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Encyclopedia > European American
European American
John F. Kennedy Marilyn Monroe Marlon Brando
George Washington Fred Astaire Rita Hayworth
John F. Kennedy · Marilyn Monroe · Marlon Brando
George Washington · Fred Astaire · Rita Hayworth
Total population

European
192,001,940 Americans
67.9% of the total US population Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (760x1133, 710 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Talk:John F. Kennedy President of the United States John F. Kennedy Template:POTUSgallery Metadata This file contains... Image File history File linksMetadata Galler31. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (613x930, 61 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Marlon Brando ... Image File history File links the first president of the United States of America Stuart, Gilbert, 1755-1828, artist File links The following pages link to this file: President of the United States Purple Heart United States List of Presidents of the United States User talk:Simplicius User:Bishonen/prettytable... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... Marilyn Monroe (born Norma Jeane Mortenson; June 1, 1926 – August 5, 1962), was a Golden Globe award winning Jewish-American actress, model and sex symbol. ... Marlon Brando, Jr. ... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ... Fred Astaire (May 10, 1899 – June 22, 1987), born Frederick Austerlitz in Omaha, Nebraska,[1] was an American film and Broadway stage dancer, choreographer, singer and actor. ... Rita Hayworth (October 17, 1918 – May 14, 1987), was an American actress of Spanish and Anglo-Irish descent who reached fame during the 1940s as the eras leading sex symbol. ...

Regions with significant populations
All regions
Language(s)
Predominately English · German · Spanish · French, Italian · Polish others
Religion(s)
Predominantly Christianity · minorities practice Judaism or other faiths; sizeable secular population

A European American (Euro-American) is a person who resides in the United States and is either the descendant of European immigrants or from Europe him/herself.[1] For other uses, see American English (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article concerns secularity, that is, being secular, in various senses. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


Overall, as the largest group, European Americans have the lowest poverty rate [2] and the second highest educational attainment levels, median household income [3] and median personal income [4] of any racial demographic in the nation. Percent below each countrys official poverty line, according to the CIA factbook. ... This graph shows the educational attainment since 1947. ... For information on the income of individuals, see Personal income in the United States. ... For information on household income please see Household income in the United States Personal income for the populatio age 25 or older. ...

Contents

Terminology

US Census

In 1977, it was proposed that the term "European American" replace "white" as a racial label in the US Census. [5] Although not currently used by most government bodies, the term is appearing more frequently and might eventually replace "White" just as "Native American" has replaced "Indian", "African American" has replaced "Black", and "Asian American" has replaced "Oriental" in many writings. Native Americans (also Indians, Aboriginal Peoples, American Indians, First Nations, Alaskan Natives, Amerindians, or Indigenous Peoples of America) are the indigenous inhabitants of The Americas prior to the European colonization, and their modern descendants. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... An Asian American is a person of Asian ancestry or origin who was born in or is an immigrant to the United States. ...


Use

The term European American is more narrow than White American in that these terms in their official usage. The term is different from Caucasian American, White American, and Anglo American.[6], though "European Americans" is sometimes used as a synonym for White Americans. According to the Texas Association of Museums, "European American," White American, Caucasian American or Anglo are terms that vary in their preference depending on the individual and their descent.,[7] Anglo is a term commonly used in the southwestern United States, because of that term combines a number of distinct ethnicities under a single rubric with origins in England. The term also has a more specific reference than either White American or Caucasian American since both of these terms include a larger group of people than is acknowledged in Europe. Also, whereas White American and Caucasian American carry somewhat ambiguous definitions, depending on the speaker, European American has a more specific definition and scope. However, there are many immigrants from the European continent who are not classified under the White racial grouping. A substantial or "visible" proportion of the populations of the UK, France and many other European countries are racially Black people, Asian people and of numerous other ethnic backgrounds that have all migrated there in recent decades. These people often immigrate to the United States and are European American despite not being White. According to sociologist Rosanne Skirble, the term European American has increased somewhat in use but White American, Caucasian American and Anglo continue to be equally preferred depending on the descent of the given individual(s) or group to which the term refers.[8] The term white American (often used interchangeably and incorrectly with Caucasian American[2] and within the United States simply white[3]) is an umbrella term that refers to people of European descent residing in the United States. ... The term Anglo-America is used to describe those parts of North America in which English is the main language. ... Look up anglo in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... The term white American (often used interchangeably and incorrectly with Caucasian American[2] and within the United States simply white[3]) is an umbrella term that refers to people of European descent residing in the United States. ... This article is about the color. ... This article deals primarily or exclusively with the definition of Asian in English-speaking countries, mainly referring to immigrants or descendants of immigrants living therein. ... Look up anglo in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Origin

The term was coined by some to emphasize the European cultural and geographical ancestral origins of Americans in the same way that is done for African Americans and Asian Americans rather than not emphasize ancestry. A European American identity is still notable because 90% of the respondents classified as white on the US Census knew their European ancestry.[9] Historically, the concept of an American was conceived in the US as a person of mixed European ancestries to the exclusion of African Americans and Native Americans.[10] As a linguistic concern, the term is often meant to discourage a dichotomous view of the racial landscape between the normative white category and everyone else.[5] Margo Adair suggests that the recognition of specific European American ancestries allows certain Americans to become aware that they come from a variety of different cultures.[11] African Americans, also known as Afro-Americans or black Americans, are an ethnic group in the United States of America whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Sub-Saharan and West Africa. ... An Asian American is a person of Asian ancestry or origin who was born in or is an immigrant to the United States. ... For the journal, see Linguistics (journal). ... A dichotomy is a division into two non-overlapping or mutually exclusive and jointly exhaustive parts. ... For other uses, see Race (disambiguation). ...


Origins

European Americans are largely descended from two big waves of immigration from Europe. [9] From 1800 to 1850, Northern and Western Europeans arrived in the US.[9] These included Germans, Irish, English, Scots, Welsh, French, Poles, Hungarians, Danes, Norwegians, Finns, and Swedes.[9] They arrived with high levels of education and for the most part were Roman Catholic, or Protestant.[9] The second wave of European Americans arrived from 1880 to 1920s from Southern and Eastern Europe.[9] This wave included Italians, Romanians, Albanians, Russians, Serbs, Ukranians, Croats and Bulgarians.[9] This group added people from Roman Catholic, Orthodox, or Jewish religions. [9]


Culture

American culture is essentially European culture and primarily of British, German, and French in origin.[12] European American cultural lineage can be traced back to Europe and is institutionalized in the form of its government and civic education.[12] The Solutrean hypothesis based on new evidence suggests that Europeans may have been the first in the Americas.[13][14][15] Since European Americans have mostly assimilated into American culture, European Americans now mostly express their individual ethnic ties sporadically and symbolically and do not consider their specific ethnic origins to be essential to their identity; however, European American ethnic expression has been revived since the 1960s.[9] In the 1960s, Mexican Americans and African Americans started exploring their cultural traditions as the ideal of cultural pluralism took hold.[9] European Americans followed suit by exploring their individual cultural origins and having less shame of expressing their unique cultural heritage.[9] The Solutrean hypothesis contends that stone tool technology of the Solutrean culture in prehistoric Europe may have later influenced the development of the Clovis tool-making culture in the Americas. ...


Demographics

The numbers below give numbers of European Americans as measured by the US Census in 1980, 1990 and 2000. The numbers are measured according to declarations in census responses. This leads to uncertainty over the real meaning of the figures: For instance, as can be seen, according to these figures, the European American population dropped 40 million in ten years, but in fact this is a reflection of changing census responses. In particular, it reflects the increased popularity of the 'American' option following its inclusion as an example in the 2000 census forms.


It is important to note that breakdowns of the European-American population into sub-components is a difficult and rather arbitrary exercise. Farley (1991) argues that "because of ethnic intermarriage, the numerous generations that separate respondents from their forbears and the apparent unimportance to many whites of European origin, responses appear quite inconsistence".[16] In particular, a large majority of European Americans have ancestry from a number of different countries and the response to a single 'ancestry' gives little indication of the backgrounds of Americans today. When only prompted for a single response, the examples given on the census forms and a pride in identifying the more unique parts of one's heritage are important factors; these will likely adversely affect the numbers reporting ancestries from the British Isles. Multiple response ancestry data often greatly increase the numbers reporting for the main ancestry groups, although Farley goes as far to conclude that "no simple question will distinguish those who identify strongly with a specific European group from those who report symbolic or imagined ethnicity". He highlights responses in the Current Population Survey (1973), where for the main 'old' ancestry groups (e.g. German, Irish, English and French), over 40% change their reported ancestry over the 6 month period between survey waves (page 422).


An important example to note is that in 1980 23.75 million Americans claimed English Ancestry and 25.85 claimed English ancestry together with one or more other. This represents 49.6 million people. The table below shows that in 1990 when only single and primary responses were allowed this fell to 32 million and in 2000 to 24 million. [17]

Further information: Racial demographics of the United States
European American Ancestries in the 2000 US Census[18][19]
Ancestry 1980 % of US
1980
1990 % of US
1990
2000 % of US
2000
Change
North European 108,762,804 39.9% 74,700,988 30.1% -31.3%
West European 74,874,596 30.5% 57,988,801 18.6% -22.6%
East European 16,545,509 6.7% 14,071,153 4.9% -15.0%
South European 17,953,611 7.1% 20,242,412 7.1% +12.7%
Flag of Armenia Armenian 308,096 .1% 385,488 .1% +25.1%
Flag of Austria Austrian 948,558 0.50% 864,783 .3% 730,336 .3% -15.5%
Flag of Basque Country (autonomous community) Basque 47,956 .02% 57,793 .02% +20.5%
Flag of Belgium Belgian 360,227 0.19% 380,403 .2% 384,531 .1% +01.1%
Flag of the United Kingdom British 1,119,140 .4% 1,085,718 .4% -03.0%
Flag of Croatia Croatian 252,970 0.13% 544,270 .2% 374,241 .1% -31.2%
Flag of the Czech Republic Czech 1,892,456 1.01% 1,296,369 .5% 1,258,452 .4% -02.9%
Flag of Denmark Danish 1,518,273 0.81% 1,634,648 .7% 1,430,897 .5% -12.5%
Flag of the NetherlandsDutch 6,304,499 3.35% 6,226,339 2.5% 4,541,770 1.6% -27.1%
Flag of England English 49,598,035 26.34% 32,651,788 13.1% 24,509,692 8.7% -24.9%
Flag of Estonia Estonian 25,994 0.01% 26,762 .01% 25,034 .01% -06.5%
Flag of Finland Finnish 615,872 0.33% 658,854 .3% 623,559 .2% -05.4%
Flag of France French 12,892,246 6.85% 10,320,656 4.1% 8,309,666 3% -19.5%
Flag of Germany German 49,224,146 26.14% 57,947,171 23.3% 42,841,569 15.2% -26.1%
Flag of Greece Greek 959,856 0.51% 1,110,292 .4% 1,152,956 .4% +03.8%
Flag of Ireland Irish 40,165,702 21.33% 38,735,539 15.6% 30,524,799 10.8% -21.2%
Flag of Italy Italian 12,183,692 6.47% 14,664,189 5.9% 15,638,348 5.6% +06.6%
Flag of Lithuania Lithuanian 742,776 0.39% 811,865 .3% 659,892 .2% -18.7%
Flag of Norway Norwegian 3,435,839 1.83% 3,869,395 1.6% 4,477,725 1.6% +15.7%
Flag of Poland Polish 8,228,037 4.37% 9,366,051 3.8% 8,977,235 3.2% -04.2%
Flag of Portugal Portuguese 1,024,351 0.54% 1,148,857 .5% 1,173,691 .4% +02.2%
Flag of Romania Romanian 315,258 0.17% 365,310 0.1% 1,008,729 0.4% +176.1%
Flag of Russia Russian 2,781,432 1.48% 2,951,373 1.2% 2,652,214 .9% -10.1%
Flag of Norway
Flag of Sweden Scandinavian
Flag of Denmark
475,007 0.25% 678,880 .3% 425,099 .2% -37.4%
Flag of Ulster Scots-Irish no data no data 5,617,773 2.3% 4,319,232 1.5% -23.1%
Flag of Scotland Scottish 10,048,816 5.34% 5,393,581 2.2% 4,890,581 1.7% -09.3%
Flag of Serbia Serbian 100,941 0.05% 116,795 negligible 140,337 0.1% +20.2%
Flag of Slovakia Slovak 776,806 0.41% 1,882,897 .8% 797,764 .3% -57.6%
Flag of Slovenia Slovenian 126,463 0.07% 124,437 .1% 176,691 .1% +42%
Flag of Spain Spanish 2,781,208 1.48% 2,384,862 .9% 2,487,092 .9% +04.3%
Flag of Sweden Swedish 4,345,392 2.31% 4,680,863 1.9% 3,998,310 1.4% -14.6%
Flag of Switzerland Swiss 981,543 0.52% 1,045,482 .4% 911,502 .3% -12.8%
Flag of Ukraine Ukrainian 730,056 0.39% 740,723 .3% 892,922 .3% +20.5%
Flag of Wales Welsh 1,664,598 0.88% 2,033,893 .8% 1,753,794 .6% -13.8%
Total 210,181,975 84.2% 171,801,940 60.7% -18.3%
  • Flag of the United States "American" - (7.2% or approx. 20.2 million [of the total US population]) - Mostly of British (mainly English and Scottish/Scots-Irish, but also Welsh as well) ancestry that they are unaware about or cannot trace

Most common ancestries in the United States (as of 2000) The United States is a diverse country racially. ... By county. ... 2000 US Census logo The Twenty-Second United States Census, known as Census 2000 and conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States on April 1, 2000, to be 281,421,906, an increase of 13. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Armenia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Austria. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Basque_Country. ... Basque-Americans are citizens of the United States who are of Basque ancestry. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belgium_(civil). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Croatia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Czech_Republic. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Denmark. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_England. ... English Americans (occasionally known as Anglo-Americans) are citizens of the United States whose ancestry originates wholly or partly in England. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Estonia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Finland. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ireland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Lithuania. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Norway. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Portugal. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Romania. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Norway. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sweden. ... See: Danish American Norwegian American Swedish American Finnish American Icelandic American Category: ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Denmark. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ulster. ... Scots-Irish (formerly Scotch-Irish) is a term used to describe inhabitants of the USA and Canada of Scots-Irish (particularly Ulster-Scots) descent, who formed distinctive communities and had distinctive social characteristics. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Scotland. ... Scottish Americans or Scots Americans are citizens of the United States whose ancestry originates in the northwest European nation of Scotland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Serbia. ... Serbian Americans are citizens of the United States who are of Serbian ancestry. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Slovakia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Slovenia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sweden. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Switzerland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ukraine. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Wales_2. ... Map showing the population density of Americans who declared Welsh ancestry in the census. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

References

  1. ^ Ohio State University. Diversity Dictionary. 2006. September 4, 2006. [1]
  2. ^ Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2004.
  3. ^ Median household income newsbrief, US Census Bureau 2005. Retrieved on 2006-09-24.
  4. ^ US Census Bureau, Personal income for Asian Americans, age 25+, 2006. Retrieved on 2006-12-17.
  5. ^ a b Bhopal, Raj. Pub Med. "White, European, Western, Caucasian or What? Innappropriate Labeling in Research on Race, Ethnicity and Health." 1998. August 9, 2007. [2]
  6. ^ Lee, Sandra S. Mountain, Joanna. Barbara, Koening A. The Meanings of Race in the New Genomics: Implications for Health Disparities Research. Yale University. 2001. October 26, 2006. [3]
  7. ^ Texas Association of Museums. 2003. September 4, 2006. [4]
  8. ^ Skirble, Rosanne. New Voice of America. 2001. September 4, 2006. [5]
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Randolph, Gayle. Iowa State University. "Why Study European Immigrants." 2007. June 14, 2007. [6]
  10. ^ Crevecoeur, Hector St. John. Letters from an American Farmer. "What is an American." 1782.
  11. ^ Adair, Margo. Challenging White Supremacy Workshop. 1990 November 5, 2006.[7]
  12. ^ a b Kirk, Russell. The Heritage Lecture Series. "America Should Strengthen its European Cultural Roots." Washington D.C:1949
  13. ^ Carey, Bjorn (19 February 2006).First Americans may have been European.Life Science. Retrieved on August 10, 2007.
  14. ^ Conner, Steve, Science Editor, (03 December 2002).Does skull prove that the first Americans came from Europe?. Published in the UK Independent. Retrieved on August 14, 2007.
  15. ^ Earliest humans in the Americas: new evidence from Mexico, Journal of Human Evolution 44, 379-387.
  16. ^ Farley, Reyonlds (1991) Demography: "The new census question on ancestry: what did it tell us?" [8]
  17. ^ World Culture Encyclopedia [9]
  18. ^ Brittingham, Angela. Ancestry 2000:Census Brief. 2004. October 30, 2006. [10]
  19. ^ 1980 U.S Census Total Population

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also



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