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Encyclopedia > Europa (mythology)
Argive genealogy in Greek mythology
Europa and the Bull by Gustave Moreau, circa 1869.
Europa and the Bull by Gustave Moreau, circa 1869.

In Greek mythology, Europa (Greek Ευρώπη) was a Phoenician woman of high lineage, from whom the name of the continent Europe has ultimately been taken. The story was a Cretan story, as Kerenyi points out; "most of the love-stories concerning Zeus originated from more ancient tales describing his marriages with goddesses. This can especially be said of the story of Europa."[1] The name Europa occurs in the list of daughters of primordial Oceanus and Tethys; the daughter of the earth-giant Tityas and mother of Euphemus by Poseidon, was also named Europa. The Achaeans (in Greek , Achaioi) is the collective name given to the Greek forces in Homers Iliad (used 598 times). ... Genealogy (from Greek: γενεα, genea, family; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the study and tracing of family pedigrees. ... The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the Ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. ... Inachus is one of the Oceanids in Greek mythology. ... Oceanus, with his wife, Tethys, ruled the seas before Poseidon. ... In Greek mythology, Tethys was a Titaness and sea goddess who was both sister and wife of Oceanus. ... In Greek mythology, Phoroneus was a culture-hero, son of Inachus and Melia. ... Hermes, Io (as cow) and Argus, black-figure amphora, 540–530 BC, Staatliche Antikensammlungen (Inv. ... In Greek mythology, the Meliae were nymphs of the manna-ash tree. ... In Greek mythology, Epaphus, also called Apis, is the son of Zeus and Io. ... For other uses, see Zeus (disambiguation). ... In Greek mythology, Libya, like Ethiopia or Scythia was one of the mythic outlands that encircled the familiar Greek world of the Hellenes and their foreign neighbors. ... In Greek mythology, Memphis was the wife to Epaphus, mother of Libya and sometimes the daughter of Nilus. ... Belus (Greek Belos) the Egyptian is in Greek Mythology a son of Poseidon by Libya. ... In history and Greek mythology, Agenor (which means very manly) was a king of Tyre. ... Neptune reigns in the city of Bristol. ... This article is about the Aegyptus from Egyptian mythology. ... Danaus, or Danaos (sleeper) was a Greek mythological character, twin brother of Aegyptus and son of Belus, a mythical king of Egypt. ... Achiroe (Greek ), or according to Apollodorus Anchinoë,[1] which is perhaps a mistake for Anchiroë, was in Greek mythology a naiad, a daughter of the river-god Nilus. ... Danaus was a Greek mythological character, twin of Aegyptus and son of Belus. ... Proetus was a mythical king of Tiryns. ... Cadmus Sowing the Dragons teeth, by Maxfield Parrish, 1908 Caddmus, or Kadmos (Greek: Κάδμος), in Greek mythology, was the son of the king of Phoenicia (Modern day Lebanon) and brother of Europa. ... For other Phoenix, see Phoenix (Iliad). ... In Greek mythology, Cilix was a son of the King of Tyre and brother of Cadmus and Europa. ... In Greek mythology, Telephassa, also known as Argiope, was Queen of Tyre. ... In Greek mythology, Polydorus referred to three different people. ... Agave (illustrious) was the queen of Thebes in Greek mythology, mother of Pentheus and daughter of Harmonia and Cadmus. ... For other uses of the name Autonoë see Autonoe (disambiguation). ... Pentheus torn apart by Agave and Ino. ... Stimula redirects here. ... In Greek mythology, Harmonia is the goddess of harmony and concord. ... This article is about the ancient deity. ... Download high resolution version (894x1121, 256 KB)Europa and the Bull by Gustave Moreau, watercolour, c. ... Download high resolution version (894x1121, 256 KB)Europa and the Bull by Gustave Moreau, watercolour, c. ... Self portrait of Gustav Moreau, 1850 Gustave Moreau (April 6, 1826 – April 18, 1898) was a French Symbolist painter. ... The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the Ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. ... Phoenicia (or Phenicia ,[1] from Biblical Phenice [1]) was an ancient civilization centered in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coast of modern day Lebanon and Syria. ... Animated, colour-coded map showing the various continents. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Zeus (disambiguation). ... Oceanus, with his wife, Tethys, ruled the seas before Poseidon. ... In Greek mythology, Tethys was a Titaness and sea goddess who was both sister and wife of Oceanus. ... In Greek mythology, Tityas (also spelled Tityus) was a giant, the son of Elara, one of Zeus lovers. ... In Greek mythology, Euphemus was the son of Europa and Poseidon. ... Neptune reigns in the city of Bristol. ...


The etymology of her name (ευρυ- "wide" or "broad" + οπ– "eye(s)" or "face")[2] suggests that Europa represented a lunar cow, at least at some symbolic level. Metaphorically, at a later date it could be construed as the intelligent or open-minded, analogous to glaukopis (γλαυκώπις) attributed to Athena. Etymologies redirects here. ... For other uses, see Athena (disambiguation). ...


Europa's earliest literary reference is in Iliad xiv.321ff. Another early reference to her is in a fragment of the Hesiodic Catalogue of Women, discovered at Oxyrhyncus.[3]. The earliest vase-painting securely identifiable as Europa, dates mid-seventh century BC.[4] Roman bronze bust, the so-called Pseudo-Seneca, now identified by some as possibly Hesiod Hesiod (Hesiodos, ) was an early Greek poet and rhapsode, who presumably lived around 700 BC. Hesiod and Homer, with whom Hesiod is often paired, have been considered the earliest Greek poets whose work has survived... The Catalogue of Women (Greek: γυναικῶν κατάλογος, gynaikon katalogos) is an epic of ancient Greek literature. ... There are few remains at Oxyrhynchus to be seen above ground: its treasures lie beneath the sands Oxyrhynchus ( Greek: Οξύρυγχος; sharp-nosed; ancient Egyptian Per-Medjed; modern Arabic el-Bahnasa) is an archaeological site in Egypt, considered one of the most important...

Contents

Europa's family

A commemorative Italian euro coin depicts Europa holding a pen over the text of the Constitution of Europe.

Sources differ in details regarding Europa's family, but agree that she is Phoenician, and from a lineage that descended from Io, the mythical nymph beloved of Zeus, who was transformed into a heifer. She is said to be the daughter of Agenor, the Phoenician King of Tyre, and Queen Telephassa ("far-shining") or of Argiope ("white-faced")[5]. Other sources, such as the Iliad, claim that she is the daughter of Agenor's son, the "sun-red" Phoenix. It is generally agreed that she had two brothers, Cadmus, who brought the alphabet to mainland Greece, and Cilix who gave his name to Cilicia in Asia Minor, with Apollodorus including Phoenix as a third. After arriving in Crete, Europa had three sons: Minos, Rhadamanthus, and Sarpedon, the three of whom became the three judges of the Underworld when they died. She married Asterion also rendered Asterius. According to mythology, her children were fathered by Zeus. Image File history File links €2_commemorative_coin_Italy_2005. ... Image File history File links €2_commemorative_coin_Italy_2005. ... Italian euro coins have a design unique to each denomination, though there is a common theme of famous Italian works of art from one of Italys renowned artists. ... The Treaty establishing a constitution for Europe is a proposed constitutional treaty for the European Union. ... Phoenicia (or Phenicia ,[1] from Biblical Phenice [1]) was an ancient civilization centered in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coast of modern day Lebanon and Syria. ... Hermes, Io (as cow) and Argus, black-figure amphora, 540–530 BC, Staatliche Antikensammlungen (Inv. ... In Greek mythology, a nymph is any member of a large class of female nature entities, either bound to a particular location or landform or joining the retinue of a god or goddess. ... In history and Greek mythology, Agenor (which means very manly) was a king of Tyre. ... Phoenicia (or Phenicia ,[1] from Biblical Phenice [1]) was an ancient civilization centered in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coast of modern day Lebanon and Syria. ... Tyre (Arabic , Phoenician , Hebrew Tzor, Tiberian Hebrew , Akkadian , Greek Týros) is a city in the South Governorate of Lebanon. ... In Greek mythology, Telephassa, also known as Argiope, was Queen of Tyre. ... Argiope may refer to: The character in Greek mythology more commonly known as Telephassa The St Andrews Cross spider This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... title page of the Rihel edition of ca. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Phoenix (mythology). ... Cadmus Sowing the Dragons teeth, by Maxfield Parrish, 1908 Caddmus, or Kadmos (Greek: Κάδμος), in Greek mythology, was the son of the king of Phoenicia (Modern day Lebanon) and brother of Europa. ... In Greek mythology, Cilix was a son of the King of Tyre and brother of Cadmus and Europa. ... The Kingdom of Cilician Armenia, 1199-1375. ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to... Front face of the MINOS far detector. ... In Greek myths, Rhadamanthus (Ῥαδαμάνθυς; also transliterated as Rhadamanthys or Rhadamanthos) was a wise king, the son of Zeus and Europa. ... In Greek mythology, Sarpedon referred to several different people. ... In Greek mythology Asterion denotes two sacred kings of Crete. ... This article is about the figure in Greek mythology. ...


There were two competing myths[6] relating how Europa came into the Hellenic world, but they agreed that she came to Crete, where the sacred bull was paramount. In the more familiar telling she was seduced by the god Zeus in the form of a bull, who breathed from his mouth a saffron crocus[7] and carried away to Crete on his back— to be welcomed by Asterion [8], but according to a more literal, euhemerist version in Herodotus, she was kidnapped by Minoans, who likewise were said to have taken her to Crete. The mythical Europa cannot be separated from the mythology of the sacred bull, which had been worshipped in the Levant.
For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ... // In sociology, seduction is the process of deliberately enticing a person into an act. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... For other uses, see Zeus (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Crocus sativus L. Saffron (IPA: ) is a spice derived from the flower of the saffron crocus (Crocus sativus), a species of crocus in the family Iridaceae. ... In Greek mythology Asterion denotes two sacred kings of Crete. ... Euhemerus (Ευήμερος) (working late 4th century BCE) was a Greek mythographer at the court of Cassander, the king of Macedonia. ... Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: Hērodotos Halikarnāsseus) was a Greek historian from Ionia who lived in the 5th century BC (ca. ... The Minoan civilization was a bronze age civilization which arose on Crete, an island in the Aegean Sea. ... The worship of the Sacred Bull throughout the ancient world is most familiar in the episode of the idol of the Golden Calf made by Aaron and worshipped by the Hebrews in the wilderness of Sinai (Exodus). ... The Levant The Levant (IPA: ) is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ...

The Abduction of Europa by Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn, 1632. The princess Europa is carried away from her companions and across the sea to the distant land that would bear her name by the god Jupiter (in the guise of a white bull).

Europa does not seem to have been venerated directly in cult anywhere in Classical Greece, but at Lebadaea in Boeotia, Pausanias noted in the second century CE that Europa was the epithet of Demeter— "Demeter whom they surname Europa and say was the nurse of Trophonios"— among the Olympians who were addressed by seekers at the cave sanctuary of Trophonios of Orchomenos, to whom a chthonic cult and oracle were dedicated: "the grove of Trophonios by the river Herkyna. ...there is also a sanctuary of Demeter Europa... the nurse of Trophonios."[9] Image File history File links Rembrandt_Abduction_of_Europa. ... Image File history File links Rembrandt_Abduction_of_Europa. ... This article is about the Dutch artist. ... In traditional usage, the cult of a religion, quite apart from its sacred writings (scriptures), its theology or myths, or the personal faith of its believers, is the totality of external religious practice and observance, the neglect of which is the definition of impiety. ... Boeotia or Beotia (//, (Greek Βοιωτια; see also list of traditional Greek place names) was the central area of ancient Greece. ... Pausanias (Greek: ) was a Greek traveller and geographer of the 2nd century A.D., who lived in the times of Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius. ... An epithet (Greek - επιθετον and Latin - epitheton; literally meaning imposed) is a descriptive word or phrase. ... This article is about the grain goddess Demeter. ... Trophonius (the Latinate spelling) or Trophonios (in the transliterated Greek spelling) was a Greek hero or daimon or god - it was never certain which one - with a rich mythological tradition and an oracular cult at Lebadaea in Boeotia. ... Orchomenos (Greek: ), the setting for many early Greek Myths, is a rich archaeological site in Boeotia, (modern Viotia, Greece) that was inhabited from the Neolithic through the Hellenistic periods. ... For other uses, see Chthon (disambiguation). ... Consulting the Oracle by John William Waterhouse, showing eight priestesses in a temple of prophecy An oracle is a person or persons considered to be the source of wise counsel or prophetic opinion; an infallible authority, usually spiritual in nature. ... Sacred groves were a feature of the mythological landscape and the cult practice of Old Europe, of the most ancient levels of Scandinavian mythology, Greek mythology, Slavic mythology, Roman mythology, and in Druidic practice. ...


"The Rape of Europa"

According to legend, Zeus was enamored of Europa and decided to seduce or ravish her, the two being near-equivalent in Greek myth. He transformed himself into a tame white bull and mixed in with her father's herds. While Europa and her female attendants were gathering flowers, she saw the bull, caressed his flanks, and eventually got onto his back. Zeus took that opportunity and ran to the sea and swam, with her on his back, to the island of Crete. He then revealed his true identity, and Europa became the first queen of Crete. Zeus gave her a necklace made by Hephaestus[10] and three additional gifts: Talos, Laelaps and a javelin that never missed. Zeus later re-created the shape of the white bull in the stars, which is now known as the constellation Taurus. Some readers interpret as manifestations of this same bull the Cretan beast that was encountered by Hercules, the Marathonian Bull slain by Theseus (and that fathered the Minotaur). Roman mythology adopted the tale (also known as "The Abduction of Europa" and "The Seduction of Europa"), substituting the god Jupiter for Zeus. For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ... Hephæstos (pronounced or ; Greek Hēphaistos) was the Greek god whose Roman equivalent was Vulcan; he was the god of technology, blacksmiths, craftsmen, artisans, sculptors, metals and metallurgy, and fire. ... Winged Talos armed with a stone. ... In Greek mythology, Laelaps was a legendary dog who never failed to catch what he was hunting. ... Reconstruction of a post-Marian pilum A Roman coin showing Antoninianus of Carinus holding pilum and globe. ... Taurus (IPA: , Latin: , symbol , ) is one of the constellations of the zodiac. ... For other uses, see Hercules (disambiguation). ... In Greek mythology, the Cretan Bull was either the bull that carried away Europa or the bull Pasiphae fell in love with. ... Theseus (Greek ) was a legendary king of Athens, son of Aethra, and fathered by Aegeus and Poseidon, with whom Aethra lay in one night (By some accounts, this was presented as a rape). ... This article is about the mythological monster. ... For the planet see Jupiter. ... For other uses, see Zeus (disambiguation). ...


According to Herodotus' rationalizing approach, Europa was kidnapped by Minoans who were seeking to avenge the kidnapping of Io, a princess from Argos. His variant story may have been an attempt to rationalize the earlier myth; or the present myth may be a garbled version of facts — the rape of a Phoenician aristocrat — later enunciated without gloss by Herodotus. For those set in the Christian interpretive tradition of myth as misunderstood history inherited from Herodotus, it is tempting to see in this story the remnants of oral history about the settlement of the island. Cretans were of course great sailors, as all islanders must be, and must have come from some mainland area by raft or ship. They must also have brought their cattle and other livestock with them, since bulls figured prominently in their sports, arts and religious imagery. In the mythological transformation of history, however, roles are reversed, and the bull provides the transportation for the founding mother of the Minoan people. Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: HÄ“rodotos Halikarnāsseus) was a Greek historian from Ionia who lived in the 5th century BC (ca. ... The Minoan civilization was a bronze age civilization which arose on Crete, an island in the Aegean Sea. ... Hermes, Io (as cow) and Argus, black-figure amphora, 540–530 BC, Staatliche Antikensammlungen (Inv. ... This article is about the city in Greece. ... Euhemerus (flourished around 316 BCE) was a Greek mythographer at the court of Cassander, the king of Macedonia. ...


Europa in classical literature

Europa provided the substance of a brief Hellenistic epic written in the mid-second century BCE by Moschos, a bucolic poet and friend of the Alexandrian grammarian Aristarchus of Samothrace, born at Syracuse.[11] The term Hellenistic (established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen) in the history of the ancient world is used to refer to the shift from a culture dominated by ethnic Greeks, however scattered geographically, to a culture dominated by Greek-speakers of whatever ethnicity, and from the political dominance... Moschus, Ancient Greek bucolic poet and student of the Alexandrian grammarian Aristarchus of Samothrace, was born at Syracuse and flourished about 150 BC. He was also known for his grammatical work, nothing of which survives. ... Aristarchus of Samothrace, Gr. ...

Europa in a fresco at Pompeii, contemporary with Ovid.
Europa in a fresco at Pompeii, contemporary with Ovid.

In Metamorphoses, the poet Ovid wrote the following depiction of Jupiter's seduction: Image File history File linksMetadata Pompeiii. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Pompeiii. ... For other uses, see Pompeii (disambiguation). ... // Cover of George Sandyss 1632 edition of Ovids Metamorphosis Englished The Metamorphoses by the Roman poet Ovid is a poem in fifteen books that describes the creation and history of the world in terms according to Greek and Roman points of view. ... For other uses, see Ovid (disambiguation) Publius Ovidius Naso (March 20, 43 BC – 17 AD) was a Roman poet known to the English-speaking world as Ovid who wrote on topics of love, abandoned women and mythological transformations. ...

And gradually she lost her fear, and he
Offered his breast for her virgin caresses,
His horns for her to wind with chains of flowers
Until the princess dared to mount his back
Her pet bull's back, unwitting whom she rode.
Then — slowly, slowly down the broad, dry beach —
First in the shallow waves the great god set
His spurious hooves, then sauntered further out
'til in the open sea he bore his prize
Fear filled her heart as, gazing back, she saw
The fast receding sands. Her right hand grasped
A horn, the other lent upon his back
Her fluttering tunic floated in the breeze.

His picturesque details belong to anecdote and fable: in all the depictions, whether she straddles the bull, as in archaic vase-paintings or the ruined metope fragment from Sikyon, or sits gracefully sidesaddle as in a mosaic from North Africa, there is no trace of fear. Often Europa steadies herself by touching one of the bull's horns, acquiescing. Sicyon, an ancient Greek city situated in the northern Peloponnesus between Corinth and Achaea. ...


Europa in the visual arts

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

"Europa seated on a bull" has been a frequent motif in European art since Greco-Roman times: Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Greco-Roman period of history refers to the culture of the peoples who were incorporated into the Roman Republic and Roman Empire. ...

Europa as the continent's name

Europa and Zeus, on the Greek €2 coin.
Europa and Zeus, on the Greek €2 coin.

The name of Europe as a geographical term came in use by Ancient Greek geographers such as Strabo.[12] It is derived from the Greek word Europa (Ευρώπη) in all Romance languages, Germanic languages, Slavic languages, in Finno-Ugric languages (Hungarian Európa, Finnish Eurooppa, Estonian Euroopa), as well as in Latin. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The term ancient Greece refers to the periods of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ... The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ... The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family, comprising all the languages that descend from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ... The Germanic languages are a group of related languages constituting a branch of the Indo-European (IE) language family. ...  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ...


Her name appeared on postage stamps commemorating the "United Europe", which were first issued in 1956. Jürgen Fischer, in Oriens-Occidens-Europa[13] summarized how the name came into use, supplanting the oriens - occidens dichotomy of the later Roman Empire, which was expressive of a divided empire, Latin in the West, Greek in the East. A selection of Hong Kong postage stamps A postage stamp is evidence of pre-paying a fee for postal services. ... Anthem Ode to Joy (orchestral)  ten founding members joined subsequently observer at the Parliamentary Assembly observer at the Committee of Ministers  official candidate Seat Strasbourg, France Membership 47 European states 5 observers (Council) 3 observers (Assembly) Leaders  -  Secretary General Terry Davis  -  President of the Parliamentary Assembly Rene van der Linden... A car from 1956 Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The term the Orient - literally meaning sunrise, east - is traditionally used to refer to Near, Middle, and Far Eastern countries. ... Occident has a number of meanings. ... Romulus Augustus was deposed as Western Roman Emperor in 476 while still young. ...


In the eighth century ecclesiastical uses of "Europa" for the imperium of Charlemagne provide the source for the modern geographical term. Charlemagne (left) and Pippin the Hunchback. ...


The Moon Europa

The invention of the telescope revealed that that the planet Jupiter, clearly visible to the naked eye and known to humanity since prehistoric times, has an attendant family of moons. These were named for male and female lovers of the god and other mythological persons associated with him. The smallest of Jupiter's Galilean moons got named for Europa (see Europa (moon)). This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Jupiter (disambiguation). ... Jupiters 4 Galilean moons, in a composite image comparing their sizes and the size of Jupiter (Great Red Spot visible). ... Apparent magnitude: 5. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Kerenyi 1951, p 108
  2. ^ Kerenyi 1951 p 109: "she of the wide eyes" or "she of the broad countenance".
  3. ^ The papyrus fragment itself dates from the third century CE: see Hesiodic fragments 19 and 19A.
  4. ^ W, Burkert, Greek Religion (1985)I.3.2, note 20, referring to Schefold, plate 11B. References in myth and art have been assembled by W. Bühler, Europa: eine Sammlung der Zeugnisse des Mythos in der antiken Litteratur und Kunst (1967).
  5. ^ Kerenyi points out that these names are attributes of the moon, as is Europa's broad countenance.
  6. ^ Bibliotheke 3.1.1.
  7. ^ Hesiodic fragment 19, a scholium on Iliad XII.292 (which does not mention Europa)
  8. ^ According to the scholium on Iliad XII.292, noted in Karl Kerenyi, Dionysus: Archetypal Image of Indestructible Life p105. Pausanias rendered the name Asterion (2.31.1); in Bibliotheke (3.1.4) it is Asterion.
  9. ^ Pausanias, Guide to Greece 9.39.2-5.
  10. ^ Hesoidic fragment.
  11. ^ The poem was published with voluminous notes and critical apparatus: Winfried Bühler, Die Europa des Moschos (Wiesbaden: Steiner) 1960.
  12. ^ Strabo, Geography 8.1.1
  13. ^ Wiesbaden:Steiner) 1957.

The Bibliotheke was renowned as the chief work of Greek historian and scholar. ... Scholium (tr~bXtoe), the name given to a grammatical, critical and explanatory note, extracted from existing commentaries and inserted on the margin of the manuscript of an ancient author. ... Pausanias (Greek: ) was a Greek traveller and geographer of the 2nd century A.D., who lived in the times of Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius. ...

References

  • Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheke, III, i, 1-2
  • Apollodorus, The Library of Greek Mythology (Oxford World's Classics), translated by Robin Hard, Oxford University Press, 1999. ISBN 0-19-283924-1
  • Herodotus, The Histories, Book 1.2
  • Ovid, Metamorphoses, 862, translation by A.D. Melville (1986), p.50
  • Kerenyi, Karl, 1951. The Gods of the Greeks (Thames and Hudson)
  • Graves, Robert, (1955) 1960. The greek Myths
  • D'Europe à l'Europe, I. Le mythe d'Europe dans l'art et la culture de l'antiquité au XVIIIe s. (colloque de Paris, ENS – Ulm, 24-26.04.1997), éd. R. Poignault et O. Wattel - de Croizant, coll. Caesarodunum, n° XXXI bis, 1998.
  • D'Europe à l'Europe, II. Mythe et identité du XIXe s. à nos jours (colloque de Caen, 30.09-02.10.1999), éd. R. Poignault, F. Lecocq et O. Wattel – de Croizant, coll. Caesarodunum, n° XXXIII bis, 2000.
  • D’Europe à l’Europe, III. La dimension politique et religieuse du mythe d’Europe de l‘Antiquité à nos jours (colloque de Paris, ENS-Ulm, 29-30.11.2001), éd. O. Wattel - De Croizant, coll. Caesarodunum, n° hors-série, 2002.
  • D’Europe à l’Europe, IV. Entre Orient et Occident, du mythe à la géopolitique (colloque de Paris, ENS-Ulm, 18-20.05.2006), dir. O. Wattel - de Croizant & G. de Montifroy, Editions de l’Age d’Homme, Lausanne – Paris, 2007.

The Bibliotheca (in English: Library), in three books, provides a grand summary of traditional Greek mythology and heroic legends. ... The Bibliotheke was renowned as the chief work of Greek historian and scholar. ... Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: HÄ“rodotos Halikarnāsseus) was a Greek historian from Ionia who lived in the 5th century BC (ca. ... The Histories of Herodotus of Halicarnassus is considered the first work of history in Western literature. ... For other uses, see Ovid (disambiguation) Publius Ovidius Naso (March 20, 43 BC – 17 AD) was a Roman poet known to the English-speaking world as Ovid who wrote on topics of love, abandoned women and mythological transformations. ... // Cover of George Sandyss 1632 edition of Ovids Metamorphosis Englished The Metamorphoses by the Roman poet Ovid is a poem in fifteen books that describes the creation and history of the world in terms according to Greek and Roman points of view. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... One of the founders of modern studies in Greek mythology, Karl (Carl, Károly) Kerényi (January 19, 1897 - April 14, 1973) was born in Hungary but became a citizen of Switzerland in 1943. ... Robert von Ranke Graves (24 July 1895 – 7 December 1985) was an English poet, scholar, and novelist. ...

External links

  • A metope from Sicily, carved with Europa, ca 550 - 540 BCE: the bull's face, turned head-on, clearly reveals his Near Eastern iconic antecedents
  • Europa on the Greek euro coin of 2€

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Europa was the daughter of Agenor, and was beloved by Zeus.
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