.[48] Furthermore, there has also been a greater degree of politicisation within the Commission, this being welcomed by Commissioner Wallström as necessary for citizens' engagement in European affairs.[49] The European Council, sometimes informally called the European Summit, is a meeting of the heads of state or government of the European Union, and the President of the European Commission (not to be confused with the Council of the European Union, or the Council of Europe). ... The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive of the European Union. ...


Organisation

Further information: European Civil Service

The Commission is primarily based in Brussels, with the President's office and the Commission's meeting room based on the 13th floor of the Berlaymont building. The Commission also operates out of numerous other buildings in Brussels and Luxembourg.[1][50] When the Parliament is meeting in Strasbourg, the Commissioners also meet there in the Winston Churchill building to attend the Parliament's debates.[51] The Commission is divided into departments known as Directorates-General (DGs) that can be likened to departments or ministries. Each covers a specific policy area or service such as External relations or Translation and is headed by Director-General who is responsible to a Commissioner. A Commissioner's portfolio can be supported by numerous DGs, they prepare proposals for them and if approved by a majority of Commissioners it goes forward to Parliament and Council for consideration.[52][1] There has been criticism from a number of people that the highly fragmented DG structure wastes a considerable about of time in turf wars as the different departments and Commissioners compete with each other. Furthermore the DGs can exercise considerable control over a Commissioner with the Commissioner having little time to learn to assert control over their staff.[53][54] The European Civil Service is the civil service serving the institutions of the European Union. ... The Berlaymont building is an important governmental building in Brussels, Belgium. ... The Parliaments Paul-Henri Spaak building, as seen from Justus Lipsius Brussels (Belgium) is considered to be the de facto capital of the European Union, having a long history of hosting the institutions of the European Union. ... In the European Union, a Directorate-General covers a specific policy area, and is headed by a Commissioner and a Director-General. ... A ministry is a department of a government, led by a minister. ... Turf war is a term that describes a common problem in larger companies when two divisions fight for access to resources or capital. ...


According to figures published by the Commission, 23,043 persons were employed by the Commission as officials and temporary agents in April 2007. In addition to these, 9019 "external staff" (e.g. Contractual agents, detached national experts, young experts etc) were employed. The single largest DG is the Directorate-General for Translation, with a 2186-strong staff, while the largest group by nationality is Belgian (21.4%), probably due to a majority (16,626) of staff being based in the country.[55] The Commission's civil service is headed by a Secretary General, currently Catherine Day.[21] The Directorate-General for Translation (DGT), located in Brussels and Luxembourg, provides translation of written text into and out of the European Unions twenty official languages. ... The European Civil Service is the civil service serving the institutions of the European Union. ... The Secretary-General of the European Commission is the senior civil servant of the European Commission. ... Catherine Day is the current Secretary-General of the European Commission. ...


Press

Press Room in the Berlaymont
Press Room in the Berlaymont

Communication with the press is handled by the Directorate-General Communication. The Commission's chief spokesperson is Johannes Laitenberger who takes the midday press briefings, commonly known as the "Midday Presser". It takes place every weekday in the Commission's press room at the Berlaymont where journalists may ask questions of Commission officials on any topic and legitimately expect to get an "on the record" answer for live TV. Such a situation is unique in the world.[56] There is a greater number of press corps in Brussels than Washington D.C.; media outlets in every Union member-state have a Brussels correspondent.[57] Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... The Directorate-General Communication is a Directorate-General of the European Commission. ... A spokesperson (person could be replaced with the gender of the person), or spokesmodel is a person who speaks on behalf of others, but is understood not to be necessarily part of the others (e. ... Popular press redirects here; note that the University of Wisconsin Press publishes under the imprint The Popular Press. Mass media is a term used to denote a section of the media specifically envisioned and designed to reach a very large audience such as the population of a nation state. ... Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United... A journalist is a person who practices journalism. ...


It has been noted by one researcher that the press releases issued by the Commission are uniquely political. A release often goes through several stages of drafting which emphasises the role of the Commission and is used "for justifying the EU and the commission" increasing their length and complexity. Where there are multiple departments involved a press release can also be a source of competition between areas of the Commission and Commissioner's themselves. This also leads to an unusually high number of press releases, 1907 for 2006, and is seen as a unique product of the EU's political set-up.[54]


Legitimacy

It is argued by some that the method of appointment for the Commission increases the democratic deficit in the European Union.[58][59] While the Commission is the executive branch, the candidates are chosen primarily by the 27 national governments, meaning it is hard for the Commission to be thrown out directly by the voters. The legitimacy of the Commission is mainly drawn from the vote of approval that is required from the Parliament along with Parliament's power to sack the body, however there has been less than 50% turnout in the Parliament's elections since 1999. While that figure may be higher than that of some national elections, including those of the United States Congress, the fact that there are no elections for the position Commission President, unlike in the United States, makes the post less legitimate in the eyes of the public.[60] A further problem is the lack of a coherent electorate, even though democratic structures and methods are developing there is not such a mirror in creating a European civil society.[61] The new Treaty of Lisbon might have gone some way to resolving the deficit in creating greater democratic controls on the Commission, including enshrining the procedure of linking elections to the selection of the Commission president, had its validity not been thrown into doubt by the Irish No-Vote.[62] Under the plans of Vice President Wallström, European political parties would gain greater prominence and could lead to the Commission President being elected via the Parliament's elections.[63] The Democratic deficit in the European Union is an argument made against the perceived democratic problems that have been a result of the process of creating the European Union after the first energy transition from coal to gas in 1963 (Gasunie) as the worlds root cause for globalization. ... The 1999 election was the first election for the European Parliament after the enlargement of the European Union with Austria, Finland and Sweden. ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Civil society is composed of the totality of voluntary civic and social organizations and institutions that form the basis of a functioning society as opposed to the force-backed structures of a state (regardless of that states political system) and commercial institutions. ... For other uses, see Treaty of Lisbon (disambiguation). ... The European political party, or formally political party at European level, is a type of political party organization in the European Union, eligible to receive funding from the Union. ... Elections in the European Union gives information on election and election results in the European Union. ...


The alternative viewpoint on the Commission states that the policy areas in which it has power to initiate legislation are ill suited to an institution accountable to electoral pressures. In this respect the Commission has been compared with institutions such as independent Central Banks which deal with technical areas of policy that are of little electoral salience. In addition some defenders of the Commission point out that legislation must be approved by the Council in all areas (the ministers of member states) and the European Parliament in some areas before it can be adopted, thus the amount of legislation which is adopted in any one country without the approval of its government is limited.[64] This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Future of the Commission

The proposed Lisbon Treaty, which currently may not be ratified by its 2009 deadline due to a failed referendum, largely retains the reforms outlined in the rejected Constitutional Treaty.[65][66] The constitution's reforms proposed a number of changes, notably the number of Commissioners would be reduced; from 2014 only two out of three member-states would have the right to representation. The representation would be rotated equally between all states and no state would have more than one in any single Commission. The Commission would also include the new High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy[67] , as one of the Vice Presidents, replacing the External Relations Commissioner. In the appointment of the Commission, the most recent European elections would have to be taken into account. It is thought this would create a stronger link between the elections and the Commission, however the President would still be proposed by the Council. Although when the Parliament votes on the Commission, the treaty changes the term "approve" to "elect" in referring to the vote: it is unknown yet if this will produce practical change.[68] The Treaty of Lisbon is either: A 1668 treaty between Portugal and Spain. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe The constitutional treaty as signed in Rome on 29 October 2004 by representatives of the EU member states The Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe (TCE), commonly referred to as the European Constitution, was an unimplemented... Javier Solana, expected to be the first combined High Representative The High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy is a new European Union political post envisaged under the proposed Reform Treaty. ... The Current Commissioner with the First Lady of Argentina, Cristina Fernández de Kirchner The Commissioner for the External Relations is the member of the European Commission responsible for the Commissions external representation in the world, the current Commissioner is Benita Ferrero-Waldner (EPP-ED). ...


See also

There are currently five institutions of the European Union which govern the Union. ... The Parliaments Paul-Henri Spaak building, as seen from Justus Lipsius Brussels (Belgium) is considered to be the de facto capital of the European Union, having a long history of hosting the institutions of the European Union. ... At present, there is no single President of the European Union. ... New Commissioners Orban (Romania) and Kuneva (Bulgaria) with President Barroso Currently, the European Commission is comprised of one member per member-state. ... The Commission of the African Union consists of a number of Commissoners dealing with different areas of policy, it is headquartered in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. ...  Countries under the Surveillance Authority  Countries under the European Commission The European Free Trade Association Surveillance Authority performs the European Commissions role as guardian of the treaties for the countries of the European Free Trade Association. ...

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Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Screenshot of ENA The European NAvigator (ENA) is an an educative platform providing a lot of information about the History of Europe and its institutions since 1945. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Screenshot of ENA The European NAvigator (ENA) is an an educative platform providing a lot of information about the History of Europe and its institutions since 1945. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Mascot: Beaver Affiliations: University of London Russell Group EUA ACU CEMS APSIA Golden Triangle G5 Group Universities UK Website: http://www. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Derk Jan Eppink (born November 7, 1958 in Steenderen, Gelderland) is a Dutch journalist and former cabinet secretary for European Commissioners Bolkestein and Kallas. ... Screenshot of ENA The European NAvigator (ENA) is an an educative platform providing a lot of information about the History of Europe and its institutions since 1945. ... 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Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... {| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... {| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... {| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... {| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Burson-Marsteller is one of the largest public relations agencies in the world. ... 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Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... {| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... is the 106th day of the year (107th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The International Herald Tribune is a widely read English language international newspaper. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... BusinessWeek is a business magazine published by McGraw-Hill. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Screenshot of ENA The European NAvigator (ENA) is an an educative platform providing a lot of information about the History of Europe and its institutions since 1945. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Screenshot of ENA The European NAvigator (ENA) is an an educative platform providing a lot of information about the History of Europe and its institutions since 1945. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... New York University (NYU) is a private, nonsectarian, coeducational research university in New York City. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Centre for European Reform is a London-based think tank devoted to improving the quality of the debate on the European Union. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Diana Paulette Wallis (born 28 June 1954) is a Member of the European Parliament for the Liberal Democrats for Yorkshire and the Humber since 1999. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Economist is an English-language weekly news and international affairs publication owned by The Economist Newspaper Ltd and edited in London. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 204th day of the year (205th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article refers to the news department of the British Broadcasting Corporation, for the BBC News Channel see BBC News (TV channel). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Derk Jan Eppink (born November 7, 1958 in Steenderen, Gelderland) is a Dutch journalist and former cabinet secretary for European Commissioners Bolkestein and Kallas. ... Derk Jan Eppink (born November 7, 1958 in Steenderen, Gelderland) is a Dutch journalist and former cabinet secretary for European Commissioners Bolkestein and Kallas. ... This article is about the German international broadcaster. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 239th day of the year (240th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The International Herald Tribune is a widely read English language international newspaper. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article refers to the news department of the British Broadcasting Corporation, for the BBC News Channel see BBC News (TV channel). ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see The Independent (disambiguation). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Derk Jan Eppink (born November 7, 1958 in Steenderen, Gelderland) is a Dutch journalist and former cabinet secretary for European Commissioners Bolkestein and Kallas. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the German international broadcaster. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article refers to the news department of the British Broadcasting Corporation, for the BBC News Channel see BBC News (TV channel). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article refers to the news department of the British Broadcasting Corporation, for the BBC News Channel see BBC News (TV channel). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 239th day of the year (240th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 239th day of the year (240th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article refers to the news department of the British Broadcasting Corporation, for the BBC News Channel see BBC News (TV channel). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Federal Union is a British group launched in November 1938, to advocate a Federal Union of Europe as a post-war aim. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

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  • European Commission ec.europa.eu – official website
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  • European NAvigator ena.lu – Multimedia website with historical information on the European Commission
  • Welcome Europe welcomeurope.com – information on the EU funding from the Commission

Coordinates: 50°50′37″N, 4°22′58″E Berlaymont, Brussels / 2004-04-17 / selfmade / licence: GNU FDL File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... François-Xavier Ortoli, Romano Prodi, José Manuel Barroso and Jacques Delors The President of the European Commission is notionally the highest ranking unelected official within the European Union bureaucracy. ... The European Council, sometimes informally called the European Summit, is a meeting of the heads of state or government of the European Union, and the President of the European Commission (not to be confused with the Council of the European Union, or the Council of Europe). ... Presidency of the Council of the European Union refers to the responsibility of presiding over all aspects of the Council of the European Union, when exercised collectively by a government, on a pre-established rota of the member states, of the European Union. ... The President of the European Parliament oversees all the activities of the European Parliament and its constituent bodies. ... The European Civil Service is the civil service serving the institutions of the European Union. ... Comitology is the study of comity: the informal and voluntary recognition by courts of one jurisdiction of the laws and judicial decisions of another. ... EPSO logo The European Personnel Selection Office (or EPSO) is a recruitment office for the European Unions institutions. ... European Union Civil Service Tribunal, since December 2, 2005 a new specialised tribunal within the European Union institutional framework. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 401 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (686 × 1024 pixel, file size: 533 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Directorate-General for Competition (COMP) is a Directorate-General of the European Commission, located in Brussels, Belgium. ... The Directorate-General for Economic and Financial Affairs (ECFIN) is located in Brussels and Luxembourg. ... The Directorate-General for Education and Culture is a Directorate-General of the European Commission. ... The Directorate-General for Employment, Social Affairs and Equal Opportunities is a Directorate-General of the European Commission. ... The Directorate-General for Enterprise and Industry is a Directorate-General of the European Commission. ... The Directorate-General for Fisheries and Maritime Affairs or DG FISH is a department of the European Commission, responsible for the policy area of fisheries, the Law of the Sea and Maritime Affairs. ... The Directorate-General for Health and Consumer Protection is a Directorate-General of the European Commission. ... EU Directorate General Information Society and Media or DG Infso is a Directorate-General of the European Commission. ... The Directorate-General for Internal Market and Services (DG MARKT) is a Directorate-General of the European Commission. ... // Mission The mission of the JRC is to provide customer-driven scientific and technical support for the conception, development, implementation and monitoring of EU policies. ... The Directorate-General for Justice, Freedom and Security is a Directorate-General of the European Commission. ... The Directorate-General for Regional Policy is a Directorate-General of the European Commission. ... // Mission The Directorate General’s mission is evolving as work on the European Research Area (ERA) continues. ... The Directorate-General for Taxation and Customs Union is a Directorate-General of the European Commission. ... The Directorate-General for Energy and Transport (DG TREN) is a Directorate-General of the European Commission. ... The Directorate-General for the External Relations (DG RELEX) is a department of the European Commission, responsible for the external policy. ... The Directorate-General for Development is a Directorate-General of the European Commission. ... The Directorate-General for Enlargement is a Directorate-General of the European Commission. ... The Directorate-General for Trade is a Directorate-General of the European Commission. ... The EuropeAid Co-operation Office is an organization of the European Commission. ... European Community Humanitarian aid Office (ECHO) is the European Commissions department for humanitarian aid. ... The term General Service refers to a collection of Directorate-Generals and Services within the European Commission that provide services to the policy-making DGs. ... The Directorate-General Communication is a Directorate-General of the European Commission. ... The Statistical Office of the European Communities (Eurostat) is the statistical arm of the European Commission, producing data for the European Union and promoting harmonisation of statistical methods across the member states. ... The given name Olav (Olaf, Olof, Olaus), the name of Saint Olav, patron of Norway, has also been borne by a number of other Norwegian kings. ... The Office for Official Publications of the European Communities (Publications Office) is a Directorate-General of the European Commission. ... The Secretariat-General of the European Commissionis a Directorate-General of the European Commission. ... The Secretary-General of the European Commission is the senior civil servant of the European Commission. ... The term Internal Service refers to a collection of Directorate-Generals and Services within the European Commission that provide services to the policy-making DGs or perform set administrative tasks. ... The Directorate-General for Budget is a Directorate-General of the European Commission. ... The Directorate-General for Informatics is a Directorate-General of the European Commission. ... The Directorate-General for Interpretation is a Directorate-General of the European Commission. ... The Directorate-General for Translation (DGT), located in Brussels and Luxembourg, provides translation of written text into and out of the European Unions twenty official languages. ... The Berlaymont building is an important governmental building in Brussels, Belgium. ... The Charlemagne building seen from the Berlaymont The Charlemagne building is a skyscraper in Brussels (Belgium) which houses offices of the European Commission relating to enlargement, interpreting and trade in addition to a number of advisers. ... The member states of the European Union speak with the same voice on many issues. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The European Union is a unique geo-political entity covering a large portion of the European continent. ... The Treaty of Rome signing ceremony From prehistoric to modern times, the human History of Europe has been turbulent, cultured, and much-documented. ... Members of the European Coal and Steel Community Flag of the European Coal and Steel Community The European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) was founded in 1951 (Treaty of Paris), by France, West Germany, Italy, Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to pool the steel and coal resources of its member... The European Community (EC) was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... The European Atomic Energy Community, or EURATOM, is an international organization composed of the members of the European Union. ... This is a timeline of European Union history including the European Economic Community, its de facto successor. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The first moves towards the establishment of the Union came following the end of the Second World War. ... Out of the two newly founded communities, the European Economic Community (EEC) and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom), the former became the most important community. ... On 1 January 1973, Denmark, Ireland and the United Kingdom became the first countries to join the Communities. ... The European Union is a unique geo-political entity covering a large portion of the European continent. ... The Prodi Commission was the European Commission from 1999 to 2004. ... The Barroso Commission is the European Commission that has been in office since 22 November 2004 and is due to serve until 31 October 2009. ... The European Union or EU is a supranational and international organization of 27 member states. ... The European Union (EU) was created by six founding states in 1957 (following the earlier establishment by the same six states of the European Coal and Steel Community in 1952) and has grown to 27 member states. ... Eurojust (also spelled capitalised as EUROJUST) is a European Union body composed of national prosecutors, magistrates or police officers of equivalent competence from each of the European Unions member states. ... Europol (the name is a contraction of European Police Office) is the European Unions criminal intelligence agency. ... The Treaty of Maastricht which established the European Union, divided EU policies into three main areas, called pillars. ... The European Community (EC) was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... The Common Foreign and Security Policy, or CFSP, was established as the second of the three pillars of the European Union in the Maastricht treaty of 1992, and further defined and broadened in the Amsterdam Treaty of 1999. ... Police and Judicial Co-operation in Criminal Matters (PJC) is the third of the three pillars of the European Union, focusing on co-operation in law enforcement and combating racism. ... European integration is the process of political and economic (and in some cases social and cultural) integration of European states into a tighter bloc. ... The agencies of the European Union (or decentralised bodies of the European Union) are bodies which are distinct from the European Unions institutions, in that they have not been created by the treaties but rather by acts of secondary legislation, in order to accomplish a very specific task. ... Established 1952 Presiding Country Portugal President Luís Amado President in Office José Sócrates Members 27 (at one time) Political parties 7, including: European Peoples Party Party of European Socialists Meeting place Justus Lipsius, Brussels, Belgium, European Union Web site http://www. ... Official emblem of the ECJ The Court of Justice of the European Communities, usually called the European Court of Justice (ECJ), is the highest court in the European Union (EU). ... Elections in the European Union gives information on election and election results in the European Union. ... This article deals with the meeting of European Union leaders. ... Foreign relations of the European Union Foreign relations of Austria Foreign relations of Belgium Foreign relations of Cyprus Foreign relations of the Czech Republic Foreign relations of Denmark Foreign relations of Estonia Foreign relations of Finland Foreign relations of France Foreign relations of Germany Foreign relations of Greece Foreign relations... Established 1952, as the Common Assembly President Hans-Gert Pöttering (EPP) Since 16 January 2007 Vice-Presidents 14 Rodi Kratsa-Tsagaropoulou (EPP) Alejo Vidal-Quadras (EPP) Gérard Onesta (Greens – EFA) Edward McMillan-Scott (ED) Mario Mauro (EPP) Miguel Angel Martínez Martínez (PES) Luigi Cocilovo (ALDE) Mechtild... A European political party, formally a political party at European level, sometimes informally (especially in academic circles) a Europarty, is a type of political party organization operating transnationally in Europe. ... The Law of the European Union is the unique legal system which operates alongside the laws of Member States of the European Union (EU). ... The term acquis (or sometimes acquis communautaire), deriving from French, is used in European Union law to refer to the total body of EU law accumulated so far. ... The European Commission, established following World War II, was the first Europe wide competition authority European Community competition law is one of the areas of authority of the European Union. ... It is proposed that this article be deleted, because of the following concern: There is no copyright law of the European Union at all If you can address this concern by improving, copyediting, sourcing, renaming or merging the page, please edit this page and do so. ... The Official Journal of the European Union is the gazette of record for the European Union. ...  member state with at least one opt-out  member state with a de facto opt-out  member state without opt-outs Currently, five European Union member states have (or will have) opt-outs from certain parts of the European Union structure, namely:  Denmark (four)  Ireland (two)  Poland (one)  Sweden (one... The European Union legislative procedure describes the way the European Union creates and enacts legislation across the community. ... For other uses, see Schengen. ... The Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union is a document containing human rights provisions, solemnly proclaimed by the European Parliament, the Council of the European Union, and the European Commission in December 2000. ... The Treaties of the European Union are effectively the basic constitutional texts of the Union. ... The Treaty of Rome signing ceremony Signatures in the Treaty The Treaty of Rome, signed by France, West Germany, Italy and Benelux (Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg) on March 25, 1957, established the European Economic Community (EEC). ... The Maastricht Treaty (formally, the Treaty of European Union, TEU) was signed on February 7, 1992 in Maastricht, Netherlands after final negotiations in December 1991 between the members of the European Community and entered into force on November 1, 1993 during the Delors Commission. ... Treaty of Amsterdam amending the Treaty of the European Union, the Treaties establishing the European Communities and certain related acts The Treaty of Amsterdam amending the Treaty of the European Union, the Treaties establishing the European Communities and certain related acts, commonly known as the Amsterdam Treaty, was signed on... Treaty of Nice The Treaty of Nice is a treaty adopted in Nice by the European Council to amend the two founding treaties of the European Union: the Treaty on European Union, or Maastricht Treaty, which introduced the Euro and the 3-pillar structure of the EU; the Treaty of... For other uses, see Treaty of Lisbon (disambiguation). ... This is a list of countries bordering the European Union and its predecessor the European Community both at its current geographical extent and after all previous rounds of enlargement. ...  Member states  Candidates Austria Poland Belgium Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Rep. ... This is a list of all the urban areas of the European Union which have more than 750,000 inhabitants in 2005. ... Austria Poland Belgium Bulgaria Cyprus Czech   Rep. ... Map of European Union in the world  European Union  Outermost regions  Overseas countries and territories Map of EU member states and candidate countries, with an inset showing the 7 outermost regions As of 2007 the European Union has 27 member states, most of which participate in all EU policy areas... This article is on the political entity. ... The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is a system of European Union agricultural subsidies and programmes. ... The European Union (EU) has an independent parliament and civil service which is distinct from those of the 27 member states. ... For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ... Freedom of movement for workers is a policy chapter of the acquis communotaire of the European Union. ... The European Investment Bank (the Banque Européenne dInvestissement) is the European Unions financing institution and was established under the Treaty of Rome (1957) to provide loan finance for capital investment furthering European Union policy objectives, in particular regional development, Trans-European Networks of transport, telecommunications and energy... The European Investment Fund, established in 1994, is a European Union agency for the provision of finance to SMEs (small and medium-sized enterprises). ... The Eurozone (less frequently called the Euro Area or Euroland) refers to a currency union among the European Union member states that have adopted the euro as their sole official currency. ... The Regional policy of the European Union is a policy with the stated aim of improving the economic well-being of certain regions in the EU. Around one third of the EUs budget is devoted to this policy, the aim of which has been stated to be to remove... The Galileo positioning system is a planned Global Navigation Satellite System, to be built by the European Union (EU) and European Space Agency (ESA). ... Cultural cooperation in the European Union has become a community competency since its inclusion in 1992 in the Maastricht Treaty. ... Citizenship of the Union was introduced by the Maastricht Treaty signed in 1992. ... The demographics of the European Union show a highly populated, culturally diverse union of 27 member states. ... The European Institute of Innovation and Technology (EIIT) is a proposal adopted on 22 February 2006 by the European Commission to the European Council intended to be a new flagship research university for excellence in higher education, research and innovation. ... Mass media are the means through which information is transmitted to a large audience. ... The Flag of Europe consists of a circle of twelve golden (yellow) stars on a blue background. ... 4th movement (European Union anthem) samples: Problems playing the files? See media help. ... Statistics in the European Union are collected by Eurostat. ... The agencies of the European Union (or decentralised bodies of the European Union) are bodies which are distinct from the European Unions institutions, in that they have not been created by the treaties but rather by acts of secondary legislation, in order to accomplish a very specific task. ... List of European Councils, by presidency, date, and location. ... The following is a List of European Union directives: // Intellectual property Harmonisation of certain aspects of copyright and related rights in the information society (2001/29/EC May 22, 2001) Criminal measures aimed at ensuring the enforcement of intellectual property rights (proposed) Enforcement of intellectual property rights (2004/48/EC... Austria Poland Belgium Bulgaria Cyprus Czech   Rep. ... A European political party, formally a political party at European level, sometimes informally (especially in academic circles) a Europarty, is a type of political party organization operating transnationally in Europe. ... Presidency of the Council of the European Union refers to the responsibility of presiding over all aspects of the Council of the European Union, when exercised collectively by a government, on a pre-established rota of the member states, of the European Union. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into List of tallest buildings in Europe#List of tallest buildings in the European Union. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


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European Commission - Energy - ENERGY FOR A CHANGING WORLD (805 words)
In January 2007, the European Commission adopted new proposals for an ambitious energy policy for Europe.
This includes a directive that sets an overall binding target for the European Union of 20% renewable energy by 2020 and a 10% minimum target for the market share of biofuels by 2020, to be observed by all Member States.
Europeans are well aware of the impact of energy production and consumption on climate change and global warming, while a majority feel that the best way to tackle energy-related issues would be at EU level.
European Commission — EUbusiness - EU business, legal and financial news and information - EUbusiness.com (1112 words)
European Commission President Jose Manuel Barroso hailed on Thursday the role played by the Church in encouraging closer European integration, at a major ecumenical conference in Romania.
European Commission chief Jose Manuel Barroso expressed confidence Wednesday that a new treaty to replace the EU's failed constitution could be agreed at a summit next month.
European Commission President Jose Manuel Barroso was due to fly Friday to Greece in a show of EU solidarity with the fire-ravaged member nation, a spokesman said.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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