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Encyclopedia > European Capital of Culture
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Life in the European Union

The European Capital of Culture is a city designated by the European Union for a period of one year during which it is given a chance to showcase its cultural life and cultural development. A number of European cities have used the City of Culture year to transform their cultural base and, in doing so, the way in which they are viewed internationally. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into culture of Europe. ... Citizenship of the Union was introduced by the Maastricht Treaty signed in 1992. ... Cultural cooperation in the European Union has become a community competency since its inclusion in 1992 in the Maastricht Treaty. ... The demographics of the European Union show a highly populated, culturally diverse union of 27 member states. ... The European Union (EU) was created by six founding states in 1958 (following the earlier establishment by the same six states of the European Coal and Steel Community in 1952) and has grown to 27 member states. ... For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation) or EUR (disambiguation). ... Foreign relations of the European Union Foreign relations of Austria Foreign relations of Belgium Foreign relations of Cyprus Foreign relations of the Czech Republic Foreign relations of Denmark Foreign relations of Estonia Foreign relations of Finland Foreign relations of France Foreign relations of Germany Foreign relations of Greece Foreign relations... This is the history of the European Union. ... This article or section should be merged with List of European Union-related topics The European Union has several institutions: The European Parliament The European Council The Council of the European Union (or Council of Ministers) The European Commission The European Court of Justice (incorporating the Court of First Instance... The European Union or EU is a supranational and international organization of 27 member states. ... Statistics in the European Union are collected by Eurostat. ... Culture (from the Latin cultura stemming from colere, meaning to cultivate), generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activity significance. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ...

Contents

History

Conceived as a means of bringing citizens of European Union (or EC, as then was) closer together, the European City of Culture was launched on June 13, 1985 by the Council of Ministers on the initiative of the Greek Minister of Culture Melina Mercouri. Since then, the initiative has been more and more successful amongst European citizens and has had a growing cultural and socio-economic impact on the numerous visitors it has attracted. Citizenship of the Union was introduced by the Maastricht Treaty signed in 1992. ... June 13 is the 164th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (165th in leap years), with 201 days remaining. ... 1985 (MCMLXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Justus Lipsius building, the headquarter of the EU Council in Brussels The Council of the European Union (French: Le Conseil de lUnion européenne, German: Rat der Europäischen Union) is a governing body that forms, along with the European Parliament, the legislative arm of the European Union... Melina Mercouri (Μελίνα Μερκούρη, born Maria Amalia Mercouri) (Athens, Greece, October 18, 1920 – New York City, March 6, 1994) was a famous Greek actress, singer, and political activist. ...


The European Cities of Culture were designated on an intergovernmental basis until 2004; the Member States unanimously selected the cities most likely to welcome the event and the European Commission granted a subsidy to the selected city each year. As of 2005, the EU's institutions will take part in the selection procedure of the cities that will host the event. The Commission seat in Brussels The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive body of the European Union. ...


In 1990, the Ministers of Culture launched the "European Cultural Month". This event is similar to the European City of Culture but goes on for a shorter period and is addressed to Central and Eastern European countries in particular. The European Commission grants a subsidy for the European Cultural Month each year. European Cultural Month is an event created by the European Union to promote culture. ... Central Europe The Alpine Countries and the Visegrád Group (Political map, 2004) Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... Eastern Europe is, by convention, a region defined geographically as that part of Europe covering the eastern part of the continent. ... The Commission seat in Brussels The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive body of the European Union. ... In economics, a subsidy is generally a monetary grant given by a government to lower the price faced by producers or consumers of a good, generally because it is considered to be in the public interest. ...


As early as 1991, the organisers of the different European Cities of Culture created the Network of European Cultural Capitals and Months — enabling the exchange and dissemination of information, also to the organisers of future events. This network also carried out in 1994 a study on the impact of the European City of Culture since its creation. ECCM is a non profit organisation based in Luxembourg and acting in close collaboration to the European Institutions. Since 2006 it will present in every Cultural Capital and in former ones a travelling exhibition "A Journey to the World: Cultural Capitals". The exhibition is inaugurated for the first time in Patras, Greece on the 27th of March 2006.


Individual cities have looked to evaluate their own experience in different ways; it is not easy to track long term evaluations of city experiences in every case. Charles Landry of the UK-based cultural consultancy Comedia has recently published an interesting evaluation of the Helsinki Year of Culture in 2000. From 2002-2005, Beatriz Garcia led a research project investigating the long term legacy of Glasgow 1990, based at the Centre for Cultural Policy Research, University of Glasgow. Comedia is a comedy film festival and part of the larger Just for Laughs comedy festival. ... Founded 1550 Country Finland Province Southern Finland Region Uusimaa Sub-region Helsinki Area[1] - Of which land - Rank 185. ...


In 1999, the European City of Culture was renamed the European Capital of Culture, and it is now financed through the Culture 2000 programme. Cork City, in Ireland, was the first city in Europe to hold the prestigious Capital of Culture title. The European Parliament and Council Decision of May 25, 1999 integrates this event into the Community framework and introduces a new selection procedure for the Capitals for the 2005–2019 period. This was done to avoid overly fierce competition to win the accolade; each EU member nation will be given the opportunity to "host" the capital in turn. Starting in 2005, two cities will now share this status each year. Culture 2000 is a 7-year European Union program, which has among its key objectives preserving and enhancing Europes cultural heritage. ... This article is about the city in Ireland. ... The European Parliament is the directly elected parliamentary body of the European Union. ... May 25 is the 145th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (146th in leap years). ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ...


In 2004, the European Commission asked Robert Palmer, director of Palmer-Rae Associates, to evaluate the programme of European Capitals of Culture 1994-2004, following an earlier evaluation study examining European Capitals of Culture 1985-1993. The latest study comprehensively deals with cultural, economic, visitor, social and European perspectives of the European Capital of Culture action. It comprises two volumes: one of summary findings, analyses and conclusions; a second of individual case studies. Both volumes can be freely downloaded.


Based on Palmer's findings, the European Commission has made recommendations for changing the procedures for selecting and monitoring European Capitals of Culture and for placing increased emphasis on the cultural and European components of the action.


It is likely that the Parliament will agree to such changes, and continue the action of European capitals of Culture until at least 2019, with the designation of two European Capitals of Culture each year. Details are provided on the website of the European Commission Education and Culture: Culture in European Union


On 11 March 2006, the German city of Essen (representing the Ruhrgebiet region), the Hungarian city of Pécs and the Turkish city of Istanbul were selected as European Capitals of Culture for 2010 by the EU council. March 11 is the 70th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (71st in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Essen is a city in the center of the Ruhr Area in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... Geography Map of the Ruhr Area The Ruhr Area (German Ruhrgebiet or, colloquially, Ruhrpott) is a metropolitan area in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, consisting of a number of large industrial cities bordered by the rivers Ruhr to the south, Rhine to the west, and Lippe to the north. ... Pécs   (Latin: Quinque Ecclesiae, Croatian: Pečuh, German: Fünfkirchen, Serbian: Pečuj or Печуј, Slovak: Päťkostolie, Turkish: Peçuy, Italian: Cinquechiese) is the fourth largest city of Hungary, located in the south-west of the country. ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ...


Only European cities within member states of the EU have so far been named Capital of Culture — other European cities have not. However, the EU council can designate one city from a non-EU country for a given year, if that city's designation is approved unanimously in the council.


European Cities/Capitals of Culture

Past European Capitals of Culture

Athens (Greek: Αθήνα - Athína) is the largest city and capital of Greece, located in the Attica prefecture of Southern Greece. ... Florence (Italian: ) is the capital city of the region of Tuscany, Italy. ... Nickname: Mokum Motto: Heldhaftig, Vastberaden, Barmhartig (Valiant, Determined, Compassionate) Location of Amsterdam Coordinates: Country Netherlands Province North Holland Government  - Mayor Job Cohen  - Aldermen Lodewijk Asscher Hennah Buyne Carolien Gehrels Tjeerd Herrema Maarten van Poelgeest Marijke Vos  - Secretary Erik Gerritsen Area [1][2]  - City 219 km²  (84. ... Boroughs of West Berlin West Berlin was the name given to the western part of Berlin between 1949 and 1990. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Paris Eiffel tower as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ... Glaswegian redirects here. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 53. ... Motto: De Madrid al Cielo (From Madrid to Heaven) Location Coordinates: Country Spain Autonomous Community Comunidad Autónoma de Madrid Province Madrid Administrative Divisions 21 Neighborhoods 127 Founded 9th century Government  - Mayor Alberto Ruiz-Gallardón (PP) Area  - Land 607 km² (234. ... For other uses, see Antwerp (disambiguation). ... Location    - Country Portugal    - Region Lisboa  - Subregion Grande Lisboa  - District or A.R. Lisbon Mayor Carmona Rodrigues  - Party PSD Area 84. ... For other uses, see Copenhagen (disambiguation). ... Thessaloniki, (Greek: Θεσσαλονίκη), is Greeces second-largest city and the capital of the Greek region of Macedonia and the periphery of Central Macedonia. ...   (IPA: ; UN/LOCODE: SE STO) is the capital of Sweden, and consequently the site of its Government and Parliament as well as the residence of the Swedish head of state, King Carl XVI Gustaf. ... The city hall Goethe and Schiller in front of the Deutsche Nationaltheater Weimar is a city in Germany. ... Location in Iceland Coordinates: Constituency Reykjavík North Reykjavík South Area    - City 274. ... County Hordaland District Midhordland Municipality NO-1201 Administrative centre Bergen Mayor (2004) Herman Friele (H) Official language form Neutral Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 215 465 km² 445 km² 0. ... Founded 1550 Country Finland Province Southern Finland Region Uusimaa Sub-region Helsinki Area[1] - Of which land - Rank 185. ... Nickname: The Capital Of Europe, Comic City City of a 100 Museums[] Map showing the location of Brussels in Belgium Coordinates: Country Belgium Region Brussels-Capital Region Founded 979 Founded (Region) June 18, 1989  - Mayor (Municipality) Freddy Thielemans Area    - City 162 (Region) km²  (62. ... Nickname: City of a Hundred Spires Motto: Praga Caput Rei publicae Location within the Czech Republic Coordinates: Country Czech Republic Region Capital City of Prague Founded 9th century Government  - Mayor Pavel Bém Area  - City 496 km²  (191. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Location map of Santiago de Compostela in Galicia Santiago de Compostela (also Saint James of Compostela) is the capital of the autonomous community of Galicia. ... City flag City coat of arms Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country France Région Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur Département Vaucluse (préfecture) Arrondissement Avignon Canton Chief town of 4 cantons Intercommunality Communauté dagglomération du Grand Avignon Mayor Marie-Josée Roig... Bologna (IPA , from Latin Bononia, BulÃ¥ggna in Emiliano-Romagnolo) is the capital city of Emilia-Romagna in northern Italy, in the Pianura Padana, between the Po River and the Apennines, exactly between the Reno River and the Sàvena River. ... Rotterdam Location Coat of arms The coat of arms of Rotterdam. ... Location    - Country Portugal    - Region Norte  - Subregion Grande Porto  - District or A.R. Porto Mayor Rui Rio  - Party PSD Area 41. ... Geography Country Belgium Region Flemish Region Community Flemish Community Province West Flanders Arrondissement Bruges Coordinates Area 138. ... Salamanca: Plaza Mayor Towers of the Old and New Cathedrals Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Salamanca Salamanca (population 160,000) is a city in western Spain, the capital of the province of Salamanca, which belongs to the autonomous community(region) of Castile-Leon(Castilla y León). ... The Grazer Schloßberg Clock Tower Graz [graːts] (Slovenian: Gradec IPA: /gra. ... Alternate uses, see Genoa (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Lille (disambiguation). ... This article is about the city in Ireland. ... Coordinates 38°15′ N 21°44′ E Country Greece Periphery West Greece Prefecture Achaea Province Greece Population 161,114 (2001 [1]) Area 125. ...

Current European Capitals of Culture

The Greater Region of Saarland-Lorraine-Luxembourg -Rhineland-Palatinate-Walloon Region-French Community of Belgium- and German-speaking Community of Belgium has not found a specific shortcut yet. ... County Sibiu County Status County capital Mayor Klaus Johannis, from the Democratic Forum of Germans of Romania, since 2000 Area 121 km² Population (2002) 171,535 Density 1,417 inh/km² Geographical coordinates Web site http://www. ...

Future European Capitals of Culture

According to the official EU website[1]


Note: Between 2007 and 2018 multiple cities are named European Capital of Culture. In some future years, cities have not yet been selected, but the country from which that city will be chosen has already been determined (based on a rotation system), as listed below.

Banner promoting Liverpool as European Capital of Culture in 2008
Banner promoting Liverpool as European Capital of Culture in 2008

Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Liverpool skyline. ... County Rogaland District Jæren Municipality NO-1103 Administrative centre Stavanger Mayor (1995-) Leif Johan Sevland (H) Official language form BokmÃ¥l Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 406 71 km² 68 km² 0. ... Map of Austria, locating Linz Linz is a city and Statutarstadt in northeast Austria, on the Danube river. ... Location Ethnographic region AukÅ¡taitija County Vilnius County Municipality Vilnius city municipality Coordinates Number of elderates 20 General Information Capital of Lithuania Vilnius County Vilnius city municipality Vilnius district municipality Population About 600,000 in 2006 (1st) First mentioned 1323 Granted city rights 1387 Not to be confused with Vilnius... Essen is a city in the center of the Ruhr Area in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... Pécs   (Latin: Quinque Ecclesiae, Croatian: Pečuh, German: Fünfkirchen, Serbian: Pečuj or Печуј, Slovak: Päťkostolie, Turkish: Peçuy, Italian: Cinquechiese) is the fourth largest city of Hungary, located in the south-west of the country. ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ... Turku (IPA:  , Swedish:  ), founded in the 13th century, is the oldest and fifth largest city in Finland, with a population of 174,868 (as of 2005). ... County Harju County Mayor Jüri Ratas Area 159. ... District or region Braga Mayor   - Party Magalhães Silva PS Area 241. ... Area: 311. ... Area: 147. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...   (IPA: ) is the capital and largest city in Slovenia. ...

References

  1. ^ Official EU website
  • García, B. (2005) “De-constructing the City of Culture: The long term cultural legacies of Glasgow 1990” in: Review Issue of Urban Studies (vol 42, n5/6) (pp. 1-28)
  • García, B. (2004) “Cultural Policy in European Cities: Lessons from Experience, Prospects for the Future” in: Special edition on Cultural Policy and Regeneration, Local Economy (vol 19, n4) (pp. 312-326)
  • García, B. (2004) “Urban Regeneration, Arts Programming and Major events: Glasgow 1990, Sydney 2000 and Barcelona 2004” in: Gibson, L. & Stevenson, D. (Eds) Special Issue of the International Journal of Cultural Policy: Urban Space and the Uses of Culture (vol 10, n 1) (pp. 103-118)

Image File history File links Broom_icon. ...

See also

The NGO American Capital of Culture Organization selects one American city annually to serve as the American Capital of Culture for a period of one year. ... The Arab Cultural Capital is an initiative undertaken by UNESCO, under the Cultural Capitals Programme to promote and celebrate Arab culture and encourage cooperation in the Arab region. ... Languages Arabic other languages (Arab minorities) Religions Predominantly Islam Some adherents of Druze, Judaism, Samaritan, Christianity Related ethnic groups Mizrachi Jews, Sephardi Jews, Ashkenazi Jews, Canaanites, other Semitic-speaking groups An Arab (Arabic: ‎); is a member of a Non-Semetic group of people whose cultural, linguistic, and in certain cases... Europalia is a cultural organization, established in Brussels, Belgium in 1969. ...

External links

Current Official Site

  • Patras, European Capital of Culture 2006
  • European Cultural Capitals and Months

Capital/Cities of Culture Sites

  • Genoa 2004
  • Cork 2005
  • Patras 2006
  • Luxemburg 2007
  • Sibiu 2007
  • Stavanger 2008
  • Liverpool 2008
  • Vilnius 2009
  • Linz 2009
  • Istanbul 2010
  • Essen 2010
  • Pecs 2010
  • Turku 2011
  • Tallinn 2011

Others

  • Impacts 08: The Liverpool Model, European Capital of Culture Research Programme, University of Liverpool and Liverpool John Moores University
  • Culture in European Union
  • Kultur 2010 - Information Portal (in German) about the Cultural Capitals of Europe
  • http://capitalcultural2016.cordoba.es/CCCE2016.nsf/

  Results from FactBites:
 
EUROPA - Culture - European capitals (290 words)
Designed to "contribute to bringing the peoples of Europe together", the European City of Culture project was launched, at the initiative of Melina Mercouri, by the Council of Ministers on 13 June 1985.
The European Cities of Culture have been chosen until 2004, on an intergovernmental basis; the Member States unanimously selected cities worthy of hosting the event, and the European Commission awarded a grant each year to the city selected.
For the time being, the European Capitals of Culture are designated each year by the Council of Ministers of the EU, on the basis of the view of a selection panel comprising seven prominent independent members, each of them experts in the culture sector.
EUROPA - Culture - European Commission -European Capital of Culture (348 words)
The selection panel, which has to assess the proposals of cities to the European Capital of Culture title, plays an essential role in the process.
All panel members have to be independent experts with no conflict of interest with the regard to the candidate cities and with substantial experience and expertise in the cultural sector, in the cultural development of cities or in the organisation of a Capital of Culture.
European Capital of Culture for the years 2007 to 2019
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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