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Encyclopedia > European Coal and Steel Community
Members of the European Coal and Steel Community
Members of the European Coal and Steel Community
Flag of the European Coal and Steel Community
Flag of the European Coal and Steel Community

The European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) was founded in 1951 (Treaty of Paris), by France, West Germany, Italy, Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to pool the steel and coal resources of its member-states. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (541x717, 66 KB) Please see the file description page for further information. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (541x717, 66 KB) Please see the file description page for further information. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday; see its calendar. ... The Treaty of Paris, signed on April 18, 1951 between Belgium, France, West Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands established the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), which subsequently became part of the European Union. ... The steel cable of a colliery winding tower. ... Coal Coal (IPA: ) is a fossil fuel formed in swamp ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ...


It was the fulfillment of a plan developed by French economist Jean Monnet, publicised by the French foreign minister Robert Schuman. It was also strongly supported by the United States. Jean Monnet Jean Omer Marie Gabriel Monnet (November 9, 1888 – March 16, 1979) is regarded by many as the architect of European Unity. ... President of Council: 1947–1948 Foreign Minister: 1948–1952 Profession: Lawyer Robert Schuman (June 29, 1886 – September 4, 1963) was a noted Luxembourg-born German-French politician, a Christian Democrat (M.R.P.) who is regarded as one of the founders of the European Union. ...

Contents

History

The Treaty of Paris entered into force on 23 July 1952, and unlike the Treaty establishing the European Community, provided for a limited duration of only 50 years. The Treaty of Paris entered into force on July 23, 1952 and ceased to exist on 23 July 2002, and its responsibilities and assets (excepting research funds, see below) were then assumed by the EC. (This assumption was provided for by a protocol to the Treaty of Nice, but as Member States failed to ratify the Treaty in time, a separate Council Decision (2002/596/EC) with provisions for the end of the ECSC was passed. Once the Treaty of Nice had been ratified, this decision was superseded by Council Decision 2003/76/EC.) July 23 is the 204th day (205th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 161 days remaining. ... 1952 (MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The European Community (EC), more important of two European Communities, was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... July 23 is the 204th day (205th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 161 days remaining. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... In business and accounting an asset is anything owned which can produce future economic benefit, whether in possession or by right to take possession, by a person or a group acting together, e. ... In international law and international relations, a protocol is a treaty or international agreement that supplements a previous treaty or international agreement. ... Treaty of Nice The Treaty of Nice is a treaty adopted in Nice by the European Council to amend the two founding treaties of the European Union: the Treaty on European Union, or Maastricht Treaty, which introduced the Euro and the 3-pillar structure of the EU; the Treaty of... The legislative acts of the European Union (EU) can have different forms: regulations, directives, decisions, recommendations and opinions. ... Look up Pass on Wiktionary, the free dictionary For the Proof of Age Standards Scheme, see PASS. A pass (as a noun) can refer to: a mountain pass, a low place in a mountain range allowing easier passage a strait or passage, usually used of one that is very narrow... Ratification is the process of adopting an international treaty, or a constitution or other nationally binding document (such as an amendment to a constitution) by the agreement of multiple subnational entities. ...


Steel had played an important part in arms production in World War II and was a fundamental resource of the western European states. The aim was therefore a common program of post-war production and consumption of steel and coal. The project was also intended to show some cooperation and reconciliation between France and Germany in the aftermath of the war. There was a desire to unite the countries by controlling steel and coal which were fundamental to war industries. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


The ECSC introduced a common free steel and coal market, with freely set market prices, and without import/export duties or subsidies. However, a transition period allowed the different economies to reach this situation over about one year.


A High Authority of the ECSC, consisting of nine members, sat in Luxembourg until 1967. It was originally presided over by French prominent euro-federalist Jean Monnet, who hoped European institutions such as the ECSC would eventually constitute supra-national organisations, above the sovereignty of individual European states. The High Authority in 1967 joined with the commissions of the EEC and Euratom to constitute a single multi-purpose commission. The ECSC also included a council of ministers, an assembly, and a court of arbitration.


The ECSC served as the foundation for the later development of the European Economic Community (later renamed the European Community by the Maastricht Treaty), and then the European Union. The European Community (EC), most important of three European Communities, was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... The European Community (EC), more important of two European Communities, was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... The Maastricht Treaty (formally, the Treaty of European Union, TEU) was signed on February 7, 1992 in Maastricht, Netherlands after final negotiations in December 1991 between the members of the European Community and entered into force on November 1, 1993 during the Delors Commission. ...


Not all ECSC activity ceased after July 2002. The Research Fund for Coal and Steel (RFCS) continued in existence, since its funds had been sourced from industry and could not be redistributed to member States. The RFCS is supported by invested capital of €1.6 Billion, which was originally levied from the European coal and steel industries to support training, research and restructuring. The investment provides recurrent funds of about €55-60 Million per year. The RFCS funds and allocations are administered by Unit 5 of Direction G (Technologies Industrielles) of DG Research, a Directorate-General within the European Commission. The deployment of the RFCS is overseen by the Coal & Steel Committee (COSCO), the members of which are national representatives. By Council decision, the recurrent funds are partitioned at 27.2% to coal research and 72.8% to steel research.


Political Background

After World War II, under the Monnet Plan, France - intent on ensuring that Germany would never again have the strength to threaten it - had attempted to gain economic control of the remaining German industrial areas with large coal and mineral deposits; the Rhineland, the Ruhr area and the Saar area (Germany's second largest center of mining and industry, Upper Silesia, had by the Allies been handed over to Poland for occupation at the Potsdam conference and the German population was being forcibly expelled) (see also French proposal regarding the detachment of German industrial regions September 8, 1945). French attempts to gain political control of or permanently internationalize the Ruhr area (see International Authority for the Ruhr ) were abandoned in 1951 with the West German agreement to pool its coal and steel resources in return for full political control over the Ruhr. With French economic security guaranteed through access to Ruhr coal now permanently ensured France was satisfied. The French attempt to gain economic control over the Saar was temporarily even more successful. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... This article deals with the 1945-47 plan of the immediate post war period. ... The Rhineland (Rheinland in German) is the general name for the land on both sides of the river Rhine in the west of Germany. ... Map of the Ruhr Area The Ruhr Area (German Ruhrgebiet, colloquially Ruhrpott or Kohlenpott or simply Pott) is an urban area in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, consisting of a number of large (former) industrial cities bordered by the rivers Ruhr to the south, Rhine to the west, and Lippe to... Saarland is one of the 16 states of Germany. ... Silesia (Czech: ; German: ; Latin: ; Polish: ; Silesian: Ślónsk) is a historical region in central Europe. ... Harry S. Truman and Joseph Stalin meeting at the Potsdam Conference on July 18, 1945. ... Germans expelled from the Sudetenland // The expulsion of Germans after World War II refers to the forced migration of people considered Germans (Reichsdeutsche and some Volksdeutsche) from various European states and territories during 1945 and in the first three years after World War II 1946-48. ...


In the bon speech Restatement of Policy on Germany, held in Stuttgart on September 6, 1946, the United States Secretary of State James F. Byrnes stated the U.S. motive in detaching the Saar from Germany as "The United States does not feel that it can deny to France, which has been invaded three times by Germany in 70 years, its claim to the Saar territory" (see also Morgenthau plan for U.S. and UK designs for the Ruhr and Saar area). The Saarland came under French administration in 1947 as the Saar protectorate, but did following a referendum return to Germany in January 1957, with economic reintegration with Germany occurring a few years later. Restatement of Policy on Germany is a famous speech by James F. Byrnes, then United States Secretary of State, held in Stuttgart on September 6, 1946. ... In several countries, Secretary of State is a senior government position. ... James Francis Byrnes (May 2, 1879 – April 9, 1972) was an American politician from the state of South Carolina. ... The Morgenthau Plan showing the planned partitioning of Germany into a North State, a South State, and an International zone. ... For other uses, see United States (disambiguation) and US (disambiguation). ... The Saar, corresponding to the current German state of Saarland, was a protectorate under French control between 1947 and 1959. ...


In the years 1945 - 1951 a policy of industrial disarmament, set in motion at the Potsdam conference, was pursued in West Germany by the Allies (see The industrial plans for Germany). As part of this policy limits were placed on allowed production levels, and heavy industries, mainly steelworks and machine-plants, which might contribute to economic and war potential were dismantled. Although not a party to the Potsdam conference, as a member of the Allied Control Council France came to champion this policy since it ensured a weak Germany. (see also the 1949 letter from the UK Foreign minister Ernest Bevin to the French Foreign minister Robert Schuman, urging a reconsideration of the dismantling policy). The industrial plans for Germany or Level of Industry plans for Germany were the plans to lower the German industrial potential after World War II. At the Potsdam conference the victorious Allies had decided to abolish the German armed forces as well as all munitions factories and civilian industries that... Kammergericht, Headquarters of the Allied Control Council The Allied Control Council or Allied Control Authority, known in German as the Alliierter Kontrollrat, also referred to as the Four Powers, was a military occupation governing body of the Allied Occupation Zones in Germany after the end of World War II in... Ernest Bevin (9 March 1881 - 14 April 1951) was a British labour leader, politician, and statesman best known for his time as Minister of Labour in the war-time coalition government, and as Foreign Secretary in the post-war Labour government. ... President of Council: 1947–1948 Foreign Minister: 1948–1952 Profession: Lawyer Robert Schuman (June 29, 1886 – September 4, 1963) was a noted Luxembourg-born German-French politician, a Christian Democrat (M.R.P.) who is regarded as one of the founders of the European Union. ...


In view of increased concerns by General Lucius D. Clay and the Joint Chief of Staff over communist influence in Germany, as well as of the failure of the rest of the European economy to recover without the German industrial base on which it was dependent, in the summer of 1947 Secretary of State General George Marshall, citing "national security grounds" had finally been able to convince President Harry S. Truman to remove the punitive U.S. occupation directive JCS 1067, and replace it with JCS 1779.[1] JCS 1067 had directed the U.S. forces of occupation in Germany to "…take no steps looking toward the economic rehabilitation of Germany", it was replaced by JCS 1779 which instead stressed that "An orderly, prosperous Europe requires the economic contributions of a stable and productive Germany." [2] In time the U.S. also came to the conclusion that West Germany should be, carefully, rearmed as a resource in the cold war. In 31 August 1954 the French parliament voted down the treaty that would have established the European Defense Community, a treaty they themselves had proposed in 1950 as a means to contain German revival. The U.S. who wanted to rearm West Germany was furious at the failure of the treaty, but France had come to see the alliance as not in their best interests. Lucius Dubignon Clay (April 23, 1897 - April 16, 1978) was an American general. ... Joint Chiefs of Staff of the United States of America symbol The Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) is a panel comprising the highest-ranking members of each major branch of the armed services in any particular country. ... In several countries, Secretary of State is a senior government position. ... For other persons named George Marshall, see George Marshall (disambiguation). ... Harry S. Truman (May 8, 1884 – December 26, 1972) was the thirty-third President of the United States (1945–1953); as Vice President, he succeeded to the office upon the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt. ... The Morgenthau Plan showing the planned partitioning of Germany into a North State, a South State, and an International zone. ... The European Defence Community (EDC) was a treaty signed in May 1952 by France, Germany, Italy and the Benelux countries in response to the American call for the rearmament of West Germany. ...


France had instead focused on another treaty also under development. In may 1950 France had proposed the Coal and Steel union, with the purpose of ensuring French economic security by perpetuating access to German Ruhr coal, but also to show to the U.S. and the UK that France could come up with constructive solutions, as well as to pacify Germany by making it part of an international project.


Germany was eventually allowed to rearm, but under the auspices of the Western European Union, and later NATO. Membership 10 member states 6 associate member states 5 observer countries 7 associate partner countries Formation - Signed Treaty of Brussels - 17 March 1948 The Western European Union (WEU) is a partially dormant European defence and security organization, established on the basis of the Treaty of Brussels of 1948 with the... NATO 2002 Summit in Prague. ...


Presidents of the High Authority of the European Coal and Steel Community, 1952-1967

The nine-member executive was led by 5 Presidents, and a further interim president in 1967.

Jean Monnet Jean Omer Marie Gabriel Monnet (November 9, 1888 – March 16, 1979) is regarded by many as the architect of European Unity. ... Jean Monnet, first president of the High Authority The Monnet Authority was the first High Authority of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), between 1952 and 1955. ... René Mayer, French prime minister René Mayer (1895-1972) was a French Radical politician of the Fourth Republic who served briefly as Prime Minister during 1953. ... The Mayer Authority was the second High Authority of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), between 1955 and 1958. ... The Finit Authority was the third High Authority of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), between 1958 and 1959. ... Piero (Peter) Malvestiti (1899 - 1964) was an Italian Christian Democratic politician who was a minister in successive governments in the 1940s and 1950s, a European Commissioner and President of the European Coal and Steel Community. ... The Malvestiti Authority was the fourth High Authority of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), between 1959 and 1963. ... The Del Bo Authority was the last High Authority of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), between 1959 and 1963. ... The Coppé Authority was an interim High Authority of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), between March 1 and July 5 of 1967. ...

Timeline

Evolution of the Structures of European Union

See also

This is the history of the European Union. ... The Schuman Declaration is the name of the May 9, 1950 public appeal by Robert Schuman, French Foreign Minister, to place Frances and West Germanys coal and steel industries under joint management. ... Although the European Union has legislated in the area of energy policy for many years, and evolved out of the European Coal and Steel Community, the concept of introducing a mandatory and comprehensive European energy policy was only approved at the meeting of the European Council on October 27, 2005... This article deals with the 1945-47 plan of the immediate post war period. ... The industrial plans for Germany or Level of Industry plans for Germany were the plans to lower the German industrial potential after World War II. At the Potsdam conference the victorious Allies had decided to abolish the German armed forces as well as all munitions factories and civilian industries that...

Further Reading

  • William I. Hitchcock. "France Restored: Cold War Diplomacy and the Quest for Leadership in Europe, 1944-1954." University of North Carolina Press, 1998. ISBN 0-8078-4747-X.

Notes

  1. ^ The Road Ahead: Lessons in Nation Building from Japan, Germany, and Afghanistan for Postwar Iraq, by Ray Salvatore Jennings May 2003, Peaceworks No. 49, United States Institute of Peace pg. 15
  2. ^ Pas de Pagaille! Time Magazine, Jul. 28, 1947.

Proposed new USIP headquarters, construction to begin 2007. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
European Coal and Steel Community - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (373 words)
The European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) was founded in 1951 (Treaty of Paris), by France, West Germany, Italy, Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to pool the steel and coal resources of its member-states, thus preventing another European war.
The ECSC served as the foundation for the later development of the European Economic Community (later renamed the European Community by the Maastricht Treaty), and then the European Union.
The institutions of the European Coal and Steel Community on www.ena.lu
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