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Encyclopedia > Europe
World map showing the location of Europe.
World map showing the location of Europe.
A satellite composite image of Europe
A satellite composite image of Europe

Europe may refer to: Europe - a continent. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2759x1404, 55 KB) link title dkrjfjjfffffffffffffffffffffffffvnguigtailewGFGSgfgfFdsguuggsgsugusGUISHGUIYFGHFDGHEAHRUGIDAFGOFDSOGYFOHGUOFDYHOIYFDSYOGIDHB JKZVXCNBJKGDUGKDFH87IHZDJKLGXHGKVCZHBUIJZUIVBHUIVCYUBHFDZKHUIVCVCYUBYVCUIBXChkGHIDAHAYFDUGFGFDZOIGFDZHLGFDZHJLGFDSZhKLZFDHFXGJFSJGFXJXZJXGFGJXJJJJJJFGFFDFHFDZFHHDHFHDZHFDZHDZHFDHFDDHHHFDFDHZFHGFJZHJAYATHZDGXVJGJTDYHDGHBNDZHFXHZGFDHDZHZDZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG World map depicting Europe; map adapted from PDF world map at CIA World Fact Book File links The following pages link to this file: Australia Africa Asia Antarctica Africa-Eurasia Continent Europe Elias Canetti... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2759x1404, 55 KB) link title dkrjfjjfffffffffffffffffffffffffvnguigtailewGFGSgfgfFdsguuggsgsugusGUISHGUIYFGHFDGHEAHRUGIDAFGOFDSOGYFOHGUOFDYHOIYFDSYOGIDHB JKZVXCNBJKGDUGKDFH87IHZDJKLGXHGKVCZHBUIJZUIVBHUIVCYUBHFDZKHUIVCVCYUBYVCUIBXChkGHIDAHAYFDUGFGFDZOIGFDZHLGFDZHJLGFDSZhKLZFDHFXGJFSJGFXJXZJXGFGJXJJJJJJFGFFDFHFDZFHHDHFHDZHFDZHDZHFDHFDDHHHFDFDHZFHGFJZHJAYATHZDGXVJGJTDYHDGHBNDZHFXHZGFDHDZHZDZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG World map depicting Europe; map adapted from PDF world map at CIA World Fact Book File links The following pages link to this file: Australia Africa Asia Antarctica Africa-Eurasia Continent Europe Elias Canetti... Download high resolution version (800x704, 109 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (800x704, 109 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... For other uses, see Satellite (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links BlankMap-Europe. ...

Europe is one of the seven traditional continents of the Earth. Physically and geologically, Europe is the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, west of Asia. Europe is bounded to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the west by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by the Mediterranean Sea, to the southeast by the Caucasus Mountains and the Black Sea and the waterways connecting the Black Sea to the Mediterranean. To the east, Europe is generally divided from Asia by the water divide of the Ural Mountains, the Ural River, and by the Caspian Sea. Motto Ti Shqipëri më jep nder më jep emrin shqipëtar Anthem Rreth flamurit të përbashkuar (United Around the Flag) Albania() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital TiranÑ‘ Largest city Tiranë Official languages Albanian (Shqip) Demonym Albanian Government Parliamentary republic  -  President Bamir Topi  -  Prime Minister Sali Berisha Independence from... For other uses, see Andorra (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Anthem Lijepa naÅ¡a domovino Our beautiful homeland Croatia() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Zagreb Official languages Croatian Italian in Istria 1 Demonym Croat(s) Croatian(s) Government Parliamentary republic  -  President Stjepan Mesić  -  Premier Ivo Sanader Establishment  -  Founded    -  Medieval duchy March 4, 852   -  Independence May 21, 879... Motto (Czech) Truth prevails Anthem Czech Republic() – on the European continent() – in the European Union() [] Capital (and largest city) Prague Official languages Czech Demonym Czech Government Republic  -  President Václav Klaus  -  Prime Minister Mirek Topolánek Independence (formed 9th century)   -  October 28, 1918   -  January 1, 1993  EU membership May 1... For other uses, see Corsica (disambiguation). ... For the place in the United States, see Sardinia, Ohio. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... For other uses, see Liechtenstein (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country in western Europe. ... For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... For other uses of Moldova and Moldavia, see Moldova (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Monaco (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country in Europe. ... For other uses, see Netherlands (disambiguation). ... Kaliningrad (Russian: ; Lithuanian: Karaliaučius; German  , Polish: Królewiec; briefly Russified as Kyonigsberg), is a seaport and the administrative center of Kaliningrad Oblast, the Russian exclave between Poland and Lithuania on the Baltic Sea. ... For other uses, see San Marino (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... Anthem Nad Tatrou sa blýska Lightning over the Tatras Slovakia() – on the European continent() – in the European Union() [] Capital (and largest city) Bratislava Official languages Slovak Demonym Slovak Government Parliamentary republic  -  President Ivan GaÅ¡parovič  -  Prime Minister Robert Fico Independence due to dissolution of Czechoslovakia   -  Date January 1, 19931... Motto none Anthem A Toast Slovenia() – on the European continent() – in the European Union() [] Capital (and largest city) Ljubljana Official languages Slovenian, Italian1, Hungarian1 Demonym Slovenian, Slovene Government Parliamentary republic  -  President Janez DrnovÅ¡ek  -  Prime Minister Janez JanÅ¡a Independence from Yugoslavia   -  Declared June 25, 1991   -  Recognized 1992  EU membership... Swiss redirects here. ... “UK” redirects here. ... Anthem Inno e Marcia Pontificale(Italian) Hymn and Pontifical March Capital (and largest city) Vatican City1 Official languages Latin2, Italian, French and German. ... A satellite image of the Adriatic Sea. ... The Arctic Ocean, located in the southern hemisphere and mostly in the Antarctic south polar region, is the largest of the worlds five major landmassesic divisions and the deepest. ... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ... Location of the Barents Sea. ... Map of the Bay of Biscay. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... Map of the Celtic Sea, an arm of the Atlantic. ... The Denmark Strait is a strait between Greenland and Iceland. ... The Greenland Sea exists next to the Norwegian Sea. ... The term Gulf of Cadiz refers to the coastal part of the Atlantic Ocean between, roughly, the Portugese city of Faro and the Spanish city of Cádiz. ... The Ligurian Sea. ... Mediterranean redirects here. ... For other uses, see Atlantic (disambiguation) The Atlantic Ocean is Earths second-largest ocean, covering approximately one-fifth of its surface. ... The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located between the coasts of Norway and Denmark in the east, the coast of the British Isles in the west, and the German, Dutch, Belgian and French coasts in the south. ... The Norwegian Sea (Norwegian: Norskehavet) is part of the North Atlantic Ocean northwest of Norway, located between the North Sea (i. ... The Strait of Gibraltar as seen from space (on the left: Spain) A view across the Strait of Gibraltar taken from the hills over Tarifa, Spain The Strait of Gibraltar (Arabic: مضيق جبل طارق, Spanish: Estrecho de Gibraltar) is the strait that connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea and separates Spain... Animated, colour-coded map showing the various continents. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... True-color image of the Earths surface and atmosphere Physical geography (also know as geosystems or physiography) is a subfield of geography that focuses on the systematic study of patterns and processes within the hydrosphere, biosphere, atmosphere, and lithosphere. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... A peninsula in Croatia A peninsula is a piece of land that is bordered on three or more sides by water. ... For other uses, see Eurasia (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Mediterranean redirects here. ... The Caucasus Mountains are a mountain system between the Black and Caspian seas in the Caucasus region, usually considered the southeastern limit of Europe. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... Main European water divides (red lines) separating catchments (gray regions). ... Map of the Ural Mountains The Ural Mountains (Russian: , Uralskiye gory) (also known as the Urals, the Riphean Mountains in Greco-Roman antiquity, and known as the Stone Belt) are a mountain range that runs roughly north and south through western Russia. ... The Ural River (Russian: Урал, Urál [formerly: Яик, Yaik River], Kazakh: Жайық, Zhayyq) flows through Russia and Kazakhstan. ... The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the worlds largest lake or a full-fledged sea. ...


Europe is the world's second-smallest continent in terms of area, covering about 10,180,000 square kilometres (3,930,000 sq mi) or 2.0% of the Earth's surface. The only continent smaller than Europe is Australia. It is the third most populous continent (after Asia and Africa) with a population of 710,000,000 or about 11% of the world's population. However, the term continent can refer to a cultural and political distinction or a physiographic one, leading to various perspectives about Europe's precise borders, area and population. Of Europe's 48 countries, Russia is its largest by area and population, while the Vatican is the smallest. Animated, colour-coded map showing the various continents. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Population density by country, 2006 Human geography is a branch of geography that focuses on the study of patterns and processes that shape human interaction with the environment, with particular reference to the causes and consequences of the spatial distribution of human activity on the Earths surface. ... True-color image of the Earths surface and atmosphere Physical geography (also know as geosystems or physiography) is a subfield of geography that focuses on the systematic study of patterns and processes within the hydrosphere, biosphere, atmosphere, and lithosphere. ... For other uses, see Country (disambiguation). ...


All European countries except Belarus, Kazakhstan and the Vatican City are members of the Council of Europe, an international organisation founded in 1949 and recognised by the United Nations, that sets uniform standards for human rights in member countries and operates the European Court of Human Rights. Anthem Ode to Joy (orchestral)  ten founding members joined subsequently observer at the Parliamentary Assembly observer at the Committee of Ministers  official candidate Seat Strasbourg, France Membership 47 European states 5 observers (Council) 3 observers (Assembly) Leaders  -  Secretary General Terry Davis  -  President of the Parliamentary Assembly Rene van der Linden... For the political science journal, see: International Organization An international organization (also called intergovernmental organization) is an organization of international scope or character. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... European Court of Human Rights building in Strasbourg The European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR), often referred to informally as the Strasbourg Court, was created to systematise the hearing of human rights complaints against States Parties to the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, adopted by...


A separate organisation, the European Union (EU), emerged in 1957 from various agreements on customs and tariffs between countries in Western Europe, and attained its current form in 1993. The EU is an economic, social, and political union which makes laws that are implemented in every member state with the primary purpose of enforcing the free movement of goods and people between its twenty-seven member states. EU member states and candidates Current members There are currently 25 member states in the European Union. ...

Contents

Etymology

Look up Europe in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

In ancient Greek mythology, Europa was a Phoenician princess who was abducted by Zeus in bull form and taken to the island of Crete, where she gave birth to Minos, Rhadamanthus and Sarpedon. For Homer, Europe (Greek: Εὐρώπη Eurṓpē; see also List of traditional Greek place names) was this mythological queen of Crete, not a geographical designation. Later Europa stood for mainland Greece, and by 500 BC its meaning had been extended to lands to the north. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the Ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. ... Europa and Zeus, on the Greek €2 coin A commemorative Italian euro coin depicts Europa holding a pen over the text of the Constitution of Europe. ... Phoenicia (or Phenicia ,[1] from Biblical Phenice [1]) was an ancient civilization centered in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coast of modern day Lebanon and Syria. ... For other uses, see Zeus (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ... Front face of the MINOS far detector. ... In Greek myths, Rhadamanthus (Ῥαδαμάνθυς; also transliterated as Rhadamanthys or Rhadamanthos) was a wise king, the son of Zeus and Europa. ... In Greek mythology, Sarpedon referred to several different people. ... For other uses, see Homer (disambiguation). ... This is a list of traditional Greek place names. ... The country of Greece is located in southeastern Europe, on the southern end of the Balkanic peninsula. ...


In etymology one theory suggests the name Europe is derived from the Greek words meaning broad (eurys) and face (opsis)—broad having been an epithet of Earth itself in the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European religion; see Prithvi (Plataia). A minority, however, suggest this Greek popular etymology is really based on a Semitic word such as the Akkadian erebu meaning "to go down, set",[1] cognate to Phoenician 'ereb "evening; west" and Arabic Maghreb, Hebrew ma'ariv. (see also Erebus). An epithet (Greek - επιθετον and Latin - epitheton; literally meaning imposed) is a descriptive word or phrase. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... Ancient anthropomorphic Ukrainian stone stela (Kernosovka stela), possibly depicting a late Proto-Indo-European god, most likely Dyeus The existence of similarities among the deities and religious practices of the Indo-European peoples allows glimpses of a common Proto-Indo-European religion and mythology. ... Prithvi (pá¹›thivÄ«) is the Hindu earth-god. ... A fake etymology is an invented explanation (etymology) for the origin of a word. ... In linguistics and ethnology, Semitic (from the Biblical Shem, Hebrew: שם, translated as name, Arabic: سام) was first used to refer to a language family of largely Middle Eastern origin, now called the Semitic languages. ... Akkadian (lišānum akkadÄ«tum) was a Semitic language (part of the greater Afro-Asiatic language family) spoken in ancient Mesopotamia, particularly by the Assyrians and Babylonians. ... Look up cognate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... In Greek mythology Erebus (Έρεβος Erebos, Deep blackness/darkness or shadow from Ancient Greek Έρεβος) was the son of a primordial God, Chaos, the personification of darkness and shadow, which filled in all the corners and crannies of the world. ...


The majority of major world languages use words derived from "Europa" to refer to the continent—e.g. Chinese uses the word Ōuzhōu (歐洲), which is an abbreviation of the transliterated name Ōuluóbā zhōu (歐羅巴洲). However, for centuries, the Turks used the term Frengistan (land of the Franks) in referring to Europe.[2] This article is about the Frankish people and society. ...


History

Main article: History of Europe
See also: Medieval demography

The origins of Western democratic and individualistic culture are often attributed to Ancient Greece: these Greek political ideals were rediscovered in the late 18th century by European philosophers and idealists. Another major influence on Europe came from the Roman Empire which left its mark on law, language and government. It also saw the legitimization of Christianity after three centuries of imperial persecution. “European History” redirects here. ... Medieval demography is the study of human demography in Europe during the Middle Ages. ... For other uses, see Democracy (disambiguation). ... Individualism is a term used to describe a moral, political, or social outlook that stresses human independence and the importance of individual self-reliance and liberty. ... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... The term ancient Greece refers to the periods of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Using the term Roman law in a broader sense, one may say that Roman law is not only the legal system of ancient Rome but the law that was applied throughout most of Europe until the end of the 18th century. ... The relationship between Constantine I and Christianity entails both the nature of the conversion of the emperor to Christianity, and his relations with the Christian Church. ... Spanish Leftists during the Red Terror Shoot at a statue of Christ The persecution of Christians is religious persecution that Christians sometimes undergo as a consequence of professing their faith, both historically and in the current era. ...


After the decline of the Roman Empire, Europe entered a long period of changes arising from what is known in America as the Age of Migrations. That period has been known as the "Dark Ages" to Renaissance thinkers. Isolated monastic communities in Ireland, Scotland and elsewhere carefully safeguarded and compiled written knowledge accumulated previously, but much literature, philosophy, mathematics, and other thinking from the classical period was lost from European popular currency until reintroduced from Arab sources during the renaissance. This article is about the historiography of the decline of the Roman Empire. ... The German term Völkerwanderung (lit. ... Petrarch, who conceived the idea of a European Dark Age. From Cycle of Famous Men and Women, Andrea di Bartolo di Bargillac, c. ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... This article is about the country. ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ...


During the Dark Ages, the western part of the Roman Empire was 'reborn' as the Holy Roman Empire, later called Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation. The eastern part of the Roman Empire became known in the west as the Byzantine Empire. The 'Byzantines' themselves still called themselves Βασιλεία των Ρωμαίων Basileia tōn Romaiōn—the Empire of the Romans. In 1453, when the Ottoman Empire conquered the Byzantine capital Constantinople, the Byzantine Empire ceased to exist, with a small hold out state of Trebizond which lasted until 1461. This article is about the medieval empire. ... The Holy Roman Empire should not be mistaken for the Roman Empire (31 B.C.–A.D. 476). ... Byzantine redirects here. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... The Empire of Trebizond and other states carved from the Byzantine Empire, as they were in 1265 (William R. Shepherd, Historical Atlas, 1911) The Empire of Trebizond (Greek: Βασίλειον τῆς Τραπεζούντας) was a Byzantine Greek successor state of the Byzantine Empire founded in 1204 as a result of the capture of Constantinople by...

Map of Europe made by Gerardus Mercator
Map of Europe made by Gerardus Mercator

The Renaissance and the New Monarchs marked the start of an Age of Discovery, a period of exploration, invention, and scientific development which had its roots in Italy. In the 15th century, Portugal opened the age of discoveries, soon followed by Spain. They were later joined by France, the Netherlands and England in building large colonial empires with vast holdings in Africa, the Americas, and Asia. map of europe from 16th century This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... map of europe from 16th century This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Gerardus Mercator (March 5, 1512 – December 2, 1594) was a Flemish cartographer. ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... New Monarchs were the rulers of European nations during the 15th century who unified their nations, creating a stable and centralized government. ... See also: Age of Sail and Afro-Asiatic age of discovery For the computer wargame, Age of Discovery, see Global Diplomacy. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... World map showing the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere historically considered to consist of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ...


After the age of discovery, the ideas of democracy took hold in Europe. Struggles for independence arose, most notably in France during the period known as the French Revolution. This led to vast upheaval in Europe as these revolutionary ideas propagated across the continent. The rise of democracy led to increased tension within Europe on top of the tension already existing because of competition within the New World. The most famous of these conflicts happened when Napoleon Bonaparte rose to power and set out on a conquest, forming a new French Empire, which soon collapsed. After these conquests Europe stabilised, but the old foundations were already beginning to crumble. The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... Frontispiece of Peter Martyr dAnghieras De orbe novo (On the New World). Carte dAmérique, Guillaume Delisle, 1722. ... Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... Map of the First French Empire in 1811, with the Empire in dark blue and satellite states in light blue Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1804 - 1814/1815 Napoleon I  - 1814/1815 Napoleon II Legislature Parliament  - Upper house Senate  - Lower house Corps législatif Historical era Napoleonic...


The Industrial Revolution started in Great Britain in the late 18th century, leading to a move away from agriculture, much greater general prosperity and a corresponding increase in population. Many of the states in Europe took their present form in the aftermath of World War I. From the end of World War II through the end of the Cold War, Europe was divided into two major political and economic blocks: Communist nations in Eastern Europe and Capitalist countries in Southern Europe, Northern Europe and Western Europe. Disintegration of the Iron Curtain and Eastern Block accelerated in 1989 with the fall of the Berlin Wall, culminating in the formal dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991. A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... Woodrow Wilson and the American peace commissioners during the negotiations on the Treaty of Versailles. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ... Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange),members of the Warsaw pact (light orange), and other former Communist regimes not aligned with Moscow (lightest orange). ... In economics, a capitalist is someone who owns capital, presumably within the economic system of capitalism. ... Southern Europe is a region of the European continent. ... Northern Europe Northern Europe is the northern part of the European continent. ... A current understanding of Western Europe. ... Warsaw Pact countries to the east of the Iron Curtain are shaded red; NATO members to the west of it — blue. ... During the Cold War, the Eastern Bloc (or Soviet Bloc) comprised the following Central and Eastern European countries: Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary, East Germany, Poland, Albania (until the early 1960s, see below), the Soviet Union, and Czechoslovakia. ... East German construction workers building the Berlin Wall, November 20, 1961. ...

The Council of Europe created in 1955 a flag for itself and all of Europe. Today it is most commonly associated with the European Union. It has multiple roles, and varying legitimacy for the role as an official flag for the continent as a whole.
The Council of Europe created in 1955 a flag for itself and all of Europe. Today it is most commonly associated with the European Union. It has multiple roles, and varying legitimacy for the role as an official flag for the continent as a whole.

European integration has been a theme in European politics since the end of the first World War, and has accelerated since the end of the Cold War. Following the devastation of Europe in the second World War, the idea of European integration led to the creation of the Council of Europe in Strasbourg in 1949, which produced in 1950 the European Convention on Human Rights with its European Court of Human Rights in Strasbourg. After the fall of the Berlin Wall, former communist countries in central and eastern Europe were able to accede to the Council of Europe, which now comprises all 47 states in Europe with the exception of Belarus because of its non-democratic government. In 1951, a few European states agreed to confer powers over their steel and coal production to the European Coal and Steel Community in Luxembourg. This transfer of national powers to a "Community" to be exercised by its Commission was paralled under the 1957 Treaties of Rome establishing the European Atomic Energy Community and the European Economic Community in Brussels. The present European Union, the successor to the European Communities, has enlarged from 6 original founding members to 27 today. The European Union has developed from a trade-oriented organisation into one resembling a confederation in a number of respects. The European Union, or EU, describes itself as a family of democratic European countries, committed to working together for peace and prosperity. The organisation oversees co-operation among its members in diverse areas, including trade, the environment, transport, security, science, education and employment. Human rights and democracy remain the domain of the Council of Europe, thus extending these standards to the whole of Europe. Image File history File linksMetadata European_flag_in_the_wind. ... Image File history File linksMetadata European_flag_in_the_wind. ... Anthem Ode to Joy (orchestral)  ten founding members joined subsequently observer at the Parliamentary Assembly observer at the Committee of Ministers  official candidate Seat Strasbourg, France Membership 47 European states 5 observers (Council) 3 observers (Assembly) Leaders  -  Secretary General Terry Davis  -  President of the Parliamentary Assembly Rene van der Linden... The Flag of Europe consists of a circle of twelve golden (yellow) stars on a blue background. ... European integration is the process of political and economic (and in some cases social and cultural) integration of European states into a tighter bloc. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Anthem Ode to Joy (orchestral)  ten founding members joined subsequently observer at the Parliamentary Assembly observer at the Committee of Ministers  official candidate Seat Strasbourg, France Membership 47 European states 5 observers (Council) 3 observers (Assembly) Leaders  -  Secretary General Terry Davis  -  President of the Parliamentary Assembly Rene van der Linden... “ECHR” redirects here. ... European Court of Human Rights building in Strasbourg The European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR), often referred to informally as the Strasbourg Court, was created to systematise the hearing of human rights complaints against States Parties to the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, adopted by... East German construction workers building the Berlin Wall, November 20, 1961. ... Members of the European Coal and Steel Community Flag of the European Coal and Steel Community The European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) was founded in 1951 (Treaty of Paris), by France, West Germany, Italy, Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to pool the steel and coal resources of its member... The European Atomic Energy Community, or EURATOM, is an international organization composed of the members of the European Union. ... The European Community (EC), most important of three European Communities, was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... The European Community (EC), most important of three European Communities, was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ...


European membership of NATO has also increased since the end of the Cold War, with the admission of a number of eastern European countries. This article is about the military alliance. ...


Geography and extent

Main article: Geography of Europe
Political map (neighbouring countries in Asia and Africa also shown)
Political map (neighbouring countries in Asia and Africa also shown)

Physiographically, Europe is the northwestern constituent of the larger landmass known as Eurasia, or Africa-Eurasia: Asia occupies the eastern bulk of this continuous landmass and all share a common continental shelf. Europe's eastern frontier is now commonly delineated by the Ural Mountains in Russia. The first century AD geographer Strabo, [3] took the Tanais River to be the boundary, as did early Judaic sources. The southeast boundary with Asia is not universally defined. Most commonly the Ural or, alternatively, the Emba River serve as possible boundaries. The boundary continues to the Caspian Sea, the crest of the Caucasus Mountains or, alternatively, the Kura River in the Caucasus, and on to the Black Sea; the Bosporus, the Sea of Marmara, and the Dardanelles conclude the Asian boundary. The Mediterranean Sea to the south separates Europe from Africa. The western boundary is the Atlantic Ocean; Iceland, though nearer to Greenland (North America) than mainland Europe, is generally included in Europe. There is ongoing debate on where the geographical centre of Europe is. For detailed description of the boundary between Asia and Europe see transcontinental nation. Europe is traditionally reckoned as one of seven continents. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1475x1200, 657 KB) Bold text Description: countries in Europe, map en Source: own map, based on the Generic Mapping Tools and ETOPO2 Author: San Jose, 2 April 2006 Other versions: map in German, map in French, map without text Beschreibung: L... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1475x1200, 657 KB) Bold text Description: countries in Europe, map en Source: own map, based on the Generic Mapping Tools and ETOPO2 Author: San Jose, 2 April 2006 Other versions: map in German, map in French, map without text Beschreibung: L... True-color image of the Earths surface and atmosphere Physical geography (also know as geosystems or physiography) is a subfield of geography that focuses on the systematic study of patterns and processes within the hydrosphere, biosphere, atmosphere, and lithosphere. ... For other uses, see Eurasia (disambiguation). ... Africa-Eurasia plus associated islands. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ...  Sediment  Rock  Mantle  The global continental shelf, highlighted in cyan The continental shelf is the extended perimeter of each continent, which is covered during interglacial periods such as the current epoch by relatively shallow seas (known as shelf seas) and gulfs. ... Map of the Ural Mountains The Ural Mountains (Russian: , Uralskiye gory) (also known as the Urals, the Riphean Mountains in Greco-Roman antiquity, and known as the Stone Belt) are a mountain range that runs roughly north and south through western Russia. ... The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ... The Don (Дон) is one of the major rivers of Russia. ... Map of the southern Levant, c. ... The Ural (Russian: , Kazakh: Жайық, Jayıq or Zhayyq), known as Yaik before 1775, is a river flowing through Russia and Kazakhstan. ... The Emba River in west Kazakhstan rises in the Mugodzhar Mountains and flows some 400 miles (640 km) southwest into the Caspian Sea. ... The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the worlds largest lake or a full-fledged sea. ... The Caucasus Mountains are a mountain system between the Black and Caspian seas in the Caucasus region, usually considered the southeastern limit of Europe. ... Mtkvari (Kura) River near Old Town, Tbilisi Kura (Georgian მტკვარი - Mtkvari, Azerbaijani Kür) is a river in the Caucasus Mountains. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... I LOVE BORAT!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!Two bridges cross the Bosporus. ... Map of the Sea of Marmara Satellite view of the Sea of Marmara The Sea of Marmara (Turkish: Marmara Denizi, Modern Greek: Θάλασσα του Μαρμαρά or Προποντίδα) (also known as the Sea of Marmora or the Marmara Sea) is an inland sea that connects the Black Sea to the Aegean Sea, thus separating the... Map of the Dardanelles The Dardanelles (Turkish: Çanakkale BoÄŸazı, Greek: Δαρδανέλλια, Dardanellia), formerly known as the Hellespont (Greek: Eλλήσποντος, Hellespontos), is a narrow strait in northwestern Turkey connecting the Aegean Sea to the Sea of Marmara. ... Mediterranean redirects here. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... This map shows some of the locations of claimants to the title of Centre of Europe An ongoing debate concerns where the geographical centre of Europe is to be found. ... A transcontinental nation is a country belonging to more than one continent. ...


Because of sociopolitical and cultural differences, there are various descriptions of Europe's boundary; in some sources, some territories are not included in Europe, while other sources include them. For instance, geographers from Russia and other post-Soviet states generally include the Urals in Europe while including Caucasia in Asia. Similarly, numerous geographers consider Azerbaijan's and Armenia's southern border with Iran and Turkey's southern and eastern border with Syria, Iraq and Iran as the boundary between Asia and Europe because of political and cultural reasons. In the same way, despite being close to Asia and Africa, the Mediterranean islands of Cyprus and Malta are considered part of Europe. Post-Soviet states in alphabetical order: 1. ...


Physical geography

Land relief in Europe shows great variation within relatively small areas. The southern regions, however, are more mountainous, while moving north the terrain descends from the high Alps, Pyrenees and Carpathians, through hilly uplands, into broad, low northern plains, which are vast in the east. This extended lowland is known as the Great European Plain, and at its heart lies the North German Plain. An arc of uplands also exists along the north-western seaboard, which begins in the western parts of Britain and Ireland, and then continues along the mountainous, fjord-cut, spine of Norway. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Pic de Bugatetin the Néouvielle Natural Reserve Central Pyrenees For the mountains in Victoria, Australia, see Pyrenees (Victoria). ... Satellite image of the Carpathians. ... Toporaphy of Europe Toporaphy of Europe The European Plain or Great European Plain is a plain in Europe. ... The North German Plain is a lowland region extending from the North Sea and Baltic Sea southward to the uplands of central Germany. ... Fjord in Sunnmøre, Norway Geirangerfjord, Norway A fjord (or fiord) is a long, narrow estuary with steep sides, made when a glacial valley is filled by rising sea water levels. ...


This description is simplified. Sub-regions such as the Iberian Peninsula and the Italian Peninsula contain their own complex features, as does mainland Central Europe itself, where the relief contains many plateaus, river valleys and basins that complicate the general trend. Sub-regions like Iceland, Britain and Ireland are special cases. The former is a land unto itself in the northern ocean which is counted as part of Europe, while the latter are upland areas that were once joined to the mainland until rising sea levels cut them off. The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... Satellite view of the Peninsula in spring The Italian Peninsula or Apennine Peninsula (Italian: Penisola italiana or Penisola appenninica) is one of the greatest peninsulas of Europe, spanning 1,000 km from the Alps in the north to the central Mediterranean Sea in the south. ...

Biodiversity

Biogeographic regions of Europe (including Asian part of Turkey)
Biogeographic regions of Europe (including Asian part of Turkey)

Having lived side-by-side with agricultural peoples for millennia, Europe's animals and plants have been profoundly affected by the presence and activities of man. With the exception of Fennoscandia and northern Russia, few areas of untouched wilderness are currently found in Europe, except for various national parks. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ...


The main natural vegetation cover in Europe is mixed forest. The conditions for growth are very favourable. In the north, the Gulf Stream and North Atlantic Drift warm the continent. Southern Europe could be described as having a warm, but mild climate. There are frequent summer droughts in this region. Mountain ridges also affect the conditions. Some of these (Alps, Pyrenees) are oriented east-west and allow the wind to carry large masses of water from the ocean in the interior. Others are oriented south-north (Scandinavian Mountains, Dinarides, Carpathians, Apennines) and because the rain falls primarily on the side of mountains that is oriented towards sea, forests grow well on this side, while on the other side, the conditions are much less favourable. Few corners of mainland Europe have not been grazed by livestock at some point in time, and the cutting down of the pre-agricultural forest habitat caused disruption to the original plant and animal ecosystems. This article is about a community of trees. ... For the album by Ocean Colour Scene, see North Atlantic Drift (album) The Gulf Stream is orange and yellow in this representation of water temperatures of the Atlantic. ... Schematic of the worlds ocean currents. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Pic de Bugatetin the Néouvielle Natural Reserve Central Pyrenees For the mountains in Victoria, Australia, see Pyrenees (Victoria). ... The Scandinavian Mountains, in Swedish Skanderna, Fjällen (the Fells) or Kölen, and in Norwegian Kjølen, with the two latter meaning the Keel, are a mountain range that runs through the Scandinavian Peninsula. ... Mt Orjen at the Bay of Kotor is the heaviest karstified range of the dinarids View of the central part of the Dinaric Alps (north=down) Valbona pass, northern Albania. ... Satellite image of the Carpathians. ... The Apennine Mountains (Greek: Απεννινος; Latin: Appenninus--in both cases used in the singular; Italian: Appennini) is a mountain range stretching 1000 km from the north to the south of Italy along its east coast, traversing the entire peninsula, and forming, as it were, the backbone of the country. ... Sheep are commonly bred as livestock. ...


Eighty to ninety per cent of Europe was once covered by forest. It stretched from the Mediterranean Sea to the Arctic Ocean. Though over half of Europe's original forests disappeared through the centuries of deforestation, Europe still has over one quarter of its land area as forest, such as the taiga of Scandinavia and Russia, mixed rainforests of the Caucasus and the Cork oak forests in the western Mediterranean. During recent times, deforestation has been slowed and many trees have been planted. However, in many cases monoculture plantations of conifers have replaced the original mixed natural forest, because these grow quicker. The plantations now cover vast areas of land, but offer poorer habitats for many European forest dwelling species which require a mixture of tree species and diverse forest structure. The amount of natural forest in Western Europe is just 2–3% or less, in European Russia 5–10%. The country with the smallest percentage of forested area (excluding the micronations) is Iceland (2%), while the most forested country is Finland(72%). This article is about the process of deforestation in the environment. ... For other uses, see Taiga (disambiguation). ... The Daintree Rainforest in Queensland, Australia. ... Binomial name L. The Cork Oak (Quercus suber) is a medium-sized, evergreen oak tree in the section Quercus sect. ... Fundamentally, a plantation is usually a large farm or estate, especially in a tropical or semitropical country, on which cotton, tobacco, coffee, sugar cane, or trees and the like is cultivated, usually by resident laborers. ... Orders & Families Cordaitales † Pinales   Pinaceae - Pine family   Araucariaceae - Araucaria family   Podocarpaceae - Yellow-wood family   Sciadopityaceae - Umbrella-pine family   Cupressaceae - Cypress family   Cephalotaxaceae - Plum-yew family   Taxaceae - Yew family Vojnovskyales † Voltziales † “Conifer” redirects here. ...


In temperate Europe, mixed forest with both broadleaf and coniferous trees dominate. The most important species in central and western Europe are beech and oak. In the north, the taiga is a mixed spruce-pine-birch forest; further north within Russia and extreme northern Scandinavia, the taiga gives way to tundra as the Arctic is approached. In the Mediterranean, many olive trees have been planted, which are very well adapted to its arid climate; Mediterranean Cypress is also widely planted in southern Europe. The semi-arid Mediterranean region hosts much scrub forest. A narrow east-west tongue of Eurasian grassland (the steppe) extends eastwards from Ukraine and southern Russia and ends in Hungary and traverses into taiga to the north. Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants or angiosperms are the most widespread group of land plants. ... Orders & Families Cordaitales † Pinales   Pinaceae - Pine family   Araucariaceae - Araucaria family   Podocarpaceae - Yellow-wood family   Sciadopityaceae - Umbrella-pine family   Cupressaceae - Cypress family   Cephalotaxaceae - Plum-yew family   Taxaceae - Yew family Vojnovskyales † Voltziales † “Conifer” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Beech (disambiguation). ... Species See List of Quercus species The term oak can be used as part of the common name of any of several hundred species of trees and shrubs in the genus Quercus (from Latin oak tree), and some related genera, notably Cyclobalanopsis and Lithocarpus. ... Species About 35; see text. ... For other uses, see Pine (disambiguation). ... Species Many species; see text and classification Birch is the name of any tree of the genus Betula, in the family Betulaceae, closely related to the beech/oak family, Fagaceae. ... For other uses, see Tundra (disambiguation). ... Binomial name L. 19th century illustration The Olive (Olea europaea) is a species of small tree in the family Oleaceae, native to coastal areas of the eastern Mediterranean region, from Lebanon and the maritime parts of Asia Minor and northern Iran at the south end of the Caspian Sea. ... Binomial name Cupressus sempervirens L. Cupressus sempervirens, the Mediterranean Cypress, is a species of cypress native to the eastern Mediterranean region, in northeast Libya, southeast Greece (Crete, Rhodes), southern Turkey, Cyprus, western Syria, Lebanon and western Jordan, and also a disjunct population in Iran. ... The Konza tallgrass prairie in the Flint Hills of northeastern Kansas. ... This article is about the ecological zone type. ...

Main article: Fauna of Europe

Glaciation during the most recent ice age and the presence of man affected the distribution of European fauna. As for the animals, in many parts of Europe most large animals and top predator species have been hunted to extinction. The woolly mammoth was extinct before the end of the Neolithic period. Today wolves (carnivores) and bears (omnivores) are endangered. Once they were found in most parts of Europe. However, deforestation caused these animals to withdraw further and further. By the Middle Ages the bears' habitats were limited to more or less inaccessible mountains with sufficient forest cover. Today, the brown bear lives primarily in the Balkan peninsula, Scandinavia, and Russia; a small number also persist in other countries across Europe (Austria, Pyrenees etc.), but in these areas brown bear populations are fragmented and marginalised because of the destruction of their habitat. In addition, polar bears may be found on Svalbard, a Norwegian archipelago far north of Scandinavia. The wolf, the second largest predator in Europe after the brown bear, can be found primarily in Eastern Europe and in the Balkans, with a handful of packs in pockets of Western Europe (Scandinavia, Spain, etc.). Europe Europe#Biodiversity List of extinct animals of Europe Molluscs There are about 1500 species of non-marine molluscs in Europe. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400 000 years For the animated movie, see Ice Age (movie). ... Europe Europe#Biodiversity List of extinct animals of Europe Molluscs There are about 1500 species of non-marine molluscs in Europe. ... This snapping turtle is trying to make a meal of a Canada goose, but the goose is too wary. ... Binomial name Blumenbach, 1799 For the rock band, see Wooly Mammoth (band). ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... Wolf Wolf Man Mount Wolf Wolf Prizes Wolf Spider Wolf 424 Wolf 359 Wolf Point Wolf-herring Frank Wolf Friedrich Wolf Friedrich August Wolf Hugo Wolf Johannes Wolf Julius Wolf Max Franz Joseph Cornelius Wolf Maximilian Wolf Rudolf Wolf Thomas Wolf As Name Wolf Breidenbach Wolf Hirshorn Other The call... Carnivorism redirects here. ... For other meanings, see Bear (disambiguation). ... Pigs are omnivores. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Binomial name Ursus arctos Linnaeus, 1758 Brown bear footprint The Brown Bear (Ursus arctos) is a species of bear that can reach weights of 130–700 kg (300–1500 pounds). ... This article is about the animal. ... Trinomial name Canis lupus lupus (Linnaeus, 1758) Eurasian wolf range The Eurasian Wolf (Canis lupus lupus), also known as the Common Wolf, European Wolf, Carpathian Wolf and Steppes Wolf is a subspecies of the Grey Wolf (Canis lupus). ... Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange),members of the Warsaw pact (light orange), and other former Communist regimes not aligned with Moscow (lightest orange). ... A current understanding of Western Europe. ...


Other important European carnivores are Eurasian lynx, European wild cat, foxes (especially the red fox), jackal and different species of martens, hedgehogs, different species of reptiles snakes (vipers, grass snake…), different birds (owls, hawks and other birds of prey). Binomial name Lynx lynx (Linnaeus, 1758) The Eurasian Lynx (Lynx lynx) is a medium-sized cat of European and Siberian forests, where it is one of the major predators. ... For other meanings of Wild Cat and wildcat, see wildcat. ... This article is about the animal. ... For other uses, see Red Fox (disambiguation). ... Species Canis aureus Canis adustus Canis mesomelas A jackal (from Turkish çakal, via Persian shaghal ultimately from Sanskrit sá¹›gālaḥ [1][2]) is any of three (sometimes four) small to medium-sized members of the family Canidae, found in Africa, Asia and Southeastern Europe. ... Species Martes americana Martes flavigula Martes foina Martes gwatkinsii Martes martes Martes melampus Martes pennanti Martes zibellina For the Wiltshire village see Marten, Wiltshire. ... Genera Atelerix Erinaceus Hemiechinus Mesechinus Paraechinus A hedgehog is any of the small spiny mammals of the subfamily Erinaceinae and the order Erinaceomorpha. ... This is a list of European reptiles. ... Synonyms Viperini - Oppel, 1811 Viperes - Cuvier, 1817 Viperides - Latreille, 1825 Viperina - Gray, 1825 Viperiodea - Fitzinger, 1826 Viperiodei - Eichwald, 1831 Viperinae - Cantor, 1847 Viperiformes - Günther, 1864 Viperida - Strauch, 1869[1] Common names: pitless vipers, true vipers, Old World vipers,[2] true adders. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 The Grass Snake, sometimes called the Ringed Snake or Water Snake (Natrix natrix) is a European non-venomous snake. ... In this article, Europe refers to the geographical continent, not the somewhat larger Western Palearctic, which includes parts of the Middle East and north Africa. ... For other uses, see Owl (disambiguation). ... Genera Accipiter Micronisus Melierax Urotriorchis Erythrotriorchis The term hawk refers to birds of prey in any of three senses: Strictly, to mean any of the species in the bird sub-family Accipitrinae in the genera Accipiter, Micronisus, Melierax, Urotriorchis, and Megatriorchis. ... If you are looking for other meanings of the term, refer to Bird of prey (disambiguation). ...


Important European herbivores are snails, amphibian larvae, fish, different birds, and mammals, like rodents, deer and roe deer, boars, and living in the mountains, marmots, steinbocks, chamois among others. A deer and two fawns feeding on some foliage A herbivore is often defined as any organism that eats only plants[1]. By that definition, many fungi, some bacteria, many animals, about 1% of flowering plants and some protists can be considered herbivores. ... For other uses, see Snail (disambiguation). ... This is a list of European amphibians. ... A larval insect A larva (Latin; plural larvae) is a juvenile form of animal with indirect development, undergoing metamorphosis (for example, insects or amphibians). ... For other uses, see Fish (disambiguation). ... This is a list of European mammals. ... Suborders Sciuromorpha Castorimorpha Myomorpha Anomaluromorpha Hystricomorpha Rodentia is an order of mammals also known as rodents, characterised by two continuously-growing incisors in the upper and lower jaws which must be kept short by gnawing. ... This article is about the ruminent animal. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) The European Roe Deer (Capreolus capreolus) is a deer species of Europe, Asia Minor, and Caspian coastal regions. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 The wild boar (Sus scrofa) is the wild ancestor of the domestic pig. ... Species See text. ... Binomial name Capra ibex Linnaeus, 1758 The Alpine Ibex or Capra Ibex (is commonly called by its German name, steinbock) is the species of Ibex that lives in the European Alps. ... Binomial name Rupicapra rupicapra (Linnaeus, 1758) The chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra) is a large, goat-like animal that lives in the European Alps and Carpathians. ...


Sea creatures are also an important part of European flora and fauna. The sea flora is mainly phytoplankton. Important animals that live in European seas are zooplankton, molluscs, echinoderms, different crustaceans, squids and octopuses, fish, dolphins, and whales. Diagrams of some typical phytoplankton Phytoplankton are the autotrophic component of plankton. ... Photomontage of plankton organisms Plankton is the aggregate community of weakly swimming but mostly drifting small organisms that inhabit the water column of the ocean, seas, and bodies of freshwater. ... Classes Caudofoveata Aplacophora Polyplacophora - Chitons Monoplacophora Bivalvia - Bivalves Scaphopoda - Tusk shells Gastropoda - Snails and Slugs Cephalopoda - Squids, Octopuses, etc. ... Classes Subphylum Homalozoa Gill & Caster, 1960 Class Homostelea Class Homoiostelea Class Stylophora Gill & Caster, 1960 Class Ctenocystoidea Robison & Sprinkle, 1969 Subphylum Crinozoa Class Eocrinoidea Jaekel, 1899 Class Paracrinoidea Regnéll, 1945 Class Cystoidea von Buch, 1846 Class Blastoidea Class Crinoidea Subphylum Asterozoa Class Ophiuroidea Class Asteroidea Subphylum Echinozoa Helicoplacoidea †  ?Arkarua... For the Dutch band, see Crustacean (band). ... For other uses, see Squid (disambiguation). ... Families 14 in two suborders, see text The octopus is a cephalopod of the order Octopoda that inhabits many diverse regions of the ocean, especially coral reefs. ... For other uses, see Dolphin (disambiguation). ... Whales are the largest species of exclusively aquatic placental mammals, members of the order Cetacea, which also includes dolphins and porpoises. ...


Biodiversity is protected in Europe through the Council of Europe Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats (Bern Convention), which has also been signed by the European Community as well as non-European states. Anthem Ode to Joy (orchestral)  ten founding members joined subsequently observer at the Parliamentary Assembly observer at the Committee of Ministers  official candidate Seat Strasbourg, France Membership 47 European states 5 observers (Council) 3 observers (Assembly) Leaders  -  Secretary General Terry Davis  -  President of the Parliamentary Assembly Rene van der Linden... The Bern Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats 1979, also known as the Bern Convention (or Berne Convention), came into force on June 1, 1982. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The European Community (EC) was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ...


Demographics

Main articles: Demographics of Europe and Aging of Europe
The population growth/decline of European countries
The population growth/decline of European countries

Since the Renaissance and the Age of Discovery, Europe has had a major influence in culture, economics and social movements in the world. European demographics are important not only historically, but also in understanding current international relations and population issues. The population growth/decline of European countries The Demographics of Europe refers to the changing number and composition of the population of Europe. ... Map of countries by population — China and India, the only two countries to have a population greater than one billion, together possess more than a third of the worlds population. ... Image File history File links Europe_population_growth_2006. ... Image File history File links Europe_population_growth_2006. ... See also: Age of Sail and Afro-Asiatic age of discovery For the computer wargame, Age of Discovery, see Global Diplomacy. ...


Some current and past issues in European demographics have included religious emigration, race relations, economic immigration, a declining birth rate and an aging population. In some countries, such as the Republic of Ireland and Poland, access to abortion is currently limited; in the past, such restrictions and also restrictions on artificial birth control were commonplace throughout Europe. Furthermore, three European countries (The Netherlands, Belgium and Switzerland) have allowed a limited form of voluntary euthanasia for some terminally ill people. A memorial statue in Hanko, Finland, commemorating the thousands of emigrants who left the country to start a new life in the United States Emigration is the act and the phenomenon of leaving ones native country to settle in another country. ... Race relations is the area of sociology that studies the social, political, and economic relations between races at all different levels of society. ... Immigration is the movement of people into one place from another. ... In demographics population ageing occurs when the average age of a regions population gets older. ... Motto: Je Maintiendrai (Dutch: Ik zal handhaven, English: I Shall Uphold) Anthem: Wilhelmus van Nassouwe Capital Amsterdam1 Largest city Amsterdam Official language(s) Dutch2 Government Parliamentary democracy Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Beatrix  - Prime minister Jan Peter Balkenende Independence Eighty Years War   - Declared July 26, 1581   - Recognised January 30, 1648 (by Spain... Voluntary euthanasia is suicide for medical reasons, normally associated with terminal illness. ...


In 2005 the population of Europe was estimated to be 728 million according to the United Nations, which is slightly more than one-ninth of the world's population. A century ago Europe had nearly a quarter of the world's population. The population of Europe has grown in the past century, but in other areas of the world (in particular Africa and Asia) the population has grown far more quickly.[4] According to UN population projection (medium variant), Europe's share will fall to 7% in 2050, numbering 653 million.[5] Within this context, significant disparities exist between religions in relation to fertility rates. The average number of children per female of child bearing age is 1.52. According to some sources,[6][7] this rate is higher among Muslims. In 2005 the EU had an overall net gain from immigration of 1.8 million people, despite having one of the highest population densities in the world. This accounted for almost 85% of Europe's total population growth.[8] UN and U.N. redirect here. ... For other uses, see World (disambiguation). ... Map of countries by population — China and India, the only two countries to have a population greater than one billion, together possess more than a third of the worlds population. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Map of countries by population density (See List of countries by population density. ... Map of countries and territories by fertility rate Graph of Total Fertility Rates vs. ... Theoretical Human population increase from 10,000 BC – 2000 AD. Population growth is the change in population over time, and can be quantified as the change in the number of individuals in a population per unit time. ...


Political geography

Territories and regions

See also: Demographics of Europe and List of European countries by population
Regions of Europe as delineated by the United Nations (other categorisations may vary):      Northern Europe      Western Europe      Eastern Europe      Southern Europe

The countries in this table are categorised according to the scheme for geographic subregions used by the United Nations, and data included are per sources in cross-referenced articles. Where they differ, provisos are clearly indicated. The population growth/decline of European countries The Demographics of Europe refers to the changing number and composition of the population of Europe. ... This is a list of European countries and dependencies by population. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (984x924, 72 KB) Summary Map: Europe (location), subregions as delineated by United Nations geographic classification scheme:  Northern Europe  Western Europe  Eastern Europe  (Northern) Asian portion of Russia  Southern Europe  Countries of Western Asia with partial territory in Southern Europe – Turkey (Trakya... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (984x924, 72 KB) Summary Map: Europe (location), subregions as delineated by United Nations geographic classification scheme:  Northern Europe  Western Europe  Eastern Europe  (Northern) Asian portion of Russia  Southern Europe  Countries of Western Asia with partial territory in Southern Europe – Turkey (Trakya... Look up Region in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... Northern Europe Northern Europe is the northern part of the European continent. ... A current understanding of Western Europe. ... Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange),members of the Warsaw pact (light orange), and other former Communist regimes not aligned with Moscow (lightest orange). ... Southern Europe is a region of the European continent. ... The UN geoscheme divides the world into macro regions[1] and subregions, all in alphabetical order. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ...


According to different definitions, such as consideration of the concept of Central Europe, the following territories and regions may be subject to various other categorisations.
Central Europe The Alpine Countries and the Visegrád Group (Political map, 2004) Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ...

Name of region[9] and
territory, with flag
Area
(km²)
Population
(1 July, 2002 est.)
Population density
(per km²)
Capital
Eastern Europe:
Flag of Belarus Belarus 207,600 10,335,382 49.8 Minsk
Flag of Bulgaria Bulgaria 110,910 7,621,337 68.7 Sofia
Flag of the Czech Republic Czech Republic 78,866 10,256,760 130.1 Prague
Flag of Hungary Hungary 93,030 10,075,034 108.3 Budapest
Flag of Moldova Moldova[10] 33,843 4,434,547 131.0 Chişinău
Flag of Poland Poland 312,685 38,625,478 123.5 Warsaw
Flag of Romania Romania 238,391 21,698,181 91.0 Bucharest
Flag of Russia Russia[11] 3,960,000 106,037,143 26.8 Moscow
Flag of Slovakia Slovakia 48,845 5,422,366 111.0 Bratislava
Flag of Ukraine Ukraine 603,700 48,396,470 80.2 Kiev
Northern Europe:
Flag of Åland Åland (Finland) 1,552 26,008 16.8 Mariehamn
Flag of Denmark Denmark 43,094 5,368,854 124.6 Copenhagen
Flag of Estonia Estonia 45,226 1,415,681 31.3 Tallinn
Flag of the Faroe Islands Faroe Islands (Denmark) 1,399 46,011 32.9 Tórshavn
Flag of Finland Finland 336,593 5,157,537 15.3 Helsinki
Flag of Guernsey Guernsey[12] 78 64,587 828.0 St Peter Port
Flag of Iceland Iceland 103,000 307,261 2.7 Reykjavík
Flag of Ireland Ireland 70,280 4,234,925 60.3 Dublin
Flag of the Isle of Man Isle of Man[13] 572 73,873 129.1 Douglas
Flag of Jersey Jersey[14] 116 89,775 773.9 Saint Helier
Flag of Latvia Latvia 64,589 2,366,515 36.6 Riga
Flag of Lithuania Lithuania 65,200 3,601,138 55.2 Vilnius
Flag of Norway Norway 324,220 4,525,116 14.0 Oslo
Flag of Norway Svalbard and Jan
Mayen Islands
(Norway)
62,049 2,868 0.046 Longyearbyen
Flag of Sweden Sweden 449,964 9,090,113 19.7 Stockholm
Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom 244,820 61,100,835 244.2 London
Southern Europe:
Flag of Albania Albania 28,748 3,600,523 125.2 Tirana
Flag of Andorra Andorra 468 68,403 146.2 Andorra la Vella
Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina 51,129 4,448,500 77.5 Sarajevo
Flag of Croatia Croatia 56,542 4,437,460 77.7 Zagreb
Flag of Gibraltar Gibraltar (UK) 5.9 27,714 4,697.3 Gibraltar
Flag of Greece Greece 131,940 10,645,343 80.7 Athens
Flag of Italy Italy 301,230 58,751,711 191.6 Rome
Flag of the Republic of Macedonia Macedonia 25,333 2,054,800 81.1 Skopje
Flag of Malta Malta 316 397,499 1,257.9 Valletta
Flag of Montenegro Montenegro[15] 13,812 616,258 44.6 Podgorica
Flag of Portugal Portugal[16] 91,568 10,084,245 110.1 Lisbon
Flag of San Marino San Marino 61 27,730 454.6 San Marino
Flag of Serbia Serbia[17] 88,361 9,663,742 109.4 Belgrade
Flag of Slovenia Slovenia 20,273 1,932,917 95.3 Ljubljana
Flag of Spain Spain 504,851 45,061,274 89.3 Madrid
Flag of the Vatican City Vatican City 0.44 900 2,045.5 Vatican City
Western Europe:
Flag of Austria Austria 83,858 8,169,929 97.4 Vienna
Flag of Belgium Belgium 30,510 10,274,595 336.8 Brussels
Flag of France France[18] 547,030 59,765,983 109.3 Paris
Flag of Germany Germany 357,021 83,251,851 233.2 Berlin
Flag of Liechtenstein Liechtenstein 160 32,842 205.3 Vaduz
Flag of Luxembourg Luxembourg 2,586 448,569 173.5 Luxembourg
Flag of Monaco Monaco 1.95 31,987 16,403.6 Monaco
Flag of the Netherlands Netherlands[19] 41,526 16,318,199 393.0 Amsterdam
Flag of Switzerland Switzerland 41,290 7,507,000 176.8 Bern
Central Asia:
Flag of Kazakhstan Kazakhstan[20] 150,000 600,000 4.0 Astana
Western Asia:[21]
Flag of Azerbaijan Azerbaijan[22] 7,110 175,200 24.6 Baku
Flag of Georgia (country) Georgia[23] 2,000 37,520 18.8 Tbilisi
Flag of Turkey Turkey[24] 24,378 11,044,932 453.1 Ankara
Total 10,176,246[25] 709,608,850[26] 69.7

The definition of continental subregions in use by the United Nations. ... For other uses, see Flag (disambiguation). ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange),members of the Warsaw pact (light orange), and other former Communist regimes not aligned with Moscow (lightest orange). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belarus. ... Location of Minsk, shown within the Minsk Voblast Coordinates: Country Subdivision Belarus Minsk Founded 1067 Government  - Mayor Mikhail Pavlov Area  - City 305. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bulgaria. ... This article is about the capital of Bulgaria. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Czech_Republic. ... For other uses, see Prague (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Hungary. ... For other uses, see Budapest (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Moldova. ... Location of ChiÅŸinău in Moldova Coordinates: , Country Founded 1436 Government  - Mayor Dorin Chirtoacă, since 2007 Area  - City 120 km²  (46. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland. ... For other uses, see Warsaw (disambiguation) and Warszawa (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Romania. ... Nickname: Motto: Patria si Dreptul Meu (My Country and My Right) Location of Bucharest within Romania (in red) Coordinates: , Country County Founded 1459 (first official record) Government  - Mayor Adriean Videanu Area  - City 228 km²  (88 sq mi)  - Metro 238 km² (91. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Slovakia. ... Nickname: Location of Bratislava within Slovakia Coordinates: , Country Region Districts Bratislava I-V City subdivisions 17 city boroughs Cadastral areas 20 cadastral areas First mentioned 907 Government  - Type City council  - Mayor (Primátor) Andrej ÄŽurkovský  - Headquarters Primates Palace Area [1]  - City 367. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ukraine. ... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2006)  - City 4,450,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ... Northern Europe Northern Europe is the northern part of the European continent. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Aaland. ... “Aland” redirects here. ... Founded 1861 Province Ã…land Region Ã…land Sub-region Mariehamn Area - Of which land - Rank 11. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Denmark. ... For other uses, see Copenhagen (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Estonia. ... County Area 159. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Faroe_Islands. ... The peninsula Tinganes is seat of the Faroese Government in Tórshavn. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Finland. ... Location of Helsinki in Northern Europe Coordinates: , Country Province Region Uusimaa Sub-region Helsinki Charter 1550 Capital city 1812 Government  - Mayor Jussi Pajunen Area  - Total 187. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Guernsey. ... This is a map of Guernsey. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iceland. ... Location in Iceland Coordinates: , Constituency Government  - Mayor (Borgarstjóri) Dagur B. Eggertsson Area  - Total 274. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ireland. ... For other uses, see Dublin (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_isle_of_man. ... Location within the British Isles Douglas (Doolish in Manx) is the capital of the Isle of Man (Ellan Vannin) and its largest town. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Jersey. ... Saint Helier (Jèrriais: St Hélyi) is one of the twelve parishes and the largest town on Jersey, the largest of the Channel Islands in the English Channel. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Latvia. ... For other uses, see Riga (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Lithuania. ... Not to be confused with Vilnius city municipality. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Norway. ... This article is about the capital of Norway. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Norway. ... Svalbard and Jan Mayen are two separate parts of Norway located in the Arctic Ocean. ... Longyearbyen Longyearbyen is the largest settlement on Svalbard, Norway and its capital. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sweden. ... For other uses, see Stockholm (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Southern Europe is a region of the European continent. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Albania. ... Nickname: Coordinates: , Country Albania Founded 1614 Elevation 295 ft (90 m) Population (2005 est)[1]  - City 585,756  - Metro 700,000 Tirana (Albanian: Tiranë or Tirana) is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Albania. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Andorra. ... Position of Andorra la Vella in Andorra Coordinates: Country Andorra Parishes Andorra la Vella Area  - City 30 km²  (11. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bosnia_and_Herzegovina. ... Map of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Sarajevo) Coordinates: , Country Entity Canton Sarajevo Canton Government  - Mayor Semiha Borovac (SDA) Area [1]  - City 141. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Croatia. ... Location of Zagreb within Croatia Coordinates: , Country RC diocese 1094 Free royal city 1242 Unified 1850 Government  - Mayor Milan Bandić Area [1]  - Total 641. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Gibraltar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece. ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Macedonia. ... Location of the city of Skopje (green) in the Republic of Macedonia Government  - Mayor Trifun Kostovski Area  - City 701. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Malta. ... Valletta, population 6,315 (official estimate for 2005), is the capital city of Malta. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Montenegro. ... This article is about the country in Europe. ... Coordinates Mayor Dr. Miomir MugoÅ¡a (DPS) Municipality area 1,441 km² Population (2003 census)  - city  - municipality  - density 136,473 169,132 117. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Portugal. ... For other uses, see Lisbon (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_San_Marino. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Serbia. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... For other uses, see Belgrade (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Slovenia. ...   (IPA: ) is the capital and largest city of Slovenia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ... This article is about the Spanish capital. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Vatican_City. ... A current understanding of Western Europe. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Austria. ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belgium_(civil). ... For other places with the same name, see Brussels (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Liechtenstein. ... Vaduz and its exclaves in Liechtenstein Coordinates: , Area  - City 6. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Luxembourg. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Monaco. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands. ... For other uses, see Amsterdam (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Switzerland. ... Location within Switzerland The city of Bern, English traditionally Berne (Bernese German Bärn , German Bern , French Berne , Italian Berna , Romansh Berna ), is the Bundesstadt (administrative capital) of Switzerland, and is the fourth most populous Swiss city (after Zürich, Geneva and Basel). ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Kazakhstan. ... Coordinates: Government  - Mayor Askar Mamin Population (estimated)  - City 600,000 Time zone BTT (UTC+6) This article is about the capital of Kazakhstan; for the article on the palace in Sarawak, see Astana (Sarawak); for the professional road-cycling team see Astana Team; for the Iranian city, see Astaneh-e... A map showing Southwest Asia - The term Middle East is more often used to refer to both Southwest Asia and some North African countries Southwest Asia, or West Asia, is the southwestern part of Asia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Azerbaijan. ... Coordinates: , Country Government  - Mayor Hajibala Abutalybov Area  - City 260 km²  (100. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Georgia. ... Location of Tbilisi in Georgia Coordinates: , Country Georgia Established c. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ... Ankara is the capital of Turkey and the countrys second largest city after Ä°stanbul. ...

Economy

Main article: Economy of Europe
European nations by GDP per capita in 2002
European nations by GDP per capita in 2002

As a continent, the economy of Europe is currently the largest on Earth. The European Union, or EU, an intergovernmental body composed of most of the European states, is one of the two largest in the world. Of the member states in the EU, Germany has the largest national economy. Thirteen EU countries share a common unit of currency, the euro. Major economic sectors in Europe include agriculture, manufacturing, and investment. The majority of the EU's trade is with the United States, China, India, Russia and non-member European states.
The economy of Europe comprises more than 710 million people in 48 different states. ... Modified version of Image:Western Europe File links The following pages link to this file: Economy of Europe Categories: GFDL images ... Modified version of Image:Western Europe File links The following pages link to this file: Economy of Europe Categories: GFDL images ... For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ...


Languages and cultures

Main article: Languages of Europe
See also: Eurolinguistics

There are several linguistic groups widely recognised in Europe. These sometimes (but not always) coincide with cultural and historical connections between the various nations, though in other cases religion is considered a more significant distinguishing factor. Map showing approximate current distribution of languages in Europe, but with emphasis on locations of minority languages Most of the many languages of Europe belong to the Indo-European language family. ... Eurolinguistics is a comparatively young branch of linguistics which deals with questions on the languages of Europe. ...


Multiligualism and the protection of regional and minority languages are recognised political goals in Europe today. The Council of Europe Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities and the Council of Europe's European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages set up a legal framework for language rights in Europe. Anthem Ode to Joy (orchestral)  ten founding members joined subsequently observer at the Parliamentary Assembly observer at the Committee of Ministers  official candidate Seat Strasbourg, France Membership 47 European states 5 observers (Council) 3 observers (Assembly) Leaders  -  Secretary General Terry Davis  -  President of the Parliamentary Assembly Rene van der Linden... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wikisource. ... Anthem Ode to Joy (orchestral)  ten founding members joined subsequently observer at the Parliamentary Assembly observer at the Committee of Ministers  official candidate Seat Strasbourg, France Membership 47 European states 5 observers (Council) 3 observers (Assembly) Leaders  -  Secretary General Terry Davis  -  President of the Parliamentary Assembly Rene van der Linden... // The European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (ECRML) is a European treaty (CETS 148) adopted in 1992 under the auspices of the Council of Europe to protect and promote historical regional and minority languages in Europe. ...


Romance languages

Main article: Latin Europe

Romance languages are spoken more or less in south-western Europe, as well as Romania and Moldova which are situated in Eastern Europe. This area consists of: Andorra, Italy, Portugal, France (excluding parts of Nord and Alsace), Spain, Romania, Moldova, French-speaking Belgium (Wallonia, partly Brussels), French-speaking Switzerland (Romandy), Italian-speaking Switzerland, Italian-speaking Croatia (part of Istria), and Romansch-speaking Switzerland. All Romance languages are principally derived from the Roman language, Latin, as designated. Latin Europe Latin Europe (Italian, Portuguese and Spanish: Europa latina; French: Europe latine; Romanian: Europa latină; Catalan: Europa llatina; Franco-Provençal: Eropa latina) is composed of those nations and areas in Europe that speak a Romance language and are seen as having a distinct culture from the Germanic and... The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family, comprising all the languages that descend from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ... Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange),members of the Warsaw pact (light orange), and other former Communist regimes not aligned with Moscow (lightest orange). ... Extent of Dutch in the Arrondissement of Dunkirk, 1874 and 1972 Nord (English: ) is a department in the far north of France. ... (New region flag) (Region logo) Location Administration Capital Regional President Departments Bas-Rhin Haut-Rhin Arrondissements 13 Cantons 75 Communes 903 Statistics Land area1 8,280 km² (??? mi) km² Population (Ranked 14th)  - January 1, 2006 est. ... Wallonia (French: Wallonie, German: Wallonien, Walloon: Walonreye, Dutch: Wallonië) or the Walloon Region (French: Région Wallonne, Dutch: Waals Gewest) is the predominantly French-speaking region that constitutes one of the three federal regions of Belgium, with its capital at Namur. ... For other places with the same name, see Brussels (disambiguation). ... The French-speaking part of Switzerland is shown in green on this map. ... Istria (Croatian and Slovenian: Istra, Venetian and Italian: Istria), formerly Histria (Latin), is the largest peninsula in the Adriatic Sea. ... Romansh (also spelled Rumantsch, Romansch or Romanche) is any of the various Rhaetian languages spoken in Switzerland. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ...


Germanic languages

Main article: Germanic Europe

Germanic languages are spoken more or less in north-western Europe and some parts of central Europe. This region consists of: Norway, Sweden, Germany, the United Kingdom, the Republic of Ireland, Denmark, the Netherlands, Dutch-speaking Belgium (Flanders, partly Brussels and the German-speaking areas east of Wallonia), Austria, Hungary (the City of Sopron), Slovakia (Bratislava; former "Pressburg"), Transylvania (Romania), Liechtenstein, 68-74% of Switzerland, Iceland, the Faroe Islands, Luxemburg, Poland (areas in Silesia), Pomerania, East Prussia, France (Alsace-Lorraine, and Nord-Pas de Calais), the Swedish-speaking municipalities of Finland, and the Alto Adige and South Tirol in Italy. Germanic Europe Germanic Europe is the part of Europe in which Germanic languages are predominant. ... The Germanic languages are a group of related languages constituting a branch of the Indo-European (IE) language family. ... Central Europe The Alpine Countries and the Visegrád Group (Political map, 2004) Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... For other uses, see Flanders (disambiguation). ... For other places with the same name, see Brussels (disambiguation). ... Wallonia (French: Wallonie, German: Wallonien, Walloon: Walonreye, Dutch: Wallonië) or the Walloon Region (French: Région Wallonne, Dutch: Waals Gewest) is the predominantly French-speaking region that constitutes one of the three federal regions of Belgium, with its capital at Namur. ... For the historical county in the Kingdom of Hungary named Sopron / Ödenburg, Sopron (county). ... Nickname: Location of Bratislava within Slovakia Coordinates: , Country Region Districts Bratislava I-V City subdivisions 17 city boroughs Cadastral areas 20 cadastral areas First mentioned 907 Government  - Type City council  - Mayor (Primátor) Andrej ÄŽurkovský  - Headquarters Primates Palace Area [1]  - City 367. ... Preßburg is the historical name (in German and in English) for the city of Bratislava. ... This article is about the region in Romania. ... Luxembourg - a small country in west Europe Luxembourg (city) - the capital city of the country Luxembourg (district) - a district in the country Luxembourg, province of Belgium Luxemburg, Iowa - a city in the USA Luxemburg, Wisconsin - a village in the USA Luxembourg Garden, Paris, France Luxemburg Township, Minnesota - a township in... Silesia (English pronunciation [], Czech: ; German: ; Latin: ; Polish: ; Silesian: Åšlůnsk) is a historical region in central Europe, located along the upper and middle Oder River, upper Vistula River, and along the Sudetes, Carpathian (Silesian Beskids) mountain range. ... Pommern redirects here. ... East Prussia (German: Ostpreu en; Polish: Prusy Wschodnie; Russian: Восточная Пруссия — Vostochnaya Prussiya) was a province of Kingdom of Prussia, situated on the territory of former Ducal Prussia. ... (New region flag) (Region logo) Location Administration Capital Regional President Departments Bas-Rhin Haut-Rhin Arrondissements 13 Cantons 75 Communes 903 Statistics Land area1 8,280 km² (??? mi) km² Population (Ranked 14th)  - January 1, 2006 est. ... (Région flag) (Region logo) Location Administration Capital Regional President Departments Meurthe-et-Moselle Meuse Moselle Vosges Arrondissements 19 Cantons 157 Communes 2,337 Statistics Land area1 23,547 km² Population (Ranked 11th)  - January 1, 2006 est. ... (Region flag) (Region logo) Location Administration Capital Regional President Departments Nord Pas-de-Calais Arrondissements 13 Cantons 156 Communes 1,546 Statistics Land area1 12,414 km² Population (Ranked 4th)  - January 1, 2006 est. ... Areas where Finland-Swedish populations are found shown in yellow Finland-Swedish is a general term for the closely related cluster of dialects of Swedish spoken in Finland by Finland-Swedes as a first language. ... The municipalities (kunta in Finnish, kommun in Swedish) represent the local level of administration in Finland and act as the fundamental administrative units of the country. ... Alto Adige/South Tyrol (German: Südtirol; Italian: Alto Adige, Sudtirolo or Sud Tirolo; Ladin: Sudtirol; Official Autonomous Province of Bolzano-Bozen, in German: Autonome Provinz Bozen - Südtirol; Official in Italian: Provincia Autonoma di Bolzano - Alto Adige; Official in Ladin: Provinzia Autonòma de Balsan - Sudtirol), is an autonomous...


Celtic languages

Main article: Celtic nations

The Celtic languages once stretched across western and central Europe and into Anatolia, but today they are largely limited to the western fringe of the Celtic nations: Ireland, Scotland, the Isle of Man, Wales, Cornwall, and Brittany. The Continental Celtic languages, including Gaulish and Celtiberian, died out by the sixth century; only the Insular Celtic languages—the Goidelic languages (Irish, Scottish Gaelic, Manx) and the Brythonic languages (Welsh, Breton, Cornish)—have survived into modern times. The Six Nations considered the heartland of the modern Celts Celtic nations are areas of Europe inhabited by members of Celtic cultures, specifically speakers of Celtic languages. ... The Celtic languages are the languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or Common Celtic, a branch of the greater Indo-European language family. ... A current understanding of Western Europe. ... Central Europe The Alpine Countries and the Visegrád Group (Political map, 2004) Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... The Six Nations considered the heartland of the modern Celts Celtic nations are areas of Europe inhabited by members of Celtic cultures, specifically speakers of Celtic languages. ... This article is about the country. ... This article is about the country. ... For other uses, see Cornwall (disambiguation). ... Historical province of Brittany, showing the main areas with their name in Breton language The traditional flag of Brittany (the Gwenn-ha-du), formerly a Breton nationalist symbol but today used as a general civic flag in the region. ... The Continental Celtic languages are those Celtic languages that are neither Goidelic nor Brythonic. ... Gaulish is the name given to the Celtic language that was spoken in Gaul before the Vulgar Latin of the late Roman Empire became dominant in Roman Gaul. ... Celtiberian (also Hispano-Celtic) is an extinct Celtic language spoken by the Celtiberians in northern Spain before and during the Roman Empire. ... The Insular Celtic hypothesis concerns the origin of the Celtic languages. ... The Goidelic languages (also sometimes called, particularly in colloquial situations, the Gaelic languages or collectively Gaelic) have historically been part of a dialect continuum stretching from the south of Ireland, the Isle of Man, to the north of Scotland. ... // Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. ... The Brythonic languages (or Brittonic languages) form one of the two branches of the Insular Celtic language family. ... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ... Breton (Brezhoneg) is a Celtic language spoken by some of the inhabitants of Brittany (Breizh) in France. ... For the Cornish-English dialect, see West Country dialects. ...


Slavic languages

Main article: Slavic Europe

Slavic languages are spoken in Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe. This area consists of: Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, the Czech Republic, regions of Saxony and Brandenburg in Germany (Sorbs), the Republic of Macedonia, Northern Greece, Montenegro, Poland, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, regions of Moldova (including the territory of Transnistria), and Ukraine.  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language Slavic Europe is a region of Europe where Slavic languages are spoken. ...  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup... The Free State of Saxony (German: Freistaat Sachsen; Sorbian: Swobodny Stat Sakska) has a land area of 18,413 km² and a population of 4. ... For the similarly spelled Brandenberg, see Brandenberg (Austria) or Brandenburg (disambiguation) Location Coordinates , , Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE4 Capital Potsdam Minister-President Matthias Platzeck (SPD) Governing parties SPD / CDU Votes in Bundesrat 4 (of 69) Basic statistics Area  29,479 km² (11,382... The Sorbs are a Slavic minority indigenous to the region known as Lusatia in the current German states of Saxony and Brandenburg (in former GDR territory). ... For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... For other uses, see Greece (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country in Europe. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... For the region during the Second World War, see Transnistria (World War II). ...


Uralic languages

The Uralic languages are divided into three main groups, two of which have representatives in Europe. The Finno-Permic languages are spoken in Finland, Estonia, and parts of Sweden, Norway, Latvia, and European Russia while the Ugric languages are spoken in Hungary and parts of Romania, Slovakia, Serbia, Ukraine, and Siberian Russia. These two groups comprise the Finno-Ugric branch of the Uralic language family. Geographical distribution of Samoyedic, Finnic, Ugric and Yukaghir languages  Yukaghir  Samoyedic  Ugric  Finnic The Uralic languages (pronounced: ) form a language family of about 30 languages spoken by approximately 20 million people. ... The Finno-Permic languages are a large branch of the Finno-Ugric languages. ... Ugric languages or Ugrian languages are generally held to be a branch of Finno-Ugric languages. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... Approximate geographical distribution of areas where indigenous Finno-Ugric languages are spoken. ...


Turkic languages

Turkic languages are spoken as the main language in Turkey and Azerbaijan and as a minority language in parts of Cyprus, Bulgaria, Serbia, Greece, Russia, Republic of Macedonia, Moldova, Ukraine, the Caucasus, and in Turkish diaspora communities in several other European countries (most notably Germany, Sweden, France, Belgium, and the Netherlands). The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean to Siberia and Western China, and are traditionally considered to be part of the proposed Altaic language family. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... The term Turkish diaspora refers to the estimated population of Turkish people in the world living outside of Turkey. ...


Baltic languages

Baltic languages are spoken in Lithuania and Latvia. Estonia's national language is part of the Finno-Ugric family even though it is a Baltic state geographically. The Baltic languages are a group of related languages belonging to the Indo-European language family and spoken mainly in areas extending east and southeast of the Baltic Sea in Northern Europe. ... Approximate geographical distribution of areas where indigenous Finno-Ugric languages are spoken. ... Baltic states and the Baltic Sea The Baltic states or the Baltic countries is a term which refers to three countries in Northern Europe: Estonia Latvia Lithuania Prior to World War II, Finland was sometimes considered a fourth Baltic state. ...


Other languages

Outside of these seven main linguistic groups one can find:

Greek ( IPA: or simply IPA: — Hellenic) has a documented history of 3,500 years, the longest of any single language in the Indo-European language family. ... ΠΡΟΣΟΧΗ!! ΣΤΟ ΤΕΛΟΣ ΤΟΥ ΚΑΘΕ ΑΡΘΡΟΥ ΓΙΑ ΤΑ ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΑ ΝΗΣΙΑ ΤΟΥ ΑΙΓΑΙΟΥ ΕΧΟΥΝ ΒΑΛΕΙ ΤΟΥΡΚΙΚΗ ΣΗΜΑΙΑ !!  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece ΠΡΟΣΟΧΗ!! ΣΤΟ ΤΕΛΟΣ ΤΟΥ ΚΑΘΕ ΑΡΘΡΟΥ ΓΙΑ ΤΑ ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΑ ΝΗΣΙΑ ΤΟΥ ΑΙΓΑΙΟΥ ΕΧΟΥΝ ΒΑΛΕΙ ΤΟΥΡΚΙΚΗ ΣΗΜΑΙΑ !!  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece ΠΡΟΣΟΧΗ!! ΣΤΟ ΤΕΛΟΣ ΤΟΥ ΚΑΘΕ ΑΡΘΡΟΥ ΓΙΑ ΤΑ ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΑ ΝΗΣΙΑ ΤΟΥ ΑΙΓΑΙΟΥ ΕΧΟΥΝ ΒΑΛΕΙ ΤΟΥΡΚΙΚΗ ΣΗΜΑΙΑ !!  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece ΠΡΟΣΟΧΗ!! ΣΤΟ ΤΕΛΟΣ ΤΟΥ ΚΑΘΕ ΑΡΘΡΟΥ ΓΙΑ ΤΑ ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΑ ΝΗΣΙΑ ΤΟΥ ΑΙΓΑΙΟΥ ΕΧΟΥΝ ΒΑΛΕΙ ΤΟΥΡΚΙΚΗ ΣΗΜΑΙΑ !!  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece... The Entholinguistic patchwork of the modern Caucasus - CIA map Ossetic or Ossetian (Ossetic: or , Persian: اوسِتی) is an Iranian language spoken in Ossetia, a region on the slopes of the Caucasus mountains on the borders of Russia and Georgia. ... The Iranian languages are a part of the Indo European language family. ... Capital Vladikavkaz Area - total - % water Ranked 84th - 8,000 km² - negligible Population - Total - Density Ranked 68th - est. ... Anthem unknown Capital Tskhinvali Official languages Ossetian1 Government  -  President Eduard Kokoity  -  Prime Minister Yury Morozov De facto independence from Georgia  -  Declared November 28, 1991   -  Recognition none  Currency Russian ruble (RUB) Russian in widespread use by government and other institutions. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Caucasus Mountains are a mountain system between the Black and Caspian seas in the Caucasus region, usually considered the southeastern limit of Europe. ... The Armenian language (, IPA: — , conventional short form ) is an Indo-European language spoken by the Armenian people. ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ... Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange),members of the Warsaw pact (light orange), and other former Communist regimes not aligned with Moscow (lightest orange). ... North Caucasian languages is a blanket term for two language phyla spoken chiefly in the north Caucasus and Turkey: the Northwest Caucasian (Pontic, Abkhaz-Adyghe, Circassian) family and the Northeast Caucasian (East Caucasian, Caspian, Nakh-Dagestanian) family; the latter including the former North-central Caucasian (Nakh) family. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... The Northwest Caucasian languages, also called Pontic or Abkhaz-Adyg/Circassian, are a group of languages spoken in the Caucasian part of Russia, in Turkey and in Abkhazia (an autonomous republic of Georgia). ... The Abkhazians or Abkhaz (Abkhaz: , Georgian: აფხაზები, Turkish: Abhazlar) are a Caucasian ethnic group, mainly living in Abkhazia, de jure an autonomous republic of Georgia. ... This article covers the Chechen people as an ethnic group, not Chechen meaning citizens of Chechnya. ... The Ingush are a people of the northern Caucasus, mostly inhabiting the Russian republic of Ingushetia. ... The Bats people are a Caucasian people. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Georgian (, kartuli ena) is the official language of Georgia, a country in the Caucasus. ... Maltese is the national language of Malta[1], and an official language of the European Union. ... The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family, comprising all the languages that descend from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ... The Semitic languages are the northeastern subfamily of the Afro-Asiatic languages, and the only family of this group spoken in Asia. ... Maghrebi Arabic is a cover term for the dialects of Arabic spoken in the Maghreb, including Western Sahara, Morocco, Tunisia, Algeria, and Libya. ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... Basque (native name: euskara) is the language spoken by the Basque people who inhabit the Pyrenees in North-Central Spain and the adjoining region of South-Western France. ... Location of the Basque Country The Basque Country divided in seven provinces Capital Pamplona Official languages Basque, French, Spanish Demonym Basque Currency Euro The Basque-speaking areas This article is about the overall Basque domain. ... Albanian ( IPA ) is a language spoken by 8 million people, primarily in Albania and Serbia (province of Kosovo-Metohija), but also in other parts of the Balkans with an Albanian population (parts of the Republic of Macedonia, and some parts in Montenegro and Serbia), along the eastern coast of Italy... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... This article is about the country in Europe. ... The Mongolic languages are a group of thirteen languages spoken in Central Asia. ... Kalmyk (Kalmuck, Calmouk, Oirat) is the language of the Kalmyks, spoken in Kalmykia (Russian Federation), Western China and Western Mongolia. ... Kalmyk (alternatively Kalmuck, Kalmuk, or Kalmyki) is the name given to and later adopted by those Oirats who migrated en masse from Central Asia in the seventeenth century to settle in European Russia [8]. Alone among the peoples of Europe, the Kalmyks national religion is Buddhism. ... The Republic of Kalmykia (Russian: ; Kalmyk: Хальмг Таңһч) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ...

Religions

Main article: Religion in Europe
Predominant religions in Europe      Roman Catholicism      Orthodox Christianity      Protestantism      Sunni Islam      Shia Islam      Judaism
Predominant religions in Europe      Roman Catholicism      Orthodox Christianity      Protestantism      Sunni Islam      Shia Islam      Judaism

The most prevalent religions of Europe are the following: Predominant religious heritages in Europe  Roman Catholicism  Orthodox Christianity  Protestantism  Sunni Islam  Shia Islam  Judaism Religion in Europe has a rich and diverse religious history, and its various faiths have been a major influence on European art, culture, philosophy and law. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 737 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1475 × 1200 pixel, file size: 740 KB, MIME type: image/png)  Protestantism  Orthodox Christianity  Catholicism  Sunni Islam  Shia Islam Description: religions in Europe, map en Source: own map, based on the Generic Mapping Tools and ETOPO2... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 737 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1475 × 1200 pixel, file size: 740 KB, MIME type: image/png)  Protestantism  Orthodox Christianity  Catholicism  Sunni Islam  Shia Islam Description: religions in Europe, map en Source: own map, based on the Generic Mapping Tools and ETOPO2... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Coptic Orthodox Pope · Roman Catholic Pope Archbishop of Canterbury · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Faith... Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ... Sunni Muslims are the largest denomination of Islam. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Other religions are practiced by smaller groups in Europe, including: Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Latgale or Latgalia (Latvian: , Latgale dialect: Latgola) is one of the four cultural regions of Latvia recognised in the Constitution of the Latvian Republic. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ... This article is about the country. ... The Eastern Catholic Churches are autonomous particular Churches in full communion with the Pope of Rome. ... The Eastern Catholic Churches are autonomous particular Churches in full communion with the Pope of Rome. ... For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... For the place in the United States, see Sardinia, Ohio. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... For other uses, see Corsica (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Coptic Orthodox Pope · Roman Catholic Pope Archbishop of Canterbury · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Faith... For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... This article is about the country in Europe. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... Map showing the parts Karelia is traditionally divided into. ... Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... This article is about the country in Europe. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... Motto Процветание в единстве(Russian) Protsvetanie v edinstve(transliteration) Prosperity in unity Anthem Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина(Russian) Nivy i gory tvoi volshebny, Rodina(transliteration) Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) with respect to Ukraine (light blue). ... A current understanding of Western Europe. ...

Millions of Europeans profess no religion or are atheist, agnostic or humanist. The largest non-confessional populations (as a percentage) are found in the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden and the former soviet countries of Belarus, Estonia, Russia and Ukraine, although most former communist countries have significant non-confessional populations. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages[1]) is a religious tradition[2] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... A statue of the Sakyamuni Buddha in Tawang Gompa, India. ... Romuva Spring JorÄ— festival in Kulionys, Lithuania in 2006. ... satr , also known as Odinism, describes a number of attempts to reconstruct the indigenous religions of Northern Europe. ... Haile Selassie I Rasta, or the Rastafari movement, is a religion that accepts Haile Selassie I, the former Emperor of Ethiopia, as God incarnate, whom they call Jah. ... Sikhism (IPA: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is a religion that began in fifteenth century Northern India with the teachings of Nanak and nine successive human gurus. ... Jain and Jaina redirect here. ... This article is about the syncretistic New World religions. ... Look up black in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... West Indies redirects here. ...  Western Africa (UN subregion)  Maghreb[1] West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of the African continent. ... It has been suggested that African Traditional Religion be merged into this article or section. ... Muti is a generic term for medicine in Southern Africa. ... The term Animism is derived from the Latin anima, meaning soul.[1][2] In its most general sense, animism is simply the belief in souls. ... The Church of Christ, Scientist, often known as The Christian Science Church, is a nontrinitarian Protestant Christian denomination, founded by Mary Baker Eddy in 1879. ... For the journal, see Ecology (journal). ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Pagan and heathen redirect here. ... The Mennonites are a group of Christian Anabaptist denominations based on the teachings and tradition of Menno Simons. ... A Moravian is a Protestant belonging to a religious movement that originated in Moravia, Czech Republic. ... For more general information about religious denominations that follow the teachings of Joseph Smith, Jr. ... A Latter-day Saint is a member of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church), and should not to be confused with the different, though similar term Latter Day Saint. ... Pantheism (Greek: πάν ( pan ) = all and θεός ( theos ) = God) literally means God is All and All is God. It is the view that everything is of an all-encompassing immanent abstract God; or that the universe, or nature, and God are equivalent. ... Polytheism is belief in or worship of multiple gods or deities. ... For the physics theory with a similar name, see Theory of Relativity. ... Doctrine Practices Concepts People Public outreach Organization Controversy Scientology is a body of beliefs and related practices created by American pulp fiction author L. Ron Hubbard in 1952 as an outgrowth of his earlier self-help system, Dianetics. ... The Seventh-day Adventist Church (SDA), colloquially referred to as the Adventists, is an evangelical Protestant Christian denomination that grew out of the prophetic Millerite movement in the United States during the middle part of the 19th century. ... Logo The Universal Life Church (or ULC) is a religious organization that offers anyone semi-immediate ordination as a ULC minister free of charge. ... Historic Unitarianism believed in the oneness of God as opposed to traditional Christian belief in the Trinity (Father, Son, and Holy Spirit). ... For the book series Wicca see Sweep (book series) and Circle Of Three. ... Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ... “Atheist” redirects here. ... Agnosticism (from the Greek a, meaning without, and gnosticism or gnosis, meaning knowledge) is the philosophical view that the truth value of certain claims—particularly metaphysical claims regarding theology, afterlife or the existence of God, gods, deities, or even ultimate reality—is unknown or, depending on the form of agnosticism... See also the specific life stance known as Humanism For the Renaissance liberal arts movement, see Renaissance humanism Humanism is a broad category of ethical philosophies that affirm the dignity and worth of all people, based on the ability to determine right and wrong by appeal to universal human qualities... Soviet redirects here. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ...


Official religions

A number of countries in Europe have official religions, including Liechtenstein, Malta, Monaco, the Vatican City (Catholic), Greece (Eastern Orthodox), Denmark, Iceland, and Norway (Lutheran). In Switzerland, some cantons are officially Catholic, others Reformed Protestant. Some Swiss villages even have their religion as well as the village name written on the signs at their entrances. South America Europe Middle East Africa Asia Oceania Demography of religions by country Full list of articles on religion by country Religion Portal         Nations with state religions:  Buddhism  Islam  Shia Islam  Sunni Islam  Orthodox Christianity  Protestantism  Roman Catholic Church A state religion (also called an official religion, established church... Valais Ticino Graubünden (Grisons) Geneva Vaud Neuchâtel Jura Berne Thurgau Zurich Aargau Lucerne Solothurn Basel-Land Schaffhausen Uri Schwyz Glarus St. ...


Georgia has no established church, but the Georgian Orthodox Church enjoys de facto privileged status. In Finland, both the Finnish Orthodox Church and the Lutheran Church are official. England, a part of the UK, has Anglicanism as its official religion. Scotland, another part of the UK, has Presbyterianism as its national church, but it is no longer "official", and in Sweden, the national church is Lutheranism, but it is also no longer "official". Azerbaijan, France, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Spain and Turkey are officially "secular". The Georgian Orthodox and Apostolic Church is one of the worlds most ancient Christian Churches, founded in the 1st century by the Apostle Andrew. ... The Finnish Orthodox Church is the national jurisdiction of the Eastern Orthodox Church in Finland. ... The Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland is the Lutheran national church of Finland (The Finnish Orthodox Church is also recognized as a state church). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This box:      Anglicanism most commonly refers to the beliefs and practices of the Anglican Communion, a world-wide affiliation of Christian Churches, most of which have historical connections with the Church of England. ... This article is about the country. ... Presbyterianism is a tradition shared by a large number of Christian denominations which is most prevalent within the Reformed branch of Protestant Western Christianity. ... The term national church is usually a reference to a church organization in Christianity that claims pastoral jurisdiction over a nation. ... Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity that identifies with the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther. ...


See also

Europe Portal

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... “European History” redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article deals with the politics of the European continent. ... The economy of Europe comprises more than 710 million people in 48 different states. ... Europe is traditionally reckoned as one of seven continents. ... Eurolinguistics is a comparatively young branch of linguistics which deals with questions on the languages of Europe. ... // Paleolithic Lower Paleolithic: Europe was populated by species of Homo since c. ... The list of extinct animals in Europe features the animals that have become extinct on the European continent and some in other dependent territories of European countries. ... Anthem Ode to Joy (orchestral)  ten founding members joined subsequently observer at the Parliamentary Assembly observer at the Committee of Ministers  official candidate Seat Strasbourg, France Membership 47 European states 5 observers (Council) 3 observers (Assembly) Leaders  -  Secretary General Terry Davis  -  President of the Parliamentary Assembly Rene van der Linden... For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ... The Eurozone (also called Euro Area, Eurosystem or Euroland) refers to the European Union member states that have adopted the euro currency union. ... The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is an international organization for security. ... The term European miracle was coined by Eric Jones to describe his position that Europe was more advanced and progressive than all other civilizations prior to the year 1492, allowing it to develop capitalism, reach the New World first, and dominate world trade and politics. ... This article is about powerful states. ... In European politics, a Euroregion is a form of transfrontier co-operation structure between two (or more) European countries. ... A eurodistrict is a European administrative entity that contains urban agglomerations which lie across the border between two or more states. ... European American is a term for an American of European descent, who are usually referred as White or Caucasian. ... Euroscepticism (a portmanteau of European and scepticism) has become a general term for opposition to the process of European integration. ...

Lists and tables

General
Demographics
Economics
Politics

This is a list of international and national flags used in Europe. ... Below is a list of all the European countries, in order of geographical area. ... The population growth/decline of European countries The Demography of Europe refers to the changing number and composition of the population of Europe. ... Colours indicate the current population of European countries omg // The whole of Russia and Turkey are referred to in the table, although they are only partly in Europe. ... Statistics in the European Union are collected by Eurostat. ... This is a list of European countries and dependencies by population. ... This is a list of the largest metropolitan areas of Europe. ... This is a list of all the urban areas of the European Union which have more than 750,000 inhabitants in 2005. ... This list includes the most up-to-date official census figures or census estimates with regards to the population of the largest cities in the European Union. ... If it is considered as a single state, the economy of the European Unions twenty-seven member states is the worlds largest economy. ... The aim of this page is to act as a comparison between European countries in many different aspects, such as population, GDP, life expectancy, etc. ... This is a list of European economies sorted by their gross domestic product at market or government official exchange rates (nominal GDP). ... This is a list of all present countries of Europe, sorted by their date of independence or creation. ... This is a list of European countries, including the respective capitals. ... The following table lists the independent European states, and their memberships in selected organizations and treaties, and their use of the euro (€). 1 The United Nations is a world-wide organization with members from all continents, not only from Europe. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Etymonline: European. Retrieved on 2006-09-10.
  2. ^ Davidson, Roderic H. (1960). "Where is the Middle East?". Foreign ĆAffairs 38: p. 665–675. 
  3. ^ Strabo Geography 11.1
  4. ^ UNPP, 2004 Revision World Population Prospects: The 2004 Revision Population Database. United Nations Population Division, 2005. Last accessed October 25, 2006.
  5. ^ http://esa.un.org/unpp/p2k0data.asp
  6. ^ Brookings Institute Report
  7. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/4385768.stm
  8. ^ Europe: Population and Migration in 2005
  9. ^ Continental regions as per UN categorisations/map. Depending on definitions, various territories cited below may be in one or both of Europe and Asia, Africa, or Oceania.
  10. ^ Includes Transnistria, a region that has declared, and de facto achieved, independence; however, it is not recognised de jure by sovereign states.
  11. ^ Russia is generally considered a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe (UN region) and Asia, with European territory west of the Ural Mountains and both the Ural and Emba rivers; population and area figures are for European portion only.
  12. ^ Guernsey is a Crown dependency of the United Kingdom.
  13. ^ Isle of Man is a Crown dependency of the United Kingdom.
  14. ^ Jersey is a Crown dependency of the United Kingdom.
  15. ^ Montenegro declared independence from the union of Serbia and Montenegro on 3 June 2006.
  16. ^ Figures for Portugal include the Azores west of Portugal but exclude the Madeira Islands, west of Morocco in Africa.
  17. ^ Figures for Serbia include Kosovo and Metohia, a province administrated by the UN (UNMIK) as per Security Council resolution 1244.
  18. ^ Figures for France include only metropolitan France: some politically integral parts of France are geographically located outside Europe.
  19. ^ Netherlands population for July 2004. Population and area details include European portion only: Netherlands and two entities outside Europe (Aruba and the Netherlands Antilles, in the Caribbean) constitute the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Amsterdam is the official capital, while The Hague is the administrative seat.
  20. ^ Kazakhstan is sometimes considered a transcontinental country in Central Asia (UN region) and Eastern Europe, with European territory west of the Ural Mountains and both the Ural and Emba rivers; area figures are for European portion out of total.
  21. ^ Armenia and Cyprus are sometimes considered transcontinental countries: both are physiographically in Western Asia but have historical and sociopolitical connections with Europe.
  22. ^ Azerbaijan is often considered a transcontinental country in Western Asia (UN region) and Eastern Europe; population and area figures are for European portion (north of the crest of the Caucasus and the Kura River) out of total. This excludes the exclave of Nakhchivan and Nagorno-Karabakh (a region that has declared, and de facto achieved, independence; however, it is not recognised de jure by sovereign states).
  23. ^ Georgia is often considered a transcontinental country in Western Asia (UN region) and Eastern Europe; population and area figures are for European portion (north of the crest of the Caucasus and the Kura River) out of total. Also includes Abkhazia and South Ossetia, two regions that have declared, and de facto achieved, independence; however, they are not recognised de jure by sovereign states.
  24. ^ Turkey is generally considered a transcontinental country in Western Asia (UN region) and Southern Europe: the region of Rumelia (Trakya)—which includes the provinces of Edirne, Kırklareli, Tekirdağ, and the western parts of the Çanakkale and Istanbul Provinces—is west and north of the Bosporus and the Dardanelles; population and area figures are for European portion (including all of Istanbul) out of total population.
  25. ^ The total area figure includes only European portions of transcontinental countries.
  26. ^ The total population figure includes only European portions of transcontinental countries.
  27. ^ [1]
  28. ^ Muslims in Europe: BBC Country guide

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 62 KB) Summary Created by User:Ben Arnold from Image:BlankMap-World. ... A transcontinental nation is a country belonging to more than one continent. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... For other uses, see Oceania (disambiguation). ... For the region during the Second World War, see Transnistria (World War II). ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... The list of unrecognized countries enumerates those geo-political entities which lack general diplomatic recognition, but wish to be recognized as sovereign states. ... Look up De jure in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... The Ural (Russian: , Kazakh: Жайық, Jayıq or Zhayyq), known as Yaik before 1775, is a river flowing through Russia and Kazakhstan. ... For the river of the same name, see Emba River. ... The Isle of Man is situated in the Irish Sea between Great Britain and Ireland, and the bailiwicks of Jersey and Guersey are situated in the English Channel to the west of the Cotentin Crown dependencies are possessions of The Crown in Right of the United Kingdom, as opposed to... The Isle of Man is situated in the Irish Sea between Great Britain and Ireland, and the bailiwicks of Jersey and Guersey are situated in the English Channel to the west of the Cotentin Crown dependencies are possessions of The Crown in Right of the United Kingdom, as opposed to... The Isle of Man is situated in the Irish Sea between Great Britain and Ireland, and the bailiwicks of Jersey and Guersey are situated in the English Channel to the west of the Cotentin Crown dependencies are possessions of The Crown in Right of the United Kingdom, as opposed to... Motto (Portuguese for Rather die free than in peace subjugated) Anthem  (national)  (local) Capital Ponta Delgada1 Angra do Heroísmo2 Horta3 Largest city Ponta Delgada Official languages Portuguese Government Autonomous region  -  President Carlos César Establishment  -  Settled 1439   -  Autonomy 1976  Area  -  Total 2,333 km² (n/a) 911 sq mi... Location Motto of the autonomous region: Das ilhas, as mais belas e livres (Portuguese: Of the islands, the most beautiful and free) Official language Portuguese Capital Funchal Other towns Porto Santo, Machico, Santa Cruz, Câmara de Lobos, Santana, Ribeira Brava, Caniço Area 797 km² Population  - Total (1991)  - Density... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... For other uses, see Kosovo (disambiguation). ... The United Nations Mission in Kosovo or UNMIK is an interim civilian administration of the Serbian province (as part of Serbia and Montenegro) called Kosovo (officially Kosovo and Metohia), under the authority of the United Nations. ... A session of the Security Council in progress The United Nations Security Council is the most powerful organ of the United Nations. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wikisource. ... Metropolitan France Metropolitan France (French: or la Métropole) is the part of France located in Europe, including Corsica (French: Corse). ... bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla... West Indies redirects here. ... For other uses, see Amsterdam (disambiguation). ... Coordinates: , Country Netherlands Province South Holland Area (2006)  - Municipality 98. ... The Ural (Russian: , Kazakh: Жайық, Jayıq or Zhayyq), known as Yaik before 1775, is a river flowing through Russia and Kazakhstan. ... For the river of the same name, see Emba River. ... A map showing Southwest Asia - The term Middle East is more often used to refer to both Southwest Asia and some North African countries Southwest Asia, or West Asia, is the southwestern part of Asia. ... The Caucasus Mountains are a mountain system between the Black and Caspian seas in the Caucasus region, usually considered the southeastern limit of Europe. ... Mtkvari (Kura) River near Old Town, Tbilisi Kura (Georgian მტკვარი - Mtkvari, Azerbaijani Kür) is a river in the Caucasus Mountains. ... D is Bs exclave, but is not an enclave. ... This article is about the autonomous region. ... Nagorno-Karabakh (Azerbaijani: Dağlıq Qarabağ or Yuxarı Qarabağ, literally mountainous black garden or upper black garden; Russian: Нагорный Карабах, translit. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... The list of unrecognized countries enumerates those geo-political entities which lack general diplomatic recognition, but wish to be recognized as sovereign states. ... Look up De jure in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... The Caucasus Mountains are a mountain system between the Black and Caspian seas in the Caucasus region, usually considered the southeastern limit of Europe. ... Mtkvari (Kura) River near Old Town, Tbilisi Kura (Georgian მტკვარი - Mtkvari, Azerbaijani Kür) is a river in the Caucasus Mountains. ... Capital Sokhumi Official languages Abkhaz, Georgian Government  -  Chairman, Cabinet of Ministers  -  Chairman, Supreme Council Temur Mzhavia Autonomous republic of Georgia  -  Georgian independence Declared Recognised 9 April 1991 25 December 1991  Currency Georgian lari (GEL) Anthem Aiaaira Capital Sukhumi Official languages Abkhaz, Russian1 Government  -  President Sergei Bagapsh  -  Prime Minister Alexander Ankvab... Anthem unknown Capital Tskhinvali Official languages Ossetian1 Government  -  President Eduard Kokoity  -  Prime Minister Yury Morozov De facto independence from Georgia  -  Declared November 28, 1991   -  Recognition none  Currency Russian ruble (RUB) Russian in widespread use by government and other institutions. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... The list of unrecognized countries enumerates those geo-political entities which lack general diplomatic recognition, but wish to be recognized as sovereign states. ... Look up De jure in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... Map of Rumelia as of 1801 Rumelia (turkish: Rum: Roman El: Land Rumeli: Lands of Rome), the area that was the East Roman or Byzantine Empire, a name commonly used, from the 15th century onwards, to denote the part of the Balkan Peninsula subject to the Ottoman Empire. ... Location of Edirne Province Edirne is the westernmost province of Turkey, located in European Turkey (known in antiquity as Thrace) along the Greek border. ... shows the Location of the Province Kırklareli Kırklareli is a province of northwestern Turkey on the west coast of the Black Sea. ... TekirdaÄŸ province is in Trakya (Thrace), the northwestern part of Turkey. ... shows the Location of the Province Canakkale Çanakkale is a province of Turkey, located in the northwestern part of the country. ... Istanbul Province is a province located in north-west Turkey. ...

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Europe Hotels - Online Hotel Reservations (717 words)
A complex identity that joins together the western opulence and the simplicity of eastern Europe traditions.
Special effects, internal faithful reconstructions evoking the opulence of the first class and the simplicity of the third, hard work next to steam boiler, let you retrace the unforgettable Titanic story.
Our commitment is to provide you with a friendly and informative hotel reservation service to help you find and compare hotels in all major destinations in Europe and book the accommodation that best fits your needs.
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Europe, Austria-Hungary, Russia, and the Balkan provinces, 57 percent belong to the Oriental Churches, 9.2 per cent are non-Christian, 6 per cent are Protestant, and 27 per cent are Catholic.
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